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MSE 280: Introduction to Engineering Materials

Materials Selection and Design


Reading: Callister Ch. 21

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

MSE280

MaterialsSelectionandDesign
For selection, one must establish a link between materials and function, with shape and processing also playing possibly important roles (ignored for now) AREAS OF DESIGN CONCERN Function- support a load, contain a pressure, transmit heat, etc. What does the component do?

function

Objective- make things cheaply, light weight, increase safety, etc., or combinations of these. What needs to be maximized or minimized? Constraints- make things within given budget, max required weight, weight safety requirements, requirements etc., or combinations of these. What are non-negotiable conditions to be met? What are negotiable but desired conditions? 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

Materials Attributes: physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, economic, environmental.

shape

process

Following Materials Selection in Mechanical Modified from D. Johnson Design, M. Ashby

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Design & Selection: Materials Indices


Material index (performance index) is a combination of materials properties that characterizes the Performance of a material in a given application. Performance of a structural element may be specified by the functional requirements, the geometry, and the materials properties.
Performance[ (Functional needs, F); (Geometric, G); (Material Property, M)]

For OPTIMUM design, we need to MAXIMIZE or MINIMIZE the Performance. Consider only the simplest cases where these factors form a separable equation.

Performance = f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)


From D. Johnson

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

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Examples of Materials Indices


Function, Objective, and Constraint Tie, minimum weight, stiffness Beam, minimum weight, stiffness Beam, minimum weight, strength Beam, minimum cost, stiffness Beam, minimum cost, strength Column, minimum cost, buckling load Spring, minimum weight for given energy storage Thermal insulation, minimum cost, heat flux Electromagnet, maximum field, temperature rise Index E/ E1/2/ 2/3/ E1/2/Cm Cm =cost/mass 2/3/Cm E1/2/Cm YS2/E 1/( Cm) =thermal cond Cp =elec. cond
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Why different dependences? linear vs. square root etc. Modified from D. Johnson 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

Example 1: Material Index for a Light, Strong, Tie-Rod A = x-area F


L

A Tie-rod is common mechanical component. Functional needs: F, L, f Tie-rod must carry tensile force, F. NO failure. Stress must be less than f. (f=YS, UTS) L is usually fixed by design, can vary Area A. While Whil strong, t needs d to t be b lightweight, li ht i ht or low l mass.

-Strength relation:
Tie-Rod has to be able to withstand applied tensile load Applied tensile stress = Including safety factor:

F f A F f A S
Safety factor

- Mass of rod:

m = LA
A = m/L

- Eliminate the "free" design parameter, A:

f F m / L S
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Example 1: Material Index for a Light, Strong, Tie-Rod


- Rearrange:

m (FS )( L)
Functional Needs (how much applied load and safety factor)

minimize for small m

Geometrical parameter

Material properties (1/Performance index)

Fixed by service requirements! ** Compare p to Performance = f1(F) ( ) f2(G) ( ) f3(M) ( )

Or Maximize the

Performance Index:
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P=

Light, strong, tie-rod


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Example 1B: square rod (its all the same!)

F, L c c

Carry F without failing; fixed initial length L.


-Strength relation: f F
S = c2

- Mass of bar:

m = Lc 2

Eliminate the "free" design parameter, c: m = ( FLS ) f


minimize for small M

specified by application

Maximize the Materials Performance Index:


(strong, light tension members)
From D. Johnson

P=

f
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Ashby Plots: Strength (f ) versus Density ()


Strength can be YS for metals and polymer, compressive strength for ceramics, tear strength for elastomers, and TS for composites, for example. P= f f = P or

- take log for easier comparison

log f = log + log P


- To select materials, consider a minimum performance index (e.g. P = 10 Pa/g/m3) With P = 10 and = 0.1, , f = 1
P = 10 Pa/g/m3

With P = 10 and = 1, f = 10 With P = 10 and = 10, f = 100 All materials lying on this line can perform equally well.
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Taken from: Materials Selection for Mechanical Design Ed. 2, M. Ashby

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

Ashby Plots: Strength (f ) versus Density ()


log f = log + log P
P = 100 Pa/g/m3

P = 10 Pa/g/m3

Notice that for the same strength, P =100 material will require 10 times less mass than P = 10 material. e.g. for f = 100 MPa
Taken from: Materials Selection for Mechanical Design Ed. 2, M. Ashby

m = ( FLS )

then: mP =100 = ( FLS )

1Mg / m3 100MPa

and mP =10 = ( FLS )

10Mg / m 3 100MPa
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mP =10 = 10mP =100

Example 2: Material Index for a Light, Stiff Beam in Tension

F, L c c

Bar must not lengthen by more than under force F; must have initial length L.
- Stiffness relation:
L F =E 2 L c

