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Carbon and graphite fibers

Carbon and graphite have a substantial capability as reinforcing fibers, with great flexibility in the proparties that can be provided. Primary characteristics for reinforcing fibers in polymer‘matrix composites are high stiffness and strange. The fibers must maintain these characteristics in hostile environments such as elevated temperatures, exposure to common solvents and fluids, and environmental moisture. To be used as part of a primary structure material it should also be available as continuous fiber . These characteristics and requirements have substantial implications for the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the fiber, which in tum implies processing and acceptance parameters. Interest in carbon fibers for structural materials was initiated in the late 1Q5Us when synthesized rayons in textile form were carbonized to produce carbon fibers for high temperature missile applications .One of the first distinctions to be made ¡is the difference between carbon and graphite fibers, although the terms are frequently used interchangeably. Background information for these differences ¡s contained in the following sections. The primary purpose of making this distinction here ¡s to alert the reader those users may mean different things when referring to graphite versus carbon fibers. Carbon and graphite fibers are both based on grapheme (hexagonal) layer networks present in carbon. lf the grapheme layers or planes slack with three dimensional order the malenal is defined as graphite Usually extended time and temperature processing is required lo fom1 this order, making graphite fibers more expensive. Because the bonding planes is weak, disorder frequently occurs such only the dimensional ordering within ¡he layers is present. This material is three different precursor materials are commonly used at present to produce carbon fihers: rayon, polyacrylonitile (PAN), and isotropic and liquid crystalline pitches {Reference 24.1.11}. Carbon fibers are made predominately from carbonization of PAN. The fibers consist of intermingled fibrils of turbostratic graphite with basal planes tending to align along the fiber axis. This forms an internal structure remains cent of an onion skin. Pitch fibers may have a different internal structure, more like sheafs or spokes . The highly anisotropic morphology gives rise to moduli in the range. Fiber long axis. , single crystal {whisker} of graphite is about 1060 and 3 GPA, respectively, but these properties are not aflainable in fiber form. Ultra high modulus fibers can be prepared from liquid-crystalline mesosphere pitch; the higher degree of onantalion in the precursor translates through to ¡he final carbonized fiber leading to larger and more oriented graphite crystallites. Processing High stiffness and strength implies strong interatomic and intermolecular bonds and few strength limiting flwas. Carbon fiber properties are dependent on the fiber microstructure, which is extremely process dependent, such that properties of fihers with the same precursor but different processing can be dramatically‘different. The precursor itself can also change these properties. The processing may be optimized for high modulus or streng, or traded off with economics. Manufacture The manufacturing process for carbon fiber descended below is for the PAN, which is one of The most common. Some differences beehives PAN processing and the pitch and rayon precursors are then descended afierwards. The manufacture of PAN based carbon fiber can he broken down into the white fiber and black fiber stages. Most manufacturers consider the details of these processes.

bromine. and can provide an epoxy matrix compatible surface. For this oxidation process the fiber diameter is limited by waste gas diffusion.White fiber Production of PAN precursor. The shear strengths and impact resistance are degraded. durable bond. The precursor makeup and heat treatment can affect the crystallinity and orientation. This improves the wettability for the resin and encourages of a strong. is a technology’ in itself. Orientation is . nitric acid or chlorates. spinning. Yield for PAN is approximately 50%. forming ribbons of carbon aligned with the fiber axis. of the white fiber influence the processing and results for the black fiber processing. most of the non-carbon material is expelled. Additional drawing stages may be added in the process. orientation of the fiber. Black fiber The black fiber process consists of several steps: oxidation (or thermosetting). however. In the surface treatment step the fiber may be etched in either gas or liquid phase by oxidizing agents such as chlorine. Rayon based fibers tend to be less expensive but lower performance. surface treatment. This process can be electrolytic. Pitch fiber composites have been prepared with elastic moduli superior to steel and electrical conductivity higher than copper conductor. and sizing. As a rule PAN precursor can provide higher strength carbon fibers. drawing. The defect content can be driven by contaminants and processing. The carbon fibers are often treated with solution of unmodified epoxy resin and for other products as a size. but for pitch can be as high as 90%. and washing. Some additional improvement through removal of surface flaws may also be realized. and the degree of crystallinity. The sizing prevents fiber abrasion. Processing to microstructure Carbon fiber properties are driven by the type and extent of defects. Fairly’ conventional fiber processes are perfomed: polymerization. or white fiber. improves handling. In the pyrolysis process. pyrolysis (or carbonizing). while pitch can provide higher moduli. In the oxidation process the PAN fiber is convened to a thermoset from a thermoplastic. which is performed under an inert atmosphere.

