Centrifugal Compressors

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Topics
Centrifugal Compressor Model How a Centrifugal works / Energy Conversion Centrifugal Flowpaths Performance Curves Operation Limits: Surge & Overload Factors Affecting Compressor Performance Operational Issues – Optimizing Compressor Efficiency
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Axially or Horizontally Split Compressor

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Radially or Vertically Split Compressor

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Radially Split with Shear Ring Heads
Shear Ring

O-Rings

Retaining Ring
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Shear Rings & O-Rings

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The Centrifugal Effect
Centripetal Force Momentum Velocity & Direction

Centrifugal Reaction

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Gas Velocity Increase
V3 V2

V1

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Gas Impeller Exit Angle
Exit Path at Rated Flow Low Flow Exit Path Exit Path Due to Backward Curve Tangent Exit Path

•© 2004 by Dresser-Rand © 2006

Centrifugal Action
Cover Blades Disk

TIP OF THE IMPELLER High Velocity, Higher Pressure Gas Outlet EYE OF THE IMPELLER Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet

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Impellers
Manufacturing
• Cast • Riveted • Welded Two Piece Three Piece

Types
• Open • Semi-Enclosed • Enclosed

Cover

Blades

Disk

Hub
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Polygon Fit Impeller Rotor Assembly

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Centrifugal Action Diffusion Passage
Diffusion Passage Diffusion Passage

P2 P1
Shaft

P2 P1

Impeller

Impeller

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Diffusion Passage Cross-Sectional Area
Diffusion Passage Diffusion Passage

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Diffusion Passage Velocity Changes
V1 V2 V1
Shaft Impeller Impeller Diffusion Passage Diffusion Passage

V2 V1

V1

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Pressure, Volume and Temperature

1 ft.

Gas = 1 ft.3
1 ft. 1 ft.
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Temperature and Molecule Energy Level
Greater Temperature = Greater Energy = Higher Pressure

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Pressure, Volume and Temperature

1 ft.

Gas = 1 ft.3
1 ft. 1 ft.

Add Heat
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What is a Stage of Compression?
Centrifugal Stage

Return Bend

Return Bend

Diffuser
Reduces Velocity Increases Static Pressure

Return Channel

Impeller
Increases Velocity Increases Static Pressure

Guide Vanes

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Centrifugal Compressor Stage

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Energy Conversion

P4,V4,T4 P3,V1,T3

P5,V1,T5

P5,V1,T5 P2,V4,T2

P1,V1,T1

P3,V1,T3
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P7 P9

Balance Piston
P1

Straight Thru or Series Flow

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Centrifugal Flowpaths
SS In SS Out

P3

P5

P7

P9

Balance Piston
P1

Series Flow with Sidestreams

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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P7 P9

Balance Piston

P1

Compound Flow

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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P3

P1

P1

Parallel or Double Flow

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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P5 P9

D Wall

P1

P5

Back to Back Flow with No Cooler

D Wall

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Back-to-Back Flow without a Cooler
First Section Suction Second Section Discharge

Division Wall First Section Discharge CrossOver

Second Section Inlet

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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P5 P9

D Wall

P1

P5

Back to Back Flow with a Cooler

D Wall

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Bridgeovers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

Bridgeovers

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Bridgeovers

Bridgeover
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Inlet Guides
Fit to Diaphragm

Interstage Labyrinth Seal Grooves

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Diaphragm
Return Bend Diffusion Passage

Return Passage

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Inlet Guide In Diaphragm

Outside Diameter of Impeller
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Interstage Seals
Impeller

Function
P3
Diffuser

P5

Shaft Interstage Laby Seals

Diaphragm

P2

Diaphragm

P4

Labyrinth Seal Labyrinth Seal

Labyrinth Seal

Location

Labyrinth Seal Shaft Spacer

P1
Impeller

P3
Impeller

Shaft Spacer

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Labyrinth Seals
Seal Turbulence - Low Flow Seal Shaft Low Pressure Seal with Worn Teeth High Pressure Shaft Low Pressure High Pressure

