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Materials science , also commonly known as materials engineering, is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This relatively new scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on Nano science and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science is becoming more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. It is an important part of forensic engineering (Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do Depiction of two "Fullerene Nanonot operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to gears" with multiple teeth. property.) and failure analysis, the latter being the key to understanding, for example, the cause of various aviation accidents. Many of the most pressing scientific problems that are currently faced today are due to the limitations of the materials that are currently available and, as a result, breakthroughs in this field are likely to have a significant impact on the future of technology.
1 History 2 Fundamentals 3 Classes of materials 4 Materials in industry 4.1 Ceramics and glasses 4.2 Composite materials 4.3 Polymers 4.4 Metal alloys 5 Sub-disciplines of materials science 5.1 Methods, processes, and related topics 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External links 10.1 Professional organizations 10.2 International conferences
Main article: History of materials science
A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century. taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics. materials science has gradually developed into a field which provides tests for condensed matter or solid state theories. Classes of materials Materials science encompasses various classes of materials. There are several ways to classify materials. Materials science has driven. Fundamentals The basis of materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms and phases in that material through characterization. New materials have resulted in more classes. Phrases such as Stone Age. and silica and carbon materials.The material of choice of a given era is often a defining point. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. Glass as. not possessing any long-range order in their atomic arrangements. polymers. Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy. Not all materials have a regular crystal structure. each of which may constitute a separate field. Bronze Age. These characteristics. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity. medical implant materials. Iron Age. The manufacture of a perfect crystal of a material is currently physically impossible. interstitial atoms. the development of revolutionary technologies such as plastics. from a 19th and early 20th century emphasis on metals. some ceramics. grain boundaries (Hall–Petch relationship). magnetic materials. descriptions of physical properties. semiconductors. which itself evolved from mining and (likely) ceramics and the use of fire. govern a material’s microstructure. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys. and many natural materials are amorphous. and been driven by. In addition to industrial interest. used in the construction of space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. The field has since broadened to include every class of materials. The study of polymers combines elements of chemical and statistical thermodynamics to give thermodynamic. For instance by the type of bonding between the atoms. The traditional groups are ceramics. Instead materials scientists manipulate the defects in crystalline materials such as precipitates. to create materials with the desired properties. and thus its properties. when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. and many are completely non-crystalline. semiconductors. as well as mechanical. many materials science departments were named metallurgy departments. New physics emerge because of the diverse new material properties that need to be explained. Before the 1960s (and in some cases decades after). vacancies or substitutional atoms. biological materials and nanomaterials (materiomics). including ceramics. and biomaterials. and Steel Age are good examples. One way of classifying materials is: Biomaterials Carbon Ceramics Composite materials . metals and polymers based on atomic structure and chemical composition. materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science.
ion implantation. processing techniques (casting. rolling. thin-film deposition. neutron diffraction. At high temperatures used to prepare glass. sintering. See important publications in materials physics for more details on this field of study. and analytical techniques (characterization techniques such as electron microscopy. blast furnace extraction.Composite materials Glass Metals Nanomaterials Polymers Refractory Semiconductors Thin Films Functionally Graded Materials Materials in industry Radical materials advances can drive the creation of new products or even new industries.). typically associated with the most brittle materials. calorimetry. welding. steels are classified based on 1/10 and 1/100 weight percentages of the carbon and other alloying elements they contain. Ceramics are as soft as clay and as hard as stone and concrete. the material is a viscous liquid. Si3N4 ceramic bearing parts . Most glasses contain a metal oxide fused with silica. Thus ingot casting. Ceramics and glasses Another application of the material sciences is the structures of glass and ceramics. cost-benefit tradeoffs in industrial production of materials. Bonding in ceramics and glasses use covalent and ionic-covalent types with SiO2 (silica or sand) as a fundamental building block. The structure of glass forms into an amorphous state upon cooling. but stable industries also employ materials scientists to make incremental improvements and troubleshoot issues with currently used materials. the extraction and purification techniques employed in the extraction of iron in the blast furnace will have an impact of the quality of steel that may be produced. nuclear microscopy (HEFIB). the material scientist/engineer also deals with the extraction of materials and their conversion into useful forms. Often the presence. absence or variation of minute quantities of secondary elements and compounds in a bulk material will have a great impact on the final properties of the materials produced. smallangle X-ray scattering (SAXS). and electrolytic extraction are all part of the required knowledge of a metallurgist/engineer. which is concerned with the physical properties of materials. they are crystalline in form. crystal growth. xray diffraction. Windowpanes and eyeglasses are important examples. foundry techniques. Scratch resistant Corning Gorilla Glass is a well-known example of the application of materials science to drastically improve the properties of common components. glassblowing. Usually. for instance. The approach is generally more macroscopic and applied than in condensed matter physics. The overlap between physics and materials science has led to the offshoot field of materials physics. etc. Diamond and carbon in its graphite form are considered to be ceramics. Thus.). Rutherford backscattering. etc. Besides material characterization. Fibers of glass are also available. Industrial applications of materials science include materials design.
