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Module 8

Lecture 34

PILE FOUNDATIONS

Topics

1.1 ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF GROUP

1.2 PILES IN SATURATED CLAY

1.3 PILES IN ROCK

1.4 CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES

1.5 ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES

1.6 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF GROUP PILES

PILES IN SATURATED CLAY

Figure 8.57 shows a group pile in saturated clay. Referring to this figure 8., the ultimate

load-bearing capacity of group piles can be estimated in the following manner:

1. Determine = 1 2 ( + ). From equation (19), = [9() ]

Where

() =

=

So

= 1 2 [9 () + ]

[8.130]

2. Determine the ultimate capacity by assuming that the pile in the group act as a

block with dimensions of . The skin resistance of the block is

= 2 +

= () = ( )()

Obtain the value of the bearing capacity factor, , from figure 8. 58. Thus the

ultimate load is

= () + 2 +

[8.131]

3. Compare the values obtained from equations (130 and 131). The lower to the two

values is () .

PILES IN ROCK

For point bearing piles resting on rock, most building codes specify that () = ,

provided that the minimum center-to-center spacing of piles is + 300 . For H-piles

and piles with square cross section, the magnitude of D is equal to the diagonals

dimensions if the pile cross section.

Example 14

The section of a 3 4 group pile in layered saturated clay is shown in figure 8. 59. The

piles are square in cross section (14 . 14 . ). The center-to-center spacing, d, of the

piles n 35 in. determine the allowable load-bearing capacity of the pile group. Use

= 4.

Figure 8.59

Solution

= 1 2 [9 () + 1 (1) 1 + 2 (2) 2 ]

=

14

12

(3)(4)

1000

14 2

14

(1775)(45) = 3703

= (2)(35) + 14 = 84 . = 7

=

=

9.92

7

60

7

= 1.42

= 8.57

= () + 2 +

Hence, = 3703 .

=

3703

3703

4

926

The consolidation settlement of a group pile in clay can be approximately estimated by

using the 2:1 stress distribution method. The procedure of calculation involves the

following steps (refer to figure 8.60):

1. Let the depth of embedment of the piles be L. the group is subjected to a total load

of . If the pile cap is below the original ground surface, equals the total load

of the superstructure on the piles minus the effective weight of soil above the pile

group removed by excavation.

2. Assume that the load is transmitted to the soil beginning at a depth of 2L/3

from the top of the pile, as shown in figure 8. 60. The load spreads out along 2

vertical: 1 horizontal line from this depth. Lines are two 2:1 lines.

3. Calculate the stress increase caused at the middle of each soil layer by the load

:

=

Where

+ ( + )

[8.132]

=

, = ,

= = 0 ,

For example, in figure 8. 60 for layer 2, = 1 /2; for layer 3, = 1 + 2 /2; and for

layer 4, = 1 + 2 + 3 /2. Note, however, that there will be no stress increase in clay

layer 1 because it is above the horizontal plane ( = 0) from which the stress distribution

to the soil starts.

4. Calculate the settlement of each layer caused by the increased stress:

= 1+()

()

[8.133]

Where

=

() =

= ( )

= (: 60, 2

= 1 ; 3, = 2 ; 4, = 3 ).

5.

[8.134]

Note that consolidation settlement of piles may be initiated by fills placed nearby,

adjacent floor loads, and lowering of water tables.

Example 15

A group pile in clay is shown in figure 8.61. Determine the consolidation settlement of

the pile groups. All clays are normally consolidated.

Figure 8. 61

Solution

The stress distribution pattern is shown in figure 8.61. Hence

(1) =

+1 +1

(500)(1000 )

(500)(1000 )

21

2

21

2

9+ 6+

(500)(1000 )

(1) 1

1 = 1+

(1)

(1) + (1)

(1)

= 1554 / 2

(1) = (6)(105) + 27 +

1 =

(0.3)(21)

1+0.82

(2) 2

2 = 1+

(2)

21

2

2603 +1554

2603

(2) + (2)

(2)

= 0.703 = 8.45 .

2 =

(0.2)(12)

2 =

(0.25)(6)

1+0.7

3500 +421

3500

= 0.07 = 0.84 .

4025 / 2

1+0.75

4025 +265

4025

= 0.024 0.29 .

ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES

In general, the settlement of a pile group under similar working load per pile increases

with the width of the group ( ) and the center-to-center spacing of piles (d). this fact is

demonstrated in figure 8.62 obtained from the experimental results of Meyerhof (1961)

for pile groups in sand. In this figure 8., () is the settlement of the pile group and s is

the settlement of isolated piles under similar working load.

Several investigations relating to the settlement of group piles with widely varying results

have been reported in the literature. The simplest relation for the settlement of group piles

was given by Vesic (1969) as

() =

[8.135]

Where

() =

=

For pile groups in sand and gravel, Meyerhof (1976) suggested the following empirical

relation for elastic settlement:

() (. ) =

Where

= /( / ) ( . . / 2 )

[8.136]

[8.137]

= ()

=

(

)

= = 1 /8 0.5

[8.138]

Similarly, the pile group settlement is related to the cone penetration resistance as

() =

Where

[8.139]

In equation (139), all symbols are in consistent units.

UPLIFT CAPACITY OF GROUP PILES

The efficiency of group piles under compressive load was discussed in section 21.

However, under certain circumstances, group piles may be used for construction of

foundations subjected to uplifting load (figure 8. 63). As in equation (127), the group

efficiency under uplift may be expressed as

=

()

Where

[8.140]

() =

=

Note that

() = () (1 2 )

[8.141]

Where

() =

=

1 2 =

=

At present, few field and laboratory experimental results relating to the evaluation of

are available in the literature. Das and Azim (1985) conducted a limited number of model

tests to determine the group efficiency, , of pile groups, embedded in saturated clay.

The results of this study are shown in figure 8. 64, from which the following general

conclusions may be drawn:

Figure 8.64 Efficiency of pile groups embedded in saturated clay and subjected to

uplifting force

1. For a pile group, increases linearly with the / ratio until it reaches 100%.

The / ratio at which reaches a value of 100% is about 12(/).

2. For given / / ratios, the magnitude of decreases with the increase

of the number of piles in a group.

3. For a given / ratio and number of piles in a group, the magnitude of

decreases with the increase of /.

Figure 8.65 shows the laboratory model tests results for group efficiency of rough piles

embedded in loose and dense sand (Das, 1984). The group piles in this case had a /

ratio of 15. Note that the magnitude of is a function of /, /, the number of piles

in the group, and the relative density of the sand.

Figure 8.65 Efficiency of piles groups embedded in sand and subjected to uplifting force

(based on laboratory model test results of Das, 1984)

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