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Lecture 13: Electron Beams and Applications

Important applications of electron beam technology includes + X-ray generation + High power microwave generation + Microscopy + Materials modification and processing X-ray generation The basic premise is that x-rays are generated when an electron beam strikes a target. The x-rays then pass through an object and form an image on a piece of film.

x-rays are attenuated, by absorption and scattering, in the target. The parameter describing this attentuation is the linear attentuation coefficient (mu).

The minimum feature size that can be imaged by an x-ray point projection source can be estimated by a simple analysis. Say an incident photon flux N_o [#/(s*cm^2)] falls on a feature of length l, with x-ray mean free path of lambda(E), which is a function of x-ray energy.

The smallest feature, Delta-l, corresponds to the minimum change in photon flux distinguishable from noise, Delta-N. From Poisson statistics, Delta-N ~ sqrt(N).

+ So the minimum resolvable feature size depends on the x-ray mean free path in the material (twice the mfp at a given energy) + the mean free path depends on the linear attenuation coefficient and the total mass attenuation coefficient for the x-ray of a given energy and the object material linear attenuation coeff total mass attenuation coeff .

+ Four common varieties. + For high intensity radiography. self-pinch. magnetically immersed. rod-pinch. . paraxial. falls to a minimum and then rises again at higher energies. the mass attenuation coefficients can be used to combine by weight percentage + These values are tabulated for different materials. + For compounds. or can be found in the literature. relativistic electron beam diodes are usually used.+ the mean free path is related to the linear attenuation coefficient + There is no general expression for these coefficients + The mass attenuation coefficient is high at low energies.

. Proc IEEE v92.Paraxial diode Self-pinched (left) and Rodpinched (right) diodes Magnetically immersed diodes All from Maenchen. n7. 2004.

For a vacuum filled region.High Power Microwave Generation The discussion starts with waveguides. + Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) -. Get these in free space. + These are ducts that guide waves + Similar to optical fiber (which are also sometimes called waveguide) Maxwell's equations can be reduced to the wave equations. however. possibly bounded by conductors or dielectric. At a perfect conducting wall. Also hollow coax. we can write the following. i. depending on boundary conditions. k. + Transverse electric (TE) -. Using a Fourier-Laplace transform. Occur in hollow rectangular or circular waveguides. . Occur in hollow rectangular or circular waveguides.B is perpendicular to k. We could have three possible solutions.E and B vectors are perpendicular to the direction of propagation. + Transverse magnetic (TM) -. the parallel E and perpendicular B must go to zero. we have the following. or parallel plate waveguides. transmission lines. where d/dt -> j(omega).E is perpendicular to k.e.

+ if E_z and B_z are both zero (TEM) the transverse components are also zero. and the field in waveguide is trivially zero. we will have fields like the following. we can show that + the perpendicular components of E and B (either the r and theta components. or the x and y compoents) can be expressed in terms of the axial field component (consult Humphries or Benford). Hence no TEM waves in these. Using Maxwell's equations. Rewriting the wave equations Assuming separability .If we assume E and B have wave solutions (equivalent to the Fourier-Laplace transform idea).

. and y-dimension = b. of x-dimension = a.v = omega/k > c. or no propagation. omega = omega_co + Derived from transverse field boundary conditions + Must have parallel E and perpendicular B equal to zero at the wall + Apply these BCs to the TM or TE wave equations to find the k_perp rectangular waveguide. always cutoff: when k=0.

B_r=E_theta=E_z=0 at radius rho. Solutions involve Bessel functions of the first kind. with specific field patterns + Each mode has a cutoff frequency.for a cylindrical waveguide. of radius rho. or a helical winding within the tube. but at faster than light speeds + If charged particles are to interact with these fields. below which no EM energy can travel in that mode + Each mode travels at a phase velocity > speed of light Slow wave structures + Waveguides confine and conduct EM energy. . In summary + Waveguides support TM or TE waves. need to slow down the waves + Slow wave structures slow down EM waves confined within them + Slow EM waves are produced within waveguides with a periodically varying boundary waveguide slow wave structure Some periodic variations include a perturbed wall radius. a periodic array of resonating cavities. with TM waves having an axial E + Waves come in specific modes.

Consider a wall with radius that varies periodically The frequency of normal modes is a periodic function of the wavenumber k_z The field can be written as a sum. The end result on the dispersion relation is to make it periodic in k-space. k_perp. . However. using Floquet's theorem We can show then.m won't correspond to that derived for smooth waveguides. it will be a more complicated function. Now sub-c phase velocities are possible.

and feeds more energy into the EM normal mode. or direction of travel. etc. space charge dominated electron beam interactions + We have dealt so far with electron beams that are uniform in the axial direction.Microwave generation + Microwaves are generated when space charge waves on a beam interact with normal cavity and waveguide modes + Fast wave interactions occur when the interaction involves a waveguide mode phase velocity faster than light + Slow wave interactions occur when the interaction involves a waveguide mode slower than the speed of light + O-type devices have an electron beam that travels parallel to any externally imposed magnetic field + M-type devices have electron beams traveling perpendicular to crossed electric and magnetic fields + Space charge devices have intense. they can exchange energy -.the perturbation grows. O-type interactions + The space charge waves on an electron beam also have a dispersion relation . + Imagine a perturbation on the axial beam density + This perturbation gives rise to a perturbation in the potential and self-generated electric field along the beam + The perturbation forms a space charge wave that travels along the beam + If the space charge wave phase velocity matches the phase velocity of a normal mode.

and the (-) give the slow wave.+ The (+) in the dispersion relation gives the fast wave. to interact with a EM mode? Fill the waveguide with dielectric (dielectric Cerenkov maser) Use a periodic slow wave structure (backward wave oscillator) M-type interactions + Electrons move in an ExB drift + interact with an array of cavities + Magnetron . + Slow space charge waves result in microwave interactions + How do we get a wave with phase velocity below c.

Oscillations ensue producing radiation .Space charge devices Vircator .an intense electron beam. exceeding the space charge limit enters a grounded gap.