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NPTEL ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING-I

Module 8
Lecture 34
PILE FOUNDATIONS

Topics
1.1 ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF GROUP
1.2 PILES IN SATURATED CLAY
1.3 PILES IN ROCK
1.4 CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES
1.5 ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES
1.6 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF GROUP PILES

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ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF GROUP


PILES IN SATURATED CLAY
Figure 8.57 shows a group pile in saturated clay. Referring to this figure 8., the ultimate
load-bearing capacity of group piles can be estimated in the following manner:

Figure 8.57 Ultimate capacity of group piles in clay


1. Determine = 1 2 ( + ). From equation (19), = [9() ]
Where

() =

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Also, from equation (48),


=

So
= 1 2 [9 () + ]

[8.130]

2. Determine the ultimate capacity by assuming that the pile in the group act as a
block with dimensions of . The skin resistance of the block is
= 2 +

Calculate the point bearing capacity:


= () = ( )()

Obtain the value of the bearing capacity factor, , from figure 8. 58. Thus the
ultimate load is
= () + 2 +

[8.131]

3. Compare the values obtained from equations (130 and 131). The lower to the two
values is () .

Figure 8.58 Variation of / /


PILES IN ROCK
For point bearing piles resting on rock, most building codes specify that () = ,
provided that the minimum center-to-center spacing of piles is + 300 . For H-piles

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and piles with square cross section, the magnitude of D is equal to the diagonals
dimensions if the pile cross section.
Example 14
The section of a 3 4 group pile in layered saturated clay is shown in figure 8. 59. The
piles are square in cross section (14 . 14 . ). The center-to-center spacing, d, of the
piles n 35 in. determine the allowable load-bearing capacity of the pile group. Use
= 4.

Figure 8.59
Solution
= 1 2 [9 () + 1 (1) 1 + 2 (2) 2 ]

From figure 8. 22, (1) = 1050 / 2 ; 1 = 0.86 (2) = 1775 / 2 ; 2 = 0.6.


=
14
12

(3)(4)
1000

14 2

14

(9) 12 (1775) + (0.86) 4 12 (1050)(15) + (0.6) 4

(1775)(45) = 3703

For piles acting as a group,

= (3)(35) + 14 = 119 . = 9.92

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= (2)(35) + 14 = 84 . = 7

=
=

9.92
7

60
7

= 1.42

= 8.57

From figure 8. 58, = 8.75. From equation (131)


= () + 2 +

= (9.92)(7)(1775)(8.75) + (2)(9.92 + 7)[(1050)(15) + (1775)(45)] = 4313


Hence, = 3703 .
=

3703

3703
4

926

CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES


The consolidation settlement of a group pile in clay can be approximately estimated by
using the 2:1 stress distribution method. The procedure of calculation involves the
following steps (refer to figure 8.60):

Figure 8.60 Consolidation settlement of group piles

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1. Let the depth of embedment of the piles be L. the group is subjected to a total load
of . If the pile cap is below the original ground surface, equals the total load
of the superstructure on the piles minus the effective weight of soil above the pile
group removed by excavation.
2. Assume that the load is transmitted to the soil beginning at a depth of 2L/3
from the top of the pile, as shown in figure 8. 60. The load spreads out along 2
vertical: 1 horizontal line from this depth. Lines are two 2:1 lines.
3. Calculate the stress increase caused at the middle of each soil layer by the load
:

=
Where

+ ( + )

[8.132]

=
, = ,
= = 0 ,

For example, in figure 8. 60 for layer 2, = 1 /2; for layer 3, = 1 + 2 /2; and for
layer 4, = 1 + 2 + 3 /2. Note, however, that there will be no stress increase in clay
layer 1 because it is above the horizontal plane ( = 0) from which the stress distribution
to the soil starts.
4. Calculate the settlement of each layer caused by the increased stress:

= 1+()
()

[8.133]

Where

=
() =
= ( )
= (: 60, 2
= 1 ; 3, = 2 ; 4, = 3 ).
5.

Relations for () are given in chapter 1.

Total consolidation settlement of the pile group is then

[8.134]

Note that consolidation settlement of piles may be initiated by fills placed nearby,
adjacent floor loads, and lowering of water tables.

