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Inglês Adverbs of Frequency (in hierarchy order) -always -usually -often -sometimes -never -occasionally -hardly ever Gerunds and

Infinitives -I stopped to smoke a cigarette -I stopped smoking (gerund) cigarettes (you quit) When a verb follows another verb the structure is usually: -verb + ing -verb + (to) infinitive Some verbs are only followed by ING (the gerund) Some verbs are followed by the infinitive Some verbs can be followed by both, the gerund or infinitive erbs always followed by ING -admit I admit stealing the pencil -avoid I avoied seeing her -propose I proposed going by plane -deny !e denied kissing another girl -dislike !e disliked the racing -risk I fancy going to the cinema tonight -en"oy I en"oyed playing a game -keep -fancy -finish -imagine -mind #o you think he$ll mind if we borrow his car without asking% -miss I miss kissing you -postpone !e postponed going on holiday until September& !e was supposed to go in 'uly -understand -(an$t stand I can$t stand your snoring& )lease see a doctor& erbs followed by an infinitive with !to" -afford *ou couldn$t afford to buy a )orsche -appear Salvini appeard to be a bit made -ask

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were + verbing -0sed to describe something that was happening in the past -0sed to describe an action that was interrupted by another action (in the past) When and While 3e use when and while to "oin a past simple sentence to a past continuous sentence (e%e%ber) use: When: before the past simple While: before the past continous 4ever use both at the same time& 5 .(pretender) -like -I love to eat.-decide -hesitate .he hesitated to buy it -agree I agreed to buy it -arrange I arranged to see her tonight -choose I chose to go with them -e-pect I e-pect to see her tonight -hope I hope to go to university -learn I$m learning to use verbs followed by an infinitive with to -manage I managed to pass every year erbs followed by either a gerund or infinitive -begin -continue -attempt -intend .eating choco crispies -prefer Notes: /ook forward to is followed by gerund )ainting this room yellow will really improve(verb) it #ast $i%&le 0sed to describe an action that started and finished in the past 1egular verbs we add ed 2ut remember of irregular verbs #ast 'ontinuous 3as.

suppose.(going to) 7era$s going to buy a dvd on ama8on +. would.(will) I decided to do this now (at the moment of speaking) 5. could 5-speculating.ll buy him a bottle of wine 5.()() <y parents are coming to )ortugal for (hristmas -()() I$m having a party on 6riday : .(will) I. can :-commenting. could.making decisions might. must.criticisingshould.(going to) She decided to do this in the past #redictions +-I think (helsea will win the (hampions league 5-3e will one day be able to smell things on computer + and 59 .1eporting speech or thoughtwould.*+a%&le: -I was driving to work when I saw 6ernanda Serrano -I saw 6ernanda Serrano while I was driving to work Future $entences Will and Going to *+a%&le: +.hese are predictions which we feel or believe will happen :-Stop. *ou$re going to fall off the table look at these clouds& It$s going to rain& :9 )redictions which we see or hear -odal erbs +. ought to #resent 'ontinuous and #resent $i%&le (an also be used for the future *+a%&le: #resent .

se: .hey arrive on 5:rd #ecember -()S) 'o=o$s )ortuguese e-am starts at midday #resent 'ontinuous9 3e use to talk about plans and arangments that we made with other people (it$s similar iwht >?I4> .-()S) .se: .o talk about complete actions in the future *+: -I$ll have gone to school -I$ll have learnt about the future continuous and future perfect #ast #erfect For%: had + past participle .has + past participle B .o describe being in the middle of doing something *+: -!e will be spending time with 6ernanda Serrano -!e will be having lunch Future #erfect For%: 3ill have + past participle .?) 3e usually include a @timeA word with the present continuous when he use it in this way& #resent $i%&le: 3e use for the future when we are talking about timetables and programmes Future 'ontinuous and Future #erfect Future 'ontinuous For%: will be + ing . to talk about things before that time& #resent #erfect For%: have.se: to talk about a time earlier than another time in the past.

