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# MSE 280: Introduction to Engineering Materials

## 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

MSE280

MaterialsSelectionandDesign
For selection, one must establish a link between materials and function, with shape and processing also playing possibly important roles (ignored for now) AREAS OF DESIGN CONCERN Function- support a load, contain a pressure, transmit heat, etc. What does the component do?

function

Objective- make things cheaply, light weight, increase safety, etc., or combinations of these. What needs to be maximized or minimized? Constraints- make things within given budget, max required weight, weight safety requirements, requirements etc., or combinations of these. What are non-negotiable conditions to be met? What are negotiable but desired conditions? 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

shape

process

MSE280

## Design & Selection: Materials Indices

Material index (performance index) is a combination of materials properties that characterizes the Performance of a material in a given application. Performance of a structural element may be specified by the functional requirements, the geometry, and the materials properties.
Performance[ (Functional needs, F); (Geometric, G); (Material Property, M)]

For OPTIMUM design, we need to MAXIMIZE or MINIMIZE the Performance. Consider only the simplest cases where these factors form a separable equation.

From D. Johnson

MSE280

## Examples of Materials Indices

Function, Objective, and Constraint Tie, minimum weight, stiffness Beam, minimum weight, stiffness Beam, minimum weight, strength Beam, minimum cost, stiffness Beam, minimum cost, strength Column, minimum cost, buckling load Spring, minimum weight for given energy storage Thermal insulation, minimum cost, heat flux Electromagnet, maximum field, temperature rise Index E/ E1/2/ 2/3/ E1/2/Cm Cm =cost/mass 2/3/Cm E1/2/Cm YS2/E 1/( Cm) =thermal cond Cp =elec. cond
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Why different dependences? linear vs. square root etc. Modified from D. Johnson 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

## Example 1: Material Index for a Light, Strong, Tie-Rod A = x-area F

L

A Tie-rod is common mechanical component. Functional needs: F, L, f Tie-rod must carry tensile force, F. NO failure. Stress must be less than f. (f=YS, UTS) L is usually fixed by design, can vary Area A. While Whil strong, t needs d to t be b lightweight, li ht i ht or low l mass.

-Strength relation:
Tie-Rod has to be able to withstand applied tensile load Applied tensile stress = Including safety factor:

F f A F f A S
Safety factor

- Mass of rod:

m = LA
A = m/L

f F m / L S
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## Example 1: Material Index for a Light, Strong, Tie-Rod

- Rearrange:

m (FS )( L)
Functional Needs (how much applied load and safety factor)

## minimize for small m

Geometrical parameter

## Fixed by service requirements! ** Compare p to Performance = f1(F) ( ) f2(G) ( ) f3(M) ( )

Or Maximize the

Performance Index:
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

P=

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F, L c c

## Carry F without failing; fixed initial length L.

-Strength relation: f F
S = c2

- Mass of bar:

m = Lc 2

## Eliminate the "free" design parameter, c: m = ( FLS ) f

minimize for small M

specified by application

## Maximize the Materials Performance Index:

(strong, light tension members)
From D. Johnson

P=

f
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## Ashby Plots: Strength (f ) versus Density ()

Strength can be YS for metals and polymer, compressive strength for ceramics, tear strength for elastomers, and TS for composites, for example. P= f f = P or

## log f = log + log P

- To select materials, consider a minimum performance index (e.g. P = 10 Pa/g/m3) With P = 10 and = 0.1, , f = 1
P = 10 Pa/g/m3

With P = 10 and = 1, f = 10 With P = 10 and = 10, f = 100 All materials lying on this line can perform equally well.
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## Ashby Plots: Strength (f ) versus Density ()

log f = log + log P
P = 100 Pa/g/m3

P = 10 Pa/g/m3

Notice that for the same strength, P =100 material will require 10 times less mass than P = 10 material. e.g. for f = 100 MPa
Taken from: Materials Selection for Mechanical Design Ed. 2, M. Ashby

m = ( FLS )

1Mg / m3 100MPa

## and mP =10 = ( FLS )

10Mg / m 3 100MPa
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## Example 2: Material Index for a Light, Stiff Beam in Tension

F, L c c

Bar must not lengthen by more than under force F; must have initial length L.
- Stiffness relation:
L F =E 2 L c

