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occurs when excessive power input moves the cone so far

that the cone becomes separated from the voice coil form,
the voice coil separates from the coil form, the surround
rips, or the spider rips. Any one of these will cause the loud-
ADDITION NUMBER TWO speaker to fail. When the surround or spider rips, this will
POWER HANDLING CAPACITY eventually lead to voice coil rubbing because the cone
assembly is not suspended properly. Small rips will usually go
unnoticed, but after some time they become large ones, and
Excessive power is one of the worst enemies of a loud- the failure is soon to follow.
speaker. Overpowering is probably the number one killer of
l oudspeakers, with rock bands jamming their guitar necks Failure can be a composite of the two above failures. For
through the cones being a close second. To understand how example, when a very large transient is delivered by the
speakers operate and what happens when they fail to do so power amplifier (such as dropping a microphone on the
will be covered in the following discussion. stage), the loudspeaker will try to reproduce the waveform.
This may end up with the voice coil assembly traveling
LOUDSPEAKER PARTS AND OPERATION outward so far it leaves the magnetic gap and, when it tries
Loudspeakers convert electrical energy into acoustic energy, to return, it may be stressed off center and miss. This causes
which you hear, and another form of energy, heat, which the whole operation to become locked up with the cone
you don't hear (more on heat later). To understand what protruding forward from its normal rest position. Even
happens in a normal operating cone loudspeaker (woofer), though the loudspeaker is motionless, power is still being
see Figure 1. When alternating electrical energy (power) is applied to the voice coil. Since the coil is out of the gap
applied to the leads of the voice coil, it creates forces which (which, under normal conditions, acts as a nice heat sink to
interact with the magnetic field in the gap of the magnetic keep temperatures of the voice coil in operating range) it will
assembly. This interaction results i n cone motion quickly overheat and burn.
(excursion). Since the electrical energy is alternating in
nature, the speaker voice coil will move in and out of the A properly designed woofer should be able to sustain the
gap. Because the voice coil is rigidly connected to the cone, necessary excursion at the manufacturer's rated power and
the cone, spider and surround move with the same motion as frequency range. High power woofers can usually handle
the voice coil. This motion moves air and this produces maximum mechanical excursions of about one inch peak-to-
sound. Everything works great until some part is stressed peak if distortion is ignored. If distortion is considered, the
beyond its design limits. linear, not mechanical, excursion limits might be 1/8 to 1/3
this value, depending on the particular design.
There are two different ways of overpowering a loudspeaker. So far this has dealt only with cone loudspeakers (such as
First, excessive power applied over a long period of time will woofers). The same failures common to cone speakers can
cause "thermal failure" of the loudspeaker by heating the occur in midrange loudspeakers or tweeters. A mechanical
voice coil to the point where some part of its structure failure which may occur in some high-performance
literally melts, breaks, or actually burns up. Temperatures in compression drivers is dome shattering. Shattering of metal
the voice coil may exceed 300 degrees fahrenheit under domes is caused by overstressing the metal by constant
normal operating conditions. Second, "mechanical failure" flexing. What happens when the dome is over-flexed is that it

FIGURE 1 - Parts of a Cone Loudspeaker

Page One
breaks up into many small pieces similar to shattered glass power in the region from 40 to 80 Hertz as in the region
and ceases to function. (See Addition Number 1 of our "PA from 4000 to 4080 Hertz). "Pink noise" is another kind of
Bible" for details on high-performance drivers.) random noise arranged to produce constant power in each
musical octave (like 100-200 Hz, 200-400 Hz, 400-800 Hz,
etc.) (The power content in each octave of white noise
i ncreases as you go up in frequency since there are many
Real-world vocal or instrumental program material has, first,
more frequencies in the 10,000-20,000 Hertz octave than,
a "long-term average level" (anything from a second on up)
say, the 100-200 Hertz octave.) Both pink and white noise,
which pretty much determines how "loud" the sound is to
although they contain all frequencies in a manner similar
our ears. Second, this material has short duration peak power
to general program material, have far more power at the
levels (small fractions of a second) which can be on the order
frequency extremes than typical vocal or instrumental
of ten times the long-term average levels. Although these
program material. Thus, they do not represent a particularly
peaks contribute little to perceived loudness, they are
realistic test, as they will subject woofers and tweeters to a
necessary for clean, accurate reproduction. It is the long-term
much more rigorous test than they would generally be
average power input which heats up the voice coil (thermal
subjected to in a real life.
failure). The short-duration peaks, even if they are many
ti mes greater in maximum power than the long-term average, The second thing you need to know about the input signal is
will not damage the voice coil thermally because they are not how long it is applied. This is especially important in view of
applied long enough to increase its temperature. Also, the the above discussion about how most speakers take much
peaks found in typical real-world program material - say greater power for a very short time than they can withstand
4-to-10 times the long-term average (6-to-10 dB) - will not for a long period of time. A 1,000 Hertz RMS sine wave test
damage the usual speaker mechanically, either. However, is not very good in this respect. If it is applied for a long
l arge peaks from various "accidents" (like dropping a micro- time, it tests the thermal limit of the speaker at that
phone or electronics turn-on transients) can cause enough frequency. However, the instantaneous peak power of a sine
mechanical stress to damage the speaker. wave is only two times greater than the long-term RMS value.
