CltLOROCocCALE$ In small colonies within a mucilaginous envelope, 1"a1"ely solitary and without envelope; cells ellipsoid, fusiform, cylindrical or rarely spherical; chloroplasts one to several; reproduction by autospores Subfam.Oocystoideae within a mucilaginous envelope; cells spherical reproduction by autospores only. . . . . .



thecium (4), and Tetraciella (2) Sykidion (2), Pulvinococcus (1), Rhopalocystis (1), Rhopalosolen (3), Schroederia (8), 4. Faro. Chlorochytriaceae Chlorochytrium (13), Codiolum (I), &togeron (I), Kentrosphaera (6), Macrochloris (I), Phyllobium (3), Phytophysa (I), and Rhodochytrium (I) Faro. Micractiniaceae Acanthosphaera (2), Echinosphaeridium(I), Golenkinia (10), Golenkiniopsis (4), Micractinium-incl. Errerella (6), Palmellochaete(1), and Trochiscia (48) Fam. Treubariaceae Conococcus (1), Desmatractum-ind. Bernardinella and Calyptrobactron (7), &hinocoleum (1), &hinosPhaerella(I), Octogoniella(I), Pachycladon(I), Saturnella (2), Treubaria-ind. Borgea (6), and Trigonidium (I) 7. Fam. Hydrodictyaceae Subfam. Hydrodictyoideae pediastrum (2) Euastropsis (1), Hydrodictyon"(5), Pediastrum (31), Sorastrum (7), and SoroSubfam. Tetraedronoideae . Cerasterias Tetraedron (73) -yedriopsis (2), and (4), ? Chionaster (2), Closteridium (7), Mycotetraedron (I), Pol."


Free-living; colonial with the cells embedded ellipsoid; chloroplasts cup-shaped to parietal;



10. Free-living and usually planktonic; colonial with the cells closely held together by tough, irregularly shaped, often semilunar or semiopaque mucilage; ,cells spherical to ovoid or obovoid; chloroplast a parietal cup or network; food reserve starch and oil; reproduction by fragmentation of colonies or by aplanospores formed within cells. . .. . . Fam. Botryococcaceae II. Free-living; in colonies, with the cells held together by thread-like remains of the mother cell wall and with or without a mucilaginous envelope; cells spherical, ellipsoid, oblong or reniform; chloroplast cup-shaped or parietal; reproduction by fragmentation of colonies, rarely by zoospores


or oogamous gametes. . . . . .

Fam.Dictyosphaeriaceae Fam.Seunastraceae


Free-living or rarely attached; in loose colonies held together by mucilage or by adhesion at certain points, rarely solitary; cells club-shaped, fusiform, acicular or lunate; chloroplast parietal;

reproductionyautospores.. . . . b .


Free-living; 4-128 cells arranged in a more or less globose or cubical, rarely irregular, colonies, the ,cells being connected by mucilaginous pads or bands; cells .usually spherical, rarely cuneate;... chloroplast single and parietal; reproduction by auto-colonies. . Fam. Coetastraceae


Free-living; colonial (fiat, pyramidal or irregular) and made up of 2-4-8-16-32 or more cells; cells ellipsoidal, angular, acicular or trapezoidal; chloroplast usually one, sometimes more andparietal; reproduction by auto-colonies, rarely by gametes Fam. Scenedesmaceae (a) Colonies usually in the form of fiat plates with the cells arranged in groups offourj cells angular to ellipsoid; chloroplast one or more Subfam. Crucigenioideae Colonies usually fiat (cells usually in-multiples of 2) or irregularly arranged; cells usually
oblong, ellipsoid to fusiform, rarely sausage-shaped j chloroplast usually single". . ,: . Subfam. Scenedesmoideae



. .

Fam:Oocystaceae .
Subfam. Lagerheimioideae .. Bohlinia (1), Choaatella (15), Chodatellopsis (I), Dendrocystis (1), Dicaltthos '(1), Dicellula (3), Franceia (7), Lagerheimia (9), Pilidiocy.ftis (1), and Siderocystis(1) Su.bfam. Chlorelloideae Chlorella (42), Eomyces (1), Jaagia (1), Keriochlamys (1), Micracantha (I), Mur.iella (5h Mycacanthococcus(3), Myurococcus (1), Palmellococcus(7), Prototheca (4), Sestosoma m. Siderocelis (10), and TlielesPhf!era(1) Subfam. Eremosphaeroideae .' EremosPhaera(2), Excentrosphaera(I), and Oocystaenium(I) Subfam. Oocysto!deae Chloroptens (1), Cryodactylon (I), Ecdysichlamys (I), Glaucocystis (4), Glaucocyslopsis (1), Gloeotaenium(2), Makinoella (I), Nephrocytium (10), Oocystidium (I), Oocystis(50), Podohedra (4), Rayssiella (I), Scotiella (12), and -{oocystis(1)

(With 1. approximate, number of known species within 'brackets)



Fam. Chloroc6ccaceae Actinochloris-ind. Radiosphaera (2), Apiococcus (I), Borodinella (I), Bracteacoccus (16), Characiella (I), Chlorococcum-incl. Emergococcus, Emergosphaera and" HypTW1!Ionas (28), Dictyochloris (i), Dictyococcus,(2), ? Glaucosphaera. "Gy"drflyana. (I), (I), Krernaslochloris(I), -Myrmecia (5), Nautocofcopsis(2), Naulococcus (4), Neochloris ~1O), OoPhila (I), Phaseola~ (2), Planktospharia-incl. Follicularia..t5), ? Poloidion (I), Spongwchloris (8), Spongwcoccum(4), and Trebouxia (13)-





Fam. Characiosiphonaceae
CharacWsiPhon (1)


Faro. Radiococcaceae


Fam. Characiaceae Acrochasrna (2), Actidesmium (2), Ankyra (6), Apodochloris (1), BicusPidellainct Bicuspidellopsis (5), CharaCiochloris (16), Characium (47), Coleochlamys(1), Fnntmdinella (1)::1.tyalocharacium (I), Hydrianum (9), Korshikoviella (6), Paradoxia (1). PseudocharacWchforis.(1), Pseudocharacium-incl. Craniocystis ( 1), Pseudochloro-'

Coenochloris(3), Coenococcus (3) Radiococcus(3), and Thorakochloris(2), Coenocystis(4), Dispora (4), Gloeobotrys(5), Faro. Botryococcaceae BotT)lococcus and l!otryosPhaera(2) (5)


Ill. Fam. Dictyosphaeriaceae Dactylosphaerium Dictyosphaerium (1), (15), Dimorphococcus VJbocystis (3), (1),
Q!ladricoccus (2), and Westella (3) 112. Fain. ~elenaslraceae (8), Acti/lastrum

Chlorolobion (1), Closteriopsis (2),



A/lkistrodesmus (26),

Wallich (1860) appears to have been the first to record some Chlorococcales

Dac~vlococClls (1), Gloeoactinium (2), Gloxidium (1), Hyaloraphidium (6J, Juranyiella (1), KeratocoCCllS (7), Kirchneriella (17), Nephrochlamys (4), P.rcudococcomyxa (1), Pseudoraciborskiella (2), Qjtadrigula (7), 'a~d Selenastrum (6) 13. Fam. Coelastraceae Burkillia(2),

. from


He described

two llew sp~cies of Tetraedron as species

of Micrasterias.

Coelastrum (23), Dictyastrum (1), and Pectodictyon (1)




Fam. Scenedesmaceae Subfam. Crucigenoideae Crucigenia(21), Hofmania (3), Tetrachlorella(3) and Tetrastrurrr(9) Subfam. Scenedesmoideae Closteriococcus1), C"onastrum (4), Didymocystis (4), Didymogenes-{2), Enallax ( (2), Lauterborniella(2), Marthea (1), Scenedesmiu~127), Schmidleia (1~, Schroederiella ( (3), Tetradesmlls(7), Tetrallantos-incl. lvlenzbeiiella (1), and Tomascllillm (1).

Carter (1869) reported the new genus Conococcus and gave an account of the development of ~orastrum spin~losum. Schaarschmidt (1886) described some algae from desiccated specimens of aquatic macroflora obtained from Afghanistan. Four of these .belonged to the Chlorococcales. In W88, Cunnigham reported from East India an aiga occurring inside the leaves of Limnanthemumindicum under the name Stomatochytrium limnanthemum. This has been regarded by later authors (seeG. S. West, 1916)as a species of Chlorochytriwn. Turner (1892) described 44 species of Chlorococcales from N. E. India. Of these two were ne,,!, genera, 13 new, species and three new varieti~s. Later authors have referred these new genera'to already kno'Yfi ones. Some of his species have also been reduced to synon~ of already known algae, whereas a few have been considered doubtful. However,'m of his -species still stand, though some of them

.' r

are under


not given

by him originally.


Prof. Hansgirg;s




Genera. of uncertain systematic position Elakatothrix(16) , Total numher of ~enera, 173; same species 1,079.






~"EiJt' Indian algae, Schmidle (1900 e) reported five species of Chlorococcales from ~'Bombay and its suburbs. 'w. and-G. S. West (1902) recorded 23 Chlorococcales, 'mostly from paclliy fields of Ceylon. Of these, one, viz. Desmatrii'ctum (with one species) ';,w~' a new genUs, and one was a 'new variety. In 1907, they recorded a further 20 ~(!:hloro<:Qq:ales from Upper Burma, including a new genus Burkillia (with one species) r;and a new species of Ankistrodesmus,which was lat<er.placed by Printz (1915) ,under a ~Jlew .genus, QuadrigUla. One of the species described as Characiumpyriforme A. Braun _ : \;is really a member of the Xanthophyceae. , ~ 'Svedelius (1907) recorded a Chlorellainside polyps of Myrionema, off the co~t of I. ,Galle, Ceylon', under 'the na,me Zoochlorella. The same year Leinmermann observed tten Chlorococcales in Lake Gregory and Lake, Colombo. Crow (1923, 1923 a) [Jrep<>rted 30 species of Chlorococcales from ponds, tanks, and lakes of Ceylon. Of

. th~ two were new specie~. , - Bruhl imd Biswas (1922, 1926) recorded 29 Chlorococcales from the filter beds
' ,


,of Bengal and Loktak Lake, Manipur. Of these, two were regarded by them as new .::species and one a ~~.w variety. In 1925, Iyengar described a new species of Hydrofrom Madras, and in 1926 N. Carter reported 15 Chlorococcales from N.E. ,,~dU!1on ~41dia. Handa (1927) recorued 13 Chlorococcales from Rangoon. 'Of these, he '::.,lj'eatedthree as new varieties. In 1932, Iyengar described a new species of Oocystis ~tom South India, and the same year Iyengar and Iyengar described a new species ':~f Characium gr~wing on Anopheles larvae in ponds of Bengal. During. the years .~!)30, 1934-, and 1936 Biswas recorded about 20 Chlorococcales from Bengal and ." .", ~""P .",.._ ~1. ~.,J': 69 :