- Mass of bar:

( = E)

m = Lc 2

m= FL2 L E

## Maximize the Performance Index:

(stiff, light tension members)
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim
From D. Johnson

P=

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Example 3: Material Index for a Light, Stiff Beam in Deflection F Bendingiscommonmodeofloading,e.g., b b golfclubs,wingspars,floorjoists. L
A = b2 =deflection Bar with initial length L must not deflect by more than under force F. - Stiffness relation:

F L3 F L3 = E 4 2 4b 4 A
Eliminate the "free" design parameter, A:
specified by application

- Mass of bar:

m = AL or
E

m A = L
2

F L5 2 2 4m

## FL5 m 4 minimize for small m

1/ 2

E1/ 2

Maximize
Light, Stiff Beam

P=

E 1/ 2

If only beam height can change (not A), then P = (E1/3/) (Car door) If only beam width can change (not A), then P= (E/)
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim MSE280

## Light, Stiff Plate E/

(width change only)

## Light, Stiff Beam E1/2/

(cross sectional area change)

## Light, Stiff Panel E1/3/

(height change only)

From D. Johnson

MSE280

## Example 4: Energy efficient car design

One way to improve fuel efficiency is to reduce mass of the car. Typical T i l weight i ht di distribution t ib ti i in a car
Steel 71% (body panels) Cast iron 15% (engine, gear box, axle) Rubber (tires, hoses) Rest: glass, zinc, copper, aluminum, polymers.

## Largest reduction may come from body panels

C Compare diff different t candidate did t materials t i l f for b body d panel that can reduce weight without compromising yield strength.

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## Example 4: Energy efficient car design

b d L L and b must remain constant (only d can change).

- Mass of panel:

f =

3FL 2bd 2
Lb
m

m = Lbd

d=

f =
Minimize

3FL Lb 2b m

m=

3FL3b 1 / 2 2 f

1f / 2 P=
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## Example 4: Energy efficient car design

(Mg/m3) y(MPa) 220 500 193 75 y1/2/ 1.9 2.9 5.1 4.8

P=

1/ 2 f

Steel Al alloys

Mild steel

7.8

## High g str. steel 7.8 Al alloy GFRP 2.7 1.8

- Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer: Can creep at T above 60oC. - Al alloy: best performance but limited strength and higher cost of production.

P=2

- High strength steel: least amount of changes w.r.t. manufacturing changes from mild steel but also least in performance improvement. MSE280

## Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft

Establish a criterion for selection of light and strong solid cylindrical shaft that is subjected j to torsional stress.

## 1. Required strength 2 Mass 2. M 3. Other considerations (e.g. materials cost)

Goal: choose material to maximize strength with minimum mass and cost
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim MSE280

## Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft

- Strength requirement:

## - Mass of the shaft:

2M = 3t r
f =

Mt = applied torque

m m = 2 V r L

2M t r 3
m r= L

f =

2M t m L
3

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## Example 5: Torsionally stressed shaft

Rearrange:

m = (2 M t )

2/3

1/ 3

L 2/3 f

Functional needs (how much applied load should also include safety factor) Fixed by service requirements!

Geometrical parameter

## Material properties (1/Performance index)

** Compare to:
Performance = f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)
/3 2 f

## Choose material to minimize 2 / 3 or maximize f

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

MSE280

## Materials selection chart (Ashby plot)

/3 2 f P=

log f =

3 3 log P + log 2 2

## 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

MSE280

Strength vs Density
Lets say we want to constrain our search to materials with P > 10. Additi l constraints t i t may Additional be added, e.g. -Require minimum strength: f > 300 MPa. -Rule out brittle materials no ceramics. 300MPa

P = 10

Search area is now limited to the shaded area (minus ceramics) in the Ashby plot.
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim MSE280

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## Details: Strong, Light Torsion Members

Maximize the Performance Index: Other factors: P=

/3 2 f

>10

--require f > 300MPa. --Rule out ceramics and glasses: KIc too small.
material CFRE (vf=0.65) GFRE (vf=0.65) Al alloy (2024-T6) Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) 4340 steel (oil quench & temper) (Mg/m3) f (MPa) 1.5 1140 2.0 1060 2.8 300 4.4 525 78 7.8 780 P (MPa)2/3m3/Mg) 73 52 16 15 11

Numerical Data:

## Lightest: Carbon fiber reinf. epoxy (CFRE) member.

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim
From D. Johnson

MSE280

## Price and Availability of Materials

Current Prices on the web(a): TRENDS
-Short term: fluctuations due to supply/demand. -Long term: prices increase as deposits are depleted.