Shaft Low Pressure High Pressure

Laminar High Flow

Wet Gas Condensate Deposits

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Hole Pattern Division Wall Seal with Swirl Brake

This design makes the seal insentive to preswirl even if the shunt is lost, which can occur during overload operation
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Performance Curves and Surge Control

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Performance Curves
Head Concept Basic Components Fixed/Variable Speed Surge/Overload Effects on Performance

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Head Concept
Mechanical: The “work” (energy) developed to raise a weight of 1 pound by a distance of one (1) foot. Expressed in foot-pound (or equivalent Kgm or Nm); Gas Compressors: “ work” done by the compressor / amount of gas. The head expressed in feet, is the height to which the gas could be lifted

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Head Concept
The height to which the gas is lifted depends on the velocity of the gas For any given RPM, the head developed by the compressor is fairly constant, independent of the gas nature. Head is depending upon: • Compressor geometry (i.e. no of stages, impeller diameters) • Compressor speed
Z: Compressibility Factor R: Gas Constant = 1545 / MW Ts: Suction Temperature (°R) r: Pressure Ratio (Pd / Ps) M: Polytrophic Exponent
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M:

Head Concept – Example

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Compressor Performance Curves illustrates the
operating range and flexibility of a given compressor
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%
Speed Lines Surge Region

Design Point

105% 100% 95% 90% 85%

Overload Region

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Compressor Performance Curves
There are two types of curves that are generally required, section and overall:

• section refers to an impeller or sequence of impellers between two
nozzles such that there is no pressure drop or temp reduction between impellers

• overall refers to a complete compressor or compressor train
Note: a back-to-back unit with a crossover may often be considered a two-section compressor; but with respect to performance curves, it is a single section since no pressure drop or cooling is introduced between the impellers

For single section compressors, the section curves and overall curves are one in the same
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Design Point is the point at which usual operation is
expected and optimum efficiency is . It is the point at which the vendor certifies that performance is within the tolerance
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%

Design Point

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

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Rated Point is intersection on the 100 % speed line
corresponding to the highest flow of any operating point
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%

Rated Point

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

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Stability: the percent of change in capacity between the rated (design
point) capacity and surge (limit) point, all at constant speed, is measured as the stability of the centrifugal compressor. Indicates the capability of the centrifugal compressor to operate at less than design flow
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%
% Stability

Design Point

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Turndown: the percent of change in capacity between the rated
(Design point) capacity and the surge (limit) point, all at constant head or pressure is measured as turndown of the centrifugal compressor. Indicates the capability of the centrifugal compressor to operate at less than design flow 120%
% Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%
% Turndown Design Point

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Rise to Surge: the percent of change in discharge pressure between
the rated point and surge limit at constant speed. High RTS means the compressor can accommodate a modest increase in discharge pressure with a little change in flow
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110%
% RTS

Design Point

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge Phenomenon
At any given speed, there is minimum flow, below which, the compressor cannot be operated in a stable condition. This minimum flow value is called “surge “ point. Surge is oscillation of the entire flow of the compressor system and this oscillation can be detrimental to the machine. Compressor surge may be evidenced by the following: a) Excessive rotor vibration b) Increasingly higher process gas temp c) Rapid changes in axial thrust d) Sudden changes in load e) Audible sounds (if surge is severe)
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge Description
Sudden Reversal of Flow Slams Thrust Disc Against

Resistance to Flow Causes Pressure to Rise Which Causes Flow to Decrease

120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60%
Surge Region

Inactive Thrust Bearing

Design Point

80%

90%

100%

120%

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge Description
Sudden Reversal of Flow Slams Thrust Disc Against