Meta-aramid is also produced in the Netherlands and Japan by Teijin under the trade name Conex. and a variant of meta-aramid in France by Kermel under the trade name Kermel. so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited. different products from different manufacturers can have substantially different properties. as it neither melts nor ignites in normal levels of oxygen. Based on earlier research by Monsanto Company and Bayer. both profiting from their knowledge of rayon. The name is a portmanteau of "aromatic polyamide". and as an asbestos substitute. in bicycle tires. by SRO Group (China) under the trade name X-Fiper. It should be noted that translation of fiber properties to composite properties is dependent on many factors in addition to rule of mixtures. Hercules and Toray. Typical values for glass. and boron are shown for comparison. Aramid fibers Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. A similar fiber called Twaron with roughly the same chemical structure was introduced by Akzo in 1978. air filtration. Akzo and DuPont engaged in a patent dispute in the 1980s. aramid. Due to earlier patents on the production process. is characterized by its excellent resistance to heat. and that company was the first to introduce a para-aramid called Kevlar in 1973. Twaron is currently owned by the Teijin company (see Production). Aromatic polyamides were first introduced in commercial applications in the early 1960s. for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites. Typically limitations on the end use for carbon fibers in composite structure depend more on the resin matrix than the fiber. They are used in aerospace and military applications. however. which handles similarly to normal textile apparel fibers. Some exceptions to this are present.also greatly affected by the drawing process which may be repeated many times in the processing of the fibers. including cost. They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis. While some carbon fiber properties are fairly universal. thermal and electrical insulation as well as a substitute for asbestos. with a meta-aramid fiber produced by DuPont as HT-1 and then under the trade name Nomex.[2] This fiber. Much work was done by Stephanie Kwolek in 1961 while working at DuPont. a fiber – para-aramid – with much higher tenacity and elastic modulus was also developed in the 1960s–1970s by DuPont and Akzo Nobel. Three of the major manufacturers for the US are Amoco. in which case the oxidative stability. thermal conductivity. . Some lrey properties for carbon fiber. or other properties of the fiber must be talren into account. polyester and nylon processing. It is used extensively in the production of protective apparel.[2] in China by Yantai Tayho under the trade name New Star. coefficient of thermal expansion.

no practical means of dissolving the polymer was known. Nomex. The polymers she had been working with at the time. Nomex. Kevlar Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber. Kwolek was not very involved in developing the applications of Kevlar. opalescent upon being stirred. her group began searching for a new lightweight strong fiber to use for light but strong tires. and was amazed to find that the fiber did not break. The Federal Trade Commission definition for aramid fiber is: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages. The use of this system led to an extended patent dispute between Akzo and DuPont. and Twaron is now manufactured by Teijin. Production of PPTA relies on a co-solvent with an ionic component (calcium chloride (CaCl2)) to occupy the hydrogen bonds of the amide groups. The solution was "cloudy.Para-aramids are used in many high-tech applications. By 1971. Currently. who worked at the Dutch chemical firm Akzo. However. and of low viscosity" and usually was thrown away. Simple AB homopolymers may look like: nNH2-Ar-COCl → -(NH-Ar-CO)n. for "bullet-proof" body armor fabric. It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact. modern Kevlar was introduced. this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Aramids share a high degree of orientation with other fibers such as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. A similar fiber called Twaron with roughly the same chemical structure was developed by Akzo in the 1970s. Her supervisor and her laboratory director understood the significance of her accidental discovery and a new field of polymer chemistry quickly arose. However. New Star and Teijinconex) are AABB polymers.+ nHCl The most well-known aramids (Kevlar. to test her solution. Teijinconex and New Star contain predominantly the meta-linkage and are polymetaphenylene isophthalamides (MPIA). related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965. something unique to those polymers at the time. unlike nylon. When used as a woven material. Aramids are generally prepared by the reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group. in anticipation of a gasoline shortage. a characteristic that dominates their properties. (-CO-NH-) are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Kevlar and Twaron are both p-phenylene terephthalamides (PPTA). poly-p-Phenylene-terephthalate and polybenzamide. commercial production started in 1986. Poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide – branded Kevlar – was invented by Polish-American chemist Stephanie Kwolek while working for DuPont . PPTA is a product of pphenylene diamine (PPD) and terephthaloyl dichloride (TDC or TCl). In 1964.[7] formed liquid crystal while in solution. Kwolek persuaded the technician. Kevlar has many applications. the simplest form of the AABB para-polyaramide. and an organic component (N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP)) to dissolve the aromatic polymer. Charles Smullen. . such as aerospace and military applications. it is suitable for mooring lines and other underwater applications. Prior to the invention of this process by Leo Vollbracht. ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body armor because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio. Twaron. by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. who ran the "spinneret".