This means that the mechanical portions of the speaker are
hardly put to a test at all, since real-program has
Since every manufacturer would like to claim their loud-
i nstantaneous peaks that can be ten or more times the
speaker can handle more power than anything else on the
l ong-term average. Random noise can offer a more realistic
market, there are almost as many power ratings as there are
test. Random noise can be arranged to have instantaneous
manufacturers. The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
peaks many times the average value in the manner of real
and the Audio Engineering Society (AES) have attempted to
program material. In addition, tests involving random noise
define standard testing procedures for the industry, but most
are repeatable.
manufacturers have not adopted the outlined methods for
one reason or another. Therefore, you will find ratings with
absolutely no definition at all as well as ratings that are well
Since random noise is closely related to real-program
defined, but do not effectively accomplish a power test that
material, it becomes the heart of a meaningful power or
means much in the real world. Some of the words are
"life" test. To just use pink noise would be too demanding
"program," "continuous," "peak," and "music power."
on a speaker or speaker system in the extremes of the
spectrum (low frequencies and high frequencies). Therefore,
shaped or filtered pink noise can be used for a more realistic
In order to understand how rigorously a speaker or speaker
test. The shaping usually conforms to the bandwidth of the
system is being power tested, you need to know two things
speaker or speaker system being tested or to a standard
about the input signal. First you need to know what fre-
specification. Even though shaping is applied, the signal can
quencies are being applied. For instance, if you use a 1,000
be arranged to contain more energy at extremely high and
Hertz single tone in a system with multiple drivers and an
low frequencies than the typical actual program which the
appropriate crossover network, only the speaker which
speaker or speaker system would normally be required to
reproduces the 1,000 Hertz tone is being tested. Such a test
reproduce, resulting in a product with an extra measure of
would tell you nothing about how rugged the woofer and
tweeter were.
The noise test signal generates not only the overall "long-
Some sort of real-program material would provide a more
term average" or "continuous" level which our ears interpret
realistic test, in that the various frequencies that make up the
as loudness but also the short-duration peaks which are many
real material would be appropriately fed to the test speaker.
times higher than the average, just like actual program
The problem with using program material is that it is not
material. The long-term average level stresses the speaker
repetitive enough. In other words, it is pretty hard to get
thermally and the instantaneous peaks test mechanical
real "program material" out of a lab instrument in a repeat-
able way. Another possibility is to make use of some sort of
"random noise." Random noise, over a period of time, So far, noise appears to be a test which duplicates the real-
contains all frequencies. It sounds quite similar to inter- life situation, but there is one more thing - how long will
station hiss on an FM tuner without inter-station muting. the speaker withstand this punishment? The length of time
"White noise" is a type of random noise which has, over a speaker can sustain (without failure) a given input is the
time, equal power at every frequency (for example, the same other factor important to a meaningful test. In actual use,
l ong-term average levels exist from perhaps a second on up, Assuming a reasonable rating to work from exists, we can
but a practical test involves a number of hours. divide almost all systems into two categories; those using full-
range, single-cone loudspeakers (one-way systems) and those
Electro-Voice became interested in noise testing in 1968,
which are multi-way (two and three-way systems). We will
and has continued to utilize it to present day. The EIA
consider multi-way systems first.
standards adopted a similar test for loudspeakers in 1975
(RS- 426). If all manufacturers would subscribe to a Multi-Way Systems
standard noise test (such as the EIA test), the end user would A. To use a speaker system to full capacity, skilled experts
have his life simplified considerably. Unfortunately, this is i n sound system installation and operation will obtain
not the case at present, so undefined power ratings are the best results if the power amplifier is 2-to-4 times
worth about as much as confederate money. the long-term average noise power rating of the speaker
EFFICIENCY VS. POWER CAPACITY OR WANT TO BUY system. (The woofer rating may be thought of as the
A 400-WATT LOUDSPEAKER? system rating if a separate system rating is not given.)