It lends itself to an incredible array of applications. polystyrene. PVC. acrylics. Chemical vapor deposition can place a film of a ceramic on another material. the laminate is pyrolized to convert the resin to carbon. the outer layers of the RCC are converted to silicon carbide.Engineering ceramics are known for their stiffness and stability under high temperatures. the light gray material which withstands re-entry right) siting atop the much larger temperatures up to 1510 °C (2750 °F) and protects the Space Shuttle's human hair. and cured/pyrolized to convert the furfural alcohol to carbon. Polymers Polymers are also an important part of materials science. Cermets are ceramic particles containing some metals. Composite materials Filaments are commonly used for reinforcement in composite materials. One example is reinforced (running from bottom left to top Carbon-Carbon (RCC). depending on their purpose. RCC is a laminated composite material made from graphite rayon cloth and impregnated with a phenolic resin. After curing at high temperature in an autoclave. These additions may be referred to as reinforcing fibers. ABS). The versatility of PVC is due to the wide range of plasticisers and other additives that it accepts. . nylons. Plastics are really the final product. PVC (polyvinyl-chloride) is widely used. from artificial leather to electrical insulation and cabling. or electrostatic dispersion. and tungsten carbide are made from a fine powder of their constituents in a process of sintering with a binder. inexpensive. Another application of material science in industry is the making of composite materials. include polyethylene. The wear resistance of tools is derived from cemented carbides with the metal phase of cobalt and nickel typically added to modify properties. silicon carbide. These plastic casings are usually a composite material made up of a thermoplastic matrix such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in which calcium carbonate chalk. created after one or more polymers or additives have been added to a resin during processing. and annual production quantities are large. Plastics are generally classified as "commodity". The term "additives" in polymer science refers to the chemicals and compounds added to the polymer base to modify its material properties. glass fibers or carbon fibers have been added for added strength. bulk. which is then shaped into a final form. Composite materials are structured materials composed of two or more macroscopic phases. or dispersants. Polycarbonate would be normally considered an engineering plastic (other examples include PEEK. Its fabrication and processing are simple and well-established. Alumina. to the thermally insulative tiles which play a key and integral role in NASA's Space Shuttle thermal protection system which is used to protect the surface of the shuttle from the A 6 μm diameter carbon filament heat of re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. impregnated with furfural alcohol in a vacuum chamber. polyurethanes. Polymers are the raw materials (the resins) used to make what we commonly call plastics. Other examples can be seen in the "plastic" casings of television sets. wing leading edges and nose cap. Polymers which have been around. Applications range from structural elements such as steel-reinforced concrete. polyesters. talc. Hot pressing provides higher density material. "specialty" and "engineering" plastics. compression and electrical stress. packaging and containers. In order to provide oxidation resistance for reuse capability. and polycarbonates. polypropylene. and which are in current widespread use. cell-phones and so on.