but for safety reasons. brake linings. such as cables.fluorspar.[10] Kevlar XP – lighter weight resin and KM2 plus fiber combination. and robust material. colemanite. or GFRP) is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by finefibers of glass.Kevlar is synthesized in solution from the monomers 1. Kevlar K100 – colored version of Kevlar Kevlar K119 – higher-elongation.[citation needed] Several grades of Kevlar are available: Kevlar K-29 – in industrial applications. limestone. Then it is extruded through bushings. cladding. and mechanical drawing orients the polymer chains in the fiber's direction. Kevlar AP – has 15% higher tensile strength than K-29. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to gradually melt the silica sand. Kevlar K129 – higher tenacity for ballistic applications. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation. The result has liquid-crystalline behavior. asbestos replacement. Its bulk strength and weight properties are also very favorable when compared to metals. needed to keep the water-insoluble polymer in solution during its synthesis and spinning. the material is typically far less brittle. and it can be easily formed using molding processes. DuPont replaced it by a solution of N-methylpyrrolidone and calcium chloride. 9 micrometres for S-Glass). hot tubs. GRP glass-fiber reinforced plastic. flexible and more fatigue resistant.4-phenylene-diamine (paraphenylenediamine) and terephthaloyl chloride in a condensation reaction yielding hydrochloric acid as a byproduct. Kevlar K49 – high modulus used in cable and rope products. As this process was patented by Akzo (see above) in the production of Twaron. and so it is rarely used outdoors without protection against sunlight. Fiberglass is a lightweight. a problem known as UV degradation. Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) was the solvent initially used for the polymerization. dolomite and other minerals to liquid form.[11] Kevlar KM2 – enhanced ballistic resistance for armor applications[12] The ultraviolet component of sunlight degrades and decomposes Kevlar. then it would be equally as strong as glass fibers. and the raw materials are much less expensive. however. as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. extremely strong. Kevlar (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) production is expensive because of the difficulties arising from using concentrated sulfuric acid. These . water tanks. a patent war ensued. for the final structure to be strong. it is generally impractical to produce bulk material in a defect-free state outside of laboratory conditions. boats. a thermosetting plastic (most often polyester or vinylester) or thermoplastic. Common uses of fiberglass include high performance aircraft (gliders). the fiber's surfaces must be almost entirely free of defects. Fiberglass Fiberglass (or fibreglass) (also called glass-reinforced plastic. casts. pipes. surfboards and external door skins. The plastic matrix may be epoxy. baths. automobiles. and body/vehicle armor. which are bundles of very small orifices (typically 5–25 micrometres in diameter for E-Glass. If a bulk piece of glass were to be defect free. roofing. kaolin clay. Although strength properties are somewhat lower than carbon fiber and it is less stiff. It is also known as GFK (for German: Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff).

