Cells ellipsoid with pointed ends and with a median constriction. Envelope of cell with eight longitudinal costae. Chromatophore with a central pyrenoid. Cells 6' 5-9 It broad and 16-22 It long. Constriction 5' 3-5 . 8 It broad (Fig. 31). HABITAT. Paddy fields, Heneratgodha, Ceylon (w.. and G. S. West, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.Ceylon and Java.
Species not recorded from the Indian region.

6. Family TREUBARIACEAE (Korsh.) Fott, 1960, P 277
Members together in epiphytic. ting ridges tiated into of this family are usually unicellular and solitary, rarely united

definite colonies of four or more cells when young; free-living or rarely Cells spherical, ellipsoid, fusiform or triangular to tetrahedric with projecat margins; often with setae from angles or ends; cell membrane differentwo layers, an inner thin firm one and an outer layer made up of two or or autospores.

more parts. Reproduction by zoospores (or aplanospores) Four genera are known from the Indian region. KEY TO THE GENERA I.

Always solitary .. . " a. Cells enclosed by a broad spindle.shaped envelope consisting of longitudinally cosate halves which are firmly united at equatorial region. r .., ., Desmatractum(p 106). b. Cells not so enclosecl i. Cells t,iangular to pyramidal with~gles extended into long spines or setae. . . . . . . . . . 107) . . .. _ Treubaria(p ii. Cells spherical with four stout appendages having blunt or bifurcate pachycladon.(p . . . .108) ends ..' . . . . ...
conical extension from otto.side. . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . .ConococcUS(p



D. bif!yramidatum (Chodat) Pascher, 1930, p 654, f 7-9 =Bernardinella bipyramidata Chodat, 1920 D. delicatissimum Korshikov, 1953, p 147, f 86 D. elongatum (pascher) Pascher, 1930, p 653 f, 13 =Bernardinella elongata Pascber (in sched.) D.'indutum (Geitler) Pascher, 1930, p 653, f 10-11 =Cal;ptrobactron indutum Geitler, 1924 =Bernardinella induta Pascher (in sched.) D. nyanzae (Wolosz,) G. S. West, 1916 =Peniococcus nyanzae Woloszynska, 1914, p 205. D. obtusum Pascher, 1930, p 655, f 15

XIV. Genus TREUBARIA Bernard, 1908, p 169


Solitary or united together in definite colonies when young
Cells with a transparent




Genus DESMATRACTUMW. et G. S. West, 1902 emend. Pascher, 1930, P 651
1920 and Calyptrobactron Geitler, 1924)

Solitary, free-floating, flat or pyramidal cells with three or more angles which are produced to form a stout- basally-broad seta which is tapering or .with subparallel .sides. Sides of cells usually concave. Cell body distinct and with one 01:more chloroplasts which.are parietal or cup-shaped and often filling the cell. Pyrenoid one and central or more, with each angle having one. Reproduction by the formation of autospores. Treuharia is distinguished from Tetraedronby the setae which are ~tensions of the angles of the cells proper and which are much longer than the diameter of the cells. The protoplast is also distinct. Only one species recorded from the Indian region.

(incl. Bernardinella Chodat,



. Wille, 1909, p 60;J.

Cells spherical and enclosed by a broad spindle-shaped brownish envelope consisting of two longitudinally costate halves whicli are firmly united at the equatorial' region. _ Cell with a thin hyaliN: cell membrane and a single cup-shaped chloroplast having on~ or two pyrenoids. . . R~produ~tion by 2-4. biciliate zoospores which are liberated by a transverse rupture of the envelope in the equatQrial region at the point of union of the two halves. Zoospores, when not liberated, develop into aplanospores which germinate and develop the spindle-shaped envelope before liberation by the gelatinization of the envelope of the parent. Only one species recorded from the Indian regioJ!. 31. Desmatractum plicatum W. et G. S. West
1915, P 142, f 150; A. Pascher,

C; Bernard, 1908, p 170, f 344-48; G. M. Smith, 1926, pp 171-78, pI9,-f 19-23, pliO, f 1;

O. A. Korshikov, 1953,p 142,f 81 = Telraedron triappendiculatum (Bernard)


1915, p 159, f205

W. & G. S. West, 1902, P 198, pi 17, f 14-15; J. Brunnthaler, 1930, p 652, Text-f 12

., 106

Cells three to four angled with broadly rounded angles and slightly concave, or, rarely, slightly convex sides. Each angle produced into a long, stout, hyaline spine with a broad base and gradually tapering into an acute point. Chloroplasts 1-4, each with a pyrenoid. Cells without spines 6-13 It "in diamc;ter. Spines 12-40 It long and 3' 5-5 It broad at the base (Fig. 32). HABITAT. Planktonic in swamp, Kausalya Ganga, rather COIIimon-April, and pond, Cuttack, stray-August (!). DISTRIBUTION.Java, India, N. America, and Europe. , The Indian alga, with the cells 10'5-13 It in diameter and'spines 25-40 p long, ( is slightly larger than the Javanese species which is 6' 5-10 It in diameter with spines J5-20 p, rarely up.to 30 It and the Am~ican and European alga with the cells 6-12 IJ





in diameter and spines 12-30 ft. According to Smith and Korshikov, the alga may have three or four angles. However, in the Indian, as also the Javanese form, no specimen with four angles could be observed. The cells appeared to be flat with either a single chloroplast having a central pyrenoid or with three chloroplasts, each with a pyrenoid. Probably, the fourth seta gets detached easily in mounts.
Other species of

l"~ b d



T. craJsispina G. M. Smith, 1926, p 178, pliO, [2-5 T. eurycantha (Lemm.) Karsh., 1953, p 143, [83 = Tetraedron schmidlei var. eurycanthum Lemm. T. planctonica (G. M. Smith) Karsh., 1953, p 145, [84 = Borgea Planctonica G. M. Smith, 1922a = Tetraedron schmidlei (Schroeder) Lemmermann T. setigerum (Archer) G. M. Smith, 1933, p 499 = Tetrapedia setigerum Archer, 1872, p 46, pl21, [14-17 = Tetraedron trigonum var. setiger/un (Archer) Lemmermann, T. varia Ahlstrom et Tiffany, 1931, pp 459-60, [ 16


1904, p 110

'( 3Ia
& G. S. WEST, 1902; 34, FROM H. J. CARTEIt,1869;


Gellus PACHYCLADON G. M. Smith, 1924



Cells spherical and enclosed by a thin cell membrane that is without a gelatinous enveln;-e: With four stout dark brown appendages usually arranged quadrately, but sometimes pyramidately, from the cell wall. Appendages gradually tapering from a broad base to a blup.t or bifurcate apex. The single chloropl'hst nearly fills the cell and is cup-shaped and with a pyrenoid. So far, monospecific.


31 b

33. Pachycladon


G. M. Smith

G. M. Smith, 1924; 1933, p 500, £339

Cells spherical and enclosed by a thin cell membrane without any gelatinouS envelope. Cell wall with four quadrately arranged stout .dark brown appendages which are .broad at the base and blunt or bifurcate at the apex. Cells' 7' 5-12:5 fJ . in diameter. Appendages 35-52' 5 ft long and 3-3:-5 ft broad at the base (Fig. 33). HABiTAT. Planktonic in ponds at Cuttack, rather common to abundant-July(!r DISTRIBUTION.N..America and India. The Indian alga agrees with the American form'in aU r~spects, except that' the maximum length of the appendages sometimes exceeds by 2' 5 ft over the figure (50 ft) given by G. M. Smith.



FIGs. 31-'34. 31, .Besmatractum plic"atwn W. ET G. S. WEST; a, LATERAL VIEW, b, OPTICAL .CltOSS-SECTlON; 32, Treubaria triappendiculata BEItNAltD; 33,.Pachycladon u:n~rinus G. M. SMITH; 34, Conococcus elongatus CAItTEIt. 32, ,33, x(31, FItOM W. 1000).


£ 14--20; H. Printz, 1927, p 130, £85 c-f


Genus CONOCOCCUS Carter, 1869, p 432


1869, p 432, pll4,

Cells spherical, solitary or united together in definite colonies of four or more cells when young. Cell membrane delicate and with a transparent conical extension from one side. Chromatophore green and with.a central pyrenoid (?). Reproduction by cell division into 4-8-16-32, each daughter cell getting a conical extension of the cell wall from the outer side. ..S~ fur,. monospecific.

:" Cells spherical, solitary or, when. young, united together in colonies of 4-8-16-32 LcelIs. Each cell with a transparent conic~1 appendage from the outer side of the cell 'Wall which is about three times (or more in young cells) longer than the diameter of : !he cell. Chromatophore green and with a central pyrenoid (?). Cells 5'. 1-6' 4 " "'In diameter (Fig. 34). HABITAT. In &eshwater tanks in the island of Bombay (carter'





eft.,T.,. ~,'"~~.,.




This alga, known only by Carter's original record, .. nuclear vesicle" within the cell appears to be the pyrenoid.
Other genera of Treubariaceae

needs restudy.


not reconudfrom the Indian regiol'


Echinoco/tum Jao et Lee, 1947, p 109, monospecific : E. t/tgansJao et Lee, 1947, p 109, f I a-k EchinosPhatrtlla G.M. Smith, 1920, p 128, monospecific : E. limnctica G. M. Smith, 1920, p 128, pi 29, f 9-11 (incl. Tet;atdron sttllatum Swirenko, 1926, p 85) Octogonitlla Paschcr, 1930, p 655, monospecific : O. sphagnico/a Pascher, 1930, p 656, Text-f I~, pi 26 Saturnclla ~1attauch et Paschcr ex Maltauch, 1936, P 413 (=Discocystis Skuja, 1959, p 13) with two species: S. cortico/a (Skuja) Folt, 1960, P 275 =Discocystiscortico/a Skuja, 1959, pp 13-14, pi I f 1-16 S. saturnus (Stcinecke) Folt, 1960, P 275, pi 46, f 1-6 =ProwcoCCUS saturnus StciDecke, 1916, P 74=Saturnclla t/tgans Matt. et pascher ex Mattauc;h, 1936, p 413, f 2 =Discocystis saturnus (Stcinecke) Skuja, 1959, pp 14-15, pi 2, f 1-18 Trigonidium Pascher, 1932, p 412, monospecific : T.galta Pascher, 1932, P 414, f2 a-c, 3 a-d.

Family HYDRODICTYACEAE (S. F. Gray) Dumortier orth. mul, Cohn, 1880 p 289, emend. *

Members of this family are free living and either unicellular or in regular colonies. Cells cylindrical tetrahedral or polygonal, sometimes nearly spherical; chloroplast single parietal and laminate, and with a pyrenoid. Reproduction by zoospores, autospores, or- isogamous gametes. There are two subfamilies:
i.- . Always in regular colonies (net-like, flat discs or spherical); cells cylindrical, polygonal or sometimes nearly spherical; reproduction by two or more zoospores from each cell which remain together to form auto-colonies or sometimes by isogamous gametes, the zygospore ultimately producing a colony, usually with intermediate stages offree-swimming zoospores, irregular . Tetratdroll-stagu ' and non-swarming aggregate of zoospores SUBFAM. HYDRODtCTYOIDEAE

I. Colony microscopic a. Colony a flat plate of 4-8-16-32-64 or more (usually 32) cells Ptdiastrum (p Ill)


Colony spherical and of 4-8-16-32-64

2. Colony macroscopic
Colony oflarge cylindrical

stalked cells radiating from the centre.. ...... Sorastrum(p 132)
in the form of a net-work.. .R»drodiclYoll(p 133)

coenocytes arranged

ii. Usually unicellular, very rarely in loose aggreg~tes; cells usu31ly angular- often with spines from angles,- rarely cylindrical or semilunar; reproduction usually by-autospores, rarely by freeswimming zoospores which develop directly into a cell like the parent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUBP,uI. ETRAEDRoNoIDEAE T





1. 2.

Cells triangular, tetragonal or polygonal with angles rounded, produced or pointed and with or without short spines. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Tttratdron (p 136) Cells cylindrical to crescent.shaped and with a spine from each end. . . ... Closteridium 161) (p
"',Cells tetragonal

fromeachangle.. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . :.. Su~fami1y ~R9DICTYOIDEAE XVII. Genus PEDIASTRUM Meyen,

to pyramidal

with cruciate


or rectangular7




or several

(p 164)


1829, p 772

Colonies free-floating, disc-shaped to stellate, generally of 4-8-16-32-64 or more polygonal cells arranged in a single layer one cell thick. Colony with or without perforations. Marginal cells with one, two or four processes, rarely without such processes. Cell wall smooth, granulate or with reticulate ridges. Chloroplast single, parietal, filling the adult cells and with one or more pyrenoids. Cells multinucleate.
· Emended so as to include unicellular forms.




This alga, known only by Carter's original record, .. nuclear vesicle" within the cell appears to be the pyrenoid.

needs restudy.


Othergenera Treubariaceae not recorrkdrom theIndian region of f
Echinocoltum J ao et Lee, 1947, P 109, monospecific : E. tltgansJao et Lee, 1947, p 109, f I a-k Echinosphaertlla G.M. Smith, 1920, p 128, monospecific : E. limnttica G. M. Smith, 1920, p 128, pi 29, f 9-11 (incl. Tttraedron stellatum Swirenko, 1926, p 85) Octogoniella Pascher, 1930, p 655, monospecific : O. sphagnicola Pascher, 1930, p 656, Text-f 1-6, pl26 Saturntlla ~Iattauch et Pascher ex Mattauch, 1936, P 413 (=Discocystis Skuja, 1959, p 13) with two species : S. corticola (Skuja) Folt. 1960, p 275 =Discocystis corticola Skuja, 1959, pp 13-14, pi I f 1-16 S. salurnus (Steinecke) Fot!, 1960, P 275, pi 46, f 1-6 =Protococcus saturnus Steinecke, 1916, P H =Saturnella tltgans Matt. et pascher ex Mattauc;h, 1936, p 413, f 2 =Discocystis saturnus (Steinecke) Skuja, 1959, pp 14-15, pi 2, f 1-18 Trigonidium Pascher, 1932, P 412, monospecific : T.galta Pascher, 1932, P 414, f2 a-c, 3 a-d.


Family HYDRODICTY ACEAE (S. F. Gray) Dumortier orth. mut. Cohn, 1880 p 289, emend. *

Members of this, family are free living and either unicellular or in regular colonies. Cells cylindrical tetrahedral or polygonal, sometimes nearly spherical; chloroplast single parietal and laminate, and with a pyrenoid. Reproduction by zoospores, autospores, or isogamous gametes. There are two subfamilies:
i.' . Always in regular colonies (net-like, flat discs or spherical); cells cylindrical, polygonal or sometimes

nearly spherical; reproduction by form auto-colonies or sometimes colony, usually with intermediate and non-swarming aggregate of

two or more zoospores from each cell which remain together to by isogamous gametes, the zygospore ultimately producing a stages oCCrce-swimming zoospores, irregular' Tetraedron-stagu. zoospores SUBFAM. HYDRODICTYOIDEAE

KEY TO THE GENERA I. Colony microscopic a. Colony a flat plate of 4-8-16-32-64 or more (usually 32) cells. . . . . . Ptdiastrum(p 11~) b. Colony spherical and of4-8-16-32-64

stalked cells radiating from the centre........
Sorastrum (p 132)

2. Colony macroScopic
Colony oflarge cylindrical

coenocytes arranged

in the form of a net-work..

.H,;'drodictyon(p 133)

ii. Usually tmicellular, very rarely in loose aggregl!tes; cells usuii1ly angular- often with spines from angles,' rarely cylindrical or semilunar; reproduction usually by'autospores, rarely by freeswimming zoospores which develop directly into a celllike the parent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .





Cells triangular, tetragonal or polygonal with angles rounded, produced or pointed and with or without short spines.. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. Tetraedron (p 136) Cells cylindrical to crescent-shaped and with a spine from each end. . . . .. Closkridium(p 161)
Cells tetragonal to pyramidal \yi.th cruciate sides or rectangular~~nd with one or several bristles
Polytdriopsis (p 164)


from each angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ..

Subfamily XVII.

HYDR9DICTYOIDEAE Meyen, 1829, p 772


Colonies free-floating, disc-shaped to stellate, generally of 4-8-16-32-64 or more polygonal cells arranged in a single layer one-cell thick. Colony with or without perforations. Marginal cells with one, two or four processes, rarely without such processes. Cell wall smooth, granulate or with reticulate ridges. Chloroplast single, parietal, filling the adult cells and with one or more pyrenoids. Cells multinucleate.
· Emended so as to include unicellular forms.






Asexual reproduction by zoospores which escape into a vesicle and orient themselves in the place of cells, rarely by 1-2 hypnospores from each cell. Sexual reproduction isogamous. Eleven species are known from the Indian region. KEY TO THE SPECIES

. shape, joined to each other at the base, but free on the outside, with two short truncate processes from the outer face, one from each side. Cells up to 20 /.l in diameter. Processes up to 8/.l1ong. Colonies up to 110 /.l in diameter (Fig. 35). HABITAT. In trench with running water, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, Burma.



face of marginal with

cells usually without projections,
, _

at times with two rudimentary

P. integrum(p



Outer face of marginal cells with a single projection
Colonies or without perforations


A. B. III.

Sides of cells nearly strai'ght or concave. . . . . . Sides of cells markedly convex. . . . . .

P. simplex (p
P. ovatum (p

113) 115)

Outer face of marginal cells with two projections A. Colonies usually not perforate. Perforations when present very small and few in number a. Cell wall smooth or punctate i 0 uter cells regular x Outer face of marginal cellsstraight or slightly concave. Processesshort orlong. ..... P. mu/icum(p 117) .. 118)_. 118)

xx Outer face of marginal cells with shallow emarginations. Processes short . P. angulosum(p xxx Outer face of marginal cells with deep emarginations. . . . " ii b. B. P. boryanum(p Outer cells irregular and with unequal and basally constricted lobes Cel1walrcoarsely reticulate. Processesshort. . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... .P.

P. cons/ric/um (p
araneosum (p



121) b. Projections of marginal cells incised... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'P. biradiatum(p '127) IV. Marginal fells with four projections and a deep linear incision. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . P. tetras (p .128)

Colonies perforate ._ a. ProjectiolU of marginal cells truncate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. P.





1915, p 91, f 51 a; G:W. Prescott, 1952,-p 112, pi 30, f298 . 1951,

C. Naegeli, 1849, p 97, piS B, f4 a-r; J. Brunnthaler, p 225, pi 48 f9-1O; L. H. Tiffany and M. E. Britton,

Colonies not perforated and usually 4-32 celled, rarely 64-celled with the cells more often arranged. irregularly than conc~ntrically, rarely in two layers. . Internal and .marginal cells- of the same shape~ with entire margin, rounded or 5-'6 angled. Marginal cells with two short stumpy processes, one or both of which may 15eabsent or reduced to a wart- or papilta-like structure. Cell membrane smooth or granular. Diameter of cells 16-30 1-" The alga, which is kn9wn from Europe, N. America and Africa, has not been reported from the Indian region. var. perforatum Raciborski
1915, pp 92-93, f 51 d




FIGs. 35-36 a-c. 35, Pediastrum in/ergum VAR.perforatum RACIB; 36 a-c, P. simPlex MEYEN. (35, FROM RACIBORSKI; 36, X 1000).