possession .se: /$ince9 3ith a point an time /For9 3ith a period of time *+: -4uno has lived in Freeiro for 5 years -4uno has lived in Freeiro since 5GGH Already0 yet and 1ust2 Already: *ou finished it a while ago 3et: *ou already done it 4ust: *ou finished it very recently *+: !ave you done your homework yet% -*es.o tell us about an indefinitive in the past CD9 @'o=o has been to SpainA -0nfinished time -.o describe something which started in the past and continues up to the present& It$s in these cases that we use for and since& -'o=o has been to Spain -(atarina has eaten snails -InEs has driven a car -4uno has kissed a girl For and $ince 3e can use with the )resent )erfect .. I$ve already done it -*es.se: -.hese things all happened in the past& 3e don$t know when e-actly H . I$ve "ust done it (elative #ronouns Who: people Which5that9 things Where9 places Whose9 position.

2C (!F4>C# *+9 If Salvini hadn$t spoken in )ortuguese he wouldn$t have had to do press ups& 'an5'ould 'an: . I$ll phone you 9 .se: 6or situations that are always true (included scientific facts) *+: -If you boil water it evaporate -If you eat too much.'onditionals For%s 6 If 7 &resent si%&le 7 &resent si%&le 8 If 7 future will 7 infinitive 9 If 7 &ast si%&le 7 would 7 infinitive : If 7 &ast &erfect 7 would have 7 &ast &erfect . you get fat 8 .likely situations *+: If I have time.se: )ossible.untrue *+: -If I won the lottery. I$d travel around the world : .hings that are impossible or unlikely.se: !ypothetical situations in the past& . .se: .se: 6or ability (could for past hability) and requests (less polite) I .!C* (F44?.

hings that we did but no longer to *+: I used to live For%: be.he least smoothly .get used to + gerund L be.he farthest.he most Irregular adverbs K .se: .se: .se9 /ike @canA.he cheapest .KK seconds& #ast =abits For%: used to + infinitive .se: 6or requests (more polite) *+9 I could swim 5H m underwater in the past& I can$t now <e able to and Was Able to <e able .he most reliable .furthest (time) .he worst .he best .he worst . be able is used to e-press present ability *+: Salvini is able to hold his breath for over a minute Was Able to .he least .*+: I can hold my breath for a minute 'ould .o say that somebody managed to do something on one occasion (usually something that was not easy) *+9 Fsafa )owell was able to run +GG m in J.se: .get used to + noun .ne/syllable ad1etives >wo or %ore syllable ad1etives: Adverbs Irregular ad1etives Word (heap 1eliable Smoothly >ood 2ad 6ar 3ell 2adly /ittle much 'o%&arative (heaper than <ore reliable than /ess smoothly than 2etter 3orse 6arther.further (time) 2etter 3orse /ess more $u&erlative .he best .hings that we or not accustomed to do *+: was used to driving 'o%&aratives and $u&erlatives .

#assive oice Ative: )resent Simple #assive: am. )erfect (ontinuous ?irect $&eech: )resent )erfect  (e&orted $&eech9 )ast )erfect ?irect $&eech: )ast )erfect  (e&orted $&eech: )ast )erfect N.are being + past participle Ative: )ast (ontinuous  #assive9 was.have been + past participle Ative9 )ast )erfect  #assive9 had been + past participle (e&orted $&eech ?irect $&eech: )resent Simple  (e&orted $&eech: )ast Simple ?irect $&eech9 )ast Simple  (e&orted $&eech: )ast Simple.>*$: 3illwould (ancould <usthad to <aymight #on$t not to do 4ow them *esterdaythe day before .)erfect ?irect $&eech9 )resent (ontinuous  (e&orted $&eech: )ast (ontinuous ?irect $&eech9 )ast (ontinuous  (e&orted $&eech: )ast (ontinuous.were + past participle Ative: )resent (ontinuous  #assive9 am.omorrowthe following day !erethere .hese placesthose places >he 'ausative For%: $=.is.are + past participle Ative: )ast Simple #assive9 was.wo days ago two days before .odaythat day .is.were being + past participle Ative: )resent )erfect  #assive9 has.his placethat place .# $ub1ect 7 have 7 ob1ect 7 &ast &artici&le M .

*+: .&ticions: 3here you have your eyes checked Infor%al @etter ?ear ++++: <ody: -!ow are you% -4ow I$m doingN& -I$ve been thinking the same as you N&& @ots of love5 a hug5 best regards J .