including structural ceramics such as RCC. tool steel. to ceramics. such as ultra-high strength. Cast Iron is defined as an iron–carbon alloy with more than 2.00% but less than 6. in the case of magnesium.00%. Metal alloys Microstructure of part of a The study of metal alloys is a significant part of materials science. and another variety called Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene UHMWPE is an engineering plastic which is used extensively as the glide rails for industrial equipment and the low-friction socket in implanted hip joints.Engineering plastics are valued for their superior strengths and other special material properties. Of all the DNA double helix biopolymer. polyethylene (PE) is a cheap. polycrystalline silicon carbide and transformation toughened ceramics Crystallography – the study of regular arrangement of atoms and ions in a solid. the defects associated with crystal structures such as grain boundaries and dislocations. such as in the aerospace industry and certain automotive engineering applications.67% carbon. mid and high carbon steels. Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low. Heat treatment processes such as quenching and tempering can significantly change these properties however. stainless steel. These range from biomaterials. Sub-disciplines of materials science Below is a list of disciplines within or related to the materials science field. Stainless steel is defined as a regular steel alloy with greater than 10% by weight alloying content of Chromium. with increasing carbon levels also leading to lower ductility and toughness. Also note that these are linked to the respective main article. Specialty plastics are materials with unique characteristics. Nickel and Molybdenum are typically also found in stainless steels. electrical conductivity. the alloys of iron (steel. low friction polymer commonly used to make disposable shopping bags and trash bags. copper and magnesium. Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium. For the steels. Biomaterials – materials that are derived from and/or used with life forms. The dividing lines between the various types of plastics is not based on material but rather on their properties and applications. unlike commodity plastics. The alloys of aluminium. Due to the chemical reactivity of these metals. to textile reinforced materials. titanium. For instance. while the alloys of the other three metals have been relatively recently developed. They are usually not used for disposable applications.01% and 2. whereas mediumdensity polyethylene (MDPE) is used for underground gas and water pipes. high thermal stability. titanium and magnesium are also known and valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios and. metallic alloys in use today. to metals. and the characterization of these . Ceramography – the study of the microstructures of high-temperature materials and refractories. alloy steels) make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value. etc. the hardness and tensile strength of the steel is related to the amount of carbon present. and is considered a commodity plastic. Copper alloys have been known for a long time (since the Bronze Age). the electrolytic extraction processes required were only developed relatively recently. their ability to provide electromagnetic shielding. An iron carbon alloy is only considered steel if the carbon level is between 0. electro-fluorescence. cast iron. These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratios are more important than bulk cost.
processes. sensors. energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). thermal analysis. covalent. allowing microfabrication of structures of micrometric dimensions. for the structure (symmetry and defects) and bonding in materials (e. Microtechnology – study of materials and processes and their interaction. but more commonly. and the vital role of the materials of construction Forensic materials engineering – the study of material failure. See also List of surface analysis methods Metallography .g. storage media. See also granular material. in order to understand and define the properties of materials. physiology. modern rheology typically deals with non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. through materiomics Crystallography. chromatography. including their extraction. the Gibbs–Thomson effect. X-ray diffraction (XRD) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) . it is the creation and study of materials whose defining structural properties are anywhere from less than a nanometer to one hundred nanometers in scale. such as molecularly engineered materials. quantum chemistry or quantum physics. ionic. Methods. Forensic engineering – the study of how products fail. Rheology – Some practitioners consider rheology a sub-field of materials science. or any other effect only present at the nanoscale is the defining property of the material. Textile reinforced materials – materials in the form of ceramic or concrete are reinforced with a primarily woven or non-woven textile structure to impose high strength with comparatively more flexibility to withstand vibrations and sudden jerks.Metallography is the study of the physical structure and components of metals. Nanotechnology – rigorously. electrons. for a specialized treatment of metallurgical materials—with applications ranging from aerospace and industrial equipment to the civil industries Biomaterials. etc. However. processes and related topics in order to enhance understanding of materials science. and thermal or mechanical processing. vitreous metals and non-oxide glasses. typically using microscopy. and related topics Below are links to topics that explain methods. for the science behind characterization systems.g. biochemistry. Tribology – the study of the wear of materials due to friction and other factors. and other devices. e. e. Electronic and magnetic materials – materials such as semiconductors used to create integrated circuits.. Alloying.. the study of materials where the effects of quantum confinement. and various forms of spectroscopy and chemical analysis such as Raman spectroscopy. and the characterization of these structures and their relation to physical properties. and the light it sheds on how engineers specify materials in their product Glass science – any non-crystalline material including inorganic glasses. because it can cover any material that flows. Materials characterization – such as diffraction with x-rays. and van der Waals bonding) Diffraction and wave mechanics.with crystal structures such as grain boundaries and dislocations. metallic. so it is often considered a sub-field of continuum mechanics. such as Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). microstructure and processing. biomechanics. Surface science/catalysis – interactions and structures between solid-gas solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces.g. electron microscope analysis. corrosion. Metallurgy – the study of metals and their alloys.. or neutrons.. for a specialized understanding of how materials integrate into biological systems.