Bigeard (1935, p 342) treated P. integrum and all its varieties, including var. perforatumRacib. var. braunianum (Grunow) Nordst. (1878, p 8; =Pediastrum brau1iianum Grunow, 1858, p 494) and var. pearsoni (G. S. West) Fritsch ex Fritsch et Stephens (1921, p 11, =P. pearsoni G. S. West, 1912 b, P 79) as synonymous to P. boryanum. However, most authors retain the species and its varieties.


36. Pediastrum simplex Meyen
F. I. F. Meyen, 1829, p 772, p143, f 1-5;

IVI."Raciborski, 1889, p 7, pl2 f 5;J. Brunnthaler,

Colonies 8-16-32 celled. Interior cells spherical to nearly rectangular with the edges rounded and with small intercellular spaces. Peripheral cells of similar

J. Brunnthalcr, 1915, pp 93-94, f 55 a; L. H. Tiffany and M. E. Britton, plIO, pi 31, f 290-91 =P. simplex var. granula/um Lemm., 1897, p 115 =P. simplex var. typica in Bruhl et Biswas, 1922, p 12, pIS, f29 a


ll5 Rabenhorst







L. Rabenhorst, 1868, p 72; G. M. Smith, 1918, pp 642-43, pi 13, f 1-5 =Monoactinus duodenarius Bailey, 1855, p 14 =Pediastrum enoplon W. et G. S. West, 1895, p 81, pi 5, f 1-2 =P. simplex var. radians Lemmermann, 1899, p 114; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 94, f 55 b; H. Skuja, 1949, p 62 =P. simplex var. clathratum Chodat, 1902, p 225 =P. simplex var. clatrata Chodat in P. Bruhl et K. Biswas, 1922, p 13, pl5, f 30 =P. clathratum (Schroeter) Lemm., 1897, p 181, f 1-4; W. et G. S. West, 1902, p 196; E. Lemmermann, 1907, p 267; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 94, f 56 a; W. B. Crow, 1923, p 164; E. A. GonzalvesetD. B.Joshi, 1946, p 174; N. Dutta,J. C. MalhotraetB. B. Bose, 1954, p 13 =]>. simplex var. clathratum(Schroeter) G. S. West, 1907, p 134 =P. clathratum vars. microporum Lemm., 1899, pp 115-16, punctatum Lemm., 1897, p 182, asperum Lemm., 1897, p 180 and cordanum Hansgirg, 1886, p 110 =P. clathratum var. duodenarium (Bailey) Lemm.-see Brunnthaler, 1915, p 94, f 56 c; R. N. Singh, 1939;p. 63 =P. clathratum var. baileyanum Lemm., 1899, p 115; P. Bruhl et K. Biswas, 1926, p 269, pi 6, f41 a-b;M.~.Handa,1927,p260,pI6,fl a-b

Differs from the type in having large intercellular spaces,or a single central space with the cells arranged in a ring at the periphery. Inner face of marginal cells concave, oqter face prolon&.ed into a sing-1edelicately tapering process. Sides of marginal cells also concave or nearly straight. Interior cells siIDilar to marginal, cells but with shortc;.r processes. Cell wall. smooth or fInely punctate. Colonies of 4-8-16-32-64-128 (usually 8-16-32) cells. Cells 8-2+ /J broad, 10-45 /J long; 16-celled colonies up to 125/J in diameter (Fig. 36 d-h). " HABITAT. Planktonic in standing waters- of ponds, filter-beds, tanks, lakes, 'reservoirs, qmals and rivers. all over India, Burma and Ceylon (Bengal--':Bruhl,et


.. .....
FIG. 36 d-h. Pediastrum simplex MEYEN VAR. duodenarium (BAILEY) RABENH.

~.Biswas, 1922, l.c.; Dutta et al., l.c.-; Manipur-Bruhl et Biswas, 1926, l. c.; U.P.'Jt. N. Singh, l.c.; V; P. Singh, 1959; Bombay-Gonzalves et Joshi, l.c.; Bengal, :'Bihar, Orissa, Andhra, Madras, Mysore and Punjab (!); Burma*-W. et. G. S. West, '1907; Handa, l.c.; Skuja, l.c.; Ceylon-W. et G. S. West, 1902; Lemmermann, '1907, l.c.; Crow, l.c.).
DISTRIBUTION.Ubiquitous. , Some authors (Bourrelly, 1940; Skuja, 1948) treat Pediastrum clathratum :JSchroeter) Lemmermann as a disunct'species. According to G. M. Smith (1918, .:.l; c.), P. c{athratumdiffers from the'typical P. simplex only in the same way as vars. >'~iathratum and reticulatum of P. duplex differ from P. duPlex type. He also states that 1~'Bailey!sMonoactinus duodenariusis without doubt identical to P. clathratum. .Following ':'.Smith, P. clathratumis not recognized here as a distinct species. Pediastrum ovatum (Ehr.) A. Braun

(d and e, )('1500; g, x 1000; f and h, x750).

Colonies circular to oval, of 4-8-16-32 or more. cells. Inner side of marginal" cells nearly straight, outer side produced into a gradually tapering - process,' siaes concave. Inner cells polygonal. Cells in «ontact with adjacent ones and usually without intercellular spaces. When present, intercellular spaces very small and few in number. Cell wall smooth or punctate to granulate. Cells (7-) 8-13 /J broad, (15-) 19-26 (-30) /J long (Fig. 36 a-c). HABITAT. North East India (Turner, 1892); Filter beds, Bengal. (Bruhl 'et Biswas, I,c.); ponds and tanks, Ceylon (Crow, 1923); in the Sipna Stream, N. E. India (Carter, 1926); Ramgarh and Suraha 'Tals', D.P. (V.P. Singh, 1959); ponds, Cuttack, rare-August and May; River Mahanadi, Cuttack, rather commonMay; River Dehri, Bihar, rare-May and Dyke's tank, Visakhapatnam, rareDecember(!)

A. Braun, 1855, p 81; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 93, f 54 a; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 193, pi 15, f 3-7 =Asterodicryo/l ovatum Ehrenberg in Monatsbe~., 1845, p 73 =Pediaslrum ovatum var. microporum Lemm.-see Brunnthaler, 1915, p 93, f 54 b =P. sturmiiReinsch, 1867, p 90, pl7, fl ;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 93, f53 a =P. sturmii Reinsch forma Turner, 1892, pp 159-60, pi 20, f 17 =P. sturmii var. radians Lemm. and var. echinulotum (Wittr. et Nordst.) Lemm.-see Brunnthaler, 1915, p 93 .The alga was also quite common in a 'collection from Lake Indawgyi, Rangoon, of March 1956, .t by Dr. J. A. Tubb, to the Central1nland Fisheries Research Sub-station, Cuttack, for identification.







=P. simplex var. sturmii (Reinsch) Wolle, 1887, P 153 =P. simplex Meyen var. typica in Bruhl et Biswas, 1922, pi 5, f 29 b-d only



Lemmermann, 1899, P 115, pi 2, f33

Colonies usually 4-8-16- (rarely 32-) celled, with the cells arranged in a ring round a central space or with one or more interior cells and a number of marginal cells, perforate or almost imperforate, the -perforations being small. Cells plumper than in P. simplexvar. duodenarium ith the outer sides of peripheral and often central w cells convex. Cell wall smooth or ornamented. Four-celled colonies up to 60 /-l. 8-celled colonies up to 80 /-l and 16-celled colonies up to 100 /-l in diameter. Cells 8' 5-19' /-l broad, 14-37 p. long (Fig. 37).

., ~, .;





HABITAT. N.E. India (Turner, l.c.); filter-beds, Bengal (Bruhl et Biswas, l.c.); ponds, Cuttack, very common to abundant-May and June, River Mahanadi, Cuttack, common-April, River Sone, Dehri (Bihar), rare-May, swamp, Madras, rare-May (1942), and stray in a number of other localities (!). DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan. This species is very similar to P. simPlexand its variety duodenarium,but the outer sides are markedly convex in contrast to the nearly straight or concave sides of P. simplex'and var. duodenarium.According to Bigeard (1934-35), the shapes of cells vary with the maturity of the alga, the convex shape being found in very mature cells only. He scraps P. ovatum. P. sturmii and all varieties of these as well as of P. simPlex, combining them 'all in 'one- species, viz. P. simPlex. The occurrence of P. simplex var. duodenariumand P. ovatum side by side in many collections is probably a point in favour of this view. This simplification, followed by Bigear.d with other species of Pediastrum as well, has not been accepted by most authors. Nitardy (1914, cf., G. M. Smith, 1926) and G. M. Smith considered P. sturmii and P. ovatum as identical. Nitardy favoured retaining the former name on account of its more general acceptance, while Smith preferred to keep the name ovatumsince it hlu priority. . Though l. ovatum (incl. P. sturmii) appears to have been recorded from the Indian tegion only once previously (Turner, I.e.), there is no doubt that most authors have included it along with P. simplex, P.simPlex var. duodmarium, or P. clathra~um. Bruhl and Biswas's figures (1922, pI. 5, f 29 b-d only) for P. simplex var. typica are obviously those of P. ovatum They also mention in their description that the sides -of the cells could.be con"ex. Pediastrum muticum Kuetzing
1915 p 98, f 58 a




F. T~ Kuetzing,

1849, p ,193; J. Brunnthall.'r,

Colonies round and without perforations, 8-16-32-64-celled. Internal cells 5-6 an.,gled. Marginal cells inverted heart-shaped, e.!11arginate and with or without two short processes on the free side. Cell wall smoGth or granular. HABITAT. Pond, Bangalore, rather common-February -(!).


var. longicorne
M. Raciborski,

1915, p 98, f 58 c

1889, p 12, pi 2 f 8;, J. Brunnthaler,

Pediastrum ovatum

fOR"''' TUItNI!R) i

{d, FROMTURNER, 1892 (AS Pediastrum sturmii !,-C and C4?' x lOOO~. _ ..' .

Colonies more or less round and without intercellular spaces. Inner cells 5-6 ~\~ided. Marginal cells usually broader than long. with a shallow emargination on the j'outer face and two fairly long processes. Cell wall often thick and with fine granula~~o~. Inner cells 20' 6-22' 5 /-l broad, 20' 6-22' 5 /-llong. Marginal cells 20' 6-24' 4 fi ,'broad, 18.8-20.6 /-llong. Processes 8-12 /-llong (Fig. 38). HABITAT. Pond, Bangalore, along with the type of the species (!) DISTRIBUTION.Europe, India. .'





Bigeard (1934) considered P. muticum and P. boryanum. 39. Pediastrum angulosum'(Ehr.) Meneghini

its varieties

as synonymous


J. 1\1eneghini, 1840, p 210; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 99 =P. vaguIII Kuetzing, 1845, p 143 =P. po{vdensWorosowa-Wodianitzkaja, 1923, pi 2 f 20



Colonies without perforations, usually single layered and round, elliptical or kidney-shaped, sometimes large and two-layered with small irregular perforations. Internal cells 4-6 angled, broader than long with the outer side slightly sinuous. Marginal cells broad, outer face slightly emarginate, lobes with or without short processes. Cell wall hyaline, yellowish, or reddish, sometimes thickened and with reticulate ridges, rarely smooth or coarsely granulate. Colonies 8-128 celled with

, variable arrangement of cells. Cells 15-50 /-lin diameter. Colonies,up to 400/-l. The alga has not been recorded from the Indian region.
val'. laevigatUm
:\1. Raciborski, 1889, p 17, p12 f 18;



1926, pp 270-71, p12, f 1 =P. bo!yanulII aus/ralisP1ayfair, 1918, p539, p157, f34 var.

J. Brunntha1er,

1915, p 99, f60 a; P Bruhl e"t K. Biswas,

Colonies 8-16-32-64 (usually 32) celled and compact without perforations. Interior cells. transversely elongated, irregularly hexagonal. Marginal cells also transversely elongated, wider above, truncate at the base; outer side deeply emar-' gin~te and with slightly converging lobes having obtuse or rounded ends. Cell membrane hyaline, thin and smooth. Cells up to 35/-l and colonies up to 150 /-lin diameter (Fig. 39). HABITAT. Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl et Biswas, I.e.). DlsTRmUi'IoN. Europe, India, Japan and Australia.

. ,J

Pediastrum boryanum

(Turpin) Meneghini

Meneghini, 1840, p 210; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 100, f61 a; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 16970, pl 46, f 2-7= Hierella bO'Yana Turpin, 1828, p 319 pi 13 f 22 =Milrasterias boryana Ehrenberg, 1838, p 157 =Euas/rum pen/angulare Corda, 1839 =Pedia.l/rum granula/um Kuetzing, 1845, p 143

FIGs.38-41. 38, Pedias/WIII mu/icum KUETZ. VAR. IOllgicorne RAClO; 39, P. angulosum (EUR.) l\.fENEGIl. VAR. laeviga/ulII RAClO; 40a, P. boryafmlll (TURP.) MENEGR.; 40b, VAR.longicome REINSCH; 41, P. cOlls/ric/ulII ASSALL. H (39, REDRAWNFROM BRUHL & BISWAS, 1926; 41, FROM RACIBORSKI; 38, x 725; 40, x 1000).

Colonies circular to oval and usually of 16-32 (rarely 4-8 or up to 128) cells arranged in concentric rings without intercellular spaces. . Inner cells polygonal with straight sides. Outer face of marginal cells slightly to deeply emarginate and with two short processes ending in stumpy spines. Cell wall usually granulate, sometimes smooth. Cells 7-40 /-l in diameter. Horns (processes) 7-10 /-l long. Sixteen-celled colonies up to 100 /-l in diameter (Fig. 40 a ). HABITAT. N.E. India (Turner 1892); artificial tank, Peradeniya, Ceylon (W. et - G. S. West, 1902); shallow pools, overgrown with weeds, Mansan~, Burma (W. et

G. S. West, 1907); River Sone, Dehri (Bihar), rare-June; River Mahanadi, Cuttack 'rare-July, River Cauvery, Ta~ore, rare-December; ponds, Nagpur, stray-April; and Bangalore, stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Ubiquitous.

val'. longicorne


P. Reinsch, 1867, p 96; inc!. f. granula/urn f. glabraRcinsch in Salim, 1963,p 212 and

With longer processes than in the type (Fig. 40 b).




/ 121

H...~~.'.'r. River Mahanadi, Cuttack; River Sone, Dehri, along with the type (!). DI~1'~~UTION.Ubiquitous. 41. p~m constrictum Hassall
J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 100, f 60 f.

" !. ~Iassall, 1845, p 36J, pi 86, f 15-16; "~ 'ilifJlicum Ralfs, 1848, p 188

C0i:W':S more or less spherical and compact, sided an<. vith the front wall sinuous. Marginal shallow ~::us; lobes unequal, with a constriction at horns. ,';lonies 36-41 p, in diameter (Fig. 41). H.~AT. N. E. India (Turner, 1892). Dl~1'.mUTlON. Europe, S. Africa, Madagascar, 42. peciaatrum araneosum (Racib.) Racib.

16-32 celled. Inner cells many cells irregularly two-lobed with the base and ending in stumpy

and India.



~Raciborski 1890, P 84; G. M. Smith, 1920,P 168,.pI45, f II o~r. IIngu!osumvar. araneosum Raciborski, 1889, P 18, pi 2, f 19; E. Lemmermann, 1907,p264
~,T IIngulosum var. haynaldii (Istvanffi) Radb., 1889 0'7. hllynaldii Istv., 1886, P 242 'o~>.IIraneosum (Racib.) G. :vf. Smith, 1916 b, P 476 ",'. boryanum var. haynaldii (Istv.) Playfair, 1918, p 539, pi 57, f 33


C{\:nies circular to oval, of 8-16-32-64 -or more closely arranged cells without perforatins or with minute perforations. Inner cells 5-6 sided, transversely elongatC"'"and with the outer side slightly concave. Marginal cells closely arranged, deeply cmrginate and with the two lobes slightly concave on the back. Lobes short .. and P{\i#:d or rounded at the tip, sometimes with two indentations. Ce1l wall covered i:y coarsely reticulate ridges without gr~nulations. Cells 15-32 p, in diamete:' fig. 42 b).



H~t:rAT. Planktonic, Gregory take, Ceylon~January. (Lemmermann, Suraha Tiu', U.P. (V. P. Singh, 1959). DmunUTION.-Europe, N. AInerica, Ceylon, and Australia. var. rugulosum (G. S. West) G. M. Smith
:-.r. Smith, 1916 b, p 476, pi 25, f 14 H' horyanum var. rugulosum G. S. West, 1907, P 132, pi 5, f22; h} h

l.c.); ' 0
FIG. 42. 42b, Pediaslrum'araneosum (RACIB.) RACIB.; 42 a-c, VAR. rugulosum (G. S. WEST) G. M. SMITH; THE RlDGES'lIEINGSHOWNIN ONLY A FEW CELLS; C, WITH AND a, WITHOUT,PERFORATIONS. (b, FROMRACIBORSKI;a arid c, X 875).

J. Brunnthaler,

1915, P 102,


F.I.F. Meyen,


1915, p 95; G.M. Smith, 1920, p 171, pi 46, fJ4-16;
. /'

n1i:~ from the type in having the sides of cells, where they are in contact with one an~. undulate. . Cells 10-29. p, in diameter. 16-32 celled colonies up to 120,u in diamfC (Fig. 42 a, c): HJ:Jn'AT. Ponds, CWanakarai, Coorg, abundant-February, Azhicode, (Kerala. .iliundant-October; rock~pool, Mysore, stray-February; (Kerala. ~ay-February (!). l)mUBUTION. Europe, N. America, Africa, and India. canal, Chalakudi

1829~ p 772; J. Brunnthaler,

M. ~. Phi1!pose, 1940, p 161, pi 2, f 41 . =Muras/eTlas.selenaea uetzing, 1833, p 604 K =PediaslrumperlusumKuetzing, 1845, p 143 =P. napoleon Ralfs, 1848, p 184 is =P. limneticumThunmark, 1945, pp 208-09 Colonies shaped usually of 16-32, cells. sometimes Inner perforations between cells quadrate


(, lensto angular andtriot in contact

of 4, 8, 64, or 128 cells wit~ small


\ i




at the central portion of the side walls. Inner side of marginal cells concave, outer side produced into two short truncate processes. Cells (6)-8-21 fl in diameter. 16celled colonies up to 90 fl in diameter (Fig. 43 a, b). HABITAT. Parel and Byculla, Bombay (Schmidle, 1900 e); paddy fields and artificial tanks, Ceylon (W. et G. S. West, 1902); ponds, tanks, lakes, canals and rivers, Ceylon (W. B. Crow, 1923); Museum Pond, Madras (Philipose, l.c.); ponds and lakes, Rangoon and Mandalay (Skuja, 1949); River Hooghly (Dutta et. al., 1954); River Hooghly, Barrackpore, stray-December; ponds, Barrackpore, stray-December, Cuttack, rare-August and May; well, Nandi Hills, Mysore, stray-February (!).

12~ DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan. Bruhl and Biswas's P. duplex var. loktakense(1926, p 270, pI 2, f 19) with (8-) 10 (-:32) cells, each with a diameter of 18 fl, is in all probability a Pediastrumduplex proper.
var. asperum A. (A. Braun) Hansgirg

=Pediastrum pertusuIIIvar. asperuIIIA.Braun, 1855,p 93 =P. duplex var. asperuIII A. Braun in C. Bernard, 1908, pp 197-98, f 516-18;
1915, p 96, f 57 m

Hansgirg, 1886, p 112; W. B. Turner, 1892, p 160

J. Brunnthaler

Colony 8-64 celled with the central lacuna large. Marginal cells with thick lobes which end in stout, truncate, toothed, or coarse processes. Cell membrane ornamented with small denticulations. 32-64 celled ,colonies up to 200 fl in diameter. Cells 7-35 fl in diameter. HABITAT.N. E. India (Turner, I.e.); ponds and tanks, Dum Dum, rareSeptember, Belgharia (W. Bengal), rare-May, Kausalya Ganga (Orissa), rare-

. -

November,and Azhicode(Kerala),rare-February (!).
DISTRIBUTION.Europe, Africa" India, Jav~, Japan,
var. genuinum (A. Braun) Hansgirg

Siberia, and Paraguay.