Assam. Out of these, one was a new species and another (considered by later authors as doubtful) a new variety. In 1936, Iyengar discovered a very interesting genus, Chllraciosiphon, from South India and he suggested a new family to accommodate it. In 1954-,he worked out its full life history. Later workers (Agarkar, 1953; Rao, 1954-; Bhandari, 1955) recorded the alga in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan respe~tively. Sharma (1958) recorded asexual cysts in the alga. Dixit (1937) recorded seven species of Chlorococcales from Bombay Presidency. Singh (1939) observed seven species in cultures of paddy field soils from Uttar Pradesh, and Kanthamma (1940) described a new species of Characium from cultures of soil from Madras. Iyengar and Ramanathan (1940) described, from Madras, a new species of DictyosPhaeriumshowing oogamous reproduction. Gonzalves and Joshi (1946) observed 22 species of CWorococcales in a pond near Bombay, and G::mzalves and Gangla (1949) recorded two species from cultures of paddy field soils from Bombay. Skuja (1949) reported a large number (about 71) of Chlorococcales from Burma. Of these, three were new species, one each of the genera Characium, 'letraedron and Burkillia.- One was also a new variety. Iyengar and G. Venkataraman (1951) recorded three species from River Cooum,Madras. Holsinger (1955) reported two species and six varieties from the lakes of Colombo:- Iyengar and Balakrishnan (1956) described, fr.?m Poona, a new species of 9olenki~ia showing oogamy. Since Korshikov (1953) has created a new genus Golenkiniopsisfor species of Golenkinil1 showing oogamy, this species is considered'in this account as a Golenkiniopsis. Khan (1957) recorded one species. from cultures of soils from Kashmir.' G. s.. Venkafaram:ln (1957) recorded six chlorococcales from a pond at Banaras. In 1959, Gonzalves and Mehra described the life history of a new genus of the Oocystaceae, viz. Oocystaeniumwhich exhibited oogamous sexual reproduction. V. P. Singh (1959) recorded-,about 13 species and varieties of CWorococcales in the 'Tals' and' Jhils' of Uttar Pradesh. Kachroo (1959) reported nine CWorococcales from ponds and the guts of mosquito larvae in Damodar ",~lley, Bihar. Gonzalves and Yalavigi (1959) noted one member of the Chlo~oco~cales in the. rhizospheres of crop plants in Bombay State. Raman( 1959) observed three genera of the Chlorococcales in sewage stabilization ponds af M~dras. K. P. Singh (1960) described a new Oocystis from Nainital, .Kumaon Hills, in which there are micro- and macro-autospores. In 1962, Iyengar described a new dendroid genus, Dendrocystis, ailied to Lagerheimia. Altogether 44 genera and about 162 species" and 75 varieties and forms have been recorded by various workerst for the entire Indian subcontinent (including, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Burma, Ceylon and Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas). The life histories (partial or full) of a few of the interesting 0l!es have also been worked out. During the years 1937-45'and 1949-59, the author (Phili:pose, 1940; 1959) came across a number of CWorococcales which were apparently not recorded by previous . workers in India. These included 12 genera, 46 species, and 35 v~ieties and forms. Of these, four appeared to be new species, five new varieties and seven new forms. These are also included in the present account making a total of 208* species and



J 10 varieties and forms known to-date from the Indian region. When it is remembered that roughly 1079 species of Chlorococcales, cOmprising about I73'genera, are known from all over the world (Table IV), this is not a very impressive record. However, the Indian subcontinent with a wide-range of climatic conditions is bound to show a lot more forms especially when new localities and situations are systematically explored. Incidentally, Ute study of snow and ice algae is a virgin field, as far as, India is con~



cerned. The Himalayan ranges with its perpetual snow and i~ are bound ,to show a number Q[cryobionts, some of which could belong to the Chlorococcales.














Genera (number) From India Endemic

Species (number) World 110 1 121 27 From India 4 1 15 2 .. 9 4 47 36 5 9 5

,'.. ,'1 ..

Characiosiphonaceae Characiaceae Chlorochytriaceae




Micractiniaceae fr~ubariaccac



72 21 135 2 210

Oocystaceae Radiococcaceae Botryococcaceae Dictyosph~~riaceae Se1enastraceae Coe!astraceae Scenedesmaceae Doubtful systematic


7 25 92 27

2 8 22 10 45 2 208 19'3 34 3.1 2 6 2

~i. ~';';.. "~f ~.

191 16
173 100 56 32'4


Total Percentage

.5 2.9

1,079 100

i~ , "I


*18 of these are described Also see foot.note on p ..



in the Ac!dendum,

Mitra (Indian j. aerie. Sci., 21 (4): 357-73, 1951) observed nine members of the Chlo ea in ,cultures of rice field soils mostly from Allahabad area, of which one was a new variety. . . . ~ and . Venkataraman (1958) recorded two species from soils of Delhi. Kamat (1962, 1963) recorded cies, t)23 varieties and 2 forms of freshwater Chlorococcales from Ahmedabad and Kolhapur, Salim described 29 i)pecies, 18 varieties and 2 forms from Lahore (see Addendum). , '





Chlorococcum J.


(Schrank) Meneghini
Brunnthaler, 1915, p 62, f 2; H. C. Bold, 1931, pp 577-

1842,'p 27, pi II, f3;J.

604, f 1-5; R. N. Singh, 1939, p 62

1. Familv CHLOROCOCCACEAE Blackman . ct Tansley, 1902,P 95 .
Usually unicellular or in loose aggregates, very rarely colonial; free living or rarely in association with other plants or animals. Cells nearly spherical and with or without contractile vacuoles. Chloroplasts single and in the form of a parietal cup with or without lateral aperture, or axial, stellate, net-like or several separate chromatophores which are polygonal or disc-shaped; with or without pyrenoids: Reproduction by zoospores (naked or walled), aplanospores or isogamous gametes. Only two genera are recorded from the Indian region.


Cells usually spherical, rarely ovoid or elongated and of variable dimensions, solitary or in flat irregular colonies. Chloroplast like a hollow sphere with a notch on one side and with a single pyrenoid. Cells 10-109, rarely up to 135 fl in diameter" (Fig. I). HABITAT. In cultures of paddy field soils from U.P. forming a thick bloom along with Chlorochytrium paradoxum and Chlorellavulgaris (Singh, i.c.). DISTRIBUTION.'Videspread, incl. Europe; N. America, and India. 2. Chlorococcum vitiosum Printz

H. Printz, 192], p'lO, pi I, f 31-51


Chloroplast a parietal hollow sphere with one to many pyrenoids; zoospores with walls.. .(:-.. .. . ") _ . Chlorocoaum p 72 . Chioroplast an axial massive one with irregular p'eripherallobes and a central pyrenoid-; zoospores" ·


...... Trebouxia

( p 75 )


Genus CHLOROCOCCUMMeneghihi emend. Starr, 1955, p 16 (incl., Hypnomonas!5-0rshikov, i926)

. . Cells solitary or aggregated in temporary colonies of indefinite form and . imbedded in gelatine, spherical to ellipsoid. Cell wall' smooth, sometimes thickening with age. Chromatophore a parietal hollow sphqe with or without a unilateral op<;uing and with. one to many pyrenoids. Cells with or'without contractile vacuo!es, uninucleate or multinucleate. Old cells sometimes with orange oils or red haema!ochrome. Reserve starch and oil also sometimes. present. Hypnospores with spiny . ' walls sometimes formed. Asexual reproduction ,by aplanospores or zoospores formed by s!lccessive bipar!ition or progressive cleavage of chloroplast. Zoospores with two cilia of equal length, with a wall, and not rounding up ~hen quiescent.' Sexual reproduction by fusion of biciliate gametes. iygospores with smoot\} or ornamented 'walls. Three species are recorded from the Indian region. KEY TO THE SPECIES
Aquatic Cell uninucleate Terrestrial until immediately . preceding cleavage and with central,c;ytoplasmic area . not.


Cells. usually spherical with a thin cell wall which is usually smooth, but some,times crenulate on the outside locally or all ove~ the surface. Chloroplast hemispheri,. cal (covering only about half of the cell, the other half being colourless), with the edge even or sometimes emarginate to denticulate; very rare1y, the chloroplast is reticulately 'latticed. Without a pyrenoid. Nucleus central. Reproduction by numerous zoospores. Cells 8-16 fl or rarefy up to 22 f-l in di~~eter. ZaospOres 2-3 f-llong (Fig. 2). . HAB~T. Along with Protococcus viridis and Pleurastrum lobaturnin a the

,- suburbs of Rangoon (Skuja, 1949).


. ..


DISTRIBUTION.S. Mtica and Burma. According to Printz (l.c.), the alga is one of the commonest aerophilous forms in . South Africa.. Starr (19.55) held that C. .vitiosum should be excluded from Chlorococcum on account of the absence of a pyrenoid. The distinct separation of the chromatophore from the cell wall is also, according to him, due to the alga bei"ng not in its optimum .condition. The alga is ten.tatively included in the present account. 3. Chlorococcum humico~o (Naegeli) Rabenhorst

L. Rabenhorst, 1868, p 58 =Cystococcus humicoLap.p. Naegeli, 1849, p 85, pI 3-E only =ChLorococcum humicolum (Naegeli) Rabenhorst, incl. C. viridis (Agardh) Brunntha]er, 1915, pp 64-65, f I


see J.

vacuolate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . ... . . .~infusionulR!p



Cells spherical, solitary or a number of cells crowded togetherto form a stratum. Chloroplast a hollow sphere with a lateral notch and a single pyrenoid. Cells 2-25 fl in diameter (Fi~ 3). . '.. HABITAT. tIn cultures of soil from Shillong (Biswas, 1934); Bombay (Gonzalves 1 et Gangla, 1949), Allahabad (Mitra, 1951), and Delhi (Dutta and G. S. .Venkata.

Chloroplast half filling the cell and without pyrenoid. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .C. vitiosum ( p 73 ) Chloroplast completely filling the cell and with a pyrenoid. . . . . . ..........C.humicolo 73 ) (..., p


1958); pond in University, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); in cultures of soil from the

72 r

~r~zospheres "of crop plants in Dharwar (Gonzalves et Yalawigi, 1959, pp 337"'40); ~''inslde the guts of Anopheles larvae in Damodar valley, Bihar (Kachroo, 1959).


::.:.:?~}!t;;:;. .,. ::~~m,;~?/=}W




.e (8 _
;..'. .~... , ' ;,;"

C. echil/o<;Jgolum Slarr,


PI' 18-26,1'22-57

C. ellipticum.

(Korsh.) comb. novo

..,;,. .....


Z b

~. '.~.




~ ~ ~
:. ';,}}:;?~:\: .;:.-:,.5':::""""::
;t~!.. ~~\ !









=//ypnomonas elliPsoidea Korshikov, 1953, p 60, I'.! C. hypnospoTum Starr.. 1955, pp 26-30, f 58-80 C. tobatum (Korsh.) Fritsch et John, 1942, PI' 376-77 =H;pnomonas lobata Korshikov, 1926, I' 445,1'14, f 8-18 C. macrostigmatum Starr, 1953 C. minutum Starr, 1955, PI' 30-35, f 81-103 C. multinuc/eatum Starr, 1955, PI' 35-39, flO4-116 C. oleofaciens Trainor et Bold, 1953, PI' 759-60, f 20-40, 60-6 I C. perforatum Arce et Bold, 1958, I' 497, f 24-31 C. Pinguideum Arce et Bold, 1958, p 498, f 32-41,93 C. punctatum Arce et Bold, 1958, p 499, f 42-54, 94 C. schizochlamys (Korsh.) comb. novo =Hypnomonas schizochlamys Korsh., 1953, p 57, f I C. tetrasporum Arce et Bold, 1958, P 493, f 9-15 C. tubercuIatum (Korsh.) comb. novo =Hypnomonas tuberculata Korsh., 1953, I' 60, f 5 C. vacuolatum Starr, 1953 C. wimmeri (Hilse) Rabenhorst, 1868, p 60 Starr (1955) listed 18 species ,of Chlorococcum, including C. olivaceum (Rabenh.) Rabenh. (1868, P 58) and C. humicolo (Naegeli) Rabenh., which are known from naturally occurring populations and considered them uncertain. A further 13 species, including C. I/atalls Snow (1903, I' 383), C. vitiosum Printz (1921) and C.lobatum (Korsh.) Fritsch etJohn (l.c.) , are also1:0nsidered by him as_doubtful since they have not been studied in unialgal cultures, or, when so studied, full details have not been given. These 13 also include C. sociable Brand (Brand et Stockmayer, 1925), which as West and Fritsch (1927) pointed out should be considered as a Trlbou;da, and a few others which have to be transferred or had already been removed to other genera under the Chlorophyceae or Xanthophyceae. S"talT (l.c.) did not refer to C. dissectum Korsh. or the species of HYP/lomollas described by Korshikov in 1953;. since he had not evidently






consulted this work at the time.