- Mass of bar:

( = E)

m = Lc 2

Eliminate the "free" design parameter, c:


m= FL2 L E

minimize i i i f for small ll m specified by application

Maximize the Performance Index:


(stiff, light tension members)
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From D. Johnson

P=

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Example 3: Material Index for a Light, Stiff Beam in Deflection F Bendingiscommonmodeofloading,e.g., b b golfclubs,wingspars,floorjoists. L
A = b2 =deflection Bar with initial length L must not deflect by more than under force F. - Stiffness relation:

F L3 F L3 = E 4 2 4b 4 A
Eliminate the "free" design parameter, A:
specified by application

- Mass of bar:

m = AL or
E

m A = L
2

F L5 2 2 4m

FL5 m 4 minimize for small m

1/ 2

E1/ 2

Maximize
Light, Stiff Beam

P=

E 1/ 2

If only beam height can change (not A), then P = (E1/3/) (Car door) If only beam width can change (not A), then P= (E/)
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Performance of Square Beam (deflection) vs. Fixed Height or Width

Light, Stiff Plate E/


(width change only)

Light, Stiff Beam E1/2/


(cross sectional area change)

Light, Stiff Panel E1/3/


(height change only)

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From D. Johnson

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Example 4: Energy efficient car design


One way to improve fuel efficiency is to reduce mass of the car. Typical T i l weight i ht di distribution t ib ti i in a car
Steel 71% (body panels) Cast iron 15% (engine, gear box, axle) Rubber (tires, hoses) Rest: glass, zinc, copper, aluminum, polymers.

Largest reduction may come from body panels

C Compare diff different t candidate did t materials t i l f for b body d panel that can reduce weight without compromising yield strength.

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Example 4: Energy efficient car design


b d L L and b must remain constant (only d can change).

- Flexural strength relation:

- Mass of panel:

f =

3FL 2bd 2
Lb
m

m = Lbd

- Eliminate free design parameter:

d=

f =
Minimize

3FL Lb 2b m

m=

3FL3b 1 / 2 2 f

or maximize performance index:

1f / 2 P=
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Example 4: Energy efficient car design


(Mg/m3) y(MPa) 220 500 193 75 y1/2/ 1.9 2.9 5.1 4.8

P=

1/ 2 f


Steel Al alloys

Mild steel

7.8

High g str. steel 7.8 Al alloy GFRP 2.7 1.8

- Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer: Can creep at T above 60oC. - Al alloy: best performance but limited strength and higher cost of production.

P=2

- High strength steel: least amount of changes w.r.t. manufacturing changes from mild steel but also least in performance improvement. MSE280

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Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft


Establish a criterion for selection of light and strong solid cylindrical shaft that is subjected j to torsional stress.

1. Required strength 2 Mass 2. M 3. Other considerations (e.g. materials cost)

Goal: choose material to maximize strength with minimum mass and cost
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim MSE280

Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft


- Strength requirement:
Shear stress at radius r

- Mass of the shaft:

2M = 3t r
f =

Mt = applied torque

m m = 2 V r L

2M t r 3
m r= L

- Eliminate free design parameter:

f =

2M t m L
3

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Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft


Rearrange:

m = (2 M t )

2/3

1/ 3

L 2/3 f

Functional needs (how much applied load should also include safety factor) Fixed by service requirements!

Geometrical parameter

Material properties (1/Performance index)

** Compare to:
Performance = f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)
/3 2 f

Choose material to minimize 2 / 3 or maximize f


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Materials selection chart (Ashby plot)

/3 2 f P=

log f =

3 3 log P + log 2 2

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Strength vs Density
Lets say we want to constrain our search to materials with P > 10. Additi l constraints t i t may Additional be added, e.g. -Require minimum strength: f > 300 MPa. -Rule out brittle materials no ceramics. 300MPa

P = 10

Search area is now limited to the shaded area (minus ceramics) in the Ashby plot.
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Details: Strong, Light Torsion Members


Maximize the Performance Index: Other factors: P=

/3 2 f

>10

--require f > 300MPa. --Rule out ceramics and glasses: KIc too small.
material CFRE (vf=0.65) GFRE (vf=0.65) Al alloy (2024-T6) Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) 4340 steel (oil quench & temper) (Mg/m3) f (MPa) 1.5 1140 2.0 1060 2.8 300 4.4 525 78 7.8 780 P (MPa)2/3m3/Mg) 73 52 16 15 11

Numerical Data:

Data from Table 6.6, Callister 6e.

Lightest: Carbon fiber reinf. epoxy (CFRE) member.