A. Hansglrg, 1886, p III

=P. duplexvar. gelluinumA. Braun in G. B. Dc Toni, 1889, p 579; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 95, f 57 a; P. Bruht et K. Blswas, 1926, p 269, p18, f 60; E. A. Gonzalves et D. B. Joshi, 1946,

=PediastruIII pertusum genuillum Braun, 1855,p 95 var. A.





=P. gracileA. Braun, 1855, p 93; W. B, Turner, 1892, p 160; M. R. Handa, 1927, pp 261-62, pI. 6, f6 Colonies 4-8-16;-32 celled with fairly large intercellular spaces. Marginal cells with stout processes which are straight or slightly curved. Cell membrane smooth or punctate. Cells 6-18 fl, perforations IIp to 6 fl ~and colonies 45-65 fl in diameter (Fig. 4-3 d). (Bruhl et Biswas~ HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, I.e.); Loktak Lake, Manipur I.e.); Royal Lakes,-Rap.goon (Handa, l.c.); pond, Bombay (Go!lzalves et' Joshi, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION. Europe, W. Africa, India, Burma, Java, and Japan.

"Var. clathratum (A. Braun) Lage~heim
G. Lagerheim, 1882,'p 56 .~ =Pediastrumpertusumvar. clathratumA. Braun, 1855, p 93 =P. dllplexvar. clathratrllll . Braun inJ. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 95, f57 d A


'. Cells with more deeply emarginate sides and larger intercellular spaces than in duPlex. Colon1es8-64 celled. Cells 9-25 fl in diameter. Sixteen-celled t: ,Pediastrum Y~colonies up to 90 fl in diameter (Fig. 43 e, f). l" HABITAT. Lake qolombo, Ceylon, (Holsinger, 1955); planktonic in ponds, l~es, reservoirs, canals, and rivers in Assam, W. Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Prade~h;.'"
Andhra, Mysore, Madras, and Kerala DISTRIBUTION. Cosmopolitan. (!). ~'..' .'. ,. .

d FIG. 43 a-e. a-b, PediastruIII duplex MEYEN;

c, YAR. .IubgranulatuIII
YAR. clathratum (A.







e, x725).

Crow (1923) observed the variety indistinguishably


mixed with the type speci~s.' .~'f:;,.. ..





var. reticulatum G. Lagerheim, 1882, P 56, pi 2, CI; p 172, pi 47, C4-7

Lagerheim 1915, P 95, C57 h; G. M. Smith, 1920,

J. Brunnthaler,

Cells more or less H-shaped with sides of processes of marginal cells nearly parallel. Intercellular spaces large and oval. Cells 10-20 (-40) P. in diameter. Colonies 8-16 celled, 58-70 #- in diameter (Fig. 43 g). HABITAT. Gregory and Colombo Lakes, Colombo, Ceylon (Lemmermann, 1907); Kan-gyi (big tank), Mudon, Burma (W. et G. S. West, 1907); Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Handa, 1927); River Cooum, Madras (Iyengar et Venkataraman, 1951);

Colonies with very large intercellular spaces. Cells very narrow, as broad or narrower than the processes. Body of marginal cells curved outwards and with wo long processes with emarginate apices. Inner cells also similar to marginal cells b t with shorter processes. Cells 10-18' 5 (-22) P. broad, 12-25 (-32) P. long. Pedortions 4-16 p. in diameter. Sixteen celled colonies 65-140 p. in diameter (Fig. 43 . ')' HABITAT. Pool, Companygu~. Assam (Biswas. 1934); Museum Pond. Ma as

(Philipose. 1940)j Gregory lake, Colombo (Holsinger, 1955); Ramgarh and


, Tals " U.P.(V. P. Singh, 1959); ponds, tanks, swamps, lakes. reservoirs, canals, and rivers in W. Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa. Andhra, Madras, Mysore, and Kerala (!). DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan. Though the varieties clathratum,-reticulatum,and gracillimum gradually merge into one another, Smith (l.c.) suggested that these varieties should be recognized since the individuals from any parti<:ular locality observed by him varied .only within narrow limits. Crow (1923) found these varieties almost indistinguishable in the collections examinea by him. The author also observed a certain degree of overlapping between .these varieties. Howc::ver, it was possible to distinguish them without much difficulty. var. subgranulatum
M. Raciborski, 1889, p 23, pi 2, f 28;
K. Biswas. 1926, p 269, pi 6, f 43 a-b



1915. p 95, f 57 i; P. Bruhl and

J. Brunnthaler,


Colonie~ 8-16-32-64 celled. Dells and intercellular the type of the species, but the cell wall distinctly granulate.

spaces more or le~ as in Cells 10-25 /J in diameter.



t I


g FIG 43.' f-i. Pediastrtifn duPlex MEYEN; f. VAR. clathratum (A.BR.) LAGERH.;g. VAR.reticulatumLAGERH.;hand i, VAR.grt.2cillimum & G. S. W. WEST.(C,X 1500; g, X 1000; h, x 725).

.R\ Colonies 16-64 celleo, 100-180 p. in diameter (Fig. 43 c,j). HABITAT. Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl et Biswas, i.e.); ponds and tanks, Dum Dum, 'common-October, Belgharia (West Bengal), rare-May; Kujang;..,a'nd Cuttack. rare-February; Mettur (Madras), stray-December; Azhicode (Kerala). rare-February, and October and Ochira (Kerala), ab,undant-February; swamp, ,Kausalya Ganga, rare-April (!). DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan. Smith (19i8) did not consider the granulation of the cell wall a sufficient Characteristic to distinguish varieties nor did he recognize this variety. Since the smooth and .granulate forms were not found together by the author in any of his collections, the granulate form'is retained here as a separate variety.
var. rugulosum
M. Raciborski, 1889, p 24, pi 2. f29; ~'p 224. pi 49, f 3


1915; p 96. f 57 k; G.W. Prescott, 1951.


I .

ponds, tanks, filter. beds, lakes, reservoirs, canals, Andhra, Madras, Mysore, and Kerala (I). DISTRIBUTION. Cosmopolitan.

and' rivers in W. Bengal, Orissa,

J. Brunnthaler.

, '.'

.. var. graciWmUID et G. S. West W.


.:~x. ''''' ~_""'_ r$ .~C.. :.~ ... . . .. ~...

W..,and G.s: West. 1895 b. p 52;

f 8-11, pi 48. f 1-2.

J. Brunnthaler,

1915, p 95; G.M. Smith,

1920, p 172. pi 47.;

1945. p 219

=Pedjastrum gracillimum'(W.

et G. S. West) Thunmark,

: .shaped perforations. Inner cells nearly rectangular or many sided. .Margiii~l cells ~:in lateral contact up to the middle. Processes short and ending in 'two spines. )Valls irregularly undulate and granular. Cells 11-15 (-25) p. in diameter. ,. Colonies i40-86 (-240) P. in diameter (Fig. 43 m). '" ." ~ .',. ,~....



~olonies usually oval to elliptical with (8-) 16-32 (-64) cells having






I .



FIG. 44. Pediastrum lon!!ecornutum GUTWINSKI. biradiatum MEYEN NONRALFS; a, TYPE; b-d, VAR. FIG. 43 j-m. j, Pediastrum duplex MEYEN VAR. subgranulatum RAcm.; k, I, VAR. coronatum RACIB.; m, VAR. rugulosum RACIB. . (k, FROMRACIBORS~ j, k, x 1000; ix 500).. - (a, FROMA. BRAUN; b-d, x 1000).

HABITAT. In a freshwater aquarium, Bombay::-February (Dixit, 1937). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, India, Java, and Japan. var. coronatum Raciborski

Nandi Hills, Mysore, abundant-February; Azhicode and Ochira (Kerala), February; common-October (!). DISTRIBUTION. Europe, W~" Mrica, India.
Pediastrum biradiatum .Meyen
f 21-22;


M. Raciborski, 1889, p 24;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 96, f 57 I; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1926, p 270, pI 15, f 159

G. M. . - F.I. F.Smith, 1920, p 173, pI 48, pI 5-8 Meyen, 1829, P' 773, f 43,



1915, p 105, f 66 a;



=MicrasteriasRotuLaEhrenberg, 1838, p 158, p] II, f 7 b-c =Pediastrum Rotula (Ehr.) Braun, 1855, p 101, non Kuetzing, 1845, p ]43

Colonies 16-32-64 celled. Inner cells four cornered with a small lens-shaped perforation in front and another at the back. Marginal cells usually longer than broad and in" lateral contact along one-third the length. Processes of marginal cells ending in short spines. Cell membrane with a net""\york of punctae. Inner cells 18-'26 fI broad, 18-25 p long. Marginal cells 21...:25fI broad, 25-26 fI long. Colonies 120-214 p in'diameter (Fig. 43 k, I). HABITAT. Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl et Biswas, l.e.); ponds and tanks, Du.m Dum, stray-October,'Hyderabad, common-January, very common-February,

Colonies 4-8-16-32-64 celled (usually 8-16-32 cell~d)" with medium sized perforations. Marginal celIs in contact at the base only, and provided with two lobes .. formed by an incision reaching the middle of the cell. Lobes dilated and incised at the apex. Inner cells with lobes which are neither dilate nor incised. Cells 9-22 p board, 15-30 p long. Colonies 32-celled, 80-150 p in diameter (Fig. 44 a). HABITAT. Among other algae, Tanuggyi Pond, Burma (Skuja, 1949). and Siberia. DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, W. Africa, Burma, China, Japan,





var. longecornututll

1918, p 539, pI 57,

R. Gutwinski, 1896, P 35, pI. 7, f64; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, P lOS, f66 c =Pediastrum biradiatul/i var. Braunii (Wartm.) Chodat in G. I. Playfair, f35

Differs from the type in the lobes of marginal cells being bifid instead of being just incised as in the type of the species and in the lobes ending in long horn like processes. Colonies four-celled with a central perforation or 8-16 celled with a circular to oval outline and with 4-8 perforations. Cells slightly concave at the sides and the base. Cell membrane smooth or punctate. Cells 8-15 I'- broad, 14-24 I'- long., Four-celled colony 30 I'- and eight-celled colony up to 63 I'- in diameter (Fig. 44 b-d). HABITAT. Fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), stray-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, rare-April; ponds; Mercara, and Chikkanakarai (Coorg), stray-February; Chalakudi (Kerala), stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, India, Japan, and Australia. Apart from the long horns characteristic of the variety, Brunnthaler (probably after Gutwinski-!l0t referred to by the author in original) refers to the alga as being four-ce.11ed. In the author's material, colonies with. ,4, 8 or 16 cells were encountered, and in all the horns were markedly long. The alga referred by Playfair (l.c.) to P. biradiatumvar. Braunii (Wartm.) Chodat (1902), which, is synonymous to P. Braunii Wartmann (in Wartmann e~ Schenck, 1862, No. 32), is no doubt a P. biraqiatumvar.longecornutumsince the horns of its marginal cells are very long unlike those of P. Braunii which are much shorter and often irregul~r (see Big~ard, 1935, f-l5.5-58). Pliyfair's alga is also more than four-c-elled. 45. Pediastrum tetras (Ehr.) Ralfs

Sadiya, Assam (N. Carter, 1926); Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Handa, l.c.); freshwater, pool, Companygunj, Assam (Biswas, 1934); ponds, Bombay (Dixit, 1937, Gonzalves et Joshi, 1946); ponds and lakes near Mandalay and Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); lake, Colombo, Ceylon (Holsinger, 1955,); ponds, Banaras (Venkataraman, 1957); guts of anopheline larvae, Damodar Valley, Bihar (Kachroo, 1959); River Sone, Dehri (Bihar), stray-March; ponds and tanks, Cuttack, stray-July, common-August,

. rare-April

and May; Nuapara




and Sambalpur,

stray-December; Nagpur, rare-April; Ootacamund, rare-June; Chikkanakarai and Mercara (Coorg), stray to rare-February; and Azhicode (Kerala), stray-February; Moat, Cuttack, stray-May; canal, chalakudi (Kerala), stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Ubiquitous. Handa's var. i"egularum (1927, l.c.) with its marginal cells irregularly developed and having both the processes of one of the lobes short and flat and those of the other lobe elongate and pointed, does not appear to be a significant variation from the type of the species. I t is also not certain whether this lack of distinct' processes in one of the lobes is a constant character or whether it is only the juvenile stage of the alga. Handa's P. tetras var. anamolum (Handa, l.c., pI 6, f 4) also-appears to'be a doubtful variety. Both these varieties are considered here along with the type of the species. var. tetraodoD
A. Hansgirg,

(Corda) Hansgirg

1959, pp 253, 255

1886, p 112; G. M. Smith; 192'0, p 174, pI 48, f 13-14, pi 49, f 1-2; V. P. Singh,

=Euastrum tetraodon Corda, 1839, p 238, pI 2, f 9 =Peditlftrum ehrenbergii var. tetraodon (Corda) Rabenhorst, 1868, p 78 =P. tetras Var. tetraodon (Corda) Rabenhorst in J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 103 =P. tetras var. burmanieum Handa, 1927, p 261, pI 6, f3

J. Ralfs, 1844, p 469, pi 12, f4;'W. B. Tumer~ 1892, p 159; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, P 103, f 64 a; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 173-74, pi 48, f 9-12; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1926, P 271, pI 2, f 18 a-b, pi 6, f 42 =Micrasterias Tetras Ehrenberg, 1838, P 155 =Pediastrum Rotuta Kuetzing, 1845, P 143; C. Naegeli, 1849, p 95, non A. Braun, 1855, P 101;

Colonies 4-8-16 celled. Incision of cells deep with the -lobes adjacent to the incision of the marginal cells very pronounced; Cells 8-18 I'- in diameter (Fig. 45

d, e, g).



W. B. Turner, 1892, P 160
=P. ineavatumTurner, 1892, P 160, pi 21, f 21 anamotumHanda, 1927, p 261, pi 6, f 4 and P. incavatum v~r. irregularum Handa, I.e., pl. 6, f 5
=P. biradiatum_Ralfs, 1848, p 183 non Meyen, 1829, P 773 =P. Ehrenbergii (Corda) A. Braun, 1855, p 97; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1922, P 13, piS, f 31.

HABITAT. Royal Lakes,Rangoon(Handa, l.c.); Ramgarh and Suraha ' Tals" - _
D.P. (Singh, l.c.); ponds, CJ1etput, Madras-April, 1942; Azhicode, Kerala, rareFebruary (!). ,DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan. Handa's var. burmanicumdiffers from var. tetraodononly in the unequal length of the lobes and this feature does not seem sufficient to treat it as a separate variety. var. excisum (Rabenh.) Hansgirg

=P. tetrasvar.


Colonies rectangular, oval, or circular of 4-8-16 (-32) cells without intercellular spaces. Marginal cells divided into two lobes by a deep linear to cuneate incision on the outer side reaching to the middle of the cell. Each lobe truncate, slightly emarginate, or further divided into two lobes. Inner 'cells 4-6 sided with a single linear incision. Diameter of cells 5-15 (-27) 1'-' Eight-celled colonies 20-33 I'- and II).. celled colonies up to 50 I'- in diameter. HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, l.c.); Parel and Matunga, Bombay (Schmidle, 1900 e); paddy fields, pools and tanks, Ceylon (W. et G. S. West, 1902); stream, Mansang near Hsipaw, Burma (W. et G. S. West, 1907); filter beds, Bengal (Bruhl ,et Biswas, 1922, l.c.); Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl et Biswas, 1926, l.c.); ditches,


A. Hansgirg, 1886, p 112 Pediastrum ehrenbergii var. exeisum Rabenhorst,

P. tetras var. tetraodonRabenhorst in J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 104, f 64 b-c a and b W. et G. S. West); H. Skuja, 1949, p 62

1868, p 78

(incl. forma ~,





in the lobes being

more or less deeply concave

(Fig. 45 f).

~ ..,' . .- '..,~ ... -~~ '

.. ..



130 HABITAT. Ponds and lakes, Mandalay and Rangoon-April and November

(Skuja, l.c.); swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, rare-April; rare-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopolitan.

pond, Azhicode (Kerala),


ffi ~ ~~~;e w~

glanduliferum Bennett, 1892, p 7 heimii Bourrelly (see below) kawraiskyi Schmidle, 1897, p 269 obtllsum Lucks, 1907, p 43 =P. quadricon/utum Prescott, 1944, p 356, pi I, f 11 P. praecox Morosowa-Wodianitzkaja, 1923, p 22 "P.sculptatum G.M. Smith, 1916 h,p475,pI25,fI3 P. sorastroides Woloszynska, 1914, p 194 P. tetrapodum Morosowa-Wodianitzkaja, 1923, p 29 P. trieusPidatllm Conrad, 1949, p 90, f 2 P. westi Woloszynska, 1914, p 194

P. P. P. P.



@~~ ~CJ~

f FIG. 45. Pediastrum tetras (EHR.) RALFS; a-c, TYPE; d, e and g, VAR. tetraodon (CORDA) RABENH.; f, VAR. exCisum(RABENH.) HANSG.; h,? VAR.
tipieulatum FRITSCH. (a, FROM G. M. SMITH, C, FROM CHODAT; d-e) x 1000; 1920; b, FROM f-h, x 1500). GONZALVES & JOSHI, 1946;

Four species of fossil Ped;astmm, viz. P. b;.fidites-, P. delieatites, P. kajaites and P. pa/eogeneites have also · been recorded by Wilson and Hoffmeister (1953, pp 755-60) from Paleozene age. This genus of algae had not been known earlier than Pleistocene. Evitt, (1963) reports that fossils of Pediastrum, an alga that today lives exclusively in freshwater, occur in marine sediments in Pakistan (Lower Cretaceous) and California (Upper Cretaceous). Therefore, fossil Pediastrum does not (as has been assumed) establish the fresh water origin of its enclosing sediments. The genus, according to him, ranges back at least to the Lower Cretaceous, and known Cretaceous forms closely resemble some modern ones. The Pakistan material was obtained from core samples from several e,xploratory wells drilled by the Standard-Vacuum Oil Company east of Hyderabad in West Pakistan, in marine shales in association with hystrichospheres, dinoflagellates, spores and pollen. Specimens of Pediastrum were reasonably common in one sample (about 10 being noted in scanning two prepared slides) and rare (14 in eight slides) in a second sample stratigraphically 850 feet below the first in the same well. Preservation of specimens was poor to fair, buHt left no doubt that the best represented species (if more than one was present) is similar to P. bOI)'anrun, with compact 8- to '64- celled coenobia and 2-pointed -marginal cells. P. biwae Negoro (1954, pp 135-38) has been considered by Fukushima (1956) as a variety of P. simplex under the name var. biwaense (Negoro) Fukushima. Bigeard (1935, p 342) considered P.praecox,gs a coelastroid form of.P. bOI)'anum and P. tetropodllm as a P. biradiatum. However, Korshikov

(1953,p 226) recognizedthe latter as a speciesclistinctfromP. biradiatum.