I, Chlorococcum i,ifusionum (SCHRANK) MENEOH.; 2, C. vitiosum

PRINTZ; 3, C. humicolo (NAEO.) RABENH.; 4, Tribouxia humicola (TREB.) WEST ET FRITSCH. . (La, FROM BEIJERINCK; rb, FROM BOLD; 2, FROM PRINTZ, 1920; 3a, PROM FRITSCH & JOHN, 1942; 3b, AFTER BISWAS, 1934;, 3c-e, AFTER BEIJERINCK; ,_4, AFTERGHODAT). DISTRIBUTION. Cosmopolitan.

Korshikov (1953>: and Bourrelly (1959) retained the genus HYPllomollos within the family Hyp~ monadaceae under the'series Vacllolales and the order Tetrasporales, respectively. They considered the presence of two contractile vacuoles in !9pnomollas as distinguishins it from Chlorococcum. However, the author is following Fritsch a!ldJohn (1M:!) and Starr (1955) in including Hypnomollas. under ChlofococculII. Emergococcus Miller (1921, with one species, E.lucens), ha,ving several contractile vacuoles, has been considered by Korshikov (1926) as allied to Chlam)'domonas. But BOUITelly (1959) kept lhe genus under the Hypnomonadaceae. Emergosphaera Miller (1921, with one species, E. super.ficialisMiller) which was considered by Korshikov (1926) as incompletely described is retained by him later (1953) under the Chlorococcoideae. Starr (1955) considered it as prob~bly synonymous to Chlorococcum. In a recent comparative study of 17 species of Chlorococcumin axenic culture, Bold, H. C. and Parker B. C. (Ark. Mikrobiol. 42(3) : 267-68, 1962) found such supplementary attributes as colony characteristics, changes in colour and cellular morphology with increasing age, inhibition in the light by organic compounds such as acetate, pyruvate and certain pentase sugars, and differential sensitivity to antibiotic agents, usefu! in distingui~hing the ..species of the genus.


Genus TREBOUXIA-Pttymaly,

1924, p 109 _

StaIT (1955) considered this species as uncertain on the ground that none of the characteristics mentioned by Naegeli are distinctive, and that the species, as at present understood, was rather pbscure, being a composite of several ill defined species. Further, Starr considered the presence of a cell wall in zoospores an important chara,cter of the genus Chlorococcum. The alga is included in the present account tentatively.
Species not recordedfrom the India1t region


Unicellular, terrestrial, and usually found in the thalli'of lichens.' Cell spherical and with a thin cell membrane. Chromatophore central and massive w~th wrinkled or lobed margins, filling the cell, and with a central pyn:noru. Nucleus single and in the space between two lobes of the chromatophore. { Reproduction by. biciliate zoospores or isogj.UIlousgametes. Aplanospores and resting cells with thick cell membrane and containing' oils also known. Only one species is recorded, so far, from the Indian region.

4. Trebouxia humicola

(Treboux) West et Fritsch

C.aplanosporum et Arce

C. i:hIorococcoldes (Korsh.) comb. novo =Hyprwmonaschlorococcoides 1926,p44l, p14,f 1-7; 1953,P 57,f2 Korsh., C. diplobionticum Herndon, 1958a, pp 308-12, f 1-30 C. dissectumKorshikov, 1953, P 125, f65

Bold, 1958, P 495,f 16-23,92

G. S. West & F. E. Fritsch, 1927, I' 106, f23 k =Cystococcus humicola Treboux, 1912, p. 69, nOli Nae~eli, 1849 =Cystococcus humicola Naegeli emend. Treboux, in J. Brunnthaler, 1949, p 60

1915, P 65 f 3; H. Skuja, -.,


Cells 2-25 P, in diameter,




Forming green coats on tree trunks, planks, brick walls, etc. and often associated with Chlorococcum humicolo. Also the algal component of the lichen Xanthoria parietina forming gonidia within the lichen (Fig. 4). HABITAT. On the barks of Anacardium occidentaleand Albizzia labbek as associate

the resting

cells being



M. aqualieaG. M. Smith, 1933, p 470, f 313 M. biatorellae (Tsehermak- Woess et Pless.) Petersen

Printz, 1921,emend. G. :\1.Smith, 1933,with fivespecies:

(=M. pyriformis Tschermak-Woess et Pless., 1948) M. globosa Printz, 1921, p 14, pi 2 f 105-23 M. ppiformis Petersen, 1928, pp 426-28, f 34 lvi. reticulalaTsehermak-Woess, 1951, p 419

of a lichen, together with Gloeocapsasanguinea and Trentepohlia lage~iJera respectively. in Rangoon and its suburbs during May and July (Skuja, i.e.).
Species not recorded from

Xautococcopsis Geitler 11011Korshikov, 1953, p 65, with two species: . .N. cOllstricta(Ko~sh.) Geitler

and Burma.
the Indian regwll

N. ell/trslls

(=Nautococcus cOllstrictlls Korsh., 1926, p 464; =Nautococcopsis cOllstricla (Korsh.) Korsh., 1953, p 65, f 10)



T. allticipataAhmadjian, 1959 T. arboricola Puymaly, 1924, P 109 G. M. Smith, T. cladolliae (Chodat) 1933, p 469, f312 =Cystococcus cladolliae Chodat, 1913, pl88 T. decoloralls Ahmadjian, 1960, p 681 T. erici Ahmadjian, 1960, p 680 . T. gelatillosa Ahmadjian, 1959 GelUra of Chlorococcaceae -not recorded from the

T. glomera/a (Waren)
p679 T. impressaAhmadjian, T. incrustata Ahmadjian T. lambii Ahmadjian T. parmeliaeCh9dat T. polteri Ahmadjian



1960, p 681


IlIdwn region

Ac/inochloris Korshikov, 1953, p 69, emend., with two species: A. sphaericaKorshikov, 1953, p 69, f 12 A. minutus (Herndon) comb. /Iou. =Radiosphaera minuta Herndon, 1958 a, p 317, f 70-89 Bourrelly (1959, p 54) did not c0!1sider Snow's (1918) Ra!fiosphaera(without any described species) as valid since she did not give any diagnosis.or measurement~. Radiosphaeradissec/a(Korshikov) Starr(1955, pp 50-53, f 117-27) is, in part, apparently the same as Acjinochloris sphaericaKorsh. Korshikov's Ac/inochloris has contractile vacuoles in the vegetative cells. 'Herndon's RadiosPhaera millu/a is without these. The genus is, therefore, emended to include species without contractile vacuoles. Apiococcus Korshikov, 1926,with singlespecies: A. consociatus Korsh., 1926, pp 469, 496; pi 12, f .1-13, Text-f L-N Borodinella Miller, 1927, with single species : B. polytetras Miller, 1927, p 209 Bracteacuccus Tereg,- 1923, with ten specics : B. aggregatus Tereg, 1923, p 191 B. anomalus (James) Starr, 1955,.p 65. B. cinnabarinus (Kol et F. Chodat) Starr, 1955, p 65 B. engadinensis lKol et F. Choda1) Starr, 1955, p 65

Xalltococcus Korshikov, 1926, with four species: N. caudatlls Korsh., 1926, p 7, f 1-8 ,A'. gralldis Korsh.. 1926, p 458, p14, f 19; p18, f 1-13, p19, f 1-9, Text-fE-G N. mamillatusKorsh., 1926, p 447, pi 5, f 1-18, Text-f A-C }'-.Piriformis Korsh.. 1926, p 453, p16, f6-23, Text-fD ){eocldoris Starr, 1955, with seven species: N. alveolaris Bold, 1958, p 737, f 1-16, 31-38 N. aqllatiea Starr, 1955,pp 86-87, f 226-32 A,fllsispora Arce et Bold, 1958, p 500, f62-70, 91 .N.gelatinosa Herndon 1958 a, p 314, f 50-69 N. millllta Arce et Bold, 1958, P 500, f 55-61,95 N. p)'TClloidosa Arce et Bold, 1958 p 500, f 71-84,97 _ )y'. /emstris Herndon, 1958 a, p 313,f 31-49 Lambert ex Collins, Halden et Setehell, 1902, No. 1267, with single species: Oophila O. amblystomatis Lambert in ibid. Phaseolaria Printz, 1921. with two species: P. obliqua Printz, 1921, p 12, pi I, f 52-78 P. variabilis (Hansg.) Printz-see Printz, 1927, p 88 (=Pr%cOCCU! t'ariabilis Hansg.) PlallktosPhaeria G. M. Smith, 1918, with three species: p, botryoides Herndon, 1958 a, p 320, f90--118 P. gelatillosa G. 1\1. Smith, 1918. p 627, pliO, f 8-11 P. paradoxalis (Miller) Starr, 1953, p 395(=Folliclliaria parado.Talis Miller, 1924) Following Korshikov (1953), Bourrelly (1961) considered Folliclliaria Miller as a valid genus and

According to Herndon (1958 a), since the granular photosynthate produced by Miller's alga did not give a positive reaction to starch (seeMiller, 1924) there is ,?me doubt whether the alga can be included in the Chlorophyceae. .
Both P. botT).oidesand P. gelalillosa are known to reproduce ?-Poloidioll Pascher, 1944, with single species: P. didymosPascher, 1944, p358 Spol/giochloris Starr, 1955, with two specics : _ S. excel/trica Starr, 1955, pp 72-73, f 165-86 S. spongiosaStarr, 1955, p-70, f 154:'6.~ SpollgiococcllmDeason, 1959, p 572, with two species: S. alabamense Deason, 1959, p 574, f 10-18, 34-37 S. tetraspOTIIIII Deason, 1959, p 574, f 1-9, 31-33

did not recognise Starr's new combination.

by zoospores.

B.gametifer (Chodat) Starr, 1955, p 65
B. gernecki (Wil!e) Starr,


B. helue/icus (Kol et F. Chodat) $tarr, 1955, p

1955, p 65


B. irregularis (Petersen) Starr, 1955,p 65 B. millor (Chodat) Petrova, 1931 p 227 B. terrestris (Kol et F. Chodat) Starr, 1955, p 65 G1wraciella Schmidle, 1902, with single species: C. rukwae Schmidle, 1902, p 82 Dic!>'ochlorisVischer ex Starr, 1955, p 77, 11011 Korshikov, 1953, p 216, with single species: D.fragralls Vischer ex Starr, 1955, pp 79-80, f 187 (Dictyochloris Korshikov, 1953, is synonymous with Dictyochlorella.'5ilva, J959, p 63 and belongs to the Palmellaeeae) DictyocoeclIs Wille 1909, emend. Viseher, 1936, with two species: D. ml/COSIIS orsh., 1953, p 127, f 67K )). uarialls Gerneck emend. Starr, 1955, pp 57-60, f 128-42 GlallcosPhaera Korshikov, 1930, with single species: " G. ,'aellolata Korsh., 1930; 1953, P 419, f 421 Gyarjlyana Kol et Chodat, with single species: G. humicola Kol et Chodat Kremas/ochloris Pascher, 1942, with single species :

(In the former species, no contractile vacuoles havc becn obscrved in thc vegetative to the latter which has such contractile vacuoles).

cells in contrast

Lean (.-IIn".]. third species of SpongioclJoris. S. Iypica, has been described from Counecticut soils by Trainor and ~IcA Bol., 51 (1)0 57-60, l~). viz~,

K. C~IIUS Pascher, 1942, p 486



Reproduction by a mass of zoospores, by a number of coenocysts or by isogamous to anisogamous gametes. Zoospores 5-7 fJ broad, 7-12 fJ.long. Microgametes 4-5 fJ broad, 6-7 fJ long. Macrogametes 5-6 fJ broad, 7-9 fJ long. Plants dioecious. (Fig. 5).

