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CE 428 Water and Wastewater Design Grit Chambers Grit Removal

©Dr. S.K. Ong

Characteristics of grit - sand, gravel, cinders, eggshells, bone chips, seeds, coffee grounds and other heavy materials - predominantly inert, composition variable - moisture content 13 - !", volatile organic content - 1 - ! " - specific gravity - clean grit particles - #. !, for material $ith substantial organic material attached to inerts - appro%. 1.3 - bul& density in the range of 1 '' &g(m3 - most grits are retained on a )o. 1'' mesh sieve *'.1! mm or larger+ - typical settling velocity for 1'' mesh grit is 1.3 cm(s or #. ft(min ,urpose of -rit removal - to protect mechanical e.uipment from abrasion and abnormal $ear - to reduce conduit clogging caused by deposition of grit particles in pipes and channels - to prevent loading the treatment plant $ith inert matter that might interfere $ith the operation of treatment units such as siltation of anaerobic digester and aeration tan&s /ype of -rit 0emoval - hori1ontal flo$ *s.uare or rectangular configuration+ - aerated *rectangular+ - vorte%-type

2ori1ontal flo$ type - open channels $ith sufficient detention time to allo$ particles to settle and to maintain constant velocity to scour organics - the velocity of flo$ controlled by *i+ dimensions of unit *ii+ special influent distribution gates *iii+ special $eir sections at the effluent end *proportional $eir+ - designed to remove grit 3 '.#1 mm dia. to as lo$ as '.1! mm dia. - grit removal is accomplished by a conveyor $ith a scraper, buc&ets or plo$s - may re.uire grit $ashing e.uipment to remove organics /ypical Design 4nformation for 2ori1ontal -rit 0emoval ,arameters 0ange /ypical Detention time *s+ 5! - 6' ' 2ori1ontal 7elocity *ft(s+ '.8 - 1.3 1.' - 1.#! 2eadloss in a control section as percent of depth in channel 3' - 5'" 3 " 9llo$ance for inlet and outlet turbulence #Dm - '.! : *at least !'" increase in theoretical length is recommended, Dm - ma%. depth, : - length+ -rit .uantities '.''5 - '.'3; m3(1''' m3 Aerated Grit Chambers - popularity of aerated grit chamber - less $ear on grit-handling e.uipment - in many cases, no need for separate grit $ashing e.uipment - normally designed to remove particles ! mesh *'.# mm+ or larger - velocity of roll or agitation governs the si1e of particles of a given specific gravity to be removed

.! Dimensions Depth *ft+ .uantity of air is ad<usted to provide the roll and $ashing of the grit to remove organic matter .#.3! mgd -rit chamber volume 9ssume #.! A 31.typically designed to remove 6!" of 1'' micron *1!' mesh+ grit . flo$ #.1! mm+ !@ Design Exam le !or hori"ontal aerated grit #hamber Design an aerated grit chamber $ith an average flo$ of 11.!>1 9ir supply *ft3(min(ft of length+ #-! -rit .! .. mgd+ /ypical Design 4nformation for 7orte% -rit Chambers 0ange /ypical Detention time *s+ 3' Dimensions Diameter *ft+ 5 .#5 ?pper :o$er 3height *ft+ 6-1 0emoval 0ates " !' mesh *'. 6!" removal of #! micron head re.5 % #.! . /ypical 3 1.grit move to the outside of the unit and collected ..#5 mm+ 8!@ 1'' mesh *'. for e%ample. .typical units can handle pea& flo$s up to '.3 mm+ 6!@ . m .! 1.' Vortex-ty e Grit Chambers ..! =idth *ft+ 8 . -1 :ength *ft+ #! .grit removed by air lift pump or by bottom drain .uirement .head re.vorte% created .31 m3(s *. #.air scour to remove organics .#3 =idth -depth ratio 1>1 .! > 1 5>1 #.ea& hourly flo$ rate for design A 11.' minutes for pea& hourly flo$ 9ssume t$o chambers in use all the time .grit removed by using grab buc&ets on monorails centered over the grit collection and storage trough or by a flushing through a drain /ypical Design information for 9erated -rit Chambers 0ange Detention time *mins+ at ma%.! m3(s+ $ith a pea&ing factor of #.uired to achieve this removal is a fe$ meters.5 mgd *'.!>1 :ength-$idth ratio 3>1 .' mesh *'..uantities *ft3(mgal+ '.