It is quite possible that the records of P. tetras .from India. by various authors light incl~de records of var. tetraodon and var. excisum as well, since, apart from the .ct that these varieties might not have been accepted by all the authors concerned, Ie difference in structure betwee!l the type of the species and these va.rieties are easily rerlooked under low magnifications. Thu~, in Bruhl and Biswas (1926) pt 6, f 42 'f. almost like a var. excisum ( also see Bigeard, 1935, f 151).
One of the colonies (Fig. 45 h) fr,om Azhicode


had processes

with apical nodular


lickenings as in P. tetras var.

Fritsch (in 'Fritsch and Stevens: 1921, pia, ! A-D). The colony was 24' 6 fl in diameter with cells 14-17' 6 fl in diameter. Owing insufficiency of material it could not be decided whether the alga belonged to this Iriety. Somespeciesof


not recorded from the Indian region

There has been corisiderable difference of opinion with regard to the characteristics used for specific determinations o(Pediastrum. The presence or absence of perforations between cells and their sizes, the number of proce~es from the marginal cells and their arrangemeni (whether in the same plane or in different planes), the shapes of cells, the presence or absence of granulations, reticulations,etc. in the .cell membrane, the nature of the sinus in the peripheral cells (whether open or closed) and the presence or absence of glandular thickenings at the ends of processes have been some of the characters generally used in the classification into species and varieties. However, Bigeard (1934) considered the largeness of lacunae, furcations of processes and length of apices, grouping of cells, ornamentations and undulations of cell membrane and the swellings and teeth at the ends of arms all relative terms which describe only habitat forms, stages of development, particulars of morphology of coenobe and disposition of cells. In his opinion, only the presence or absence of perforations and the number and arrangement of processes {,from the marginal cells should be the sole criteria for determining the species. Thus, he recog"nized only " eight European spccies known up to the time, viz. P. simplex, P. kawraiskyi-, P. duplex, P. _biradiatum, l' boryanum,.P. angulosum, P. tetras and P. braun;i, and he suppressed all other species and varieties known up .to the tim<E' This drastic simplification, th.ough convenient, has not met ,with general acceptance, '~ough some authors like G. M. Smith (1918, 1920) believed that ornamentations like punctae and the .slze of perforations do not provide any valuable basis for classification into species. Bigeard (I. c.) considered P. bidentulum A. Braun arid P. seulptatum G.M. Smith as synonymous to P. duplex; P. mutieum, P. inlegrum, 1'. compactum, P. glanduliferulII and P. sele>laeaKuetz. (1845) as synonymous to P. boryanum; ,.and P. obtusum as synonymous to P. tetras. I.,. According to M. Lefevre and P. Bourrelly (Compte Rt>ldus, 208, 1939, P 368), ornamentation of cclls In Pediastrum is perfectly stable, contrary to the opinion of certain authors. Bourrelly (1940), after . ~~~erimentation, rccognizcd the following species and varieties: P. boryanum and its variety lougicoT>le :~'Reinseh; P. integrum; P. tetras \'ar. tetraodou; P. angulosum; P. duplex, and its varieties coronatll7nRacib., ,asperum A. Braun., cohaerensBohlin and clathratum A. Br.; P. biradiatum, var. IOl/gecoTnutum Gutwinski.; (1'. simPlex, (Meyen) Lemm. and P. clathratum (Schroeter) Lemmermann. Besides these, he stated, there ':,are P. kawraiskyi, Schmidle and P. braun;i Wartmann, which are contested by some people, and (f. heimii Bourrelly, a new species from Madagascar, for which Bourrelly (I. c.) promised the diagnosis ~.?n a later date. Pediastrum clathratum is also recognized by Skuja (1948). However, in the present account !,.Itis treated .as a synonym. of P. simplex ~ar. duoden~rium, follo~ing in this. respect G. M. Smith (1918):


P. aeanthostep/zanos Samano, 1932,p 235 P. a/ternans Nygaard, 1949,p 42, f 16

~ letrapodum as Korshlkov ,'P.


the ninth













P. bidentulumA. Braun, 1855, p 91 P. brauniiWartmann in Wartmann et Schenk, 1862, Fasc. 1, No. 32 =P. trieon/utumBorge, 1892, p 4 P. eoelastroides oloszynska, 1914, P 194 W P. eompaetum Bennett, 1886, p 5, pi I, f 4-5 ,

-Mathur (Sci. & Cult., 29 (5) : 250, 1963) has reported the same alga from maceration of a !¥11pleof sediments from Subathu formation (eocene in Himachal Pradesh, India). I: "See addendum.



.132 XVIII.




1845, p 144



Colonies more or less spherical, 4-8-16-32-128 (usually 16-32-64) celled. Cells sublunate, reniform, pyriform, - subtriangular or rarely ovoid, with one to four spines from the outer face and a gelatinous stalk from the inner side. The stalks of all cells united at the centre to form a mucilaginous sphere. Chloroplast parietal and with a pyrenoid. Adult cells multinucleate. Reproduction by zoospores which are liberated into a vesicle as in Pediastrum. They group together with their colourless ends towards the centre, where stalks are secreted. Two species are known from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE SPF;CIES 1. 2. Cells with 2 spines from the outer face; cells small and spherical to ovoid.. S. bengalicum Cells with 4 spines from the outer face; cells reniform to cuneate or subtriangular and broader than long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. spinulosum

Colonies of 4-8-16-32 cells. Cells reniform to cuneate, three angled and with a short stalk from the basal angle and two short pointed spines from each of the outer angles. Chloroplast parietal with a single pyrenoid. Cells 8-20 p broad, 6-18 p long and 5-8 p Sixteen-celled thick. Spines (Fig. 47). long. Eight-celled colony 26'4 p in diameter. colony 35 p 4-8 p

46. Sorastrum bengalicum sp. novo
Coloniae plus minus sphaericae, 16-32 cellulares, cellulis plus minusve compacte dispositis. Cellulae sphaericae vel ovoideae, duplici brevi spina ex facie exteriore et stipite brevi .ex interiore facie ornatae. Contenta fusca. Cellulae 3.5-5.3 p.in diam.; colonia 32-cellularis 25,. diam. in HASITAT. agat inter filamenta Oedogonii campo percolationisad Barrackpore,Bengaliaoeci. V dentali, mense aprili anni 1949. Species servata in formaldehido (Coil. No. II) in C. 1. F. R. Substation, Cuttack.

FIGS. 46-47.

46, SOTar/rumbengalicum NOV.; 47, S. spinulosum NAEGELI. ()(' ] 500).

Colonies -more or less spherical, 16-32 celled with ~he cells more or Jess compactly arranged. Cells spherical to ovoid with two short spines from the outer face and a short stalk from the inner. Cell contents dark. Cel:ls 3'5-5'3 p in diameter; Thirty-two-celled colony up to 25 p in diameter_ (Fig. 46). HABITAT.Among filaments of Oedogonium a filter bed at Pulta Water Works, in


HABITAT. Bombay (Carter, 1869); among Utricularia,Bengal and Khasia (Turner, 1892); paddy fields, Heneratgodha (W. et G. S. West, .1902); ditch at the edge of rice field, Sadiya, ""affi (Cacter, 1926) ; Pond, Bombay (Go",al"", et Jo,hi, 1946) ; among decaying macroflora in a moat at Cuttack, rather common-April;' among . January (!). decomposing. weeds, cement cistern, Cuttack, rare~une; pool, Hyderabad, stray_ ;Java, DISTRIBUTION.Europe, and New Zealand. China, Siberia, Japan, N. and S. America, Jamaica, Africa, India, Ceylon,

Barrackpore, W. Bengal (!).


DISTRIBUTION. India (Bengal). . The alga is somewhat like SorastrllmsimPlex Wille (seeBrunnthaler, 1915, p 200, f 325) in the shape of the colony and of the cells, but unlike S. simPlex,which is about eight-celled and with a single spine trom the..outer face, the present alga is more-celled-, and with two spines from the outer face. The cell dimensions-are also smaller than in S. simPlex, the cells of which are 13 p broad and 9 plong. In the presence ofla'rger " number of cells and two spines from each cell, the alga shows some resemblance td S. bidentatum Reinsch (seeBrunnthaler, 1915, p 200, f 326), but the spines in the latter are very small and the cells are kidney shaped. The present. alga may, therefore, be considered as a new species under the name S. bengalicum. 47. Sorastrum
C. Naegeli,

Printz (1927) treated Sorastrum crassispinosum (Hansg.) Bohlin as a distinct species,
(op. cit.) treated it as synonymo,us to S. spinulosum. Apart from ilie

,; but Brunnthaler

:<a., thathardly any ac, IDO« ddieate and po;ntodin S. ""''''I;'''Mn 'tl1ere is tho 'pin" difference between the two.
Some species of Sorastrum.not S. atnericanum (Bohlin)

than ;n S. 'P;""t'Mn,

recordedfrom the Indian region
]900 d, P 230



J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p20l, f328;-G."M. Smith,1920, p 163,


1949, p 99, fDa-Dd;

=Selenosphaerium americanum Bohlin, ]897 a, p 40, pI 2, f 38-4] S. bidenla/um Reinsch, ]866, p ]34, p] 20, fD-iv S. echina/um (Menegh.) Kuetzing, ]845, p 144 S. minimum Scbmidle See]. Brunntha]er, p. 200, f 327 S. simplex WiJle. ]879, p 29, pi 12, f 7 . mermann (1910, p 3]]) . S. ha/hoTis (Cohn) Schmid Ie (1900 d, P 230) is only S. spinulosum var. ha/horis (Cohn)



=Soras/rum cornu/um Reinsch, 1875, p 73, pi 6, f I only =S. spinulosum var. crassispinosum Hansgirg. =S. crassispinosum (Hansg.) Bohlin, 1897a, p 39, pi. 2, f 34-37 =S. indicum Bernard, 1908, pp 199-200, f 531-32



Roth, 1800, p 531




Macroscopic, free-floating, closed cylindrical or flattened single-layered, net-like

e"'loni" of ""'''01 hnn"',d to many thou..nd ,d!, whicl,are eylindrieal,eoeoocyti,



135 with large central uacuole. Reticulation of colony 3-12 (generally 5-6) sided. Chloroplast parietal and with a single pyrenoid in young cells, but diffuse with a number of pyrenoids in old cells. Asexual reproduction by the formation of a large number of biciliate zoospores from each cell, which arrange themselves inside the cell as in the mature colony and later get liberated by the gelatinization or-the old mother cell wall, or they form , germ nets', each coenocyte of which later producing a daughter net. Zoospores sometimes liberated to form haploid -hypnospores. Sexual reproduction by isogametes which are smaller than zoospores and which fuse after liberation. The zygote germinates into 2-8 zoospores which rest and form polyhedral cells which later give rise to a number of zoospores. These form a net as in asexual reproduction. Two species are known from the Indian region.

....... .......







coenocytcsup to 250 p.broad and up to 1.5 cm long

Coenocytes cylindrical and not generally separating at maturity; cell wall 2-layered and uniform; < ~ .H. retieulatum

Coenocytes cylindrical and separating at maturity; cell wall thick and lamellated and with knoblike projections into protoplasm; coenocytes up to 1000 p.broad and 1.6 cm long ............ H. indieum




(Linn.) Lagerheim
'r ,"


G. Lagerheim, 1883, p 71; j. Brunnthaler;1915, p 107, f68\ G. M. Smith, 1920, p 166, pi 44, f6, pi 45, f I; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 219, pi 47, f 1 =Conferva retieulata Linnaeus, 1753, p 1635 =Hydrodictyon utrieulatum Roih, 1800, p 531 =H. pentagonum Vauch., 1800, p 88

Colonies reticulate, meshes pentagonal, or hexagonal. Cells elongate-cylindrical. Cell wall two-layered. Cells up to 250 ft broad and up to I' 5 cm 1<;mg. Nets up to 10 cm long. (Fig. 48). -HABITAT. Lake in Poona town (SchriUdle, 1900e); Tardi river near Niakot, Nepal, ~nd Suket (Carter, 1926); in pools, rivulets and rarely in brackish water along with ~ntero"!orphaproliftra at Borivali, Bombay, and Poona (Dixit, 1937); iii running soiled trench water, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); ponds, Banaras, D.P. (G. S. Venkataraman, 1957); cultures of pond soil from Cuttack-November (leg. T. Ramaprabhu)! DISTRIBUTION.Widespread. 49. Hydrodictyon
M.O.P. Iyengar,

~ and the thin layerwith num"""" Iamellated 'into _ofprotoplasm

inside (Fig. 49). HABITAT.., In a rainwater pool at Madras (Iyengar, ,I.e.).

"'o,~ knob-like po,tio", of the od1 wall projecting

i-DISTRIBUTION. India and ? S. Africa~ (seeNygaard, 1932).

indicum. Iyengar
1925, p 316, pi 1-4

. According to Fritsch (1935), this alga is a larger form of Hydrodictyon reticulaturn ;'with bigger cells and meshes and thick lamellated walls. However, unlike H. reticula_ ,:,..., thk .pecie, I. very brittle, b'eaking up io", bl. =ily wben taken ont of ~t«, '~i ,and the cell wall is thick and lamellated with knob-like protrusions into the protoplasm !"'de. So, th"", 'ppeon to be every j",tifiea60n 1o treating It '" a diOtinet .peci",. 'In her account (Iof i) also African Hydrodictyon with notes on known species of ~ il1Ydrodictyon,Pocock 93 South recognized H. indicum.

Nets resembling those of Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh., but mesh~s and cells very much larger; cells, when living, very turgid', and nets, therefore, very brittle and easily breaking up into individual coenocytes on handling; cells deeply green, cylindrical and very big, about I mm thick and 10-16 mm long; cell wall very thick,
L~ "


Species of Hydrodictyon
H. lertiarum Koriba

not recordedrom the Indian region f
Fukushima, 1956, p 6

H. afrieanum Yamanouchi, 1913, pp 74-79 H. patenaiforme Pocock, 1937, p 264, Text-f I et Miki-see


Genera belonging to the Hydrodictyoideae



not recordedfrom the Indian region

EuastropJiJ Lagerheim, 1894, monospecific : E. richleri (Schmid Ie) Lagerh., 1894, p 20, pi I, f 8-27 = EuaJtrum richteri Schmidle, 1894, p 60, pi 7, f 25 Soropediastrum Wille, 1924, p 432, with two species: S. kerguelenJCWille, 1924, p 433 S. rotundatum Wille, 1924, p 433

D. Cellspentangular i. All angles in'the same plane ii. Allanglesnot in the sameplane..
E. Cells octagonal.

, ...

, .. .. , ,

T. caudatum 150) (p T. pentaedricum 151) (p
(p 152)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. octaedricum


According to of PediaJtrum, p 327) the two species of Soropediastrum show a great resemblance coelastroid forms Bigeard (1935,

Angles of cells produced into processes A. Processes not branched B. C. Process('.s bifid

T. hastatum (p 153)

.. . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . T. bifidum(p 154)

Subfamily TETRAEDRONOIDEAE XX. Genus TETRAEDRON Kuetzing, 1845, p 129

Processes bra~<;hed ......................................................... a. AII processes in the same plane i . Processes long and welI branched. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. gracile(p 154) ii. b. Processes short and not welI branched T. cruciatum(p 155)

Cells solitary, free floating, flat, isodiametric or twisted, triangular, quadrate or polyangular. Angles simple, with or without spines. Cell wall smooth, granular or verrucose. Chloroplasts one to many, parietal or disciform and with or without pyrenoids. Reproduction usually by autospores formed by the simultaneous division of the cell content..., mrelyby biflagellate zoospores. Twenty-five species are known from the Indian region. 50.
KEY TO THE SPECIES I. Angles of cells without papilla, spines or processes A. Cells triangular a. CelIs flat i. ii. B. Sides of eelIs deeply Concave and angles rounded T. trilobulatum(p 137).

Processes not alI in the same plane Cells isodiametric + Processes short. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. enorme (p 157) + + Processes long With-more than three series of branches. ................................... T. lobulatumvat'. polyfurealum (p 158) With never more than three series of branches Diameter of celI bodfless than length o~processes T. limnelicum(p 158) ii. Cells cruciate.. . . . . : . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . T:. pUJillum (p 159)





A. Hansgirg, 1889,p 18; G. B. De Toni, 1889,p 600

=Polyedrium lrilobulatum Reinsch, 1888, p 498, pi 4, f 5 = Telraedron trilo&alum (Reinsch)'Hansgirg inJ. Brunrithaler, and D. B.Joshi, 1946. p 174, p12, f3' -

1915, p 146, f 152; E. A. Gonzalves

Sides of cells slightly concave and angles more or less pointed. . . . T. muticum (p 137)-

b. (p CellsCells depressed lateralIy in the form of a hemisphere. . . . . . . . . . T. ,hemi~phaericum 138) 9uadrangular ....... '" .. .. ... ...... T. minimum 138) Jp a. Sides of cells deeply emarginate

Cells triangular, sides 'equal in length, and deeply concave. Angles of cells broadly rounded. Cell membrane thick and smooth. Cells up to 25 I-' in diameter '(Fig. 50). HABITAT. In a tank near Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe and India.



b. Sides of cells slightly emarginate. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ::,. .. . . . . . . T. tumiJulum(p 139) Celh pentangular - a. CelIs_regular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. Jimmeri(p 139)
,b. Cells irregular and sometimes with six sides. . . . , . ..


[51. TetraedroD muticum (A. Braun) Hansgirg
I.'c A.-Hansgirg, 1888, p 131; J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 146,f 153;G. M. Smith, 1926,p 172,pi 6, 'f 4-9; G. W. Prescott, 1951,p 267, pi 60, f 16-17; incl., forma minimumReinsch-Jee J.
Brunnthaler 1915, p 147; E. A. Gonzalves and D. B.Joshi, 1946, p 174, pi 2, f4 =Polyedrium mulicum A. Braun, 1855, p 94 and P. mulicum f. minimum R~insch,


Angles of cells with papiIIae or spines B. CelIs quadrangular C. CelIs triangular a. b.

. . . . '_'. . .. . . . ; .-. . . T.





A. Cellswith2-3 angles. . .. .. .. . . . ... .. .. : .. .. .

.. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . T. proleiforme



T. trigonum (p 142)

pi 4, J 2 a

1888, p 498,

Cells irregular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . T. quadratum(p 145) CelIs regular... i. CelIs pyramidal

+ Angles

of celIs rounded

and with one spine


Sides nearly straight, Convex'or slightly concave ,Sides deeply concave :

T. regulare(p 145) , T. inCUJ 148) (p
. . . T. bifureatum (p 148)

+ + Angles

of cells truncate

to concave



two spines...

Halves of cells tWisted over one another.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. victorieae (p 150)

Cells, small, flat and triangular with the sides slightly concave and angles broadly 'ounded or truncate. Cell wall smooth. Cells 6-30 I-' in diameter (Fig. 51 a, b). HABITAT. Ponds and tanks, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); Barrackpore, :~ay-March and April, Cuttack, rather common-July, stray-March and August; ,.uapara (Cuttack), stray-February; Bhopal, stray-July, Raipur (M.P.), stray:pril, and Visakhapatnam, Stray-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Puri), , .y-April; reservoir, Jabalpur, stray-April (!).