2. Family CHARACIOSIPHONACEAE Iyengar, 1936, p 317
Protocoenocytes usually occurring in clusters attached to a substratum. Thallus club-shaped or clavate with a single layer of numerous separate naked cell-like protoplasts lining a firm membrane and with a central vacuole filled with sap. Protoplasts with a stellate chloroplast and two or more contractile vacuoles. Reproduction by biciliate zoospores or gametes. Monogeneric family. III. Genus CHARACIOSIPHON Iyengar, 1936, p 317

i ;~-



Thallus elongate cylindrical and more or less clavate when old, with an outer firm cell membrane closely investing a nu~ber of separate naked cell-like protoplasts' arranged in 2 single layer and with a central hollow space containing sap. Protoplasts connected to one another by cytoplasmic strands. Each protoplast with an outer stel!ate chloroplast having single pyrenoid, a nucleus situated close to the hollow space and two or more contractile vacuoles. Eye-spot: absent. _ _ Asexual 'reproduction by biciliate zoospores. Sexual reproducti<¥l by biciliate isogamous or anisogamous gametes. Zoospores and ga~etes liberated by the .rupture of the thallus at the apex. Ramji Sharma (1958) has reported the formation of coenoc)'sts, the protocoenocysts. The thallus forms a large number of spnerical bodies, each with several discrete uninucleate protoplas!s and surrounded by a wall. These are very siinilar to the. coenocysts of Protosiphonbut differ from the latter in bearing the same relationship that Protosiphonbears to Characiosiphon. Monospecific.




CD ,


5. _ - Characiosiphon rivularis Iyengar
M.O.P. Iyengar, 1936, pp 313-18, Text f-l-IO, p123, f. 1--4; 1954, 'pp 148-51, f 1-17, pi 5, 0. f 1-3; M. S. Agarkar, 1953, pp 245-46, Text-f 1-20, pi I ; K.V.~. Rao, 1954, p 191; M. M. Bhandari, 1955, pp 16.17; R. Sharma, 1958, pp 500-OJ

Thallus with the apex broadly rounded to obtusely conical, sometimes lobed,
and gradually tapering towards the base where it is attached to the substratum. Outer cell membrane thick and lamellated. Protoplasts in lower part ot: thallus separate from each other and round to ellipsoid in surface view. Protoplasts in the uppermost parts ~rr~nged compactly, angular due to mutual pressure and pentagonal to hexagonal in surfa~e view. Thallus up to 4 mm. in breadth and up to 13 rom. in length.' Protoplasts 13-15 fJ in diameter. 78




) J;::'\( .. u. <~:.:. ::::~~:
. . ,;

. ~ ...._.

- <#:..~

HABITAT. Growing in clusters on pebbles and stones in a stream near Trichinapally (Iyengar, 1936, 1954); on pebbles, twigs, leaves, snails, and other submerged substrata (sometimes even epiphytically) in shallow margin of a channel, Gwalior (Agarkar, I.e.); semipermanent stream, Tirupati, during the monsoon months



(Rao, i.e.); standing water and temporary stream near Jodhpur (Bhandari, l.c.); Indore (Sharma, l.c.); on stones, sticks and decaying leaves on pond shore at 'khan, Kolhapur, and in a slow-flowing streamlet, Takala, kolhapur (Kamat, 1963, Hydrobiologia 22 (3-4) : 209-305), DISTRIBUTION.India (Madras, Andhra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Maharash tra)

3. Family CHARACIACEAE (Naegeli) Wille in Warming, 1884, p 23
Usually unicellular, rarely in close aggregates or colonies; usually attached, rarely free living; when attached, attachment by means of a long or short stalk, rarely without a-stalk. Celfs usually elongate, rarely spherical or flattened. Adult celIs sometimes with contractile vacuoles. Chloroplast usually single, parietal, and laminate . with one pyrenoid, very rarely cup-shaped, stellate or numerous, and disc-shaped. Pyrenoid somtimes two or more, rarely absent. Reproduction usually by zoospores or isogamous gametes; rarely by autospore..s. Three g~nera are recorded from the Indian region. KEY TO THE GENERA
(a) Usually attached to a substratum, very rarely free-floating; chloroplast pari~tal and laminatc. (i) Cells usually with a short or long stalk which is usually expanded at the base into a distinct or indistinct adhesive disc; usually epiphytic, rarely epizoic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characium (p 81)


(ii) Cells with a bifurcate stalk; apex of cell with or without a long spine; always epizoic. . . . . . Korshikoviella(p 87)




Always free-floating and with a spine from each end; chloroplast parietal and laminate


Schroederia 89) (p



Genus CHARACWM A. Braun ex Kuetzing, 1849, p 208

Unicellular, mostly aquatic and epiphytic or rarely _epizoic, or in moist soil. ,Attached to the sul1stratum by a long or sho);t stalk which is usually expanded in the form of a distinct or indistinct adhesive disc, sometimes subsessile. Cells subspherical, ovoid, pyriform or spindle-shaped with a single parietal laminate chloroplast having one o\" more pyrenoids, rarely with several chloroplasts. Reproduction by the formation of 8-16-64-128 zoospores, _which are liberated

th~ough a pore or by a fissure.


Nine species are known from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE SI'ECIES I. Aquatic A. Epiphytic on algae and water plants Cells with distinct apical points (a) Stalk almost absent (b) Stalk short and without basal thickening Cell small and obliquely elongatcd (c) Stalk short and with knob-like basal thickening Cell oblong-ovoid with acuroinate apex ,


.C. naSI/turn(p 82) .C. ambigllUln 82) (p ,C. ,acwninatflln 83) (p 81 ~



Cell ellipsoid or obovoid

.C. apiculalum( p 84 )
acute apex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.
al/guslum ( p 84 )

Stalk short and thick with disc-shaped basal thickening
Cell short-Ianceolate with hyaline



Epizoic on crustacea, rotifera or insect larvae. (a) On copepods, cladocera, rotifers, etc. Cells club-shaped to pyriform with short stalk having no distinct basal thickening. . . . . . C. orissicum ( p 84 )
Cells ellipsoid (b) to ovoid with basal forking stalk.. . . . . . . . . . . . .C. debaryal/um ( p 85 )
::{. <




On mosquito larvae Cells somewhat pear-shaped of soils Cells obovate

and with basal pad of mucilage...

.C. anophelesi ( p 85 )




to globose with a short filamentous

stalk having a tiny basal disc. ... . C. terreslris ( p 86 )

~' , ... .". ;10


If Korshikov's (1953) revision of Characium is followed strictly, all epizootic forms wiII have to be excluded from the genus and the three epizootic species included here, viz. C. anophelesi, C. debaryanUln, and C. orissicum, may have to be referred to Chloral/giopsis Korshikov. Though Korshikov (op. cil.) stated that C. debaryanum is probably a Chlorangiopsis, he did not refer to C. anoPhelesi Iyeng. et Iyeng. at all. In' the present account these three species are tentatively retained within Characium, especially because no contractile vacuoles have bee!} observed in them.





..:;,:.:>.::. ...'..::;:.::. ..,.: "'~"


.<~!:}: .

<i:;.(( ..






L.Rabenhorst, 18SS,p8S,fl; 1868,p82jJ. Brunnthaler,19I5,p78, f IS; R. N. Singh, 1939, p 62 Cells obliquely lanceolate with a stumpy hyaline beak at the apex and epiphytic by a broad base... Cells 23-24 p broad, 90-115 ,u-long (Fig. 6).
HABITAT~ Epiphytic on Oedogonium"in

cultures oC paddy-field"soils from U.P.

.. ....

(Singh, l.c.); in cultures of rice-field algae from Kashmir (Khan, 1957); on Cladophora or together with other algae in ponds, Rangoon and Maymyo, during January (Skuja, 1949). '. ~ DISTRIBUTION.Europe, India, Burma. The alga from U.P. is slightly smaller than the type, being only 18-20 p broad' and 40-70 ft lsmg. 7. Characium
.J. Hermann