8 ft3(day = '.8 *on the lo$ side.8+ A 51. .!'' 1'' /ypical . Dimensions ?se $idth to depth ratio of 1..3! mgd + %1' # % # min = #.58 3 +*#5 +* ' + day hr ft * 5.uired A 51 ft % ! ft3(m.ea& hourly flo$ *gal(ft#(d+ *m3(m#(d+ ..1>1 and a depth of 8 ft =idth :ength !.3! mgd # * + %1' gal hr min sec *. ft of length assume .58 3 +*#5 +* ' +* ' + day hr min ft vh = 8 % 8 .8 ft A #.61' ft 3 A gal hr min *. ft3(mgd A 11. ft3(mgd A .3 ft ?se 51 ft.''' B 3..35 ft ( s A #'! ft3(min 9verage grit removal volume of grit $rimary %edimentation • purpose B to remove settable organic solids and to reduce the solids load on the biological treatment unit • primary sedimentation or clarification is achieved in large basins under relatively .31. 9ir supply use ! ft3(m.uiescent conditions /$o types of design available> hori1ontal flo$ and circular Design Criteria • overflo$ rate *gpm(ft# or m3(m#(d+ • $eir overflo$ rate *gpm(ft or m3(m(d+ • detention time *hours+ • solids loading rate *lbs(ft#(d or &g(m#(d+ *more important for secondary sedimentation tan&s+ Design Data Overflo$ rates 9verage flo$ 0ange *gal(ft#(d+ *m3(m#(d+ 8'' B 1#'' 3# B 58 #.1 % 8 A 8. Chec& hori1ontal velocity A 1. but acceptable+ .61' ft#(*8 % 8.6.5 mgd % . 31. ft of length air re.''' 8' B 1#' #.

15# *1!+#(5 A 1.15# % 1!+ SS removal at pea& flo$ rate A # ! m3(m#(day ≈ 5'" .1' days A !3'. 0e.''' B 5'.=eir overflo$ rate . assume '" SS removal. . .'''(3! A 153 m# A 13. % 3 A '.'. Design exam le& Design a sedimentation tan& for a municipal $aste$ater $ith an average flo$ of !.!5 hrs *o&+ *o&+ *o&+ Gor pea& hourly flo$ re. 8. 5..15#+1(# *have to select si1e appropriate for circular scraper+ 9ssume 1! m diameter *to fit a 1! m diameter scraper+ surface area needed A 3.! #'. #.''' 1#! B !'' 1. overflo$ rate A 3! m3(m#(day 1. .!'' m3(day ?se Gigure.1 m3 A #.. !.'".! .''' #!' #.uired surface area A !.'! '.#.'# A '..!''(1. m# 9ssume side $all depth A 3 m Detention time A !3'..1(!''' 7olume of tan& A 1. . . find overflo$ rate A 1#. A .! m Circular tan& diameter d A *5% 153(3.5..ea& hourly flo$ *gal(ft#(d+ *m3(m#(d+ Detention time *hrs+ *average flo$+ 1'. m3(m#(d Chec& $eir overflo$ rate A 1#.!''(*3.' /ypical dimensions 0ectangular Depth *ft+ 1' B 1! 1# :ength *ft+ !' B 3'' 8' B 13' =idth *ft+ 1' B 8' 1 B 3# Cottom slope 1 B #" Speed of scraper *ft(min+ #B5 3 Circular Depth *ft+ 1' B 1! 1# Diameter *ft+ 1' B #'' 5' B 1!' Cottom slope *in(ft+ D-# Speed of scraper *rev(min+ '.uirements. respectively *see Gigure 1#. 3.''' m3(day and a pea& hourly flo$ A 1#.'3 EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE F%pected COD and suspended solids removal bet$een 3' B 5'" and !' B . may be different for different $aste$ater+.