Although it might be assumed that the fiber is weak in compression. because a typical fiber is long and [3] narrow.High modulus fibers ( E = 130 GPa ) Perhaps the most striking feature of the aramid is its high impact resistance . Organic Fibers Under this name are included others such as chain polyethylene fibers or elongated fibers of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers . along its axis. as well as the number of filaments in the roving determine its weight. Aramid types : . its high tenacity and high energy absorption capacity .Good mechanical stability in the range (-30 ° C/200 ° C) . .e. The individual filaments are now bundled together in large numbers to provide a roving. directionality of stiffness and strength can be more precisely controlled within the plane.High specific tensile strength (5 times stronger than steel ) . with each layer oriented in various preferred directions. filament winding (pipe). grounds on which it is used even in bulletproof vests. example of standard yields are 225yield. due to its use and its exceptional characteristics majority . . across its axis. However. with woven fabrics or unidirectional layers. On the other hand. With chopped strand mat. The component may be of nearly arbitrary shape. An individual structural glass fiber is both stiff and strong in tension and compression—that is. limited only by the complexity and tolerances of the mold used for manufacturing the shell. . projected onto the surface of a mold). then that material will become preferentially strong in that direction. we can highlight these other features : . the stiffness and strength properties of the overall material can be controlled in an efficient manner. i. thus a smaller number means a lighter roving. but we will focus on aramid fibers . Are also flame resistant and self-extinguishing .High modulus and low elongation at break . examples of standard tex are 750tex. 1100tex.High chemical stability . except for strong acids and bases against highly concentrated . it is the plastic matrix which permanently constrains the structural glass fibers to directions chosen by the designer. it buckles easily. Therefore if a collection of fibers can be arranged permanently in a preferred direction within a material. by laying multiple layers of fiber on top of one another. and if the fibers can be prevented from buckling in compression. 450yield. as in the case of surfboards.filaments are then sized (coated) with a chemical solution. knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. the glass fiber is weak in shear —that is. sometimes filled on the inside with structural foam. thus a smaller number means a heavier roving. The diameter of the filaments. These rovings are then either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion. it is actually only the long aspect ratio of the fiber which makes it seem so. gun roving (automated gun chops the glass into short lengths and drops it into a jet of resin. woven fabrics. A fiberglass component is typically of a thin "shell" construction. 675yield) or in tex-grams per km (how many grams 1 km of roving weighs.Fibers of low modulus ( E = 70 GPa ) .. or used in an intermediary step. to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat (CSM) (made of randomly oriented small cut lengths of fiber all bonded together). this is inverted from yield. 2200tex). This is typically expressed in yield-yards per pound (how many yards of fiber in one pound of material. In the case of fiberglass. Furthermore. this directionality is essentially an entire two dimensional plane.

.Modulus of elasticity: 71 GPa .High modulus of elasticity 400 GPa . their manufacture and handling is extremely complicated and expensive .Excellent thermal shock resistance : it is possible to heat them up to 1. which can reach temperatures up to 950 ° C. The manufacturing process is somewhat similar to boron fiber . but only in the field of space or military aircraft because of its high cost. the price is high compared to other fibers. These are the most important properties : .Modulus : 200 GPa . in addition. Boron fiber Fibers are obtained from the deposition substrate tungsten or carbon . Ceramic fibers within the whiskers include : short inorganic fibers perfectly crystalline structure with tensile strengths between 3 and 14 GPa and modulus of elasticity between 400 and 700 GPa . Aramid fiber is made by an extrusion process and yarn. About 200 filaments combined result in a fiber with high strength and flexibility .5 to 3 GPa . so that in use it further reinforcement.As for disadvantages we highlight a low compressive strength and flexural strength losses in the presence of moisture and low adherence to certain matrices . Here are some of its properties: . have very high performance in terms of tensile strength and chemical stability.Density : 2200 kg / m³ .High strength : 3600 MPa . These include the following properties: . such as thermoplastics . Has a cost lower than that of boron . and a high temperature resistance .Tensile strength : 3. ceramic fibers These fibers arise from the necessity of reinforcements for aerospace high temperatures. In addition to this resistance .Deformation at break of 1%.Density : 2570 kg / m³ . are perfectly elastic fibers . carburizing furnaces for thermochemical treatments .45 GPa . Silicon carbide fiber This fiber has been successfully used to reinforce organic and ceramic matrices .Tensile strength : 2. .Can be combined with epoxy . Can be used with most of the resins. However. so I use is limited to this sector and the metalworking industry.100 ° C and cool quickly in water without change.High maximum service temperature : 1250 ° C Quartz fiber From natural quartz crystals are formed filaments.Density : 2800 kg / m³ . the former being the most used . aluminum and titanium matrices .