If all you plan to do when purchasing a loudspeaker is The caution cannot be made strongly enough, however,
examine the power rating, someday some sharp salesman that this arrangement is only for experts or for those
may sell you a light bulb. Light bulbs can handle lots of people who can discipline themselves against "pushing"
power, but they don't put out much sound. Remember what the system for ever-higher sound levels and who can
speakers really do? They convert electrical energy into (1) avoid "accidents" such as catastrophic feedback or
sound (great) and (2) heat (not so great). So, beware of dropping microphones. Dropping a mike causes a peak
buying a super-power 400-watt speaker on that consideration which can mechanically damage a speaker. Feedback
alone. You might be getting a device that takes all the power can thermally destroy speakers, especially the mid-
claimed but is less efficient than another speaker, therefore and high-frequency components which handle the
giving less actual sound output with a given power amp. frequency range where most feedback occurs. Big
For example, start with a 200-watt speaker that delivers amps can destroy speakers with ease, and mishandling
1 20 dB at a distance of 4 feet with an input of 200 watts. will be very expensive.
Then go to a 400-watt speaker that puts out only 1] 7 dB at The large amplifier in this recommendation is to permit
4 feet with 200 watts in. Although the second speaker takes driving the speaker system near to its long-term average
more power, it requires a 400-watt input to get the 120 dB rating with enough reserve power left to handle the
you got from the first, more efficient speaker with only typical short-duration program peaks which do not
200 watts in. (Remember, to make up the 3-dB difference harm the speaker. (See "The Relationship Between
between 120 and 1 1 7 dB you need two times the amp Thermal and Mechanical Failure" section.) The
power.) Therefore, before you buy a speaker with a big amplifiers in this recommendation allow short-duration
power rating - even if its a realistic rating and not just some peaks of 3-to-6 dB above the long-term average
number resulting from adding up the digits on an advertising capacity of the speaker. This makes it easier to
guy's paycheck - consider its efficiency and see how much approach with program material the speaker's long-
SPL it produces with a given power input. term average rating without clipping the program
HOW BIG AN AMP CAN I USE WITH MY SPEAKER? peaks. However, if the level is pushed so that the
Now that we have a realistic power test all you need to do is amplifier starts clipping a substantial portion of
determine the power rating of the loudspeaker, buy an program peaks (and you can stand the resultant harsh,
amplifier with the exact same size power rating and enjoy irritable distortion), the thermal limit of the speaker
perfection - right? WRONG! If it were only that easy, every- may be exceeded.
thing would work perfectly and people who re-cone speakers
Non-experts can safely obtain the "best" or "expert"
would be in the bread line. That is not to say that a 100-watt
results by using amplifiers which have special circuitry
amp won't work well with a loudspeaker rated for 100 watts
(per some specification). It may very well work fine. to do the expert's job. Such circuitry allows the long-
term average power output to be set to the speaker's
The matter of mating an amplifier rating with a loudspeaker rating, but still allows the entire muscle of the amp for
system is frankly a pain in the posterior. We feel it would be short-duration program peaks. The power amplifiers
very difficult for anyone who is intimately acquainted with made by E-V/TAPCO incorporate a powerlock
the details of power testing procedures and loudspeaker feature which provides this performance.
failure modes to make absolute statements involving this
B. A more conservative, "nominal" amp size, which will
subject with a clear conscience. Getting that off our chest,
produce audible results nearly equal to those of the
we will attempt to offer some guidelines that should be of
"expert" system, is one equal to the long-term average
help i n making selections based on having a reasonable base
noise power rating of the speaker system.
to proceed from. That reasonable base is, testing the loud-
speaker with a noise spectrum over a substantial portion of The caution here is to studiously avoid the amplifier
its operational range for a long period of time. It may be the clipping described above. Although the small amplifier
EIA eight-hour form of noise test (RS 426) or some other is less likely to produce damaging long-term average
test at least as rigorous. Unqualified ratings such as "100 power output, it is more likely to be driven into
watts" or "75 watts peak" are very difficult to deal with clipping on program peaks. The harsh, irritating
since so much is left open to question. distortion products generated are high in frequency

Page Three
and are thus fed to the high-frequency components of provide many years of excellent service. A few quick pointers
the system. This output is not present in normal may be of use in extending the life of your speaker:
program material and can overload tweeters and
I. Provide some means of high-pass filtering in the
midranges - creating a one-way system without a
electronics to prevent sub-sonic frequencies from
t weeter. As a result, if you pick the relatively
bottoming the speaker. Such frequencies are typically
conservative "nominal" amp size - and end up driving
below the frequency which the system can reproduce
the system into hard clipping - you may end up flying
but cause large cone excursions which mechanically
the tweeters sooner than if you had picked the large
strain the speaker mechanism and modulate ("muddy
amp of the "expert" system (above). The problem of
up") the bass which the system is capable of
over-powering system high-frequency components is
reproducing. A high-pass filter is a filter designed to
minimized if they are protected in some manner, such
pass all material above a certain frequency and reject
as relay interrupting devices (such as the Electro-Voice
everything below. For instance, if a system only has
STR) or electronic limiting devices (such as the
low-frequency response down to 50 Hertz, a high-
Electro-Voice High-Frequency Auto Limiting circuit).
pass filter at 45 Hertz would be desirable.