Resistance to Flow Causes Pressure to Rise Which Causes Flow to Decrease

120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80%
Surge Region

Inactive Thrust Bearing

Design Point

Pressure Builds along the Design Curve Back to the Design Point

Pressure Ratio Drops Low Enough

70% 60% 60%

for Flow to Instantaneously Build Back to the Design Curve

80%

90%

100%

120%

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge Control System
Input Signals Required 1 - Suction Flow 2 - Suction Pressure 3 - Discharge Pressure Suction
Flow Element

2 Discharge

Flow Transmitter FT

1

Pressure PT Pressure PT Transmitter Transmitter 3
PC SP U G D A AC G E B I I OO B T C MCH

Recycle Valve I/P

Surge Control In the PLC

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Surge Control on Performance Curves
Operating Point Surge Line
120% 110% Pressure Ratio 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% Suction Flow
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Control Line

100%

120%

Surge Control System
Input Signals Required 1 - Suction Flow 2 - Suction Pressure 3 - Discharge Pressure Suction
Flow Element

2 Discharge

Flow Transmitter FT

1

Pressure PT Pressure PT Transmitter Transmitter 3
PC SP U G D A AC G E B I I OO B T C MCH

Recycle Valve I/P

Surge Control In the PLC

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Surge Control on Performance Curves
Operating Point Surge Line
120% 110% Pressure Ratio 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% Suction Flow
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Control Line Backup Line

100%

120%

Surge Control
Surge Controller Performance Map

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Suction

Flow Element
FT PT PT

To Vent Blow Off Valve

Discharge

PC SP U

G D A AC G E B I I OO B T C MCH

I/P

Surge Control In the PLC

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Cooler Suction Flow Element Pressure PT Pressure PT Transmitter Transmitter
PC SP U G D A AC G E B I I OO B T C MCH

Flow FT Transmitter Recycle Valve I/P

Discharge

Surge Control In the PLC

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Surge – Damage of Compressor Internals
High axial displacement

Deformation due to high temperature
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Surge
The frequency of the surge cycle varies inversely with the volume of the system If the check valve is located near compressor discharge nozzle, the frequency will be much higher than of a system with a large volume in the discharge upstream of the check valve The higher frequency of the surge, the intensity will be lower (i.e. few cycles / minute up to more than 20 cycles / sec) The intensity of the surge increases with gas density , pressure and lower temperature
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge - Effects of Gas Composition
Best Efficiency point E%
Heavy Gas (propane, propylene) Medium Gas (air, nitrogen, natural gas) Light Gas (Hydrogen reach gases, i.e. hydrocarbon processing plants)

Surge points

Q
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Surge - Effects of Gas Composition
Observations made in respect to the heavy gas: The flow at surge is higher; The stage produces more head than corresponding to medium gas / light gas The right side of the curve turns downward (approaches stonewall) more rapidly The curve is flatter in the opening stage (small RTS)
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

External Causes and Effects of Surge
Restriction in suction or discharge of system Process changes in pressure, temperatures, or gas MW Internal plugging of flow passages of compressor (fouling) Inadvertent loss of speed Instrument or control valve malfunction Operator error Misdistribution of load in parallel operation Improper assembly of compressor (impeller overlap)

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Restriction in Suction / Discharge

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Parallel Operation
Typically, for parallel operation, the flow is not split evenly and one section or compressor handles more flow than the other, but both sections are required to make the same pressure ratio Careful analysis of the pressure ratio curves is required to insure satisfactory operation and suitable overall range “similar pressure ratio curves” • At the design flow, section (1) is much more flow than of section (2)

• If the total flow is reduced 10%,
the compressor slows down to maintain the same pressure ratio

• The flow to each section is
reduced 10% (dashed line) since the pressure ratio curves have a approximately the same rise
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

“different pressure ratio curves” (section 2 pressure ratio curve is steeper than section 1) • If the total flow is reduced 10% the compressor slows down to maintain pressure ratio • Section (1) reduces more than 10% ( about 12.5% - the dashed line) since its curve is shallower • Section (2) reduces less than 10% (about 5% - dashed line) since its curve is steeper • The two sections are now operating at significantly different portions of the curve and are now handling a different percentage of the total flow than they were at the design point.