The better with alga observed the American by

the author alga 12-30 had only 6-18 a diameter po (Prescott, (Brunnthaler of 7-12' 5 po and agreed


op. cit.) op. cit.).

than with the




alga measuring

po in diameter

DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, 'tV. Africa and Rhodesia, Siberia, India, and China. 52. Tetraedron hemisphaericum Skuja

Cell wall coarsely scrobiculate. Cells 15-16 poin diameter. (Fig. 53 f). HABITAT. Swamp, Kausalta Ganga, stray-April (!). DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, and India. forma tetraloblllatum
G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 601 =Po{yedrium minimum f. tetralobulatum Reinsch 1915 a, p 30, pi 4, J 180-81
minimum f. tetralobulatum

(Reinsch) De Toni
1888, p 499

H. Skuja, 1949, p 64, pi 10, f 28-31

Cells triangular in vertical view, concave and depressed hemisphere in lateral view, angles broadly rounded and without hyaline and densely punctate. Chloroplast parietal and with 42-49 poin diameter, 20-30 pothick (Fig. 52). HABITAT. Pond, Cantonment Gardens" Rangoon, during

in the form of a spines. Cell wall a pyrenoid. Cells. -. December (Skuja,

== Tetraedron





p 148;



Differs from the type in the ceUs having a short spine
11-14,u in diameter. Spines 1'5..:1'8 It long (Fig. 53 e). HABITAT. Planktonic in a pond at Cuttack, DISTRIBUTION. Europe, Siberia, and India.








54. 53. Tet!aedron minimu~ (A. Braun) Han§girg
1920, A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 131; 1889, p 18; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 147, f 155; G. M. Smith, p 118, pi 24, f 10-13; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1922, p 14, p13, f23 =Po{yedrium minimum A. Braun, 1855, p 94; J. Schaarschmidt, 1886, p 248



(Reinsch) Hansgirg
1951, p 270, p161, .

A. Hansgirg, 1889, p 18; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 148, r'15.7; G. W. Prescott, f 17-18; inel.forma W. et G. S. West, 1895, p 84, pi !>,f20 =Po{yedrium lumidulum Reinsch, 1888, p 506, pi 7, f 3



- ?T,

, ro,;_ PI",,,,,, 1918, 535, i57,'" p p


Cells smalland 'quadrangular with th~ sides concave'~md anglesrounded. Cell wall smooth. Cells6-20 ,u- diameter.'(Fig.53 a-c). in


HABITAT. Attached to aquatic macroflora in Afghanistan (Schaarschmidt, l.c.);' planktonic in Colombo Lake (Lemmermann, 1907); filter beds, Bengal (Bruhl and' Bisw.as, l.c.); trench, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); ponds and tanks, Serampore, rareJuly; Cuttack, very common to abundant-July and August; Jabalpur and Nagpur, stray-April; and Coorg, stray-February; swamp. Kausalya Ganga, Puri, rare-,~.
Apri~(D. DISTRIBUTION., Ubiquitous. '


sometimes with knob-like projections. Cells 16-60 po in ,diameter (Fig. 54). HABITAT. Planktenic in ponds and tanks,Serampore, straY-May; Cuttack, very ,rare--.August; (Pun), stray-April Balasore and Sambalpur, stray-December, and swamp, Kausalya Ganga (!).

Cdk- temjgonal with m"""",

"' 1= co~oavo an~~"" and

A.ustralia, and India. DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, S. Africa, Madagascar,

Siberia, Sumatra,

forma apiclIlatum
G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 601
=J>o{Yedriumminimum f aPiculatum Reinsch,

(Reinsch) De Toni
1888, p 499, p14, f2 c

=Tetraedron minimum f. apiculatumReinsch in W. et G. S. We~t, 1895, p 84, pi 15, f 19;J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 148
Cells with a very short fine papillafrom eacb angle (Fig. 53

Tw<? forms of the ?lga were observed by the author: The one with rounded angles (Fig. 54 c) agreed fully with Brunnthaler's ~escription and figUre, except thaUt Wasonly 1'6-18 poin diameter (Brunnthaler gives.the diameter as 20-60 po)and occurred ," at Kausalya Ganga. The second form with knob-like extensions from the angl~s ~'"(Fig..54 a-b) and 19-26'5 po in diameter Occurr~d in the1est of the collections.. It .lagreed- fully with 'West's alga, 17-23 It in diameter., Prescott (op.c.)also referred to the coccasionalpresence of knob-like extensions in the American alga (30-53 poin diameter). Tetraedron simmeri Schmid Ie

W. Schmidle, ,1901 b, p 41;J. Brunnthaler, 19J5, p'148, f 158

HABITAT. Windermere DISTRIBUTION. Europe, var.

Park, Rangoon-April (Sktija, 1949). Madagascar, S. ami W. 'Africa, Siberia; (Lagerhcim) De Toni

and Burma.


G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 601 =Po{yedrium minimum var. scrobkulatum Lagerheim, 1888, p 591 = Tetraedron minimum var. scrobkulalum Lagerh. in J. B~tha1er,

Cell five-angled with the angles rounded and in side VIew somewhat oblong. ;",~i~esstraight or slightly concave. Cells 24-28 poin diameter. The typical form is not known from the Indian region. var. minus
IWtominori. 5-angulares, unico pyrenoideo. Cellulae angulis rotundatis. "1P;Ioroplasta parietalia, Latera Cellulae

1915, p 148

var. novo
paulum concava. 9-10'5 /I. diam. Cellularum,->'tr___o membrana A h~~ tenuis. ...






f> [>61t?/



HABITAT. Vagat in planktone in palude ad Madras, mense aprili 1943; species servata in formaldehido (Coli. No.6) in C.I.F.R. Substation ad Cuttack.


. f{~:?H~; .


Iij/(: a


63 d

Cells five-angled with the angles rounded. Sides slightly concave. Cell membrane thin. Chloroplast parietal with a central (or lateral) pyrenoid. Cells 9-10'5 (-13) ft in diameter (Fig. 55). HABITAT. Swamp, Madras city (Chetput), stray-April, 1943 (!). DISTRIBUTION.India (Madras), Java. . The alga differs from the type only in its much smaller dimensions. Bernard's Polyedriumcaudatum (?) (Corda) Lag. (1908, pp 191-92, f 470), ll-13 fi. in diameter, can obviously be referred to this variety. 56.

Tetraedron gigas (Wittrock) Hansgirg
A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 131 ;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 148.f 159; G. W. Prescott, =Polyedrium gigas Wittrock, 1872, p 34, pi 4, f 4 1951, p 265

63 e

&t c



Cells irregularly 5- or 6-angled with the angles broadly rounded. concave.- Cells 35-45 # broad, 65-75 ft long. - The typical form is not known from the'Indian region.

Sides slightly

f. minus forma nov.


(A. BR.) HANSG.;

(A. BR.) HANSG.;

Cellulae 5'-6 10batae, Tateribus alte emarginatis; apices loborum paulum producti et truncati. Cellulae 14-16", diam. , HABITAT. Vagat in planktone in stagno ad Cuttack mense augusto anni 1954. Species servata in formaldehido (Coli. No.7) in C.I.F.R. Substation ad Cuttack.


Cells 5-6 lobed with the sides deeply emarginate. Ends of lobes slightly drawn out and with truncate ends. Cells 14-16 ft in diameter (Fig. 56). HABITAT. Planktonic in a pond at quttack, stray-August (!). DISTRIBUTION.India (Orissa). . The alga differs from the typical fonn in its much smaller size. The form. obtusum West(1892,p 739,[-53;J.-Brunnthaler,1915,p 148)isalsi:51~rger W. (27-42ft in diameter) than the present alga, though its angles are abruptly obtuse.

FIG. 50-57. 50, Tetraedron trilobulatum (REINSCH) HANSG.; 51, T. muticum
52, T. hemisphaericum SKUJA; 53 a-c,


proteifonne (Turner) Brunnthaler
1915, p 152, f 177; H. Skuja, 1949, p 65, plIO, f23-25
Turner, 1892, p 158, pi 20, f 24; non Tetraedron proteiforme proteiforme

J. Brunnthaler, 1918, p632

G. M. Smith,

d, PORMAapiculatum (REINSCH) D.ETONI; e, vAR.telralobulatum (REINSCH)DE TONI; f, PORMA scrobiculatum (LAOERH~) DE TONI; 54, T. tumidulum (REINSCH) HANSO. 55, T. simmeri SCHMIDLE VAR. minus VAR. NOV.; 56, T. gigas (WITTR.) RANso. P. minus P. NOV.; 57, T. proteiforme (TuRNER) BRUNNTH. . (50, PROMGONZALVES& JOSHI, 1946 (AS T. trilobatum); 52 a-c, 57 a, d, e, PROMSKUJA, 1949; 57 b-c, PROMTURNER,1892, AS Polyeilrium proteiforme TURNER; REST,X 1500).

Cells 2 to 3-cornered, angles drawn out and ending in a long spine; in side view more or less acicular. Sides wavy. Two-angled cells 12 ft broad and up to 65 ft long. Three-angled cells 36 ft in diameter without spines (Fig. 57). HABITAT. In standing waters, East India (Turner, l.c.) and Lower Burma, May and December (Skuja, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.India, Burma, Japan, and Sweden.





The alga from Burma is three-cornered and usually 41-46 p" rarely 24-35 p, in diameter, and has concave or nearly straight, or slightly convex sides with cell

membrane thick and punctate (Skuja, t.c.).
58. Tetraedron




A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 130; 1889, p 17; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 149, f 163; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 117, pI 23, f 14-16 =Pofyedrium trigonum Na~geli, 1849, p 84, pl4 B, f I; W. B. Turner, 1892, p 158, p121, f 13


.<~'t! .:...... .:.....

Cells flat, triangular with somewhat concave sides and rounded corners each ending in a stout ,spine. Cells, without spines, 18-30 p, in diameter. Spines 5-10 p long (Fig. 58 i). HABITAT. Ranigunj, E. India (Turner, I.e.); River Cooum, Madras .(Iyengar and Venkataraman, 1951); ponds and tanks, Serampore (W.. Bengal), stray-April; C~ttack, stray-February, March, August, and September; Hindol and Nuapara (Orissa), stray-December; Azhicode and Chalakudi (Kerala), stray-February; fishery bundhs, Berhampur (Orissa) and Srikakulam (Andhra), stray-December (!). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread. forma Dlinus (Reinsch) De Toni
G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 598 =Pofyedrium trigonum f. minus Reinsch, 1867, p 75, p13, f 1 ~, d = Tetraedron trigonum var. minor Reinsch in J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 149 = T. trigonum var. minus Reinsch in P. Brrihl and !(. Biswas, 1922, p 14, pI3,!




Cells smaller than in the type. Diameter of cells 10-15 (-20) p,. Spines 2'7 Jl long (Fig. 58 c). HABITAT. Filter beds, Bengal (Bruhl and Biswas, t.c.); ponds, Cuttack, strayJuly, and Nuapara, stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe,-N. America, India, Java, and Si~eria. Most authors give the dimensions of_the alga as 10-14 p,; but that from Orissa, observed.by. the author, measured 14-15 p, whereas the Bengal form (seeBruhl and _ Biswas, t.c.) measured 20 p,. The~e is a possibility that the Bengal alga belongs to the .~ type itself. ." forma crassUDl (Reinsch) De Toni
.~:.. .
G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 598 .=Pofy~drjum !rigonum f. Crassum Reinsch, 1867, p 75, pI 3, f I e-f 1i .,raei/ron ITlgonum f. crassum Reinsch in J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 149; H. Skuja, p 1 10, f37-38

FIGs. 58-59. 58 a, band p, Tetraedron trigonum (NAEa.) HANSG. FORMA gracile (REINSCH) DE TONI; c, FORMAminus (REINSCH) DE TONI; d-h, FORMA crassum (REINSCH)DE TONI; i, T. trigonum (NAEo.) HANsa.-TYPE; j-m, VAR. longispinum VAR. NOV.; nand 0, VAR. verrucosum JAO; 59, T. quadratum (REINSCH) HANsa. FORMAminus (REINSCH) DE TONI. . and n-o, and 59,(58 1500). h, FROMSKUJA, 1949; 58 a-b, x d and x 1000; c-e, g, i,j-m

1949, p 65,

":.;' Cells with stx:aight or convex sides and stumpy angles, "each with a short spine~ Ceil membrane Very thick and frequently with pores. Diameter of cells 14-27. f'

Thickness12-!7 p. Spines5-6
.' HABiTAT. 9antonment
Cuttack, stray-Aug., DIsTRmUTION.

I-' long (Fig.58 d~h).






and Sonepur Europe, -India,

(Orissa), stray-December Burma, and Siberia.


(,p.,.)n '"' i

ong;nal d=npuon ".red that tho ,id" of tho cdh are
and Burmese algae showed markedly convex

However, both the Indian

:ea. The cell membrane of the Burmese alga was also porous (seeSkuja, . t







forma gracile

(Reinsch) De Toni
var. verrucosum Jao C. C.Jao, 1947a, p 253,£3 c-d


G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 598; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 117, p124, f 5-9 =Polyedrium trigonum f. gracile Reinsch, 1867, p 75, pI 3, f I a-b = Tetraedron trigonum f. gracile Reinsch in 1.. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 149; H. Skuja, 1949, p 66, plIO, f 39-41 = Tetraedronproteiforme G. M. Smith, 1918, p 632, pI 15, f4-5, non (Turner) Brunnthaler, 1915, p152,f177

Cells flat, triangular, with the sides slightly convex or concave. Angles with a stout spine. Cell membrane and spines i~regularly granulate to verrucose. Cells 17'6-24'6 p. in diameter. Spines.7-8 p.long (Fig. 58 n-o). DISTRIBUTION. China HABITAT. Planktonic 59. Tetraedron quadratunl and swamp, in India. Kausalya . Ganga (Puri), stray-April (I).

Cells with more markedly concave sides than in the type. Cell membrane fIlooth. Cells 19'4-35 fl in diameter, 6-8 fl thick. Spines 6'2-7 fl long Fig. 58 a, b, p). . I HABITAT. Planktonic in Museum Pond, Madras, stray-February and October ~hilipose, 1940); Windermere Park, Rangoon-April and Cantonment Gardens, angoon-May (Skuja, l.c.); Fishery bundh, Midnapore (W. Bengal), strayecember; Swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, stray-April; ponds, Cuttack anI;! haudwar, stray-January and August (I)'. . DISTRIBU.J10"!.Europe, N. America, India, Burma, Java, and Siberia. f Tetraedrontrigonumvar. gracile listed and figured by Gonzalves and Joshi (1946, ~ 174, pI 2, f 2) appears to be either .a form of Tetraedron arthrodesmifo'(T1l4



A. Hansgirg, 1889, p 18;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 150, £ 165
=Polyedrium quadratum Reinsch, 1888, p 499, pI 4, £7 c


".~ameter. Cells



with the sides nearly straight

or slightly convex.


obtu", aDdwith a "'on 'pine.

Cell men>l'.ane thid and tw~"ytted.

Celh 3. pin


The typical form is not known from the Indian region.
forma minus G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 601 (ReinSch) De Toni

~rthrodesmiforme S. West or a Tetraedronregulare Kuetzing; both of which are G.
tlescriptio~ is lacking. I var. longispmum var. novo

[G. S. West) Woloszynska (1914, p 203), which is synonymous to T. trigonumvar.

~ ,y ''':'

letragonal. However, it is nQt possible to refer it to any of these species since a



=Polyedrium quadratum£. Reinsch,1888,p499, pi 4, £ 7 d minus

=Tetraedronquadratum£. minor-ocutumReinsch in Brunnthaler,

1915, p 150

Cells quadrate,

sides straight or slightly convex.

Angles broadly rounded and

Cellulae complanatae, triangulares, lateribus paulum vel fortiter concavis. longissimis rectis spinis ornati. Cellulae 12-18,.. diam. Spinae 9-15 ,..Iongae.

Anguli acuti et'

with spine. Cells 15-18", in diameter. Spines 3'5-4'5 p.Jong (Fig. 59). J~pril a(I). HABITAT.Planktonic in a swamp at Kausalya Ganga,' Puri (Orissa), stray_ DlSTR1BUTION. America, India, and Australia. N.

Rara in planktone in palude ad Kausalya Ganga (Orissa)mense aprili 1951. Species.

~ervata in formaldehido (Coli. No.8) in C.I.F.R. Sub-station ad Cuttack.

Cells flat, triangular, with the sides slightly to strongly concave. Angles pointed~ and with long straight spines. Cells 12-18 fl in diameter. Spines 9-15 fl long (Fig. 58 j-m). HABITAT. Planktonic in swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Puri), rare-April (I). DISTRIBUTION.India (Orissa). This alga differs from the type in possessing fairly long spines, the spines in the type measuring only 5-10 fl. In the presence of the fairly long spines and markedly concave sides, the alga shows a certain degree of resemblance to Treubaria setigera

Forma minus-obtusum(Roinsch) De Toni, including; Tetraedronjavanicum ~\I'oIoozyn,k. (1912), a d"""y alUe<lfono ('U .~Probably Europe, Java, Siberia, and Africa. Bnmnthaler, 1915, p 150), occu'" in
. ,

~60. Tetraedron pi 24, £14

. regulare

- Kuetzing


F. T. Kuetzing, 18t5, P'129;-J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 150, £ 167; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 118, /892, p 158; W. Schmidle, 1900 e, p 160 =Polyedrium letraedricum Naegeli, 1849, pi -t B, £ 3; P. Reinsch, 1888, p 505; W. B. Turner, =P. regulare (Kuetz.) Chodat, 1902, p 220; C. Bernard, 1908, p 192, £471-76

(Archer) G. M. Smith (G. M. Smith, 1933, p 499= Tetraedron.trigonum var. setigerrun (Archer) Lemmermann (seeLemmermann, 1904, p 110; Brunnthaler, 1915, p 149; _
G. M. Smith, 1920, p 117, pI 24, fig. 1-4). However, Treubaria setigerumhas much smaller cells (7-9 fl in diameter) with broad angles and the long setae are exte!l5ionS of the angles, which are the main points of difference between. Treubaria and Tetraedron. The present alga is, therefore, considered as a new variety of Tetraedrqr& trigonum.

, Cell, ""agonal, P""",,,daI, with the ,id", """eave, '!<aigh' '" illghUy COnvex. :ig.60 a-d, {). !\ogle, with a bl"", "0'' 'pine. Celh 16-34 P in diameter. Spin.. 5-7 P long i . HABITAT.East.India (Turner, I.e.); Parel, Bombay (SchmidIe, I.e.); ponds and lob, Dib"' h (&..am), '''''y-May, Serampo« (W. Bengal), '''ay-April, C.ttack, ~rare-:July and August, Coorg (Mysore), straY-February, Chalakudi and Ochira

'""fa), '''ay-Fe a..,.; """"'p, Kan""ya Ganga, Pn,i ery bundh, Srikakulam(Andhra),straY-December (!). (0,,=), DISTRIBUTION. Cosmopolitan.





f 2-3

var. longispinwn

(Reinsch) De Toni

var. granulata


G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 605 =Polyedrium tdraedricum var. longispinum Reinsch, 1888, p 506, pi 5, f I a = Telraedron regulare var. longispinum Reinsch in Brunnthaler, 1915, p 150; H. Skuja, 1949, p 65. pi 10, f 32


G. W. Prescott,

1944, p 359, pI 3, fl;

1951, p 269, p161,

,;; ..'"