Electronic properties of materials. their properties. Thus. and optical properties of materials Mechanical behavior of materials. dynamic. and iPods). ion implantation. phase diagrams of materials systems (multi-phase. for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors. and cyclic loads Phase transformation kinetics. and metallurgy. novel photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor polymers (which. for a specialized understanding of how polymers behave. photolithography). crystal growth techniques. for the kinetics of phase transformations (with particular emphasis on solid-solid phase transitions) Polymer properties. defects and their propagation. how they are made. albeit with lower efficiency). cameras. through methods such as quantum mechanics. for the understanding of the electronic. reacting and non-reacting systems) See also Atomic packing factor Bio-based materials Biomaterial Bioplastic Carbon nanotube Ceramic forming techniques Ceramic engineering Colloidal crystal Composite material Crystallography Electron crystallography Electron diffraction Energetically modified cement Forensic engineering Important materials science journals Important publications in materials science Liquid crystal List of emerging material science technologies . are flexible and cheap to manufacture. and physical chemistry. synthesis. or solids. It also has direct applications. crystallography. It is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics. for a specialized understanding of the advanced processes used in industry (e. Solid-state physics studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. to understand the mechanical properties of materials. and characterization. electromagnetism. thin-film deposition. exciting applications of polymers include liquid crystal displays (LCDs. magnetic. and how they are characterized. and their behavior under static.g. and solid-state physics. and their integration in electronic devices Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter. unlike the traditional silicon solar panels. solid-state physics forms the theoretical basis of materials science. thermal. and membranes for roomtemperature fuel cells (as proton exchange membranes) and filtration systems in the environmental and biomedical fields Semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices. the displays found in most cell phones. for phase equilibrium conditions. multi-component.
ISBN 0-471-32013-7. 5–13. William (2007). Harmony.). Phulé (2005).).List of publications in physics – Materials physics List of Russian material scientists List of scientific journals – Materials science List of software for nanostructures modeling List of surface analysis methods List of thermal analysis methods Materials science in science fiction Metallurgy Mineralogy Molecular design software Molecular modelling Nanomaterials Nanotechnology Neutron crystallography Neutron diffraction Phase Equilibria Diagrams database Polymer engineering Quenching Stereochemistry Single crystal Sintering Sol-gel Solid-state chemistry Supramolecular Engineering Timeline of materials technology Transparent materials Tribology X-ray crystallography X-ray diffraction References 1. Pradeep P.). ISBN 1-4000-4760-9. Materials Science and Engineering . Jr. Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way It Comes Apart . Mark (2003).An Introduction. Thomson-Engineering. The Science & Engineering of Materials (5th ed. Donald R. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. Askeland. ISBN 978-0-471-73696-7. ISBN 0-534-55396-6. Hugh Shercliff and David Cebon (2007).. Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction (5th ed. Bibliography Ashby. ISBN 978-0-7506-8391-3. Eberhart. John Wiley and Sons. Michael. Materials: engineering. processing and design (1st ed. Inc. Butterworth-Heinemann. Callister. ^ Callister. .. science. (2000). pp. William D.
F. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter.). P.. Young. (1993).R. Cullity. M. R. ISBN 1-56032-992-0.. New York: Wiley-Interscience.. (1978). K. R. (1996). The Rietveld Method.curtin.materialmoments. Washington.). ISBN 0-534-55396-6. Hannink. & Rawlings. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02380-8.. Crystal Structures. NIST (http://www.J. G. Hyde. (1984). I. Wachtman. Volume 2: Condensed Matter. Mineola. ISBN 0-8493-0621-1 Check |isbn= value (help). ed. Zanotti G. James Edward (1984). (1984). Green.L.org/top100. ISBN 0-19-852015-8. Oxford: Clarendon Press. W. Swain. P.). M. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics. New York: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-19-855578-4. Monograph Series. (1996). Lewis.G. S..nist.gov/mml/) SubsTech (Substances & Technologies) (http://www. Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials (4th ed. David R. Inc. Gordon. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Boston: Academic Press.au/) Materials Science and Engineering (https://inlportal. Chambers Publishing. ISBN 0-19-852017-4.msu. Lovesey. W. Viterbo D.html) at The Minerals. (1995). D. Fundamentals of Crystallography. (1999). The New Science of Strong Materials or Why You Don't Fall Through the Floor (eissue ed. (2003).). Walker.gov/portal/server. Reading. (1989). Lovesey. ISBN 0-471-13316-7. ISBN 0-19-855577-6.D. Volume 1: Neutron Scattering. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Giacovazzo. and Catti M (1992). Metals & Materials Society (TMS) – Accessed March 2007 Burns.pa.substech. (1993). ISBN 0-486-69447-X. John Wiley & Son's. C. R.pt? open=514&objID=1650&parentname=CommunityPage&parentid=7&mode=2&in_hi_userid=200&cache . Composite Materials: Engineering and Science. Glazer. (1990). Scordari F. ISBN 0-12-145761-3. ed. Gilli G. Further reading Timeline of Materials Science (http://www. John B. External links Materials Knowledge Transfer Network (https://connect.. B. DC: Mineralogical Society of America. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics.com/) Nanoscale Interdisciplinary Research Team (http://nirt. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Reynolds. Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (2nd ed. Introduction to the Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering (2nd ed.innovateuk. G.D.org/web/materialsktn/overview) Material Measurement Laboratory. Space Groups for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed.edu/) CMR – Centre for Materials Research (http://cmr.A. O'Keeffe. ISBN 0-939950-40-5. Monaco HL.V. & Gagg. Squires. Mathews. Forensic Materials Engineering: Case Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press & International Union of Crystallography. ISBN 0-550-13249-X.Gaskell. S.). Taylor and Francis Publishing. B. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Boca Raton: CRC Press.. (1996).M.inl.L. C. ISBN 0-8493-6594-5. Patterns and Symmetry. A. Chambers Dictionary of Materials Science and Technology.edu. Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter.
org/) MATTER (Materials e-Learning Resources) at the University of Liverpool (http://www. AIME (http://www.php) EURELNET Technology Transfer Department at the University of Bordeaux (https://www.razi-center.uk/tlplib/index.fi.eurelnet.wikipedia. Minerals and Mining.materialsaustralia.metalurji. SAMPE (http://www.org/) The Institute of Materials.tr/index1.com/) 16th International Metallurgy & Materials Congress.uk/) Materials Research CEIT Research Institute (http://www.tr) International conferences 2013 MRS Fall Meeting (http://www. and Petroleum Engineers.aimehq.edu. Glaze and Pigment.ceramics.com/) ASM International (http://asmcommunity. TMS (http://www.seramikarastirma. Borides and Related Material (http://www.net/) Engineering Materials.org/) Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. EMRS (http://www.eu/) Association for Iron and Steel Technology.asminternational.matter.mrs.org/) The American Institute of Mining.nano.doitpoms. Metals. IOM3 (http://www. AIST (http://www.org/index. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata – CONICET Razi Metallurgical Research Center.org/) Ceramic Research Centre Inc.php?title=Materials_science&oldid=589126368" .mrs.org/fall2013/) 2013 MRS Spring Meeting (http://www.materials.anadolu.sampe.metalurji.html) 17th International Symposium on Boron. IMMC2012 (http://www.ceitec.fems.tr/IMMC2012/e_index.org/w/index.org/home/) European Materials Research Society.org/TMSHome.aspx) Materials Australia (http://www.nace.isbb2011. at Turkey. SAM (http://www.com/manufacturing_menu.org. Porcelain Enamel.tr/en/) Retrieved from "http://en.es/index.org/spring2013/) TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition (http://www. Engineers Edge (http://www. MRS (http://www.html) Chamber of Metallurgical Engineers of Turkey.org/) Central European Institute of Technology.org/) Federation of European Materials Societies.org.engineersedge.isbb2011.com/) International Ceramic.com.ceit. UNAM (http://www. Metallurgical.shtml) Professional organizations Materials Research Society.edu.ac.d=true) – Idaho National Laboratory Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS) (http://www.emrs-strasbourg. CEITEC (http://www.tr/en/) National Nanotechnology Research Centre at Turkey. FEMS (http://www. ACerS (http://www.ar/ingpolimeros/en/) – INTEMA (Research Institute).php? option=com_content&view=article&id=25&Itemid=28&lang=en) Manufacturing engineering and mechanical properties of plastic parts (http://www3. UCTEA CME (http://www. Glass. SERES (http://seres.org/) Alpha Sigma Mu. RMRC (http://www.aspx) NACE International (http://www.mdp.org.org/portal/site/www/) The Minerals.tms.alphasigmamu. ΑΣΜ (http://www.iom3.au/) American Ceramic Society.com.uk/) CORE-Materials Open Educational Resources for Materials Science & Engineering (http://core.org.aist.mrs.ac. & Materials Society.