13 c



Hermann ex RabenhorSt .
1863) p 26;,,17, f9 a,b; L. Rabenhorst,

1868, pp 86~7;

~~~;,:;.;.0:~ ..
,. ~.

ex L. Rabenhorst,

J. Br~n-

i~ ~ ~
8. . 14 c


13 d





nthaler, ]915. p 79, f 17; incl. Characium Iet/ueHermann, 1863

Cells small, elongated, and oblique. Apex in the form of a slightly bent hyaline beak. Attached by a short stalk without basal thickening. Cells 4-8 ft broad, 24-32 ft long (Fig. 7). HABITAT. Epiphytic on Pithophorain a pond at Borivali, Bombay during August (Dixit, 1937); epiphytic on Oedogoniumsp. in a pond at Banaras (G. S.'V enkataraman, 1957) . DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, India, and Japan. The Indian alga is'slightly smaller than the European one, the Banaras alga hcing 3' 6-4' 5 ft broad and 18 ft long and the Bombay one 4-'7 -4 ft broad and 22-26 ft lung.

FIGs. 6-14. 6, Characiu", I/asulum RABENH.; 7, C. ambiguum HERMANN; 8,C. acuminalum A. BRAUN; 9, C. apiculalum RABENH.; 10, C. anguslum A. BRAUN; II, C. orissicumsp. NOV. (lle-a.d., A'ITACHING DISC?); 12, C. debaryanum (REINSCH) DE TONI; 13, C. anophelesi IYENG. ET IYENG.; 14,C. lerres/ris KANTH. (6,9, FROM RABEN HORST; 7, ll-x875,12-x 1500, 13, FROM l\r.o.p. KANTHAMMA, 1940). FROM HERMANN; 8, 10, FROM BRAUN; & M.O.T IYENGAR, 1932; 14, FROM


Korshi.kov(1953) considered this species doubtful.


Characium acuminatum A. Braun ex Kuetzing

F. T. Kuetzing, 1849, p 892;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 79, f 18; G. W. Prescott, pI 46, f7; O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 161, f 101 =H'ydroC)'lium acuminalum (A.Br.) A. Braun, 1855, p 26, pilI a

1951, p 216,





Cells oblong or ovoid with the apex in the form of a short acuminate beak. Stalk short and with a basal knob-like thickening. Cells 15-201-" rarely 25 f' broad, and 35-50 I-' long. HABITAT. In cultures of paddy field soils from D.P. (R. N. Singh, 1939). DISTRIBUTION..Europe, Egypt, W. Africa, N. America, Sandwich Isles, Siberia, and India. The Indian alga is much smaller than the type: only 10-15 I-'wide and 20-35 I-' long. 9. Characium apicu1atum Rabenhorst
1915, P 79, f 19

L. Rabenhorst,

1855, P 85, pI 1 2; 1868, p. 82; J. Brunnthaler,

Cells straight, ellipsoid or obovoid. Apex broadly rounded wi~. a stumpy apical point. Stalk very short, thick, and colourless, with the base widened. Cells 20-27 f' broad, 60-100 f' long (Fig. 9). HABITAT.Epiphytic on ChaetomorphaherbiPolensis and Schizomeris ieibieinii a in pond in Rangoon (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, Siberia, and Burma. 10. Characium
A. Braun,

DISTRIBUTION.India (Orissa). No clear attaching disc could be seen in most of the individuals, which were attached to the dorsal and ventral sides of the cladoceran, even after staining. However, one individual attached to one of the posterior spines showed what could probably be a very small hyaline disc (Fig. 11 c): In the obovoid shape of the cell and its epizoic habit the alga shows a certain amount of resemblance to Characium debaryallum (Reinsch) De Toni, but the present alga is more club-shaped or pyriform than C. debaryanum and the stalk is also much shorter and without any ,basal bifurcation. Also, unlike C. debaryallum,which usually occurs on rotifers or copepoda, the alga under consideration is attached to cladocera. In its club-shaped cells, absence of distinct basal disc and its frequent gregarious habit, the present alga shows a certain degree of resemblance to C. hookeri(Reinsch) Hansgirg (seeBrunnthaler, 1915, p 84, f 39; Prescott, 1951, p 217, pi 45, f 17), but the present alga is Il10re pyriform and robust with much shorter stalk and found on cladocera in contrast to C. hookeri, which usually occ~rs on copepods. It is, therefore, considered as a new species under the name C. orissicum. 12. Characium debaryanum (Reinsch) De Toni
1940, p 15~


A. Braun
1915, pp 79-80, f2l; O. A. Korshikov,

G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 628; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 84, f 40; M. T. Philipose, pIlI, f23-25; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 216, pI 46, f 19 =Doctylococcus debaryonus Reinsch, !875, p 78, pI XI, f I

1953,p 165,f 109. -

1855, P 36, pI 111 b, f 1-6; J. Brunnthaler,

Cells straight and lanceolate with a short hyaline apical beak. ?talk short and thick with a colourless disc-shaped basal thickening. Cells 14-24 I-' broad and

40-110 f' long (Fig. 10).

HABITAT. On decaying algae, northern India (Turner, 1892). DISTRIBUTION.Europe and India.

. 11.


Cellulae c1avatae vel pyrifonnes, apice late rotundato, basi gradatim fastigata efl'onnante stipitem brevissimum. Basis stlpitis absque ullo claro disco unionis. Cellulae immaturae omatae chloroplast~ parietali cum unico pyrenoideo; cellulae maturiores divisione subjectae,. duplici" vel' qmidruplici chloroplasto, quorum singula unicum pyrenoideum continent. Cellulae 5.6-16.9 14latae, 11.3-27.4 14 longae. Reproductio per divisionem in 2-4 partes. . . HABITAT. Singula vel aggregata animalculae planktonicae Moinae affixa, in stagno ad Cuttack mense augusto anni 1954 et 1955. Species servata in fonnaldehido (Coli. No.5) in Central Inland Fisheries Research Sub-station, Cuttack, Orissa, India. Cells club-shaped to pyriform with broadly rounded apex and a gradually attenuated base forming a very short stalk. Base of stalk without any'clear attaching disc. Young cells witl} a parietal chloroplast having a single pyrenoid. Older cells undergoing division" with. two or more chloroplasts, each with a pyrenoid. Cells 5'6-16'9 I-' broad, 11'3-27'4 I-' long (Fig. 11). Reproduction by division of cell contents into 2-4 parts. HABITAT. Singly or in clusters on Moina in a pond at Cuttack, commonAugust (!).



sp. novo



Cells ellipsoid to obovoid with a short stalk enlarged at the base into an adhesive disc (?), or forked. Cells 16-25 f' broad and 30-40 f' long (Fig. 12). HABITAT. Attached to plankton animalcules (Brachiollus) in die Museum pond, Madras, rare to rather common-September to November (Philipose, i.e.); on rotifers and Cyclops in a swamp at Kausalya Ganga (Orissa), stray-April (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, "N. America, and India. _ The Indian alga is smaller than the E~rop-ean and the American form, being OIl1y8' 8-13' 8 I-' broad and 12' 3-15' 5 f' long, without stalk, which is 5' 3"-12 f' long. Korshikov (1953) considered this alga as probably a Chiorallgiopsisand, hence, doubtful.- It is included here t~ntatively. Prescott (i. c.) refers to a basal disc.

13. Characium anophelesi Iyengar, M. O. P. et Iyengar, M. O. T.
M.O.P. Iyengar & M. Q. T. Iyengar, 1932, p 69, Text-f I A-L, pI III, f 1-5

Cells pear-shaped, squat 01' elongated, broadly rounded at the top and narrowed gradually below into a rounded base, attached to the substratum by a thin round pad of mucilage; contents dividing into 2,4, or 8 parts which escape by a clean rupture at .the top; empty mother wall urn-shaped; small colonies sometimes formed; fully grown cells 22-30 I-' broad, 41-48 I-' long (Fig. 13). :. HABITAT. Growing densely on living larvae of' several species of Allopheies '~:mosquitoes in ponds in Sonarpur, Lower (Iyengar et Iyengar, i.e.): DISTRIBUTION.India (Bengal).




86 14. CharaciulU terrestris Kanthamma

C. ellipsoidea W. et G. S. West, C. epiPYxis Hermann, C. gibba A. Braun, C. groenlandicum Richter, C. hori;:on/ale A. Braun, C. longipes A. Braun, C. malleus Pascher, C. minu/um A. Braun, C. nacgelii A. Braun, C. pedic-

el/a/umHermann, C. peranemaRabenhorst, C. phascoides Hermann, C. pyriforme A. Braun, C. sessileHermS. Kanthamma, 1940, p 174, Text-f ann, C. subula/um A. Braun, C. luba Hermann, C. lurgida W. et G. S. West and C. urnigerum Hermann. Of these, C. pyriforme A. Braun has been recorded from Burma (W. et G. S. West, 1907). Now, it is known as Characiopsis pyriformis (A. .Braun) Borzi. Characium curva/um G. M.Smith (1918, p 641, pill, f 6-13) has been regarded by Skuja (1948) as a Characiopsis, but Prescott (1951) retains it under Characium. According to him, the species mayor may not have a pyrenoid. A number of species have been considered by Brunnthaler (1915) and Korshikov (1953) as either insufficiently described or doubtful. These are: Characium acula/um Korshikov, C. apiocys/iforme Hermann (1863), C. chlamydopus Hermann (1855), C. elliplicum Reinhard (1869), C. eurypus Hermann (1863), C. obova/um R~inhard, 1869 (Korshikov, op. c., refers to this species as C. ovalum, probably by mistake), C. ovale Lacoste et Suringer (1859), (regarded by Brunnthaler, op. ci/., as one of the Chamaesiphonaceae), C. ros/ra/um Reinhard (1876), and C. slipi/a/um (Bachmann) Wille, 1909, (considered by Geitler as Stylosphaeridium slipi/atum (Bachm.) Geitler, under the Chlorangiopsidaceae (see Konhikov, op. c.). Some species of Characium have been transferred to Ankyra Fou, Apodochloris Komflrek, Hydrianum Rabenhorst, Korshikoviella Silva (=Lambertia Korsh.) and Rhopalosolen Fott. Characium chrysopyxidis Pascher (1929, p 399, f 1-3) is the same as Hyalocharacium chrysopyxidis Pascher (seefurther below):

Cells shortly stalked, obovate to nearly globose, 22' 8-38' 5 P.broad, 26' 2-38' 5-p. long without stalk; stalk narrow and filamentous, 7-10'5 p. long and expanded at the point of attachment into a tiny disc. Zoospores biciliate and conical with a broadly rounded anterior end and a narrow elongate posterior end, 3' 2-4' 8 P. at the broadest part and 1l'2-16 P. long (Fig. 14). HABITAT. In a laboratory culture of soil algae at Madras (Kanthamma, l.e.). DISTRIBUTION.India (Madras). .
Species not recorded from the Indian region


V. Genus KORSHIKOVIELLA Silva, 1959, p 63
-Lambertia Korshikov, 1953, p 186nonJ. E. Smith, 1793




C. ari;:ollicum Taylor et Cotton, 1928 C. aJymmetricum Korshikov, 1953, p 168 C. braunii Bruegger, 1863, p 272 C. brunn/haleri Printz, 1915 a, P 14, pi I, f 16-35 C. bulbosum Korshikov, 1953, p 163, f 107 'C. conicum Korshikov, ,1953, p 162 C. corolla/UrnReinsch, 1877, p 247 C. cucurbitinum Jao, 1947 a, p 246 f Ig-i C. ensiforme Hermann, 1863, p 26, pl6 B, f I C. eremosphaerac Hieronymus, 1895 C..falca/um Schroeder, 1898, p 23 C. giganteum (Wolle) De Toni, 1889, P 624 (=Hydrianum gigan/eum Wolle, 1877, P 186) C. gul/ula Playfair, 1918, p 528 C. hagmerianum Schmidt, 1938, p 231 -. C. heteromorphum Reinsch, 1875, p 80, pi 11, f 3 C. hookeri (Reinsch) Hansgirg, 1886, p 123 (=Dactylococcus hookeri Reinsch, 1875, P 78, pill) C. inspersum Beck-Mannegetta, 1926, p 180, f 13 G. lanceolalum Jaag, 1938, pp 119-20, f 26 C. marinum Kjellman, 1877, p 57 C. obesum Taylor et Cotton, 1928 C.oblusel/um (A. Braun) De Toni, 1889, p'626 (=Hydrianum oblusum A. Braun, 1855, p 28) C. obl!lSum A. Braun, 1855, pp 39, 106, pi 3 E, 1-9 C. operculum Ackley, 1929, P 304 .



Cells spindle-shaped to cylindrical with one or two spines, of which one is usually furcate (forked) and is for attachment. Cells when young uninucleate and with one pyrenoid, but later multinucleate and with articulate chloroplast. Reproduction by zoospores and gametes. Epizoic on Entomostraca. Relatively seidom, though widespread. Two sp,ecies krio~n from the Indian region, so far.







(i> Stalk without basal thickening or fureation (ii) Stalk with rhizoidal base

K. limnetiea ( p 87 ) K. gracilipes( p 88 )



(Lemm.) Silva