Cells with compressed side; angles with a long stout spine. Cells with spines ()--49fl in diameter (Skuja, l.c.); cells up to 30 fl in diameter, spines 12-14 fllong (De 'oni, op.c.; Brunnthaler, op.c.) (Fig. 60 e). HABITAT. Ditch, Sadiya, Assam Valley (N. Carter, 192h); Royal. Lakes and ;antonment Gardens, Rangoon, November-December (Skuja, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION..Europe, India, Burma, and Java.
var. minus (Reinsch) De Toni

Cells pyramidal with convex or slightly concave sides. with short spines. Cell wall granular. CeUs 35-51 '8 fl in

Angles broadly rounded diameter (Fig. 60 i, I).

G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 605 =Polyedriumtetraedricum minus P. Reinsch, 1888, p 506, piS, f Ib var. =Tetraedron regulaTe ar. minusReinsch inJ. Brunnthaler, 1915, p ISO; H.Skuja, 1949, p 65, v pliO, f33

Cells tetragonal with the sid.es slightly convex and with a long massive spine &om: :ach corner- (Fig. 60). Cells 23-46 fl in: diameter with spines (Skuja, l.c. Fig. 60). HABITAT. On Limnanthemum n.fmphaeoidesn Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Skuja, l.c.). i DISTRIBUTION.Europe, West and Central Africa, Burma, and Siberia. . var. tors1UD (Turner)
" ..

J. Brunnthaler,

1915, p ISO, f 169; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 1-19,pi 24, f 17-18; G. W. prescott, 1951, P 269, pi 61, f 8-10 =Polyedriumtetraedricum Naegeli f. torsumTurner, 1892, p 158, pi 20, f IS


y N



.!: ..~'.' ~.i'~. I. h


Cells tetragonal with the two .halves twisted in a cruciate manner. Sides" of arms slightly convex. Angles with a short spine. C~lls 11'4-40 fl in diameter

(Fig.60 g,j, k, m, n).


HABITAT. East India (Turner, l.c.); ponds. and tanks,_ Serampore, strayJuly, Cuttack, stray-May and AUgusl,~Balasore (Orissa), stray-Noyember, Sambal-. pur (Orissa), stray-December, and Madras, stray-May; well in Nandi Hills, Mysore, stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.India,? Burma, China, Japan, S. Africa, N. America and 1, Sweden. . Turner did not give the dimensions of the alga from East India~ Smith, and. Prescott gave the diameter of the American variety as 25-40 fl. The present alga, was much smaller, only 11' 4-17 .5 fl in diameter. Skuja (1948, P. 333; 1949, P 173) placed this alga under Tetrakentron pascheri.. a genus belonging to the Xanthophyceae and named it T. torsum (Turner) Skuja.; Skuja's Burmese alga was 17-20 fl in broad and 35-45 fllong with spines up to 8 1" in length.



FIGs.60-6la. 60 a-d and f, Tetraedron regulare KUETZ.; e, VAR. longis_ Pinum (REINSCH) DE TONI; h, VAR. minus (REINSCH) DE TONI; g, j, m, n, VAR. Tetraedron incus (TEIUNG) G. M.i SMITH.I, VAR. granulata PRESCOTT; 61a, Iorsum (TURNER) BRUNNTH.; and (60 b, e, h, PROM SKUJA, 1949; m, PROM G. M. SMITH, 1920; g, j, k, PROM TURNER, 1892 (AS Polyedrium telraedricum NAEG. VAR. torsum TURNER); 61a, c, d, f, i and I, x 1500; Teiraedron regulare KUETZ. VAR. incus TEIUNG); (60a, PROM TEIUNG (AS n, x 1250).

I:Im h,


Ii I




HABITAT. Swamp, Kausalya Ganga, (Andhra Pradesh), stray-December (!). DISTRIBUTION.N. America and India.




Kumool The Burmese alga, .39-55 I' in diameter with spines, has the cell membrane covered by small excrescences giving it a porous appearance. This feature is not known in the algae originally described by Wille and Wolle. There is some confusion regarding the ndmenclature of this alga. Wille (1884, I.e.) described the alga Polyedrium tetraedricumvar. bifurcata with tetragonal pyramidal cells having convex or slightly concave sides and broadly rounded angles having two stout curved spines, with cells 30-'36 p, in diameter. Wolle (1887) described a somewhat similar alga with more or less concave sides and 38-46 p, without spines and 50-'59 p. with spines as Polyedriumtrigonum val'. bifurcatum. Lagerheim (1893) combined the two as Tetraedronbifurcatum (Wille) novo De Toni (1889, p 599; 605) had earlier treated the two algae separately as varieties of Tetraedron regulare and T. trigonum respectively. In referring to T. trigonum var. bifurcatum, probably by mistake he gave the name var_ ? bifurcatum Wille in Freshw. Alg. of the U.S. (p 184), and the same mistake has been repeated by Brunntl1aler and Prescott (op. cit.) who also treated the two algae as .separate and gave the reference C?f Wille to both.., Schmid Ie (1900 e) treated Wolle's alga as Tetraedron bifurcatum (Wolle) novo ., The two algae under consideration are very similar, except for the slightly smaller "c5ize and occasional convex sides of Wille's alga compared to the slightly larger alga with . treated .~.concave here as described by Wolle. sides the same. So, following Lagerheim, I?oth the algae are

The dimensions of 35-51'8 P, given by Prescott in his descriptions obviously. include those of the spines also. The present alga had cells 22-'24' 6 I' in diameter without spines, the spines being 7-81' long. Unlike the American variety, the Indian alga had small granulations on the spines .also.


Tetraedronincus (Teiling) G. M. Smith
G. M. Smith, 1926, p 174
= Tetraedron regulare var. incus Teiling, 1912, p 277, f 12;




p 150, f 168;

G. W. Prescott,

1951, p 269, p161, f 4-6 _

Cells tetragonal, flat or pyramidal with concave sides. Angles slightly produced to form short lobes, each. ending in ,a fairly long, slightly curved spine. Cells 15-20}' in diameter without spines and up to 37 I' with spines. Spines 7-8 p, long (Fig. 61 a, b). The typical form is not known from the Indian region. forma decolorata

(Defl.) nom. nov.
Deflandre, 1928;

= Tetraedron incus (Teil.)

G. M. Smithforma

. H.



Skuja, 1949, p.65, pliO, £42

Cells tetragonal and flat with concave sides having deeper sinus. than in the type, and. weaker expansion. Cell membrane smooth and colourless. Cells 16 I' broad, 22 p, long. Isthmus 5' 5 P, broad (Fig. 61 c). HABITAT. Pond, Rangoon-January (Skuja, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe and Burma. 62. Tetraedron bifurcatwn (Wille). Lagerheim.


G. Lage~heim, 1893, p 160; W, et G. S. West, 1901 a, p 183, pi 4, (50; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 156-57, f 194; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 263, pi 59, f 14; H. Skuja, 1~49, pp 63-64, pliO, I 17-18 -=Polyedrium tetraedricum Naegeli var. bifurcata Wille, 1884,.p 12, pi I, f 24 a-b =P. trigonum var. bifurcatum Wolle, 1887, p 184, pi 189, f 15-::18 =P. bifurcatum (Wolle) Schmidle, 1900 e, p 160 _ = Tetraedron regulare var. bifurcatum Wille in Brunnthaler, 1915, p 151, f 170; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 269, p161, f I

Cells tetragonal, pyramidal, with the sides somewhat concave or sometimes conve~, and ends rounded, truncate or slightly concave with a short, often curved, spine from each an&,leof the cell end. Cell wall smooth or with' small excrescence~ which make it appear porous. Cells 30-46 p, in diameter without. spines and 39~0 I' with spines. Spines up to 6 I' long. (Fig. 62 a, b). HABITAT. Pard, Bombay (Schmidle, I.e.); tanks, Rangoon -and MandalayApril, May, ang November (Skuja, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N and S. America, W. Indies, Central imd N. Africa, India, Burma, Siam, and China. ..



FIGS. 61 b-c, 62. 61b, Tetraedron incus ('I'EIUNG) G. M. SMITH; 61c, FORMA decolorata (DEFL.) NOM. NOV.; 62 a-b, T. bifurcatum (WILLE) LAGERH.; 62c, FORMA sub. mammillata (W. ET G. S. WEST) NOM.NOV. SMITH, 1920; 61c and SKUJA, (61 b, FROM)(725). 1949; 62c, 62 a-b, FROM

forma submammillata

(W. and G. S. West) nom. novo

= Tetraedron bifurcatum(Wille) Lagerheimforma W. et G. S. West, 1907, p 231, pi 12, f22 ..t«




150 Differs from the type in the angles from which the spines arise being submammillate. The cell membrane is also punctate. Cells 27-38 P in diameter (Fig. 62 c). HABITAT. Mansang near Hsipaw (W. et G. S. West, I.e.); Pond, Azhicode (Kerala), stray-February (!). Distribution. Burma and India. 63. Tetraedron victorieae Woloszynska

var. incisuDl J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 151, £ 173 I

(Lagerh.) Brunnthaler
1882, p 67, p12, £22

=Polyedrium pentagonum Reinsch £. inCisa Lagerheim,

=P. caudaturn £.incisum(Lagerheim) Reinsch, 1888, p 503, p14, £9 b =Tetraedron cauda/um(Corda) Hansg. £. incisurnReinsch in G. B. De Toni, 1889, P 603; W. et G. S. West, 1902, p 198 . . Cells regular with sides of equal length and with the notch in the middle more pronounced tJ:lan in the type. Cells 12-15 p in diameter. Spines 3 p long (Fig. 64 c). & HABITAT. Pond, Botanical Gardens,. Peradeniya, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, r' I.e.). i DISTRmUTION. Europe, (1929) considered one form

J. Woloszynska, 914,p 203, pI 7, f 1-4; G. M. Smith, 1926,p 173,p16, £33-34 1 Cells small, four-sided with two of the sides deeply emarginate dividing the cell into cruciately arranged halves. Halves of cells fusiform in vertical view with a short straight spine from the apices. Cells (with spines) 10-24 p broad, 30-42 /J long. Spines 3' 5 P long (Fig. 63 a, b). HABITAT. Fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore. (West Bengal),.>It stray-December; Pond, Cuttack, stray-February, rare-August DISTRmUTlON. Africa, N. America, Europe, an!! India. (!).

N. and S. America, and Ceylon. Fritsch they came across in collections from South

and Rich Africa as

probably f.

incisum of Tetraedron eQudatum.

65. Tetraedron

pentaedriCUDl W. et G. S. West
£ IS-16;

W. et G. S. West, 189S, p 84, piS,

1920, pp 120-21, p12S, £ 13-17 "

J. Brunnthaler,

1915, p IS2, £ 174; G. M. Smith,

Cells with spi(leS


Cells small, irregularly five-lobed with four lobes in one plane and the fifth at

var. major G. M. Smith
G. M. Smith 1920, p 119, p124, f19-22,.p125, f1; G. W. Prescott, 1951,p 271, p161, £28-29

r,\,an angle to the former. Comers somewhat acute, each with a short slightly curved ,spine. Cells 10-15 p in diameter without spines. Spines 3' 5-5' 5 P lQng(Fig. 65 a-b).
HABITAT. In culttlres of soil from rice fields near Allahabad {Mitra, 1947);_ ponds and tanks, Bhopal, stray-July; and jabalpur, (Madhya Pradesh), ?siray-April; Cuttack (Orissa), stray~July and August; Kurn.ool (Andhra Pradesh), {'J:I1re-December; Madras, stray-April; Ochirn (Kerala), stray-February; ~phandigarh (Punjab), stray-October, Leg Shri K uldip Singh (!). ~ DISTRIBUTION.Africa, N. America, India, and China. ? Though the alga observed by Mitra (l.e., f -16) agree with the 'typical form ~~escribedby Wests in most respects, its spines are more blunt and rounded at the ends. ftlso, the cells m~asure 7-15 p ~ithout

Cells same as in type, but much larger.

Spines also larger.

15':'20 p broad, 30-63 P long. Spines 8-12' 3 P long (1:ig. 63 c-e). HABITAT. Tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam), stray-May, Kausalya Ganga (Orissa)~ rare-November, Athmalik (Orissa), stray-December and Azhicode (Ktrala), rare-: February ( !1. DISTRmUTION. N. Amtrica and India.
64. Tetraedron
A. Hansgirg,




1888, p 131; 1889, p 18;

1953, p 239, £ 181 =Asteruium caudatumCorda, 1839 =Po!yedriumpentagonum.Reinsch,1867, p 76, pI 3, £ 2 ~PO!yedrium caudatum(Corda) Lagerheim, 1883, p 69


forma D1iniDlUm W. et G. S. West



1915, p 151, £ 171; O. A. Korshikov,


W. et G. S. West, 189S, p 84, piS, £ 17;J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p IS2; K. Biswas,1936,p
125, pI 8, £ 9


Cells small, flat, five-sided with four of the sides con~ave and the fifth in the fo,m of a notel< of varying d,pili. Angl" mnndod ~d pmdn"" into a ,hort ,,,,",ht spine. Cells 6-23 P in diameter. Spines 1-4 p long (Fig. 64 a, b). HABITAT. Planktonic in a muddy pond, Ootacamund (at an elevation of about 2150 m), common-June (!). J)m"RD'''''ON. Enrol". N. Am"im. 5. Af<im. India. Japan. 5ih"ia. and Australia. _ The form from Java without spines which Bernard (1908, p 191, fig. 470) baS.

tontauvolypia"" nnd" p,ly<bi"'",..".,... (Co""') La"",h,"". app"''' to h, it ,...Il
fonn of T,"",uon "'""'" SchmidI' (u, und" that ,poci") ",th« than a

Cells small~r than in type, 6 p in diameter without spines, and 10 p with spines iF:ig.65 c-e). HABITAT. In freshwater, among a colony of rotifers, N. E. India, September )swas, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.Madagascar and India (?). Though Biswas..described the alga as five-cornered, none of his three figures show ,ore than four corners. Nor did he mention that one lobe is in another p1ane. The ~thor is inclined to consider Biswas's alga as a smaller form of Tetraedron minimumf. ralohulatum(Reinsch) De Toni (for description see elsewhere; also compare: with '~3 e).





150 Differs from the type in the angles from which the spines arise being submammillate. The cell membrane is also punctate. Cells 27-38 p in diameter (Fig. 62 c). HABITAT. Mansang near Hsipaw (W. et G. S. West, I.e.); pond, Azhicode (Kerala), stray-February (!). Distribution. Burma and India. 63. Tetraedron victorieae Woloszynska

var. inciSUJD (Lagerh.) Brunnthaler
J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 151, £ 173 I
=Polyedrium penlagonum Reinsch £. inCisaLagerheim, 1882, p 67, p12, f 22 =P. caudalum £. incisum (Lagerheim) Reinsch, 1888, p 503, p14, £9 b =Telratdron caudalurn (Corda) Hansg. £. incisum Reinsch in G. B. De Toni, 1889, p 603; W.

et G. S. West, 1902, p 198


J. Woloszynska, 914,p 203, pI 7, £ 1-4; G. M. Smith, 1926,p 173,p16, £33-34 1 Cells small, four-sided with two of the sides deeply emarginate dividing thi cell into cruciately arranged halves. Halves of cells fusiform in vertical view with a short straight spine from the apices. Cells (with spines) 10-24 p broad, 30-42 fJ long. Spines 3' 5 plong (Fig. 63 a, b). HABITAT. Fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore. (West Bengal),

Cells regular with sides of equal length and with the notch in the middle more pronounced t}lan in the type. Cells 12-15 ft in diameter. Spines 3 ft long (Fig. 64 c). HABITAT. Pond, Botanical Gardens,- Peradeniya, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, I.e.). DlsTRmUTION. Europe, N. and S. America, and Ceylon. Fritsch and Rich (1929) considered one form they came across in collections from South Mrica as i.. probably f. incisumof Tetraedron cauda/um.




W. et G. S. West

W. et G. S. West, 1895, p 84, pI 5, £ 15-16; J. Brunnthaler, 19i5, p 152, £ 174; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 120-21, pI 25, £ 13-17

stray-December; Pond, Cuttack, stray-February, DISTRmUTION. Africa, N. America,.Europe,

rare--August an!! India.


var. major G. M. Smith



Cells small, irregularly five-lobed with four lobes in one plane and the fifth at "\ an angle to the former. Comers somewhat acute, each with a short slightly curved ,spine. Cells 10-15 ft in diameter without jlpines. Spines 3' 5-5' 5 ft 19n9 (Fig. 65 a-b).


G. M. Smith 1920,p 119,p124,£l9-22"pI25, fl; G. W.Prescott,1951,p 271,p161,£28-29 Cells same as in type, but much larger. Spines also larger. Cells with spu"eS 15':'20 p broad, 30-63 plong. Spines 8-12' 3 fJ long (~ig. 63 c-e). HABITAT. Tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam), stray-May, Kausalya Ganga (Orissa),. rare--November, Athmalik (Orissa), stray-December and Azhicode (Kerala), rare-


HABITAT.In cultures of soil from rice fields near Allahabad {Mitra, 1947);


February (!}.
DISTRIBUTION.N. America and India. 64. Tetraedron caudatuJD (Corda) Hansgirg -


iponds and tanks, Bhopal, stray-July; and 'jabal pur, (Madhya Pradesh), :~stray-April; Cuttack (Orissa), stray-,July and August; Kum.ool (Andhra Pradesh), 'ttare-December; Madras, stray-April; Ochira (Kerala), stray-February; ,.,:,Chandigarh (Punjab), stray-October, Leg Shri Kuldip Singh (!). ~. ' DlsTRmUTloN. Mrica, N. America, India, and China. o Though the ~lga observed by Mitra (l.c., f -16) agree with the 'typical form 'described by Wests in most respects, its spines are more blunt and rounded at the ends. ,'~lso, the cells measure 7-15 ft without spines. forma IDiniDl1Un W.

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 131; 1889, P 18; j. Bronnthaler, 1915, p 151, £ 171; O. A. Korshikov,

et G. S. West

1953,p 239, £ 181

=Astericium caudalumCorda, 1839

=polyedriumpenlagonum.Reinsch, 76, p13, £2 1867,p ==,POlyedrium caudalum (Corda) Lagerheim, 1883,p 69 Cells small, fiat, five-sided with four of the sides concave and the fifth in the form of a notcn of varying depth. Angles rounded and produced into a short straight spine. Cells 6-23 P in diameter. Spines 1--4 plong (Fig. 64 a, b). HABITAT. Planktonic in a muddy pond, ootacamund (at an elevation of about 2150 m), common-June (!).

> .

W. et G. S. West, 1895, p 84, pi 5, £ 17; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 152; K. Biswas, 1936, p 125, pi 8, £ 9
, Cells smaller than in type, 6 p in diameter without spines, and 10 ft with spines JF,ig. 65 c-e). ' 't:, HABITAT. In freshwater, among a colony of rotifers, N. E. India, September '~iswas, i.e.). , DISTRIBUTION.Madagascar and India (?). Though Biswa,s.described the alga as five-cornered, none of his three figures show J)re than four corners. Nor did he mention that one lobe is in another plane. The -!bor is inclined to consider Biswas's alga as a smaller form of Tetraedronminimum f. !f~alohulatum (Reinsch) De Toni (for description see elsewhere; also compare with "3 e). '

DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, S. Africa, India, Japan, Siberia, and


_ Tho ronn trom Java without ,pin" which !JenWd (1908, P 191, fig. 470) baa tentanv"y p1ac<dond" p"pan.m "wi.,,,,, (Conla) Lag"heim, app"'" to bo .".n h. form of Tetraedron simmeriSchmidle (seeunder that species) rather than a T. caudat~





152 66.