## Materials require energy to process them:

- Energy to produce materials (GJ/ton) Al PET Cu steel glass paper 237 (17)(b) 103 (13)(c) 97 (20)(b) 20(d) 13(e) 9(f) - Cost of energy used in processing materials (\$/GJ)(g) elect resistance propane natural gas oil
a a b c d e f g

25 11 9 8

From D. Johnson

MSE280

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## Relative Cost (in \$) of Materials

Metals/ Alloys 100000 50000 20000 10000 5000 2000 1000 500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0.5 0.1 0.05
Ag alloys Tungsten Ti alloys Pt Au

## Graphite/ Ceramics/ Semicond

Polymers

Composites/ fibers

Diamond

\$=

## \$ /kg (\$ /kg) ref material

(\$ )

Si wafer Si nitride CFRE prepreg Si carbide AFRE prepreg Carbon fibers Aramid fibers G FRE prepreg Nylon 6,6 PC Epoxy PVC PET LDPE,HDPE PP PS

Reference material: -Rolled A36 carbon steel. Relative cost fluctuates less than actual cost over time.

## Cu alloys Al alloys Mg alloys

high alloy

Al oxide Glass-soda

Steel
pl. carbon

Concrete

From D. Johnson

MSE280

## Details: Strong, Low-Cost Torsion Members

Minimize Cost: Cost Index ~ m\$ ~ \$/P (since m ~ 1/P) Numerical Data:
material CFRE (vf=0.65) GFRE (vf=0.65) Al alloy (2024-T6) Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) 4340 steel (oil quench & temper) P (MPa)2/3m3/Mg) 73 52 16 15 11
\$ 80 40 15 110 5

## Data from Table 6.7, Callister 6e.

Lowest L t cost: t 4340 steel t l( (oil il quench h&t temper) ) Need to consider machining, joining costs also.

From D. Johnson

MSE280

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## Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel

Recall Design Example from Failure Section of the course Spherical gas/fluid tank under pressure p Circumferential wall stress:

pr 2t

Two possible designs for safety: A) Plastic distortion before leaking (i.e. the mechanical deformation before leak occurs). - Calculate relative maximum critical crack length where plastic deformation occurs before catastrophic crack propagation for 1040 Steel, Ti alloy and Stainless steel. B) Leak-before-break (e.g. to prevent pressure build-up leading to explosion). Achieved when ac = t (i.e. complete opening before crack propagation). - Calculate the relative maximum pressure for same 3 materials as A).
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim MSE280

## Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel

A) Plastic distortion before leaking
- Yield strength - Fracture toughness

y c
Critical stress for crack propagation

K
Y y ac
2

Ic

= Y c ac

- Sub in y for c:

Ic

## -solve for ac:

ac

1 K Ic Y 2 y

Larger the tolerable crack size the better. Therefore, maximize this quantity.

P 1 =
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

K Ic

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## Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel

B) Leak-before-break
- Fracture toughness Pressure on the wall:

K Ic = Y ac
K Ic = Y t
sub in for t

= pr
2t

or

t=

pr 2
2

pr K Ic = Y 2
2

K = 2 Ic pr Y

## -Vessel should not yield from the stress on the wall:

K y = 2 Ic pr Y
2

-solve for p:

2 K Ic Y r y
2

higher the tolerable pressure the better. Therefore, maximize this quantity.

P2 =

2 K Ic

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## Example 6: Safe Pressure Vessel

Yield-before-break P1 = KIc/y Leak-before-break P2 = (KIc)2/y Thin wall, strong P3 = ys
e.g. Require a minimum strength of 100 MPa

## Large pressure vessels are always made of steel.

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim

P3=100 MPa

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Summary
Performance index and Ashby Plot.
Combination of properties to choose optimum materials to satisfy two or more needs.

Specific examples:
Strong and light tie-rod Stiff and light beam (tension) Stiff and light (deflection) Strong and light panel (auto body panels) Strong (torsion), light and cheap shafts Pressure vessel

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