1903 a, p 81, pi 3, f 7-10; J. Brunnthaler, 1953, p 187. . . ' 1915, p 84,

P. C. Silva, 1!P.>9,p li3 =Characium limneticum Lemmermann,

f41; G. M.Smith, 1920, p 177,p149, f25-29; H. Skuja, 1948,p 125,pI15, 0-10

C. ornilhocePhalum

A. Braun,


P 42, p13


=Lambertia lirrwelica (Lemm.)

G. pluricoccum Korshikov, 1953, p 160, f 100C.polymorphum Printz, 1915 a, P 16 pll, f44-59, lion Trainor et Bold, 1953, P 763) C. pringsheimii A. Braun, 1855, P 106 C. pseudo-polymorphum. (Trainor et Bold) nom. novo (=C.polymorphum Trainor et Bold, 1953, P 763, non Printz, 1915 a, P 16) C. pseudo-pyriforDle (Lund) nom. novo (=C. pyriforme Lund, 1947, P 47, f 2 h-l, non A. Braun,.1855, P 40) C. sieboldii A. Braun ex Kuetzing, 1849, p 208 C. sikangenseJao, 1940, p 540, f2 D-F C. simplex Korshikov, 1953, p 166, f 112 C. slriclum A. Braun, 1855, P 37, pi 5 A, 1-15 C. subsessile (Wolle) De Toni 1889, P 622 (=Hydrianum subsessile Wolle, 1877, P 186) C. subslrictum Jao, 1947 a, P 246, f 1 d-f C. Iransvalense Cholnoky, 1954 C. weslianum Printz, 1914, P 39; 1915 a, P 17 (=C. ensiforme G. S. West, 1904, P 200, f 80 d ,wn Hermann, 1863) A number of species originally ascribed to Characium have since been referred to other genera, mostly to Characiopsis Borzi belonging to the Xanthophyceae (see Wille, 1909; Printz, 1927; G. M. Smith, 1933). Some of these are Characium acu/llm A. Braun, C. ceranforme Eichl. et Raciborski, C. clava Hermann,

Cells straight or slightly curved, broadly fUsiform with one end drawn out into .a long hyaline spine and the other into a delicate seta without any basal disc or furca.~ tion. Chloroplast one or more; each with one (-2) pyrenoid. Cells 3-14 p. broad, t~.25-110 p. long, with stipe 5-10 p. long (Fig. 15). HABITAT. Free-floating in ponds at Dum Dum, Cuttack, Kurnool, and Madras; <' siray-october and December (!). 1 DISTRmUTlON. Eprope, S. and W. Mrica, N. America, India, and Japan. '. Though normally attached to the plankter Diaphanosoma (Brunnthaler and . .K.orshikov, op. eit.), the alga may also occur in the free-floating condition (Skuja, l.e.) probably by detachment from die host. The alga which occurred stray in the localities }Jlentioned was observed by the author only in the detached condition,


:'-4 1






Cells curved or nearly straight, median portion fusiform, with a long spine from the apex and a filiform stalk having two rhizoidal branches from the other end. Chloroplasts one to several, each with a pyrenoid. Cells 5-14 fJ broad, 38-480 fJ long (Fig. 16). HABITAT, On the plankton animalcule Moina (rarely detached) in ponds at Cuttack, common-August and Kausalya Ganga, common to abundant, FebruaryMarch (!). DISTRIBUTION.N. America, Europe, and India. Korshikov (1953) made a distinction into the type with the cells 5-13 fJ broad and 80-480 fJ long and var. minor with cells 5-10 fJ broad and 50-175 fJ long. Since there is overlapping between the dimensions of the type and th'e variety, it appears better to treat the two togethet'. The Indian alga with cells 5' 3-11' 3 fJ broad and 41..:.105fJ long resembles very much the Swedish alga (Skuja, I.e.) which is 5-11 fJ broad and 38-80 fJ long. Species tif Korshikoviella not recordedrom the Indian region f




K. michai/ovskoensis (Elenkin) Silva, 1959, p 63 =Characiummichailovskoense lenkin, 1924, p 34 E =Lambertia michai/ovskoensis (Elenkin) Korshikov, 1953, p 187 K. schaefernai (Fott) Silva, 1959, p 63 =Lambertia schaeftrnai Fott, 1957, p 304, pliO, f 1-7 K. selosa (Pilars.) Silva, 1959, p 63 . =Characium setosum Filarszky, 1914, p 10 =Lambertia setosa. (Filars.) Korshikov, 1953,..p 188, f 131


',:". .'~:-'



Genus SCHROEDERIA Lemmermann, 1898a, p 311 .,emend. Korshikov, 1953, p 151






c 18 g

".~ r

CellS solitary, free-floating, straight or curved, spindle-shaped with both ends drawn out into spines or setae. . CWoroplast single, parietal, and with one or more pyrenoids; older cells may have"more than one cWoroplast, each with a pyrenoid. Reproduction By 4-.-10 biciliate zoospores whic!t are usually liberated through a lateral pore. . Three species are known from the Indian region.

18' d

18e "






' "'. ts Korshikoviella limnetica (LsMk. SILVA;
setigera (SCHROED.) 1949; 18 LEMM.; 18, SKUJA, . c-e, FROM

1. Cells usually straight, rarely curved (a) Cells straight or sometim~ curved and never tumid in the middle: 2.5-10 ,.. broad and 56-200 ,..Iong ' , " ,... S..seligera(p 89)


16, K. graciliPes S. planctonica 15-17,


Cellsstraightand frequently tumidin the middle;5-28,..broadand 34-146,..long... . ..
~ -_ 4,4-12,3,.. broad and 68-84 ,..Iong.., S.planctonica( p 90 ) , .S. indica (p 90 )


17, Schroederia

x 1,500).

COMB. NOV. (18 a-b, f, g, FROM





Cells usually distin~~ed;


graci1ipes (Lambert)


17. Schroederia



1908, p 173, f 362'-64; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 183,



P. e. Silva, 1959,p 63
=Lambertia graci/ipes (Lambert)

,Korshikov, 1953, P 188, f 132; incl. var. minorKorsh., 1953,
' 'to.

E. Lemmermann,

1898 a, p 311; C. Bernard,

=Characium graci/ipes Lambert, 1909, P 65, pi 79, f 3-6,9, 14-22; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 84, f 42; G. M. Smith, 1920 P 178, pi 49 f 20-24; H. Skuja, 1948, P 124, p115, f 5-6 p 189, f 133'

pi 13, f 12-16; O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 152, f 92 setigera Schroeder, 1897 a, p 489, p125, f"

.JJ;,-. ~ '.:'\



SCHROEDERiA =Ankistrodesmus setigerus (Schroeder) G. S. We5t, 1907, p 149; J. Brunnthaler, f 304; W. B. Crow, 1923, p 167; K. M. Salim, 1963, p 210.. =Characiumsetigerum (Schroeder) Bourrelly, 1951, p 680, f22. 1915, p 191,


Cells 4' 4-12' 3 I-' I-'long (Fig. I-' long without spines, and 68-84 I-' long with spines. Spines 12'3-21'2 broad, 28-44 19).

Cells solitary, free-floating, spindle-shaped, straight or curved with the ends produced into a long, delicate or stout seta or spine, which is straight or curved. Chloroplast single, parietal and with a single .pyrenoid, which is often inconspicuous or lacking in young cells. Cells 2' 5-10 fl broad, 56-108 (-200) fl long with spines. Spines 13-27 (-50) fllong (Fig. 17); pool, L3.hore (Salim, l. c.). HABITAT. Tanks and lakes, Ceylon.,-October (Crow, l.c.); ponds, Cuttack, stray to very rare, July-August, and Ochira (Kerala); stray-February; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, rare-April (!). DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, Sandwich Isles, Africa (Egypt, S. and



Central Africa), Ceylon,India, W. Pakistan Java, and China.
18. Schroederia planctonica (Skuja) comb. novo
...CharaciumplaroctonicumSkuja, 1949, pp 60-62, pliO, f I-II




Cells fusiform, tumid in the middle with drawn out apex and slightly curved hind end. Cell membrane fairly thick and produced into a long solid spine at either end. Chromatophore parietal with 1-2 (or 4) pyrenoids. - Cells 5-28 I-' broad, 34-146 I-' long with spines, and 11-~8 I-' without spines (Fig. 18). Reproduction by 4-10 zoospores which are lib<;rated through a lateral pore. HABITAT. Planktonic in Museum pond, Madras-:-September 1939 (Philipose, 1940); Planktonic or on moist ground, Rangoon.,-May (Skuja, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.India and Burma. Though Skuja described the alga as a species of ChaTacium,Korshikov's (1953) .revision of the genus Characiumto include only attached (usually epiphytic) forms makes it n~cessary to exclude this from Characium. The author (l.c.) had originafly described this -alga as a new species of' AnkistTOdesmUS, reproductory stages being obserVed in- the material. no However, it agreed with Sklija's alga in all respe,cts excepting for a wider range of dimensions. Skuja gives the length o(the,alga together with spi~es as 34-1081-". 19. Schroederia indica sp. novo

FIG. 1-9. Schroederia indicaSP. NOV. ~


Reproduction not known. HABITAT. Planktonic July (!). in a pond at Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), abundant-

DISTRIBUTION.India (Madhya Pradesh). In -the curved nature of the cell, the present alga shows some resemblance to SchTo~deria spiralis- (Printz~ Korshikov (1953, p 153, f 94), but the plant .body as well .as the spines in S. spiralis are usually spirally twisted. In the presence of 1-2-4 pyrenoids in the cell and the curved nature of the cell, S. indicashows some resemblance KOt'shikov1953,p'153, (95) as wel!,but-there the cellsare not always ( -r 'to S. Tohw.ta distinctly curved and they are narrower (3-8 I-' broad) and much longer (50-140 1-', with spines up to 33 I-' I0!lg). S. indica does not also agree with other known species of Schroederia.

Cellulae plus minusve semicirculares, latere externo convexo, interiore vero .concavo, fere recto vel tenuiter convexo; rarissime cellulae fere rectae. Apices cellularum ornati spinis solidi. paulum brunnies, quae sunt plus minusve longitudine aequales. Chloroplast a parietalia, vulgo unico, nonnumquam 2-4 pyrenoideis ornata. Cellulae 4.4-12 . 3 p.latae, 28-44 p.longae absque spinis, et 66-84 p.longae cum spinis. Spinae 12,3-21,2 p.longae.

.( I

The Indian alga also shows great resemblance to some species of Closteridium

HABITAT.Abundat in planktone in palude ad Bhopal, M. P., mense juliQ anni 1954; legit K. H. Alikunhi. Species servata In formaldehido (Coli. No.9) in C.I.F.R. SU\).:Jltation, uttack. C 4..

;,Reinsch like C. siamensis(W. et G. S. West) G. M. Smith (=Reinschiellasiamensis 't G. S. West, 1901a, p 183) and C. crassispinumeinsch (= Tetraedron crassispinum R

Cells more or less semicircular with the outer side convex and the inner side
concave, nearly straight or slightly convex; very rarely, the cells nearly straight. Ends of cells with solid slightly. brownish spines which are more or less equal in length or slightly une~ual. Chloroplast parietal with usually one, sometimes 2-41 pyrenoids,

(Reinsch) Wille ( see Brunntha1er, 1915, p 154, f 184-) in the somewhat semicircular f"shape of the cell with the inner side of the cell occasionally straight or slightly convex, rbut the chloroplast of Closteridiummayor may not have a single pyrenoid, whereas the present alga has always a distinct pyrenoid in young cells and more in older cells. :'I'hus, the presence in this alga of 1-2-4 pyrenoids appears to weigh in favour of ~,consideringit as a Schroederiarather than as a Closteridium.







4. Family CHLOROCHYTRIACEAE (West) Setchell et Gardner, 1920, p 146
Unicellular; usually endophytic, rarely free living or epiphytic. Cells large.. and irregularly thickened, or in the form of irregularly branched filaments. Cells sometimes coloured due to the presence of haeniatochrome. Chloroplast axial and massive with one or more pyrenoids. Reproduction by zoospores or gametes (isogamous or anisogamous) which are formed in large numbers within the cell or in special gametangia. Only two genera are recorded from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE GENERA (a) (b) Endophytic on freshwater macroflora or-marine algae .ChlorochyTriUMp 94 ) (


Resting spores with irregularly thickened cell wall formed during the cold season. There is great accumulation of starch followed by change of colour from green to yellow and ultimately deep reddish orange. Resting cell 36 I' broad and 55 I' long (average measurement and 43 /llong (Fig. 20). 34--381') with cell wall 4' 7-9 I' and cell contents 31 /l broad




