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Submitted to: Sir Raees Fida Swati

Objective: The objective of this study was   to determine the energy needed to fracture a material to measure the toughness of the material and the yield strength.  the determination of notched bar impact work  the Determination of notched bar impact strength  Evaluation of fracture surface characteristics Page 1 . It becomes of engineering importance when the ability of material to withstand an impact load without fracturing is considered.  to determine the ductility of a material.Impact Test of Materials Abstract: This test method covers the determination of the amount of energy a material can absorb before fracturing.  to study the strain rate and analyzed for its effect on fracture. It is one of the simplest method of measuring toughness by using the apparatus to place a Charpy V notch specimen across parallel jaws in the machine.By knowing the mass of the pendulum and the difference between its initial and final heights the energy absorbed by the fracture can be measured. In the impact test a heavy pendulum released from a known height strikes the sample on its downward swing. fracturing it.

Impact Test of Materials Apparatus: Standard Impact Testing Apparatus Page 2 .

also known as the Charpy v-notch test. It was pivotal in understanding the fracture problems of ships during WWII. Charpy Test Page 3 . since it is easy to prepare and conduct and results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. A major disadvantage is that all results are only comparative. This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material's toughness and acts as a tool to study temperature-dependent brittle-ductile transition.Impact Test of Materials Theory: The impact tests are designed to measure the resistance to failure of a material to a suddenly applied force.The most common methods of measuring impact energy are the   Charpy Test Izod Test Charpy Impact Test The Charpy impact test. It is widely applied in industry. is a standardized high strainrate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. The test measures the impact energy . Today it is used in many industries for testing materials used in the construction of pressure vessels and bridges and to determine how storms will affect materials used in them. The test was developed in 1905 by French scientist Georges Charpy.

clamped upright in an anvil. modulus of elasticity. Volume. In order for a material or object to have a higher impact strength the stresses must be distributed evenly throughout the object. the test piece is a cantilever. Page 4 .Impact Test of Materials Izod Impact Test In the Izod impact test. Toughness requires a balance of strength and ductility. from which the absorbed energy amount is read. After fracturing the test piece. The test piece is hit by a striker carried on a pendulum which is allowed to fall freely from a fixed height. It also must have a large volume with a low modulus of elasticity and a high material yield strength. the height to which the pendulum rises is recorded by a slave friction pointer mounted on the dial. Often measured with the Izod impact strength test or Charpy impact test. both of which measure the impact energy required to fracture a sample. and yield strength effect the impact strength of a material. to give a blow of 120 ftlb energy. Toughness It is also defined as the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. with a Vnotch at the level of the top of the clamp. Izod impact test Impact strength It is the capability of the material to withstand a suddenly applied load and is expressed in terms of energy. distribution of forces.

After the mid-1950s. then the energy absorbed per unit volume is known as the modulus of resilience. by taking the integral) underneath the stress-strain curve and its energy of mechanical deformation per unit volume prior to fracture. The area covered under stress strain curve is called toughness. This issue was highlighted in a number of catastrophic failures in ferritic steel structures and whilst the science of fracture mechanics increasingly allows a rigorous approach to designing against brittle fracture in steel structures.Impact Test of Materials Mathematical definition Toughness can be determined by measuring the area (i. The explicit mathematical description is: Where    is strain is the strain upon failure σ is stress Another definition is the ability to absorb mechanical (or kinetic) energy up to failure. Mathematically..e. Empirical correlations have been shown between Charpy value and service performance. welding techniques were improved and Charpy testing became an essential part of steel specification. the modulus of resilience can be expressed by the product of the square of the yield strain divided by two times the Young's modulus Brittle Fractures Much empirical evidence had been accumulated by the 1920/1930s which showed that high strain rates applied at temperatures close to or somewhat below room temperature in the presence of notches were more likely to result in brittle or sudden failure. If the upper limit of integration up to the yield point is restricted. the Charpy test remains as a wellrecognized method of specifying steel quality. Page 5 .

A standard length of 55 mm (±0. Fit the notch specimen. typically these have a capacity of 450 Joules. these methods were adopted widely as indicators of probable fracture behavior. Recently as steels have improved larger machines with a greater striking energy have been that it makes an angle a1with horizontal. Most Charpy testing machines are dimensioned to give an energy rating of 300 Joules. the Charpy impact properties will depend on the orientation of this notch. The pendulum will continue to travel to a maximum height on the other side of the swing where a pointer records the energy lost (absorbed) in fracturing the test piece. the weight and dimensions of the arc determine the amount of kinetic energy generated as the pendulum swings. The Charpy test uses a 10 mm square bar notched in the centre of one face.The notch determines the direction of crack propagation and because of the directionality referred to in previous sections. after impact the test piece will either fracture or be severely deformed. Release the pendulum by pressing the lever.1 mm) is used. Procedure:        Adjust the zero point. The scale shows the amount of energy (joules) of the impact. In the Charpy test the falling weight is in the form of a pendulum. Page 6 . The maximum kinetic energy is reached at the lowest point of the swing and the test piece is placed very precisely at this point.Impact Test of Materials Charpy test equipment Due to the result of the ductile to brittle transition demonstrated by both the Charpy and the related but simpler Izod impact test. The pendulum then swings up to a maximum height making angle a2with vertical. Raise the pendulum to a specific height and lock it. The pendulum breaks the specimen into two halves.

80 4.Impact Test of Materials Calculations:           Force=F= 20.46 7.385 m Fracture Area=A= 36 mm2 Potential Energy of the system when released=K K=FL(1+sin(a1-90)) Potential Energy after impact=T T=FL(1-cos(a2)) Energy consumed for fracture=E=K-T Impact strength is : KCU=E/A Readings: Specimen a1 a2 K(J) T(J) E (J) E (J) Fracture KCU (J/mm 2) theoretical practical Area (mm2) Mild Steel 1600 890 15.21 Page 7 .30 7.50 36 0.5 N Length=L=.

e. 2) Air resistance 3) Machine resistance Page 8 . Moreover not observing the precautions of the experiment can cause serious injury as happened to our one fellow while performing the experiment. Greater energy is absorbed by mild steel which shows that it is more suitable to be use in the structural construction that expose to high load.Impact Test of Materials Observations From the results it is clear that the specimen fracture differently. the machine should be leveled. The mild steel fracture but did not break completely and some part of the steel still attached therefore it behaves in the ductile manner. Sources of error : 1) Imbalanced Machine. Conclusion: From the experiment we concluded that the mild steel undergoes ductile fracture. i.

Reference:      www.worldoftest. Page 9 . Suggestion for improvement :  There should be a protective case around the apparatus so that no body get go closer to http://www.   For reading digital methods should be http://www. Room temperature should be maintained. 3) Note the reading when the hammer is not moving.Impact Test of Materials Precautions: 1) Check two or more person that specimen is kept 2) Keep away all the persons so that the pendulum doesn’t hit them while working.htm Material science and engineering by William d cluster http://www.html .alibaba.