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Example 15
A group pile in clay is shown in figure 8.61. Determine the consolidation settlement of
the pile groups. All clays are normally consolidated.

Figure 8. 61
Solution
The stress distribution pattern is shown in figure 8.61. Hence
(1) =

+1 +1

(500)(1000 )

(500)(1000 )
21
2

21
2

9+ 6+

(2) = (9+27)(6+27) = 421 / 2


(500)(1000 )

(3) = (9+36)(6+36) = 265 / 2


(1) 1

1 = 1+

(1)

(1) + (1)
(1)

= 1554 / 2

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(1) = (6)(105) + 27 +
1 =

(0.3)(21)
1+0.82

(2) 2

2 = 1+

(2)

21
2

(115 62.4) = 2603 / 2

2603 +1554

2603

(2) + (2)
(2)

= 0.703 = 8.45 .

(2) = (6)(105) + (27 + 21)(115 62.4) + (6)(120 62.4) = 3500 / 2


2 =

(0.2)(12)

2 =

(0.25)(6)

1+0.7

3500 +421

3500

= 0.07 = 0.84 .

(3) = (6)(105) + (48)(115 62.4) + (12)(120 62.4) + (3)(122 62.4) =


4025 / 2
1+0.75

4025 +265

4025

= 0.024 0.29 .

Total settlement, = 8.45 + 0.84 + 0.29 = 9.58 .


ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES

In general, the settlement of a pile group under similar working load per pile increases
with the width of the group ( ) and the center-to-center spacing of piles (d). this fact is
demonstrated in figure 8.62 obtained from the experimental results of Meyerhof (1961)
for pile groups in sand. In this figure 8., () is the settlement of the pile group and s is
the settlement of isolated piles under similar working load.

Figure 8.62 Settlement of pile groups in sand (after Meyerhof, 1961)

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Several investigations relating to the settlement of group piles with widely varying results
have been reported in the literature. The simplest relation for the settlement of group piles
was given by Vesic (1969) as

() =

[8.135]

Where

() =
=

For pile groups in sand and gravel, Meyerhof (1976) suggested the following empirical
relation for elastic settlement:
() (. ) =
Where

= /( / ) ( . . / 2 )

[8.136]

[8.137]

= ()

=
(
)
= = 1 /8 0.5

[8.138]

Similarly, the pile group settlement is related to the cone penetration resistance as
() =
Where

[8.139]

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In equation (139), all symbols are in consistent units.
UPLIFT CAPACITY OF GROUP PILES
The efficiency of group piles under compressive load was discussed in section 21.
However, under certain circumstances, group piles may be used for construction of
foundations subjected to uplifting load (figure 8. 63). As in equation (127), the group
efficiency under uplift may be expressed as

Figure 8.63 Group piles subjected t uplifting load


=

()

Where

[8.140]

() =
=
Note that

() = () (1 2 )

[8.141]

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Where
() =
=
1 2 =
=

At present, few field and laboratory experimental results relating to the evaluation of
are available in the literature. Das and Azim (1985) conducted a limited number of model
tests to determine the group efficiency, , of pile groups, embedded in saturated clay.
The results of this study are shown in figure 8. 64, from which the following general
conclusions may be drawn:

Figure 8.64 Efficiency of pile groups embedded in saturated clay and subjected to
uplifting force
1. For a pile group, increases linearly with the / ratio until it reaches 100%.
The / ratio at which reaches a value of 100% is about 12(/).
2. For given / / ratios, the magnitude of decreases with the increase
of the number of piles in a group.
3. For a given / ratio and number of piles in a group, the magnitude of
decreases with the increase of /.

Group efficiency, however, may be a function of the consistency of the clay.

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Figure 8.65 shows the laboratory model tests results for group efficiency of rough piles
embedded in loose and dense sand (Das, 1984). The group piles in this case had a /
ratio of 15. Note that the magnitude of is a function of /, /, the number of piles
in the group, and the relative density of the sand.

Figure 8.65 Efficiency of piles groups embedded in sand and subjected to uplifting force
(based on laboratory model test results of Das, 1984)