• Section (1) is nearing surge.
Further reduction in flow would force section one into surge

• The difference in the curve
shape results in a reduced overall range for parallel operation
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Impeller Overlap with Diffuser

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Impeller Overlap with Diffuser

Positive overlap Limited

Nominal Desired

Non Desirable Limited

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Impeller Overlap with Diffuser

It is preferable that no impeller shall have negative overlap The negative overlap is limited to 5% of the impeller tip

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Overload
120% % Head, Pressure, Pressure Ratio 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 60% 80% 90% 100% 120%
Speed Lines Surge Region

Design Point

105% 100% 95% 90% 85%

Overload Region

% Inlet Capacity or Flow

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Choke Limit
Choke is the maximum flow that a centrifugal compressor can handle at a given speed. At that point, the compressor is unable to produce any net overall pressure ratio. The maximum flow region of the compressor performance curve is where the gas speeds approach Mach 1 Gas compression is no longer occurring in the compression channels. This region of the curve, as it becomes almost vertical at the choke limit, is also know as “Stonewall” Stonewall is usually not detrimental to the compressor, it simply limits the maximum flow. If choke occurs at an off design condition, the maximum volume flow can be increased by increasing the rotational speed
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Performance Curves – Inlet Gas Condition Effects

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Performance Curves – Inlet Gas Condition Effects

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Factors Affecting Compressor Performance
MW & Head - If MW increases, the head for a given ratio will decrease in direct proportion Temp & Head - If the Ts increases, the head for a given ratio will increase in direct proportion Zave & Head - If the average compressibility increases, the head will increase in direct proportion N and Head - If speed increases, the head will increase in direct proportion BHP and Head - If Head increases, the BHP will increase in direct proportion Flow and Speed - If the speed increases, the flow will increase in direct proportion

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Factors Affecting Compressor Performance
N & BHP - If the speed increases, the BHP will increase in proportion to the cube of the speed. (Because flow increases directly as speed and head increases as the square of the speed and BHP is the product of head X mass flow) Density - The only thing a compressor impeller sees is inlet capacity. Thus to get more capacity out of an existing compressor it is necessary to change the density of the inlet by: • decreasing the suction temperature • increasing the suction pressure • increasing the MW of the gas
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Compressor Off - Design Performance
Performance curves for axial and centrifugal compressors are usually based on constant inlet conditions (Ps, Ts, MW). In actual service, these compressors rarely see these base curve conditions exactly If the field inlet conditions deviate more then 5% from the curve inlet conditions then the field data can not be accurately plotted on the curve without converting the field data to curve conditions To properly evaluate the compressor (running off design), the performance parameters shall be corrected to the design conditions
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Allowable Variance for Inlet TZ / MW for Acceptable Head Curve Accuracy

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Operation Limitations
Compressor Driver Power Process
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Compressor Operation IssuesEfficiency Drop
Internal recycle Un-tuned Surge Control System Leakage via by-pass valve(s) in process Compressor operated out of “guaranteed performance envelope” Impeller & Diaphragm erosion Fouling

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Internal Recycle – Gap at the diaphragm / guides splits

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Internal Recycle – Gap at the diaphragm / guides splits

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Labyrinth Leakage
Leakage proportional to: • ∆P • Clearance • Diameter •1 / (No.Laby Teeth)0.5
Eye laby leakage is approx. 10 times spacer laby leakage

Eye Laby Leakage Spacer Laby Leakage
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Internal Recycle – Labyrinth Clearance

Process labyrinths can be plugged by wet particles in the gas flow

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Internal Recycle – Labyrinth Clearance
Shaft Spacer

Impeller Cover

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Internal Recycle – Labyrinth Clearance