However, such devices are not foolproof, especially if
they are continuously being cycled. Some power amps and mixers incorporate high-pass
C. To be very conservative, one can use an amplifier rated filters of this type; at least one separate high-pass
at .5-to.7 times the long-term average noise power filter is available. The Electro-Voice XEQ-1 active
rating of the loudspeaker. This will provide an extra crossover (for bi-amped systems) features a 20-Hz
margin of safety while still making reasonable high-pass filter.
utilization of speaker capability. The comments made
2. Don't use speaker connecting cords with AC plugs on
above on clipping and the generation of potentially
them, because some day the speakers will get
damaging high-frequency distortion products apply
accidently plugged into 120 volts AC. You might
here also.
enjoy 60 Hertz for a millisecond, if you are lucky.
One-Way Systems
3. Look for power amplifiers that have DC (direct
In general, the suggestions and comments made about multi-
current) protection, turn on delay, and peak output
way systems apply also to one-way systems. However, the
indicators. Any or all of these features would be
high-frequency distortion products generated by amplifier
desirable. If an amplifier fails and puts out DC, the
clipping will not, in general, be damaging.
voice coil will go critical and melt-down will occur.
Musical Instrument Speakers. Special consideration should be Turn on delay will keep the amplifier from sending a
given to the one-way speakers typically used in musical large transient to the speaker which could cause many
i nstrument applications, such as guitar and bass. Amplifier bad effects. Peak indicators are useful for operation.
clipping is often part of the desired "sound," so that the They will indicate when you have reached the
peaks of such program are not very far above the long-term maximum safe power from the amplifier (remember
average. Thus, if you take the "expert" option and couple an clipping?).
800-watt amplifier to a 200-watt guitar speaker you may be
more likely to exceed the speaker's long-term average noise 4. On the subject of power amplifiers, if a system uses a
rating than if the program material were voice or miked separate power amplifier and mixer, the mixer should
acoustic instruments. The importance of this warning is be switched on before the power amplifier. If this is
done in reverse sequence and the mixer puts out a turn-
heavily influenced by your personal playing style.
on transient, the amplifier will amplify it and send it to
Bi-Amped and Tri-Amped Multi-Way Systems. Such systems the speakers. When turning off equipment, turn the
become, in effect, one-way systems when considering amp- power amplifier off first, then the mixer, for the same
to-speaker matching. Be alert to the lower power ratings reason. (This is great unless you left an extension cord
typical on mid- and high-frequency speakers, and avoid over- where someone will catch his foot on it and unplug the
powering them with amps the size of those used to drive whole system. Being a good guy, he quickly plugs the
woofers. (The efficiency of horn-loaded midranges and whole thing in at once and the system takes the
t weeters is higher than that of a cone woofer, so that a l umps.)
smaller amp is usually appropriate.)
VITAMIN C FOR LOUDSPEAKER LIFE EXTENSION We would like to congratulate Randy Cook of Charlotte,
Some comments on ways to keep your speakers performing Michigan, for finally finding the mystery mistake. We made
for years to come seem to be in order after all this discussion an error (obviously on purpose) on page 4, line 10 of
of power testing, blown speakers, and big repair bills. "Double Distance Rule Gets You" in the "PA Bible." The
word "decreased" should read "increased." Now we know
Actually, loudspeakers are fairly forgiving and dependable
who has been reading closely!
devices. When you stop to think, a loudspeaker cone is a
piece of paper which may only weigh half an ounce, and
the voice coil is sometimes made from wire only .01 inch in
600 Cecil Street, Buchanan, Michigan 49107
diameter! It is pretty impressive that speakers can withstand 8234 Doe Avenue, Visalia, California 93277
high power, cycling thousands of times a second without Electro-Voice Div., 345 Herbert Street,
Gananoque, Ontario • Electro-Voice, S.A.,
coming apart. If speakers are not mistreated, they can Romerstrasse 3, 2560 Nidau, Switzerland

Form 1916 - 951 Page Four Litho in U. S. A.