There are basically three types : . . electron or microwave).Silver. such as novolacs . mechanical. Nickel : refractory resist . Ferromagnetic . according to the chemical structure are based on : .Stainless steel: corrosion resistance . So that through an appropriate choice of these parameters. ) .TGMDA ( methylene tetraglicil dianiline ) : this molecule is the most important component of epoxy resin formulations for high-tech applications . toughness. The difference between the density of crosslinks in the cured will be determined by the different properties of the resins.metallic fibers Have the disadvantage that their charge density and thus are more expensive than fiberglass (except steel ) . can vary substantially the characteristics of . Besides these two . and heat . have lots of cross-links.Amine : aliphatic amines cure the resin at room temperature but have low temperature. etc . elec driver .Iron and alloys: high resist .Anhydrides : Bisphenol A epoxy resins cured at 120-175 ° C Unsaturated polyester resins They are the most important family of thermosetting resins used in composites . gamma. Epoxy resins are characterized by low shrinkage . thermal (high temperatures) or by radiation (UV. The curing of these resins can be accomplished in many ways. the configuration and chemical composition of the polyester resin hardened determine its characteristics and properties (flexibility. We can distinguish two main types of epoxy resins . .DGEBA ( diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) : cure at lower crosslinking density than the last. Once cured. .Aluminium and aluminum alloys : low density . chemical . Not corrode Thermoset matrix Thermoset liquid resins comprise a series of liquids or semi precursors which must be cured in order to achieve the solid state by chemical. . Mechanical and chemical at high temperatures. with chemical additives . as this determines the final mechanical and thermal properties of the resin.Titanium . elast . trifunctional epoxy resins and bisphenol F epoxy resin In epoxy resins is very important to the choice of curing agent .Nickel and cobalt superalloys : resist . Exhibits high crosslink density . . corrosion . Moreover. good resistance to high temperature ( 180 ° C ) and good resistance to chemicals . Tantalum . heat or radiation.Copper and copper alloys : electrical and thermal conductivity . and cycloaliphatic have properties intermediate between the two above. the aromatic provide resins with improved properties . and term. and mod. These are the most used and their main characteristics : . but require curing temperatures of 120-175 ° C . and can not be remelted without suffering serious degradation. we can find other epoxy resins with characteristics according to the above . Gold and precious metals : electronic driver . The resins used are: epoxy resins The importance of the epoxy matrix is the ability of the epoxide radical to react with a variety of other organic radicals and crosslink without the appearance of a condensate . .

Good dielectric properties and electrical insulation PPS : As above. which increases resistance to high temperatures. It has a remarkable chemical and thermal resistance ( 232 ° C continuous) and excellent resistance to low temperature .Percent Elongation : 1. Furthermore it is inert to most chemicals in a wide range of temperatures. low smoke . resistance to temperature (range of temperatures between -60 ° C and 250 ° C) and excellent chemical resistance . polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and polyetherimide (PEI ) and polyamideimide (PAI ) .High limit fatigue and high toughness .the resin chosen . with more than thermostable resistance and lower water absorption. EPI : This matrix is molded as a thermoplastic material but after post partially cured thermoset has properties . here the range of values that can be found : .5 . it is possible to find matrices reinforced with high performance thermoplastics . Its main characteristics are: PEEK : PEEK is partially crystalline thermoplastic material which provides a unique combination of high mechanical properties .2 . chemical and hydrolytic stability . . These matrices have been developed with the dual purpose of obtaining suitable high temperature materials having high impact resistance. Other Features: . PEI : Feature Highlights: inherent flame resistance . in this family there is great variability of properties .Tensile strength (MPa): 40-85 . The result of advances in this field are tougher matrices . In sum. high temperature resistance long .Very good wear resistance . Furthermore they have a certain time needed for molding and curing . Arrays are the most important eterketona polyether (PEEK) . this material has thermoplastic properties even in the final composite . dimensional stability. which means lower costs . and the recycling process is easier.Intrinsic resistance to flame .Very low smoke during combustion . As mentioned.Traction Module ( GPa ): 2 . .8 Thermoplastic Matrix Moreover. High temperature required for processing.3.4. the unsaturated polyester resins are the most versatile and can be adapted to a multitude of processes and needs.Flexural strength ( MPa ) : 80-140 .