Free living or intermingled with the gelatinous envelopes of other algae.. ; Kentrosphaera p 96 ) (



Cohn, 1872, p 102

Endophytic_ genus occurring in _the intercellular spaces of various freshwater and marsh plants,_ rarely within marine algae. Cells irregularly spherical, cllipsoid, often lobed. Cell wall usually thick and stratified and sometimes with localized excrescences. Chloroplast parietal and cup-shaped in young cells, somewhat stellate with radialbranchesexpimdingtoJfarietallobesandwith scattered pyrenoids in old cells; Reproduction by biciliate (rarely quadri-ciliate) zoospores. or gametes. Aplanospores and -akinetes are also often formed. O~y on~ species recorded frgm the Indian region.




UWlnaDthem1im (Cunningh.) G.S. West
G.B. De Toni, 1889, p 638

G. S. W~t, 1916, p 212; H. Printz, 1927,p 90; -= Stomalochy!riumlimnantlumum Cunningham
1888, P 33, pis I & 3, CI-II;

An endophytic alga with somewhat spheri~! or irregularly ovoid to ellipsoid cell. Cell membrane thin in young cells. Chloroplast parietal. Peripheral portion of cytoplasm with amyloid granules, central portion hyaline with a single nucleus. Cell becomes multinucleate prior to formation of swarmers. Swarmers biflagellate, pear-shaped with posterior broad portion of body green and the anterior end colourless, 5 I' broad and 7-8 I' long. Swarmers frequently behave as gametes; those which do not escape from the sporangium become motionless and .spherical and are 7 I' in diameter. Invasion of host leaves through stomata.












21, Kenlrosphaera brislolae G. M. SMITH.
1888 (AS Siomalochylrium limnanthemum) ;21, FROM


I\.~:,')':I ~~~ ". '

,\.~,~\,t;'il h1:,,~, III;~~";
11,,, ~~ ,1111





1m((l~ '(,JjIi '1J'(',


,v',, ,!ra:' ,

:~";:'!l 1 I

'\'i"tl '


~ '1f';11 i
. ,.",,~I .. I\f

',".:", .~I llil';,. ! ~. . j}I,1


.". '1 .\'


"ps ..


Resting spores with irregularly thickened cell wall formed during the cold season. There is great accumulation of starch followed by change of colour from green to yellow and ultimately deep reddish orange. Resting cell 36 p broad and 55 p long (average measurement 34-38 p) with cell wall 4' 7-9 It and cell contents 31 p broad and 43 p long (Fig. 20).






~ ~f


!~ ~~~ "'!II'"!'





,:\.~otP ~?~
.'' .. ."-.!' r.


,(,,1 1IIi" lfj/













PERIPHERAL GREEN LAYER; 21, KentrosPhaera bristolae G. M. SMITH. (20, FROMCUNNINGHAM,1888 (ASStomatochytrium limnanthemum) ;21, FROM G. M. SMITH, 1933).

~.St '~I





HABITAT. In the substomatal space of Limnalllhemum illdicum in the Botanical Gardens, Calcutta (Cuningham, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.India. Some of lhi species of Chlorochytrium /lot recorded from the Indian region

HABITAT. In cultures of paddy field soils from D.P. forming a green papery mat on the surface of the culture solution (Singh, i.e.). DISTRIBUTION.England, N. America, and India. KentrosPhaerais distinguished from Chlorochytriumby its free living habit, though some authors, including Fritsch (1935), merge it with Chlorochytrium. Chlorochytrium paradoxum (Klebs) G. S. West is known from Europe as an endophyte usually occurring inside Hypnum or Le.mna sulca (Brunnthaler, 1915; West and Fritsch, 1927). So, Smith (op.c.) considered Bristol's alga, which is a free living one, as a new species of KentrosPhaera. Since Singh (l.c.) did not give any figure or description, but only the dimensions and habitat, it is not possbile to place the Indian alga exactly. The Indian alga with its cells 9'9-30 fJ in diameter, 3'3-4'9 fJ broad, and 6'6-8 fJ long is also much smaller. However, because of its free living habit, it is tentatively included under Kentrosphaerabristolae G. M. Smith. Species of Kentrosphaera not recorded from the Indian region

C. bietlne (Klebs) G. S. West, 1916, p 212, f 137B =Endosphaera biennis Klebs, 1881, p 265 C. eohnii Wright, 1877, p 355; 1879, P 14 =Chtorocystis cohnii (Wright) Reinhardt, 1885, p oJ. =Chloroehytrium reinhardtii Gardner, 1917, p 382 =C. porPhyrae Setchell et Gardner in Gardner, 1917, p 379, pi 32 f 6 (=C. reinhardtii var. porphyrae (Gardner) Bristol, 1920a, p 18) C. dinobryonis Lund, 1955, p 222, f I C. inclusum KjelIman, 1883, p 320, pi 31, f8-17 _ =C. dermatoeolax Reinke; = C. sehmitzii Rosenvinge, 1893, p 964-

C. laetum Schroeter, 1883, p 181


C. lemnae Cohn, 1872, p 87 (incl. C. areherianum Hieronymus, 1887, p 296; C. k,!yanum Cohn et Szymanskii in Kirchner, 1878, p 102; and C. pallidum Klebs, 1881, p 257, pI 2, f 16a-f) C. moorei Gardner, 1917, p 382 C. paradoxum (Klebs) G. S. West, 1916, p 212, f 137E (ScotinosPhaera paradoxa Klebs, 1881, p ~OO) C. rubrum (Schroeter) Freem~n, 1899 C. sarcoPhyei (Whitting) G. S. West, 1~16, p 212 =Chtorocystis sarcophyei Whitting, 1893, p 4-1 C. viride Schroeter. 11183, p 181 C. wittei Printz, 1927a (occurring within Enteromarpha) Bristol (1920a) considered C. laetum, C. rubrum and C. viride as doubtful species. How~ver, Printz (1927) recogmzed all these as vali?

K. gppendiculata'Korshikov, 1953, p 134 f 7! K.foceiolae Borzi, 1883; p 87 pI 7, f 1-13 =Chloroehytriumfoceiolae (Borzi) Bristol, 1.920a, p 12 incl., K. gloeophila(Bohlin) Brunnthaler, 1915, p 68 £6; = Chloroehytrium gloeoPhilum Bohlin, 1897a, p 28 pI i, f 53-54K. grande (Bristol) G. M. Smith, 1933, p 4-76 =Chloroehytrium grande Bristol, 1917, p 107 K. minor Borzi, 1883, p 87, pi 7, f 14--19 ,K. =Chlorochytrium/tfleiolae willei Reichardt, 1927 var. minor (Borzi) Bristol, 192Qa p 22


Genus KENTROSPHAERA Borzi, 1883, p 87

Other genera not recordedfrom the Indian regioll
Codiolum A. Braun, 1855, p 19, monospecific : C. locustre Printz, 1914-, p 42; pi 3 £ 59-65 . 'Marine species of Codiolum A. Braun, viz. C. gregarium A. Braun (1855, p 20-thc lecto-lype), ,TC.cylindroceum Foslie (1887, p 175), C. illtermedium Foslie (1887, p 175), C. IOllgipes Foslie (1881, p II), tC. nordenskjoeldianum Kjellm. (1887,'p 56), C. petroeelidis Kuckuck (1896), and C. pusillum (1.10gb.) .' .I(jellman (1883, p 318) found 'on red algae have either been considered as the diploid stages in the life "~liistories of Siphonocladean green algae like Uro5pora, SpollgomorPha, A,'rosip!.pnia, etc. (seeJorde, 1933; Far>, "1959) or they are under suspicion (see Fott, 1959). ~obably the same may be the case with Codiolum !enieillifoT1/i'e (Roth) Silva, 1957 (= Conferva penieillif"rme Roth). Eetogeron Dangcard ( =Eremostyle Geitler)' monospecific : E. eJodeaeDangeard-see Bourrelly, 1961, p 24, pi 3, f 12 Macrochloris Korshikov, 1926, monospecific: M.dissecta Korsh., 1926, p 4-76, Text-fOa-f This alga cannot be considered as synonymous to AetinoeMoris sphaeriea Korshikov (1953, p 69) ,since, apart from the absence of contractile vacuoles in the vegetative cells, the chromatophore in and :Macroehlorisis not as symmetrical as in Aetinoehloris. Starr (1955) has combined an Aetilloehloris ,},facroehlorisin his RadiosPhaera disseeta Phyllobium Klebs, 1881, with three species: P.dimorphum Klebs, 1881, p 268, pl3 f29-37; pi 4, f38-49 P. ineertum Klebs, 1881, p 297, pi 4-, f50-54P. sphagnieola G. S. West, 1908, p 283, p121, f31-35 PhytoPhysa W. v. Bosse, 1890, monospecific : P. treubii W. v. Bosse, 1890, p 185, pis 24-26 Rllodochytrium Lagerheim, 1893a, monospecific: R. spilallthidis Lagerheim, 1893a.

Free living, usually growing on damp soil, sometimes aquatic and intermingled with or in the gelatinous envelope of other algae. Unicellular, often crowded. Cells spherical, ellipsoid or irregular with their walls lamellated, irr.egularly thickened and with knob-like outgrowths. - Chloroplast axial with extensions. flattened at the wall to form irregularly shaped processes, green or yellowish green and with a single _ -pyrenoid. Reproduction by zoospores, aplanospores or by large thick-walled -resting spores containing orange-red oil. ~exual reproduction not known. Only one species recorded from the Indian region.

21. Kentrosphaera bristolae G. M. Smith
G. M. Smith, 1933, p 4-76, £ 318 =Chloroehytrium paradOXUIII ristol, 1920a, p 13, non Chlaroehytrium paradoxum (Klebs) G. S. West, B 1916, p 212; as C.paradoxum (Klebs) G. S. West-see R. N. Singh, 1939, pp 61-62

Cells free living, -never _endophytic, globose, ellipsoid, triangular or irregular with th~ cell membrane irregularly thickened and often lamellated. Chloroplast single, parietal, and with many lobes. Resting cells may have the protoplast coloured

a bright orange. . Cells 35-63 fJ broad and 50-165 fJ long with the cell wall 2-10 fJ
thick (Fig. 21).

23. Trochiscia



aspera (Reinsch)


A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 128; G. S. West, 1916, p 193, f 119 A-F; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 204; G. S. West & F. E. Fritsch, 1927, p 120, f23 A-F; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 239, pi 53 f 17 =AcanthococclIs ..perReinsch, 1886, p 239, pi II, f 2 a

Cells spherical. Cell membrane thick and covered Cells 13-29' 5 ft in diameter with the cell membrane 2 ft HABITAT. In cultures of paddy field soils fl'om Gangla, 1949). . DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. Amcrica, S. Africa, and 24. Trochiscia granulata (Reinsch) Hansgirg

by numerous fine papillae. thick (Fig. 23). Bombay (Gonzalves and India.

DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, S. and W. Africa, Ceylon, and India. The alga from U.P. (Singh, l.c.) differs from the type in having a third smooth layer external to the sculptured wall. His alga is also smaller, usually 12-18 ft, rarely differences.ft in diameter. up to 28 However, Singh did not give any figure to show these 26. Trochiscia obtusa (Reinsch) Hansgirg 1946,P 174, 1888,p . -A. Hansgirg, pi I, f 5 130; J. Bnnmthaler, 1915, p 205;E. A. Gonzalvesand D. B.Joshi,
=AccnnthococclIs obtllsus Reinsch, 1886, p 243 pi 12, f 21

A. Hansirg, 1888, p 128; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 204; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 239, pi 53, f 18 = AcanthococclIs grami/a/II" einsch, 1886,p 239, pili, f 3-4 R

Cells spherical. in the form of folds.

Cell membrane thick and with well developed verrucose ridges Cells 34---37 In diameter (Fig. 26). ft

Cells spherical with thick cell membrane densely covered by prominent granular or wart-like emergences. Cells 8-23 ft (more commonly 13-18 ft) in diameter. HABITAT. In puddles, Khan (Kamet, 1963, -p 238). DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, India (Maharashtra). The Indian alga is larger (19-28-30 ft) val'. aerophila

HABITAT. Planktonic in a pond in Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.'Europe, N. America, and India.


Speciesof Trochiscia

110lrecorded .from lhe Indian region


'- H. Printz, 1927, f 78; T. gralllliata var. aerophila printz in H. Skuja, 1949." p 63 =AcqnthococclIs granlllatlls Reinsch var ae~ophilusPrintz,-19~ I, piS, pi 2,.f 79-89


(Printz) Printz

Cells spherical with thick colourless membrane covered by short, coarse; and irregularly disposed warts usually with blunt tips. Cells 3-30 ft in diameter. Cell membrane up to 4 ft thick. Chloroplast parietal, bell-shaped, covering the -entire inner wall and without a pyrenoid (Fig. 24). , HABITAT. Epiphytic on Euglena sp., 10th mile, Prome Road-July (Skuja, I.e.):