2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim
From D. Johnson

MSE280

Price and Availability of Materials


Current Prices on the web(a): TRENDS
-Short term: fluctuations due to supply/demand. -Long term: prices increase as deposits are depleted.

Materials require energy to process them:


- Energy to produce materials (GJ/ton) Al PET Cu steel glass paper 237 (17)(b) 103 (13)(c) 97 (20)(b) 20(d) 13(e) 9(f) - Cost of energy used in processing materials ($/GJ)(g) elect resistance propane natural gas oil
a a b c d e f g

25 11 9 8

Recycling indicated in green.

http://www.statcan.ca/english/pgdb/economy/primary/prim44.htm http://www.metalprices.com http://www.automotive.copper.org/recyclability.htm http://members.aol.com/profchm/escalant.html http://www.steel.org.facts/power/energy.htm http://eren.doe.gov/EE/industry_glass.html http://www.aifq.qc.ca/english/industry/energy.html#1 http://www.wren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/rebriefs/cb5.html

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From D. Johnson

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Relative Cost (in $) of Materials


Metals/ Alloys 100000 50000 20000 10000 5000 2000 1000 500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0.5 0.1 0.05
Ag alloys Tungsten Ti alloys Pt Au

Graphite/ Ceramics/ Semicond

Polymers

Composites/ fibers

Diamond

$=

$ /kg ($ /kg) ref material

($ )

Si wafer Si nitride CFRE prepreg Si carbide AFRE prepreg Carbon fibers Aramid fibers G FRE prepreg Nylon 6,6 PC Epoxy PVC PET LDPE,HDPE PP PS

Reference material: -Rolled A36 carbon steel. Relative cost fluctuates less than actual cost over time.

Rela ative Cost

Cu alloys Al alloys Mg alloys


high alloy

Al oxide Glass-soda

E-glass fibers Wood

Steel
pl. carbon

Based on data in Appendix C, Callister, 6e.


Concrete

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

From D. Johnson

MSE280

Details: Strong, Low-Cost Torsion Members


Minimize Cost: Cost Index ~ m$ ~ $/P (since m ~ 1/P) Numerical Data:
material CFRE (vf=0.65) GFRE (vf=0.65) Al alloy (2024-T6) Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) 4340 steel (oil quench & temper) P (MPa)2/3m3/Mg) 73 52 16 15 11
$ 80 40 15 110 5

($/P)x100 ) 112 76 93 748 46

Data from Table 6.7, Callister 6e.

Lowest L t cost: t 4340 steel t l( (oil il quench h&t temper) ) Need to consider machining, joining costs also.

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

From D. Johnson

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Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel


Recall Design Example from Failure Section of the course Spherical gas/fluid tank under pressure p Circumferential wall stress:

pr 2t

Two possible designs for safety: A) Plastic distortion before leaking (i.e. the mechanical deformation before leak occurs). - Calculate relative maximum critical crack length where plastic deformation occurs before catastrophic crack propagation for 1040 Steel, Ti alloy and Stainless steel. B) Leak-before-break (e.g. to prevent pressure build-up leading to explosion). Achieved when ac = t (i.e. complete opening before crack propagation). - Calculate the relative maximum pressure for same 3 materials as A).
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Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel


A) Plastic distortion before leaking
- Yield strength - Fracture toughness

y c
Critical stress for crack propagation

K
Y y ac
2

Ic

= Y c ac

- Sub in y for c:

Ic

-solve for ac:

ac

1 K Ic Y 2 y

Larger the tolerable crack size the better. Therefore, maximize this quantity.

P 1 =
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K Ic

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Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel


B) Leak-before-break
- Fracture toughness Pressure on the wall:

K Ic = Y ac
K Ic = Y t
sub in for t

= pr
2t

or

t=

pr 2
2

Since leak-before-break occurs when ac = t:

pr K Ic = Y 2
2

K = 2 Ic pr Y

-Vessel should not yield from the stress on the wall:

K y = 2 Ic pr Y
2

-solve for p:

2 K Ic Y r y
2

higher the tolerable pressure the better. Therefore, maximize this quantity.

P2 =

2 K Ic

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MSE280

Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel


Yield-before-break P1 = KIc/y Leak-before-break P2 = (KIc)2/y Thin wall, strong P3 = ys
e.g. Require a minimum strength of 100 MPa

Steels Cu-alloys Al-alloys P1=0.5 m1/2 P2=10 m

Large pressure vessels are always made of steel.


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P3=100 MPa

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Summary
Performance index and Ashby Plot.
Combination of properties to choose optimum materials to satisfy two or more needs.

Specific examples:
Strong and light tie-rod Stiff and light beam (tension) Stiff and light (deflection) Strong and light panel (auto body panels) Strong (torsion), light and cheap shafts Pressure vessel

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

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