(Reinsch) Hansgirg p.p.
18671 p 77, p15, f4

,.<:: " ;~

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 131 pro parte
=Polyedrium octaedricum acuminatum Reinsch,

Cells octagonal with the sides markedly concave. Angles acuminate. Cells 10-23 fl in diameter. Since Reinsch (op.c.)has described only two varieties and no type, the first of the varieties, viz. octaedricumacuminatummay have to be retained as the type. This alga is not known from the Indian region.

var. spinosum (Reinsch) W. et G. S. West
W. and G. S. West, 1901 a, p 183 =Polyedrium octaedricum sPinosum Reinsch, 1867, P 78, pi 5, f 5 = Tetraedron regulare var. octaedricum (Reinsch) Playfair, 1918, p 535, pi 27, f23




~M' *. ... ~ J-( '8


-..... .~

Cdls octagonal with eight lateral planes. Angles rounded and obtuse, each with a spine. Cells 32-47 fl in diameter (Fig. 66). HABITAT. Planktonic ina swamp at Kausalya Ganga, Puri (Orissa) (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, India, Siam, and Australia. The Indian alga, 15-17'6 fl in diameter, with the spines 3'5-4'5 fllong, is nearer tlte Australian -alga, which is .17 fl in diameter,th~n the Siamese (32-38 fl "'. with spines and 21:-26 fl wi~out spines) or the European alga (38-47 fl in diameter). In his original description, Reinsch (op.c.) referred to two distinct types, viz. Polyedrium octaedricum acuminatumand P. octaedricumsPinosum, the former being described as "Cellulae octaedricae,Planities octonae laterales subconcavae,anguli acutiusculi et acuminati. Latit 0, 01 mm. usque 0, 023 mm." and the latter as "Cellulae octaedricae, planities laterale~octonaePlanae, anguli ror-undato obtusi, sPino singulofirmo hyalino armati. Latit, 0, 038 mm. usque 0, 047 mm." Th~s, the chief distinction between the two types :.liesin the fact that octaedricumacuminatumhas eight subconcave lateral planes and acute to acuminate angles, whereas octaedricumspinosum has eight plain lateral sides with the

~.lUlglesounded and obtuse and ending-in distinct'spines. His figures (pI 5, f 4, 5) r

>-the name of acuminatum sPinosum givenfor f 5 is obviouslyan error and shouldbe


I 'read as octaedricumspinosum-also clearly bring out these differences. ~ Apparently in his later work, Reinsch (1888, p 507) has comb,ined the two types t:tinderP. octaedricum: Han~girg- (1888, 1889) and Brunnthaler (1915, p 152) a!so

",iadopted the same procedure. From W., and G. S. Wests' reference (1901 a, l.c.) to

,;.T. octaedricum var. sPinosum appears that they retained var. sPinosum and it while consi'::dering the acuminate form -as the type. Playfair (1918, l.c.) stated that Polyedrium '{octaedricum acuminatum should be retained in the type (as Tetraedron octaedricum) and Zthe variety octaedricumsPinosumshould be treated as a'variety of Tetraedron regulare as )at. octaedricum(Reinsch) Playfair, his reasons for the same being that the alga is six ~ttoeight-angled and is nearer the tetragonal T. regulare. The author does not agree (~th this contention since it is quite clear from Reinsch's original descriptions of the two ~es that he laid more stress on the number of planes (sides) than on the number of
~gles (poles).


66 b



Flos.63-68. 63 a-b, Tetraedron victorieae WOLOSZ.; c-e, VAR. major G. M. SMITH; 64 a-b, T. caudatum (CORDA) HANSO.; c, VAR. incisum (LAOERH.) BRUNNTH.; 65 a-b, T. pentaedricum W. ET G.S. WEST; 65 c-e,? P. minimum W. ET G. S. WEST; 66 a-b, T.octaedri<;um (REINSCH) HANSO. VAR. spinosum (REINSCH) W. E'I' G. 5. WEST; 67, T. hastalum (REINSCH) HANSO.; 68 a-b, T. bifidum (TURNER) WILLE.



(Reinsch) Hansgirg
1915, p 157, f 196; G. M. Smith, 1920,

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 132; 1889, P 19;J. Brunnthaler, p 121, pl25, f 18; H. Skuja, 1949, p 64, pliO, f21

(64 c, PROM LAOERHEIM; 65 c-e, BISWAS, 1936; 67, PROM SKUJA, 1949; 68 a-b, FROMTURNER, 1892 (AS polyedrium bifidum TURNER); (llES'l',x 1500).


CHLOROCOCCALES TETRAEDRON =Po{)'edrium tetraedricum hastatum Reinsch, 1867, p 77, piS, £ 3 a-b =P. enorme var. hastatum Rabenhorst, 1868, p 630 =P. hastatum Reinsch, 1888, p 507


Cells tetragonal, pyramidate, with the sides deeply concave, angles produced into long tapering concave unbranched processes ending in 2-3 short spines. Cells 28-36 Jt in diameter (Fig. 67). HABITAT. Cantonment .Gardens, Rangoon-May (Skuja, i.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, W. Mrica, Burma, China, and Jap<l:n. 68. Tetraedron bifidum (Turner) Wille

N. Wille, 1909, p 60d. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 157, £ 199 =Polyedrium bijidum Turner, 1892, p 158, pi 20, £23

Cells triangular in front view with the sides sinuous, in side view elongateellipsoid. Processes gradually tapering and ending in two spines. Cells 4'5-5' 5 Jt broad, 13-17 Jt long (Fig. 68). DISTRIBUTION.EaH India (Turner, I.e.).





Fla. 69. a-c, Tttraedron gracile (RI!INscn) d-f, FORMAminus F. NOV. . (a-c, x 1000; d, FRoM'PmuPosE, HANSO.;

A. Hansgi.rg, 1889, p 19; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 157-58, f201; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 26~, pi 60, £ I; L. H. Tiffany and M. E. Britton, 1952, p 118;pl 34, £339 =PolyedriumgracittReinsc~, 1888, p.502, p16, £ I b-c

1940, X 1500). _

Cells flat and rectangular with the corners produced into narrow processes which usually branch twice and end in spines. The primary branches usually at' right angles with one another and parallel to one side of the cell. Cells, with processes, 30-43 (-80) Jt in diameter, without processes, 10-20 (-30) Jt (Fig. 69 a-c). HABITAT. Fishery bundh, Chandrakoria Road, Midnapore (West Bengal), stray-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga; Puri,- very rare-April; ponds and tanks, DiJ:>rugarh (Assam), stray-May; Cuttack,-stray-May, July, and August, Sambalpur (Orissa), stray-December; Coorg (.Mysore), stray-February, and Azhicode (K~rala)" stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, India, and China.

forma minDS f. novo
"',(vero non ornatae Voctobri-novembri;

Cellulae multo minores quam in typo, ornatae quidem processibus 27-30 podiam., processibus 4'5-9 po. _
1938'. Species servata


HABITAT. Rarissima

in planktone in Museum Pond, Madras, mensibusjan.-aprili,
in £ormaldehido in University

Botany Laboratory,




Cells much smaller than in the type measuring only 27:-30 Jt in diameter with
and 4' 5-9 fJ without processes .(Fig. 69'd).



Skuja (1949) placed this alga under the Heterokontae in /sthmochloron kuja S

HABITAT. Museum (Philipose, 1940). October to November Pond, Madras, very rare~anuary DISTRIBUTION.India (Madras).

to April, June to August

(1948) and gave it the name 1. gracile (Reinsch) Skuja, and described a form, f. reduetum Skuja, from the suburbs of Rangoon. The main characters of /sthmoehloron which distinguish it from Tetraedronare the presence of nu.merous discoid olive-green chromatophores devoid of pyrenoids and also the presence of oil globules and granules of amylaceous and carotinoid nature. I~ Tetraedrongracile, Smith (1920) referred to numerous discoid chromatophores without pyrenoids. Brunnthaler, Prescott, and... , Tiffany and Britton (op.c.) did not refer to the' chromatophores. It has not been -... - possible for the authQr to make out more than one or two parietal chromatophores; However, pending further investigation, the alga is only tentatively referred here ~c
Tetraedron gracile.

What has been stated about the validity of the type species applies to this form also. Tetraedron cruciatwn (Wallich) W. et G. S. West.
183, pi 4, £51;J. p264 Prescott, 1951, Brunnthaler, pi 13, £ 12 1915, p 158, £202; 1892, p 159,

W. and G. S. West, 175, p 198; 1901 a, p G. M. Smith, 1926, p1902, p18, £ 1-2; G.W. =Micrasltrias "'Iciata Wallich, 1860, p 281, pi 20, £ 20-21 =StauroPhanum cruciaturn (Wallich) Turner

(incl. £. maj~r and £. minor Turner)

; Cells cruciate with the corners produced into irregular processes which are not heter the (Fig. 70). ' ,~ in same plane. Processes ending in 2-3 short spines. Cells 23-54 fJ in





71. Tetraedron HABITAT. Bengal and Central India (Wallich, I.e.; Turner, I.e.); artificial tank, peradeniya, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902); pond, Cuttack, stray-August (!). DISTRIBUTION.India, Ceylon, Siam, Japan, and Scotland. According to Skuja (1948), this alga is very much like Isthmochloronlobulatum (Naegeli) Skuja (=Polyedrium lobulatumNaegeli, 1849), a member of the Xanthophyceae having numerous disc-shaped yellow green chromatophores. T!Jrner, Wests, Smith, and Prescott did not give details of the chromatophore. The author could not also study the chromatophore in detail. So, the alga is tentativeJyreferred here to Tetraedron cruciatum.


(Ralfs) Hansgirg

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 132; 1889, p 19;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 155, £ 192; G. M. Smith, p 124, pi 27, £6; G.W. Prt'Scott, 1951, p 265, pi 52, £6-7, pi 59, £ 19

=StaurastrummormeRalr.., 1848, p 140, pi 33, £ II
=Polyedrium enorme (Ralfs) De Bary, 1858, p 71; C. Bernard,

1908, p 195, £ SOl


Cells irregularly tetrahedric with the angles produced into processes ending in short spines. Processes not all in the same plane. in diameter. The typical form is not known from the Indian region. var. pentaedricum Prescott

short bilobed Cells 25-45 p,



G. W. Prescott,

1944, p-358, pi I, f 17

70 ~

70 c


Cells five-sided with the sides straight or slightly convex and with pairs of narrow bifurcate processes extending in all planes. Processes ending in short spines. Cells 27-55 '" in diameter (Fig. 71 a, b). HABITAT. Ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam), stray-:-May; Cuttack, strayif August, Srikakulam (Andhra), stray-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Puri), "very rare-April; and reservoir, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), stray-April (I). DISTRIBUTION.N. .America, C. Africa, and India.' The variety differs from the type in the straight (instead_of concave) margins , and the narrow bifurcated proce~es extending ftom the angles. The Indian alga with ¥"cells 27-30 '" itl diamete~ is smaller than the American alga, which measures 50-55 '" ~':indiameter. Since it agreed with the American alga in all other respects it is referred ,- :to the same. var. turneri var. novo
=Polyedriumsp. ? in W. B. Turner, 1892,p 158, pi 17, £ II
~. _

A typo differt processibus



apices sunt truncati

vel rotundati

et desinunt


,1-2 spinas. Cellularum diam. 37 ,... Spinae 2 ,.. longae.


" Differs from the type in- having processes which are stouter with their ends "truncate or rounded and ending in 1-2 spines. Diameter of cell 37 fl. Spines 2 fl ,long (Fig. 7lc). DISTRIBUTION.East India (Turner, I.e.). Tetraedron lobulatum (Naeg.) Hansgirg

FIGs. 70-72. 70, Tetraedron cruciatum tWALUCH) W. ET G. S. WEST; 71, T. enorme (RALFS) HANSG. VAR_ ,pentaedricum PRESCOTT; c, VAR. turneri VAR. NOV.; 72, T. lobulatum (NAEG.) HANSG. VAR. polyfurcatum G. M. SMITH. (70 a-b, 71c, FROMTURNER, 1892 (AS Staurophanum cruciatum (WALUCH) TURNER F.' major an~- F. minor TURNER AND AS Polyedrium SP. RESPECTIVELY, (REST,x 1000);

A. Hansgirg, 1888, p 132; 1889, p 19; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 266, pi 60, £ 6-7 =Polyedrium lobulatum Naegeli, 1849, p 8-1, pl6 B, £ 4 = Tetraedronlobatum (Naegeli) Hansgirg inJ. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 156, £ 193; M.O.P. 1951, £ 5 AA


Cells tetragonal or pyramidal with the sides distinctly concave. ort and stout, and bifurcate at their apices. Cells 31-40 p, in diameter.






Skuja (1948, 1949) regarded this alga as one of the Xanthophyceae and named, it Isthmochloron lobulatum (Naegeli) Skuja. Smith (1920) also referred to numerous discoid chromatophores without pyrenoids in this alga. The alga is included here tentatively. It is not known from the Indian region except for the original figure of Iyengar (l.c.).

74. Tetraedron pusillum (Wallich) W. et G. S. West
W.67, pI G. S. West, 1897, p P237; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 157, f200; p and 14, f 25-26; 1951, 268, pI 60, f29 = Micrasterias pusilla Wallich, 1860, p 281, pI 13, f 13 =Staurophanum pusillum (Wallich) Turner, 1892, p 159, pI 20, f 22 G. W. Prescott, 1931,

var. polyfurcatum G. M. Smith
G, M, Smith, 1916 b, p 480, p126, f 21-22; G. W. Prescott, masson, 1953, p 56 1951;p 267, pI 60, f II; K. Tho-'

Cells cruciform with usually four, rarely three, processes, each ending in two recurved spines. In side view, elongate-ellipsoid with attenuate ends. Cells 10 ft broad, 25 ft long (Fig. 74 a-c). HABITAT. N. E. India (Wallich; I.e.; Turner, i.e.). DISTRffiUTJON.. ndia and N. America. I

Cells tetragonal or pyramidal with concave sides. Processes not all in the same plane and branching dichotomously three to four or five times. Ultimate branchlets with 2-3 small spines. Cells with processes 35-70, ft in diameter, without processes 15-25 ft (Fig. 72). HABITAT. Pond, Azhicode (Kerala), rare-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.N. America, Sweden and India. Smith (l.c.) and Prescott (op.c.) did not Jefer to det~ils of the chromatophore. In the preserved material of the Indian algae also it was not possible to study the" chromatophore. If T. lobulatum is regarded as one of the Xanthophyceae and'the chromatophore of the var~<;LY polyfurcatum is typically Chlorophycean, then the latter may have to be treated as a distinct species of Tetraedron. 73. Tetraedron limneticum 13?rge
1920, p 123,

var. angolense W. et G. S. West
f 13-17 G. S. West, 1897, p 237;J. Brunnthaler, 191.'),p 157; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 176, p118, W. and Cells irregularly tetrahedric with one short process from each corner. process splits into two, rarely three, outwardly bent spines. Cells w~thout 14' 5-25' 5 ft in diameter, with spines 22-38 ft:

Each spines

0, Borge, 1900, p 5, pI I, f 2; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 157, f 195; G. M. Smith, pI 27, f 1-3; 1926, P 175, p18, f9-12; H. Skuja, 1949, p 64, plIO, f 13-14

Cells tetragonal with the angles produced into processes having one to tw~ dichotomous branchings. Ultimate branchlets with 2-3 short spines. Cells with processes 45-85- ft in diameter. Base of processes 8-12 ft (Fig. 73 a-d). HABITAT. Among epiphytic forms, Mandalay-November (Skuja, i.e.)f" planktonic in ponds and tanks,_ Cuttack, rather common to abundant-July, August, and October; Azhicode and Iringalakuda (Kerala), stray-Februcn-.y; swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Ox:.issa), stray-April (!). DISTRffiUTION.Europe, N. America, C. Africa, India, and Burma., ,.~ The alga is typically a planktonic form. Skuja (i.e.) rioted it -among -the " epiphytic forms" ! var. gracile
G. W. Prescott, 1944, p 358, pi I, fl8;



1951, p 266, pI 60, f 5

Differs from the type in having much narrower processes which almost adjoin at the base, there being scatcely'any cell body. Cells 35'2-46'8 ft in diameter.. Base, of processes 5' 3-8 ft broad (Fig. 73 e). HABITAT. Pond, Cuttack, stray-August ( !). DISTRIBUTION.N. America and India. .


74 c

D ,


FIGS. 73-74. 73 a-d, Te/raedron limneticum BORGE; e, VAR. gracile PRESCO'IT; WEST minus F. NOV. 'w. ET G. S.74 a-c, F.T. pusillum (WALUCH) W. ET G. S. WEST; d, VAR. angolense (73 c, FROMSKU]A, 1949; 74 a-c, FROMTURNER, 1892 (AS StauroPhanum pusillll17l (WALUCH) TURNER; 74d, x 1500).





HABITAT. Ponds, Barrackpore

(W. Bengal), stray-April

and Cuttack, stray-

August; swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Orissa), stray-April (I). DISTRIBUTION.Africa (Angola), N. America, and India.

f. minus f. nov.
Cellulae multo minores quam in var.


West, magnit, tantum 10,3-13,9,.

HABITAT. Vagat in planktone in Museum Pond, Madras, mensibus martio, junio et augusto 1938. Species servata in formaldehido in University Botany Laboratory, Madras.

Cells much Huber-Pestalozzi HABITAT.



in var. angolense

W. et G. S. West and in var. gracile
(Fig. 74.d). and August (Philipose,

T. reliculalum (Reinsch) Hansgirg, 1889, I' 18 T. smilhii Tiffany, 1934, p 64, pili, f249 = T. slauraslroides G. M. Smith, 1926, non T. slauraslroides (W. West) Wille, 1909, p 60 T. somogyicum Hortobagyi, 1962, p 42, pi 53, f674 T. spiniferum G. M. Smith, 1922, p 334, pi 8, f 9-11 T. ~Iragonum (Naeg.) Hansgirg, 1889, I' 18 =Polyedrium telragonuTliNaegeli, 1849, p 84, pI4-B, f2 =P. Irigonum var. lelragonum (Naegeli) Rabenhorst, 1868, p 62 T. lorlum W. et G. S. West, 1895 b, I' 52 T. Iriangulare Korshikov, 1953, I' 239, f 180 = T. Irigonum var. papilliferum (Schroeder) Lemm. T. troPicum W. et G. S. West, 1897, I' 237 T. valdezii Kol, 1942, I' 22, 1'16, f 87-88 T. ve"ucosum G. M. Smith, 1918, I' 632, pi 15, f 1-2 T. waslneysii Playfair, 1917, I' 846, 1'158, f31 According to G. M. Smith (1933), Telraedron duospinum Ackley is the same as Closteridium lunula Reinsch. However, Prescott (1951), who, incidentally, did not recognize Closteridium, treated the two as separate species of Tetraedron. It is possible that some of Playfair's species do not deserve more than the

(1935), being only 10'3-13'9 P. in diameter Museum pond, Madras, stray-March, June,
India (Madras).

"'"status varieties and forms of already known species. of

His T. slrialum (see Playfair, 1917, p 846, pi 58,


Species of Tetraedron

not recordedfrom the Indian region
.,.r. 0' r.



