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Facts about the Influenza Virus •The influenza virus changes every year. •These changes cause seasonal flu epidemics. •These changes mean that the flu vaccine must be reformulated every year. How Influenza Is Spread •Influenza is spread via respiratory secretions (coughing and sneezing). •The incubation period is from 1 to 4 days. •Infected persons are contagious for about a week, although children and immunocompromised patients are contagious for a longer period of time. Vaccine Recommendations • People aged 65 or older • People with certain chronic diseases • Nursing home residents • Children and teenagers on long-term aspirin therapy • People who come in frequent contact with high-risk patients • People with allergies to eggs should not receive the vaccine Vaccine Efficacy • Influenza vaccine is the primary means of preventing influenza. • The influenza vaccine is 70-90% effective in preventing illness in healthy young adults. • Vaccine efficacy varies from year to year and depends on the match between the virus in the vaccine and the virus in circulation. Prevention of Influenza with Drugs • The antivirals amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine) can be used to prevent influenza A infection. • These antivirals may prove beneficial in high-risk or at-risk persons who have not been vaccinated or in immunocompromised patients. What to expect: • Fever over 102° Fever generally lasts 3-5 days, and is often higher in the afternoons and evenings, with some decrease in the mornings. Fever typically runs higher in children and can be over 104°. • Cough The cough starts as dry and hacking and progresses by the 3rd day to wet with thick mucous. The cough can worsen for the next 4-7 days and could last for over 2 weeks. This is the major symptom of influenza. Cough in children can be croupy and serious. Smokers are at risk for significant bronchitis and pneumonia. • Headaches and Muscle Aches These can be severe for the first few days and will slowly improve. • Fatigue Fatigue is common and severe, lasting for 1-3 weeks. • Sore Throat Sore throat is most common in older children and adults. It can be severe for the first few days. • Nasal Congestion and Red Eyes Nasal congestion lasts for 1-2 weeks, and eyes may be red for 3-4 days. • Vomiting or Diarrhea (in children <6 years of age) Vomiting or diarrhea is unusual in adults. These symptoms are typically seen in children less than 6 years of age and last for the first few days. Influenza is typically contagious for 5-7 days from fever onset. Call your physician if: • Your instincts tell you to be concerned. Trust them and call your doctor for advice. • Your fever comes back after it has been gone 1-2 days or if you still have high fever after 4 or 5 days. • Your cough becomes wheezy or rapid, you are having trouble breathing, or you are coughing up bloody or yellow-green mucous.

although less serious side effects may include headache. irritability. cancer. a compromised immune system. kidney.Neuraminidase Inhibitors Zanamivir for inhalation (Relenza) and oseltamivier (Tamiflu) are two new drugs for the treatment of flu A and B. or if you smoke. • Zanamivir side effects Side effects of zanamivir are comparable to placebo (sugar pill).. insomnia.g. and your condition worsens. • Ibuprofen-containing pain relievers (e. • Side Effects of Amantadine and Rimantadine Serious side effects are rare. or blood cell problems).. heart irregularity. and anxiety. seizures/convulsions. • You have any of the following: severe confusion. asthma. These conditions put you at greater risk for complications.• You have any chronic illness (e. diabetes. ear pain or prolonged headache. heart or lung trouble. • Antibiotics are of absolutely no use for influenza and are used only for bacterial complications after the acute phase is over. • Drink plenty of fluids to prevent secretions from getting thick and increasing breathing problems. trouble concentrating.g. Advil or Motrin) can be used for fever and pain in older adolescents and adults. Location Summary Time 26 Dec 1999 to 23 Dec 2000. dizziness. muscle aches and headaches. • Rest to help your body fight the infection. General Treatment     Non-aspirin fever reducers/pain relievers for fever. Europe A(H1N1) 2 A(H3N2) 1146 . muscle aches and headaches Increased fluid intake Rest Antiviral therapy Antiviral Agents • The New Flu Drugs . General Treatment • Give ONLY non-aspirin medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) to children for fever. • Antiviral medicines can be used. although the safety of this drug has not been established in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. • Amantadine and Rimantadine . spasms. loss of consciousness. bleeding.Two Older Drugs for Flu Amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine) can be used to treat and prevent flu A.