Impeller Cover

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PEEK Labyrinth

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PEEK Physical Properties
GRADE Arlon CP Torlon 4340 Fluorosint 500 COEF. THERMAL EXPNSION (F) 17 x 10 /-6 18.8 19.4 TENSILE STRENGTH (PSI) 11,080 12,900 1,100 ELONGATION (%) 2.0 6.6 10.0 SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.45 1.44 2.32

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Un- tuned Surge Control System
Recycle valve shall be calibrated at every planned S/D

• • •

fast opening ( < 1 sec) total travel 0-100 %; 4 – 20 mA mechanical stop to coincide with 100 % close

Valve positioner shall match the command FT instrument shall be calibrated at every planned S/D Flow calculation block – correct constants, correct range

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Fouling
… is the deposit and the non –uniform accumulation of debris in the gas Occurs due to carry over of liquids and debris from the inlet suction scrubber Polymerization may occur in wet gas and cracked gas compressors applications if the temperature exceeds the critical point beyond the polymerization process occurs (235 F) Fouling build up occurs usually on the impeller hub and shroud. There is also a build up on the blades ( on the pressure side)

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Fouling

IGV partially clogged

1st stage impeller – hard deposits

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Fouling Effects – Charge Gas

3M7 – Eroded Sleeves
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Fouling Effects

April 25 '99

Abrasive Scoring due to Fouling

NPC Thai Fouling

9

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Fouling Effects – Charge Gas

3M7 - Deterioration of stage clearances
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Fouling Deposit Characterization
Scientifically characterization of the fouling deposits can provide clear information about the actual cause(s) of the problem(s) . Key deposit characterization includes:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Elemental Analysis - Chemical Composition (C, H, O, N, S) Electron Microscopy Morphology – Microstructure composition analysis components (asphaltene, oil, coke, and inorganic) TGA (thermo gravimetric analyzer) - Thermal fractionation into components EDS (x-ray) Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy - Inorganic elements X-RAY Diffraction - Inorganic compounds

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Techniques to Prevent Fouling
Condition monitoring, both aerodynamic and mechanical parameters Process control Online solvent injection Coatings of Impellers and Diaphragms

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Fouling - Condition Monitoring
(aerodynamic and mechanical parameters)

Monitor and trend the information regarding process conditions • MW • Pressure • Temperature Vibration monitoring • On line system • Off line system
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Condition Monitoring
Calculate and trend the compressor polytrophic efficiency using the reference point (i.e. after overhaul, revamp)

k − 1 log(Pd Ps ) ηp = ⋅ k log(Td Ts )
K – isentropic coefficient; Cp , Cv – specific heat at constant pressure / volume

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Condition Monitoring – DR RECON
Online System

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Fouling - Process Control
Accurate control of process conditions can prevent fouling ( for applications where polymers can be formed) Temperature control is the most important factor for preventing polymer formations (i.e. Ethylene cracked gas, Fluid catalytic cracker off-gas FSS) Critical temperature above fouling occurs varies with each process, compressor, application Monitoring of process is required to establish the temperature threshold for each case

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Fouling – Online Fluid Injection
.. injecting a small amount of solvent to reduce the friction coefficient of the blade and impeller surface (maintain the surface wet) thus preventing the fouling to build up on the surface The injection shall be done from the start (new equipment / overhauled) , if not the fouling deposit could be dislodged and moved downstream (blockage) Injection objective is to prevent fouling accumulations, not to provide on line cleaning of the impeller / blade Non continuous solvent injection program will allow the impeller / blade to dry and promote fouling

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Fouling – Online Fluid Injection
Critical factors that ensure fouling will not form: • Type of injection spray nozzles • Location of the spray nozzles • Selection of solvent Solvent vapor pressure and internal comp temperatures is necessary to determine if stage or section solvent injection is applicable Typically amount of solvent injection is 1-2 % of total mass flow. Excessive injection could erode leading edge blade tips, causing impeller fatigue
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Online Fluid Injection
Solvent injection:

• Purpose is to maintain a wet surface to prevent fouling material
sticking (typically Naphtha based solvent) • Injected at suction pipe of each section (Spool piece) • Injected at compressor return bends regardless gas temperature • 0.5 to 1.0% of total gas weight flow at each section is effective, but not exceed 3% of total gas weight flow

H2O injection: • Purpose is to reduce gas temperature ( by evaporation of water) • Injected at return bends where discharge gas temperature is high • Demi water (boiler feed water), with low oxygen content is
recommended. Filters to be installed at upstream of spray nozzle to prevent clogging

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Fluid Injection at Suction Nozzle

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Fluid Injection at Return Bend

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Online Fluid Injection
F

Flowmeter

Water Injection Nozzle Water Injection Connecting Piping (By Customer) Optional Solvent Injection Nozzle Optional Solvent Injection Connecting Piping (By Customer)

PG Pressure Gauge

Valve BFW Pump (By Customer)

Solvent Injection Tank (Optional)

H2O Tank

>20 kg/cm2

BFW PUMP
F PG PG F PG F PG F PG F PG F

“A”

Stg 1

Stg 2

Stg 3

Stg 1

Stg 2

Stg 3

“A”

F PG PG

F PG

F PG

F PG

F PG

F PG

F

Sect 1

4M7-6

Sect 2

Stg Stg Stg 1 2 3

Stg Stg Stg Stg 2 3 4 1

Sect 3

2M9-7

Sect 4

“B”
F PG

“B”
F PG F PG F PG

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Coatings - Purpose
Prevent the base metal from external attack Protect the blades against oxidation, corrosion, and cracking problems Extend the life of the impeller (protect the blades by being sacrificial by allowing coating to be restripped and recoated) Improve surface smoothness in order to reduce: • friction in lieu of solvent injection • erosion on compressor blades

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Engineered Coatings – “Cold Coatings”
…. A Sacrificial Barrier Coating System with a Base Coat and Multiple Topcoats Benefits: a) Protection • Corrosion • Fouling • Erosion

b) Improved Operation

• Smoother Surface Finish • Improved Resistance to Fouling • Improved Efficiency • Improved Reliability
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

D-R Corrosion / Antifoulant Coating System EEC-C1
Hard Top Seal Coat

Sacrificial Base Coat

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

D-R Anti-foulant Coating System EEC-A2 &A3

PTFE Top Coat Barrier Coat

Sacrificial Base Coat

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Anti-Foulant Coating

EEC - A2

EEC - A3

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Engineered Coatings – Thermal Coatings
A metallic particle spray overlay applied by a High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) Process Benefits:

• Dimensional Restoration • Protection
• Wear • Erosion

• Improved Wear Characteristics • Improved Reliability
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Engineered Coatings – Thermal Coatings
A metallic particle spray overlay applied by a High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) Process Benefits:

• Dimensional Restoration • Protection
• Wear • Erosion

• Improved Wear Characteristics • Improved Reliability
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

HVOF Applied EEC - TC Coatings
Piston Rods

Impellers

Rotor Shafts

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Coatings - SermaLon® Coating
The SermaLon coating system consists of:

• Al-filled chromate/phosphate
bond coat;

• Intermediate high temperature
polymeric inhibitive coating

• PTFE impregnated topcoat
(provides a barrier against corrosion and excellent resistance to fouling) The coating system provides excellent protection to 403 and 410 stainless substrates when exposed to corrosive steam conditions or low pH wet chloride environments
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

Coatings - SermaLon® Coating
Advantages Smooth surface finish and PTFE impregnated topcoat contribute to performance recovery and reduced fouling rate Excellent bond strength High resistance to corrosion fatigue Applications Centrifugal compressors exposed to wet chlorides or excessive fouling Steam turbine components exposed to corrosive steam;

© 2006 Dresser-Rand

www.dresser-rand.com info@dresser-rand.com
© 2006 Dresser-Rand

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