T. angUca(Bennett) Hansgirg, 1888, p 128 T. antarcticaFritsch, 1912, p 325 T. arguta(Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p 129 T. brachiolata(Moeb.) Lemm. 1903, p 348 T. crassaHansg., 1890; 1892, p 242 T. cryophilaChodat, 1896 __ ;;:- T. dictyon(JoeTgs.) Lemm., 1903, p 349 ..~" T. echinospora (Crouan) De Toni, 1889, p 695 " T. eeeviLemm., 1903, p'349 .,Y. T. erlangensisHansg., 1888, p 129 .T. gutwinskiiSchmidle-see Brunnthaler, 19150; p204 T. hirta (Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p 128 ' T. hystrix (Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p 129 J- T. insignis (Reinsch) Hansg., 1838, p 129 . ,;r.minor (Hansg.) Hansg., 1888, p. 129 '.,. '=Acanthococcus minor Hansg., 188_6,p 145 T. moebiusii(Joergs.) Lemm., 1903, p 349 T. multangularisKuetzing, 1845,-p 129 'T. multispinosa(Moeb.) Lemm., 1903, p 349 T. naumanni,Kol, 1949-see Fott, 1959, p 424 · T. nioalisLagerheim, 1903, p 349 ostenfeldiiLemm., 1892

T. ooata(Pouchet) Lemm., 1903, p 349 T. pachyderma (Reinsch) Hansg., IIJ!jIJ,p 128 T. palustrisKuetzing, 1845, p 129 T. papillosaKuetz., 1845, p 129 T. pallcispiizosaCleve) Lemm., 1903, p 348, ( T. Planctoniea Lind et Pearsall, 1945 T. Plicata(Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p 129 T. polygona(Ostenf.) Lemm., 1903, p 350 T. prolococcoitles Kuetz., 1845, p 129 T. psammophilaHansg., 1892, p 240 T. reinschiiHansg., 1888, p 129


. Hansg.,1888, 128 p r T.haloPhila

T. re/usaReinsch) ( Hansg., 888, 128 1 p
T. rotunda (Pouchet) Lemm., 1903, p 349 T. sanguineaLagerheim, 1892 T. sPinosa (Reinsch), Hansg., 1888, p 129, = T. reticularisHansgirg, sensu Prescott (1951) T. sporoides(Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p-129 T.'stagnalis Hansg., 1888, p 128 T. uncinataW. West, 1892, p 737 T. undulala.(Ostenf,) Lemm., 1903, p 349_ T. vanhoejJenii (Joeigs.) Lemm., 1903, p 349 T. ;::achariasii Lemm., 1903, p 157

DISTRIBUTION. Africa and Burma. S.


The alga originally described by Printz from p'urban is a typical aerophilous form, with cells usually 10-20 ft (rarely 3~30 ft) in diameter, and the cell membrane up to 4 ft thick. 25: Trochiscia The- Burm~se form o~curring on Euglena had a diameter of 6-16 ft. reticu1aris (Reinsch) Hansgirg

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 129; 1892, p 241; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 109, pi 22, f2; G. S. West and
F. E. Fritsch, 1927, p 121, f33 K = AcanthococcusreticularisReinsch, 1886, p 241, pili, f 12, 14


Genus GOLENKINIA Chodat, 1894a, p 305

Solitary or in palmelloid aggregates. Cells spherical. Cell wall fairly thick and covered by linear ridges which intersect to form polygons. Cells usually 20-32 p,

rarely 12-18 ft or up to 39 ft, in diameter (Fig. 25). HABITAT.In paddy fields, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902); in cultures cf paddy field soils from U.P. (R. N. Singh, 1939); in pond, Azhicode, Kerala, rareFebruary (!).

Cells usually solitary" fi'ee-floating, spherical and with a thin cell wall covered by long hyaline setae or bristles which are not thickened at the base. Chloroplast single, parietal and with a single pyrenoid. . Asexual reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8 autospores or aplanospores, rarely vacuolesby ZOOspores (4 in number) without flagella or stigma but with contractile (hemi-zoospores). Only one species recorded from the Indian region.






Colonies pyramidate and often with larger number of cells; cells usually with one spine, which is 50-90 p.long, rarely s20rter and broader at the base .M. bornhemiensie105) (p

;MiC<1'actinium pusillum Fresenius G. Fresenius, 1858, p 236, pili, £4.5-49; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 125-26, pi 28, f 1-3; S. H. Ley, 1947, P 276


=Goltnkinia botryoides Schmidle, 1896,P 194


=Richteriella botryoides (Schmidle) Lemmermann, 1898 a, p 307, pi 10, f 1-6; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 119, f 87a =R. botryoides JenestrataChodat, 1902, P 194 f.

=R. botryoides f. tetraedrica Lemm.,

1910, P 307; J. Brunnthaler,

1915, p \19, f 87 b

spherical with a thin firm cell membrane and with one or more (2-5) long hyaline setae from their outer surface. Chloroplast single, parietal, cup-shaped and with a pyrenoid. Cells 3-10 p, in diameter. Setae usually up to 30 p, long, rarely up to 60 p" ~ and 1-1' 5 P, broad at the base. Reproduction by autospores which are liberated as auto colonies or by oogamous gametes. Oospores with an outer spinous wall, and 14-15 p, in diameter (Fig. 29). HABITAT. Planktonic in ponds and' tanks, Bhopal, rather common-July, Raipur, rare-April, Cuttack, rare to rather comm:m, July, August, and December; and Hyderabad, rare-January; Swamp, Kausalya Ganga, rather common-April (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe. N. America, Africa, India, Java, Japan, and China. 30. Micractinium bornhemiense (Conrad) Korshikov
1915, p 120, f 87 c; G. M. '

Colonies quadrate, tetrahedric, or rarely pyramidate, with 4-8-16 or more of four, each group being quadrate or pyramidate,. Cells lIs arranged in groups

O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 40 I, f 405 =Errerella bornhemiensis Conrad, 1913, p 242, f 1-3: J. Brunnthaler, Smith, 1926, pp 178-79, p12, f 1-3; S. H. Ley, 1947, p 276




Colonies usually pyramidate with 16-64-256, rarely more, cells arrangjft in groups 1>f OlJr,each_group being pyramidate. Cells spherical with a thin nrm memDriome f and usually with one (rarely two or three) gradually tapering hyaline setae fPOmtheir outer surface. Chloroplast single, parietal and cup-shaped with or without a pyrenoid. . Cells usually 6-9 p,,' rarely 3-5 p" in diam~ter. Setae usually 50-90 p" rare!y, 22'5-40 p" long and 1'3-2'0 f.l broad at,the'base (Fig. 30). ,lIABrr1\.T. Planktonic in ponds, Cuttack, rather common-August and Azhicode, Cochin, abundant-February (!)', DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, India, and China. Though there is a certain amount of overlappingbetweenM. bornhemiense and M. pusillum, particularly in the measureme~ts, it can be easily distinguished from M. pusillum by its distinctly pyramidate colonies and usually larger number of cells. The setae 'are also generally longer with slightly broader base. The absence of a pyrenoid and the presence of only one spine'from each cell, as given in Conrad's original. description, are not characteristic features Jince pyrenoids are, often present and the number of setae may also _occasion~!ly be two to three from each ~ell.
Speciesnot recorded from the Indian region
M. M. M. M. appendiculatum Korshikov, 1953, p 402, f 406 eriense Tiffany et Ahlstrom, 1931 octospinum 'Hallett, 1962, p 487, f 4-6 quadrisetum (Lemm.) G. M. Smith, 1916 b, p479, pI 25, r 17 =Richteriella quadriseta Lemm., 1898 a, p 307 = R. botryoides (Schmid1e) Lemm. var. quadriseta (Lemm.) Chodat,




1902, p 194

Genera of Micractiniaceae

lIot recorded from the Indian region

~f'.' FIGs. 29-30. 29, MiGractinium pusillum FRESENIUS; 30, M. bornhemiense (CONRAD) KORSH.; 30 a and c, PORTIONOF 30b, ENLARGED:,'30b x 1000;

Acanthosphaera Lemmermann, 1899, p 118, with two species : A. tenuispina Korsh., 1953, p 138, f 78 A. zachariasi Lemm., 1899, p 118, pI I, f 10-1 I Echinosphaeridium Lemmermann, 1904, monospecific : E. nordstedtii Lemm., 1904 Palmellochaete "Korsh., 1953, p 268, monospecific : p. te"mima K,orsh., 1953, p 269, f 222

30 a, eX 1570.~9-X .570,



--' '~~




Colonies pyramidate and often with larger number of cells; cells usually with one spine, which is 50-90 ,..Iong, rarely s~orter and broader at the base .M. bornhemiensie 105) (p




G. Fresenius, 1858, p 236, pili, f -1,5-49; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 125-26, pI 28, £ 1-3; S. H. Ley, 1947, P 276 =Goltnkinia botryoides Schmidle, 1896, p 194 =Richteriella botryoides (Schmidle) Lemmermann, 1898 a, p 307, pi 10, £ 1-6; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 119, £ 87a

=R. botryoides £.jenestrata Chodat, 1902, P 194
=R. botryoides £. tetraedrica Lemm., 1910, P 307;J. Brunnthaler,


1915, p 119, £87 b

spherical with a thin firm cell membrane and with one or more (2-5) long hyaline setae from their outer surface. Chloroplast single, parietal, cup-shaped and with a pyrenoid. Cells 3-10 ft in diameter. Setae usually up to 30 ftlong, rarely up to 60 ft, and 1-1' 5 ft broad at the base. .. Reproduction by autospores which are liberated as autocolonies or by oogamous gametes. Oospores with an outer spinous wall, and 14-15 ft in diameter (Fig. 29). HABITAT. Planktonic in ponds and tanks, Bhopal, rather common-July, Raipur, rare-April, Cuttack, rare to rather comm:m, July, August, and December; and Hyderabad, rare-January; Swamp, Kausalya Ganga, rather common-April (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe. N. America, Africa, India, Java, Japan, and China. 30. Micractinium boruhemieuse (Conrad) Korshikov

Colonies quadrate, tetrahedric, or rarely pyramidate, with: 4-8-16 or more of four, each group being quadrate or pyramidate,. Cells Us arranged in groups

O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 40 I, £ 405 =Errerella bornhemiensis Conrad, 1913, p 242, £ 1-3;

Smith, 1926,pp 178-79,pl2, £ 1-3; S. H. Ley, 1947,p 276



1915, p 120, £ 87 c; G. M.



\. >




Colonies usually pyramidate with 16-64-256, rarely more, cells arrangjtVin groups2ffol,Jr, each_group being pyramidate. Cells spherical with a thin firm mem't~ane ,-and usually with one (rarely two or three) gradually tapering hyaline setae from their outer surface. Chloroplast single, parietal and cup-shaped with or without a pyrenoid. . Cells usually 6-9 ft,' rarely 3-5 ft, in diam~ter. Setae usually 50-90 ft, rare!y, 22'5-40 ft, long and 1'3-2'0 f' broad at ,the 'base (Fig. 30). ,HABITAT. Planktonic in ponds, Cuttack, rather common-August and Azhicode, Cochin, abundant-February (!)', DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, India, and China. Though there is a certain amount of overlapping between M. bornhemiense and M. pusillum, particularly in the measuremeqts, it can be easily distinguished from M. pusillum by its distinctly pyramidate colonies and usually larger number of cells. The setae 'are also generally longer with slightly broader base. The absence of a pyrenoid al}.dthe presence of only one spine"from each cell, as given in Conrad's original. description, are not characteristic features Jince pyrenoids are.often present and the

number of setae may also _occasion~!ly be two to three from each ~ell. Species ot recorded n from the Indian region
M. M. M. M. appendiculatum Korshikov, 1953, p 402, f 406 eriense Tiffany et Ahlstrom, 1931 octosPinum'Hallett, 1962, p 487, £ 4-6 quadrisetum (Lemm.) G. M. Smith, 1916 b, p479, pi 25, r 17 =Richteriella quadriseta Lemm., 1898 a, p 307 = R. botryoides (Schmidle) Lemm. var. quadriseta (Lemm.) Chodat,

1902, p 194

Genera of Micractiniaceae

tlot recorded from the Indian region

~~ FIGs. 29-30. 29, Micractinium pusillum FRESENIUS; M. bornhemiense 30, (CONRAD)KaRSH.; 30 a and c, PORTION 30b, ENLARGI!:D:, x 1000; OF '30b aOare xI570.~9-X1570. .;.

Acanthosphaera Lemmermann, 1899, p 118, with two species : A. tenuisPina Korsh., 1953, p 138, £ 78 A. zachariasi Lemm.. 1899, p 118, pi I, £ 10-11 Echinosphaeridium Lemmermann, 1904, monospecific: E. nordstetftii Lemm., 1904 Palmellochaete .Korsh., 1953, p 268, monospecific :

1'. tel!mima ..;
...... ~~""



p 269, £ 222

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