T. aculealum (Wolle) De Toni, 1889, P 612 T. aculitleTisBeck-Mannegetta, 1926, pp 181-82, f 10 T. aculum Playfair, 1917, P 844, p158, f24-25 T. angulosum (Larsen) Collins, 1909, P 164 T. armalum (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, P 611 T. arlhrotlesmiforme (G. S. West) Woloszynska, 1914, P 203 T. asymmelricum Prescott, 1944, P 357, pll, f 14 T. bilritlens Beck-Mannegetta, 1926, p 182, f 11 T. conslriclum G. M. Smith, 1920, P 122, pi 25, f 22-24 =T. arlhrotlesmiforme var. lobulalum Woloszynska, 1914, P 203, p16, f 11 T. crassitlens Beck-Mannegetta, 1926, p 182, f 16 T. cruciforme Playfair, 1917, P 845, p158, f29 . T. tlecussalum (Rabenh.) Hansgirg, 1888; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 157 = Polyedrium enormt var. tlecussalum Rabenhorst, 1865, P 63 = Telraedron tlecussalum (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, P 610 =T. tleCU$Salum (ReillSGh) W. et G. S. West, 1901, P 125 T. dotlecaedricum (Reinsch) Hansgirg, 1889, P 18 T. duospinum Ackley, 1929, P 304 T.floridens W. et G. S. West'-seeJ. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 155 T. grande Reif, 1939, P 615 T. granulosum PJayfair, 1918, P 534, p157, f 17-18 T. ho"idum W. et G. S. West, 1897 a, P 502, p17, f 4-5 T. hortense Playfair, 1917, P 844, p158, f23 T. hungaricum Hortobagyi, 19"62, P 41, p153, f 663 T. i"egulare (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, P 611 T. mainensis Wheldon, 1943 . T. marssonii Lemmermann-see J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 157 T. miniata? ..-see Hirano, 1954, P 163 T. minutissimum Korshikov, 1953, P 241, f 184 T. oblusum Playfair, 1918, I' 536, 1'157, f26 T. octopus Teiling, 1946 T. olivaceum Beck-Mannegetta, 1927, I' 15 T. pachytlermum (Reinsch) Hansgirg, 1889, I' 18 =,!. po.chydermum (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, I' 603 T. pannomcum Hortobagyi, 1962, I' 43, p154, f 684-87 T.planctonicum G. M. Smith, 1916 b, P 479, pl26 f 19-20 T.platysthmum (Archer) G. S. West, 1908, P 286, 1'121, f36-39 T. polymo~phum lA;sken.) Hansgirg, 1888, P 131 T.prolumldum (Rel~ch) Hansgirg, 1889, P 19 T. punclu!alWl! (Remsch) Hansgirg, 1889, P 18 T. quadr~pidatum (Remsch) Hansgirg, 1889, I' 18 T. quadrilob~ G. M. Smith,.1922, p 333, 1'18, f 14-18 =T. quadrilobum G. M. Smith in G. M. Smith, 1926, I' 172

!r "..Xanthophyceae.

f 30) could be a Staturaslrum. Tetraedron stellaturn Swirenko (1926, p 85) has been considered by Korshikov (1953, p 150) as synonymous to Echinosphaerella limnelica G. M. Smith.* Fott (1959, p 257) states that a number of algae described as Tetraedron mUlicum, T. trigonum, T. gracile, etc., have been found later as members of other classes of algae like Xanthophyceae and Dinophyceae, and no species without a pyrenoid ajld starch can._be considered as a Tetraedron. Thus, :' ~ T. muticum, according to him (1959, I' 136), is Goniochloris mutica (A. Braun) Fott, pne of the
Fott and Ettl (1959, I' 240). also state that the Po/)'edriurn gigas described by Naegeli and


Reinsch is probably only Telragoniella gigas Pascher (Xanthophyceae) and not a Tetraedron, whereas Skuja's (1948,1'115, f 20) T"raedron regulare with a pyrenoid is really a Tetraedron. Bourrelly (Bull. Mus. Paris, Ser. 2, 23: 670, f 5, J951) has placed a number of species originally. known as Tetraedron within the genus PseudosiaurastrUTII (Xanthophyceae) under the sections Telraedriella, TIlrakenlron, Tetragoniella, Goniochloris and ISlh11Jochloron. Fott and Komarek (1960, PI' 249-51) gave the following forms originally known_as Telraedron under Pseudostauraslrum Chodat emend. Skuja (1959) emend. Fott ~nd Komarek: P. hastalum (Reinsch) Chodat in Bourrelly, 1951; P. lobulatum (Naegeli) Chodat in Bourrelly, 1951 and P. enoriize(Ralfs) Hansg. in..Chodat, 1920. Bourrelly (1951) had considered Pseudostaurastrum armalum (Reinsch) Chodat and P. gracile Chodat as invalid. According to Wt".st and Fritsch (1927, PI' 126-27), only those species of Telraedron in which autospore ,Jormation is known to take place can be considered as Tetraedron, since Tetraedron-like stagt"s are known to ,occur in Pediastrum, Hydrodictyon and Oocystis. Also, the resting stages of some other algae resemble ..:Tetraedron. Still, they state that even the recording of such forms as new species of Tetraedron helps in their '{ .temporary classification till they are assigned elsewhere. Regarding Chodat's (1920) reference of Tetraedron enorme to Pseudostaurastrum, they state that this name can hardl1 be retained s.ince it was used <ea!lier (see Hansgirg, 1889; Wille, 1909; Brunnthaler,.1915) for a section of Tetraedron. Further, they ~_ state that this requires reinvestigatiop. f.~._ Fritsch (1935, 1'151) remarks that in most cases of Tetraedron, the chloroplast appears to be- a curvcd

t 'plate


or without


but there

are also instances

of records

of numerous


He does

' ~- . b. I~ is.ofinterest-in _this eonne.ction that Starr (1954) has. recorded zoospores in one species, viz. _ ~:1T. llTldens.
: ,cnbed species may have to be'decided on its own merits. As far as the Indian species are concerned, :',the author prefers to retain them within Telraedron more details are known. till

~I,notrule out the.possibility

of their formation

by multiplication


to cell diviSion.

.:-". From the foregoing it appears that, though .all described" species" may not really be Tetraedron .(as shown by lack of records of pyrenoids, starch and autospore formation in some species), the .~~ibility. of the existence of parallel species in several classes of algae cannot be ruled out and each des-



Reinsch, 1888, p 510

Cells free-BoC\tiilg, solitary or in loose aggregates, semicircular to crescenttS)1apedor cylindrical and invDluted, with an unbranched spine from each end. Cell ~all relatively thick. Chloroplast single and filling the cell, usually with a pyrenoid. Reproduction unknown. Three spec~es are known from the Indian region.
*Tetraedron cuspidalum (Bailey) Wille in J. Brunnthaler, 1915, P 153 (=Closterium cusPidalum ey in 1889. 1848, 219,=Ophiocytium cuspidatllmu:.. Rabenh., 1868, I' 68,=Reinschiella ?...n.'''. cusR!data (Bail.) Toni. Ralfs, n 614) p ;. ~,..h,~1Iv ~ .f:";"",.1"f'I--.O._ C"6 '_'''_. n _n..J"nnfo .







Cells crescent-to sickle-shaped Cells in aggregates and with short spines; cells 5-6 Jlo broad, 16-30 Jlo long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. bengalicum Cells ovoid or semicircular (a) Cells solitary Cells semicircular with inner side nearly straight or slightly curved; spines recurved and usually unequal; cells 26-28.Jlo broad .C. siamensis (b) Cells solitary or in aggregates of two to three Cells ovoid with inner side more strongly convex than the outer side; spines short and curved C. obseum

Cells solitary or in twos, rarely in threes, ovoid with the outer side strongly convex, and the inner side nearly straight or slightly concave. Poles of cells with a single 6'5-7'5 shortlong (Fig. 77). p, inwardly curved spine. Cells 12-16 p, broad, 29-46 p, long. Spines HABITAT. Pond, suburb of Rangoon-August DISTRIBUTION.Siam, Burma, and N. America. . (Skuja, l.c.).






1909, p 60; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 153-54, f 182;



W. B. Turner, 1892~p 158, pI 20, f25 = Telraedron bengal;cum (Turner) Wille, K. Biswas, 1936, p 125, pI 8, f 8


~~ 9



77 b

Cells in aggregates, crescent-shaped with rounded ends and with a short spine from each end. Cells 5-6 p, broad, 16-30 p, long. - Spines 5~6 p, 19n9 (Fig. 75)~ HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, l.c.); Amongst a colony of rotifers (Biswas, l.c.). DISTRmUTION. India (North East). _'-; This alga, which has so far been known only from N.E. India, has been considered by Printz (1927, p :150) as a Selenaslrum. In fact, it is a doubtful species as somespecimens of Selenastium bibraianum, which accidentally got partially dried up on a slide had the protoplasm in their apices plasmo~yzed into a' central spine-like st!u<:ture (Fig. 127 c, d), the cell wall in this region .being left hyaline. In this state, the alga", under low magnifications presented the appearance of a Closteridiumbengalicum. It is' quite possible' that Turner's alga based on Wallich's manuscript was observed in a similar state and that the alga is really only a SrlenastrumbibraianumReinsch.


76. Closteridium siaDiensis (W. et G. S. West) G. M. Smith
G. M...Slnith, 1933, p 510 =Reinschiella siamen.<isW. et G. S. West, 1901 a, p'I83, pI 4, f 52 = Telraedron siamensis (W. et G. S. West) Wille; 1909, p 60; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 154, f 185- .J'

Cells solitary, free-floating, semispherical wit~ the inner side more or less_ straight and the outer side convex. Each end with a slightly recurved spine, the two spines being usually unequal, Cells 26-28 p, broad, 66-77 p, long with' the spinei 15-52 p, long (Fig. 76). ' HABITAT. Pond, Sambalpur, stray-December (!). DISTRmuTION. Siam, India, Siberia, and N. Anieri'ca.


Closteridium obesum (W. et G. S. West) G. M. Smith
G. M. Smith, 1933, p 510 =Reinschiella obesa W. et G. S. West, 1901 a, p 184, pI 4, f 53-54 = Telraedron obesum (W. et G. S. West) Wille, 1909, p 60; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 154, f 186; H. Skuja, 1~49, p 65, plIO, f26-27; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 268, pI 60, f 19-20

FIGs. 75-78. 75, Closleridium bengalicum TURNE1!.; 76, C. siamensis (W. ET G. S. WEST) G. M. SMITH; 77, C. obesum (W. ET G. S. WEST) G. M. SMITH; 78, Polyedriopsis sPinulosa (SCHMIDLE)ScHMIDLE. . . (75 a, FROM TURNER, 1892; 75 h, FROM BISWAS,1936 (AS Telraedron bengalicum (TURNER) WILLE; 76, X 725; 77 a-b, FROM SKUJA, 1949 (AS Telraedron obesum (W. ET G. S. WEST) WILLE; 78 c-d, AFTER KORSHIKOV, 1953; 78 C, WITH 5 ANGLESAND 78 d SHOWING ZOOSPORE FORMATION; 78 a-b, FROMPHILIPOSE 1940 (AS TetraedronspinulosumSCHMIDU; 76,X725). ~

Species of Closteridium




Ilot recorded from the Indian region

C. bulliJorme Bradley, 1946 C. crassisPinum Reinsch, 1888, p 510, pi 8, f2 =Reinschiella crassisPina (Reinsch) De Toni,

C. slauraslroides W. West in W. et G. S. West, in 1895 a, p 268 = 1926 Telraedron slauraslroides (W. West) Wille, 1909, p. 60, non T. slauraslroides G. M. Smith, The varieties incrassalum Reinsch and inequale Reinsch of C. raphidioides are now known to be the spores of an aquatic fungus found in the plankton (see G. M. Smith, 1933, p 514) Mycolelraedron Hansgirg, 1890, monospecific : M. ceUare Hansgirg, 1890 The exact systematic position ofChionasler Wille (1903), which has been placed both by WiII~ (1909) and Printz (1927) under the Protothecaceae, is not understood.. Some ,authors e.g. (Kol, 1942) place it under the fungi.. If it is considered as an alga, its logical position would be by the side of Ceraslerias. Two species of =Cerastniasknown are: C. bicornis Kol (1942, p 29, pI 6, f 32-34) and C. nivalis (Bohlin) Wille (1903, p 174 the genus niva/is Bohlin, 1893, p 43).

1889, p 613
1889, ,p 18






= T. crassisPinum (Reinsch)

Wille in Brunnthaler,

1915, p 154

C. curvalum West) comb. novo (W.

=ReinschieUa curvala W. West-see West and Fritsch, 1927, p 127 f 41 C = Telraedron curvalum (W. West) Wille; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 154 C.lunula Reinsch, 1888, p 510, pi 8, f I a-b =Reinschiella lunula (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, p 613 = Telraedron lunula (Reinsch) Hansgirg, 1889, p 18 = T. lunula (Reinsch) Wille in Wille, 1909, p 60 Closlerium cuspidalum Bailey, in Ralfs, 1848, p 219, pi 35, f 11 (=Ophiocylium cusPidalum Rabenh., 1868, p 68 =Reinschiella? cuspidalaJBailey) De Toni, 1889, p 614=Telraedron cusPidalum (Bail.) WiIle Brunnthaler, 1915, p 154) is actually a Spinocloslerium, viz. S. &urvalumBernard (1908, pp 30-31) belonging to the Desmidiaceae.

' . strands Thamniaslrum Reinsch a (1888, of 513) blue green' shown (see Taft, of a Gomphosphania, genus p the has been algae.

1945) to be the central


.Garrick, R. K. (Amer. Bol.S2 (1) : 1-8,1965)also includesit under fungi. J.



Schmidle, 1899, p 17 cruciate Chloro-

Cells solitary, free-floating, flattened, and tetragonal or,pyramidal-'with sides. Angles truncate with 1-10 long, hyaline, somewhat tapering spines. plast single, parietal, and with a single pyrenoid. Reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8 autospores or ~oospores. Only one species known from the Indian region. 78. Polyedriopsis spinulosa (Schmidle) Schmidle

'1926, P 177; pi 9, f 14-15 1915, p 154, f 188; M. T.

W. Schmid Ie, 1899, p 17; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 124, pi 27, f7-8; = Telraedron sfJinulosum Schmidle, 1896, p 193, f2; J. Brunnthaler,

Philipose, 1940,p 160,p12, f43
. r I l


Cells solitary, tetragonal to cruciate with 4-5 angles. Sides of cells usually;, concave. Cells without spines 12-25 I-' in diameter. Spines 21-40 I-' long (Fig. 78). (Philipose, I.e.);. _ HABITAT. Planktonic, Museum Pond, Madr¥, stray-March swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Puri), stray-April (!). DISTRmUTION. Europe, N. America, .India, and Japan. The variety excavatutn (Playfair) G. M. Smith (19"26) is k"oown from-AustralIa and N., America. Korshikov (1953, p 134, f 73) has recorded zoospores in this species (Fig. 78 d). The only other species of Polyedriospsis,viz. P. quadrispina G. M. Smith (1926, pp 176-77) is known from N. America only. It is very much like Lagerheimia choi/ati Bernard (1908), but differs in the cells being rectangular.
Other genera not recordedfrom the Indian region
Cerasterias Reinsch, 1867, p 68 with four species :. C. irretularis G. M. Smith, 1926, p 176 pi 9, f2-8. C. longisPina (Perty) Reinsch, 1888, p 512 =Phycaslrum longisPinwn Perty, 1852, p 210, pI 16, f 30 = Telraedron longispinum (Perty) Hansgirg, 1888, p 132 =Cerastniaslongispina (Perty) W. et G. S. West, 1901, p 125 C. raphidioiJes Reinsch, 1867, p 68 p15, f I = Telraedron raphidioiJes (Reinsch) Hansg., 1888, p 131


~ ~ J


,Glaucocystis ( p 187 )


Living in association

with a rod-shaped

blue green alga.,.,.,.,.

Cells curved, oblong, ellipsoid or reniform and usually in small number within a mucilaginous envelope.. .NePhrocytium p 189 ) (


Subfamily XXIII.

LAGERHEIMIOIDEAE Chodat, 1895, p 87



Bohlin, 1901, pp 17, 25


Cells spherical, oblong, ellipsoid, naviculoid or reniform (with or without an envelope) or in small colonies usually enclosed by a mucilaginous envelope formed from the membrane of the parent cell, rarely without such an envelope; very rarely in attached dendroid colonies. Cell membrane smooth or provided with a varyU:!g number of tubercles or bristles or with a number of longitudinal wings, or ridges. Chloroplasts one to many and with or without pyrenoids. Reproduction usually by autospores, rarely by gametes. Ten genera _ I. belonging to the family are recorded KEY TO THE GENERA ~. aplanospores from the Indian ~or oogamous


Cells. solitary, free floating, spherical. tetrahedral, ellipsoidal or sub spherical with broadly rounded poles. Cell wall delicate but distinct and slightly gelatinized on the surface. Cells with'subpolar or both subpolar and equatorial setae (bristles). Setae with a distinct tubercle, which is sometimes dark brown, at the base. Chromatophore single, parietal and with one pyrenoid, but in"older cells forming autospo'res, there may be 2~ chromatophores according to the number of arising autospores. Reproduction by the formation of 2+8 autospores which are usually liberated immediately or may remain within the old-mother cell wall for some time. Autospores liberated by the gelatinization of the mother cell wall, their setae being usually developed before liber~tion from the widened gelatinized parent membrane. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. 79. Lagerheimia
C. Bernard, pi 2, f a-b

Cell membrane with bristlesrusually solitary and free-living, sometimes in small colonies, rarely in attached dendroid colonies; cells spherical to ellipsoid.. Subfam. Lagerhrimioitltu Chloroplast single and parietal and with or without a pyrenoid Cells with setae which are-subpolar, or subpolar and equatorial, but not covering entire surface a. Solitary and free-living; chloroplast with a pyrenoid I. Setae with basal tUbercles .~agerheimia ( p 167 )

chodati Bernard
1908, PIT-l70-71, f 349-50;

J. Brunnthaler,

1915, P 136, f 127; B. FOIt, 1948 a, p 5, -.

=Bernordia chodati(Bernard) Playfair, 1917, P 847, pi 59, f 3-4
=Chodatella chodati (Bemard) Ley, 1948, P 36; G. M. Smith,

1950, p 262, f 177 A

2. b. II.

Setae without basal tubercles

.Chodatelfa (p

168 ) "

basaltUbercles; chloroplast withouta pyrenoid.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DendTO&.Jstis ( .

In attached dendroid colonies; individual cells with or without spines which are devoid of
P 171)

Cells more or less spherical with four long setae arrangeq in the form of a cross.

, Cell membrane somewhat thick.

Setae with a small basal tubercle and gradually
single, parietal and with a pyrenoid. Cells

Cell membrane smooth or omamented with tubercles. ehloropla~t one, rarely more, and with or Cell membrane smooth a. Cells usually spherical; chloroplast single and with a pyrenoid: b.

withoutpyrenoids;solitaryor in smallcolonies;cellssphericalto ellipsoid.. . .Subfam. ChIorelloideu
.Chlorella ( P 172 ) Cells usually ellipsoi<!;chl.oroplast one or.more and usually without a pyrenoid.. .,( p 176 ) .... Palmellococcus


\ ,tapering


the tip.


.5-~0 p in diameter. Setae 13-22 plong (Fig. .79). ; HABITAT. Planktonic in ponds, Balasore, s~ray-December; Cuttack, abundant ---July, rare-August; Chaudwar (Cuttack), stray-January; Madras, stray-March; 'swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Orissa) rare-April (also see Philipose, 1959, p 276-as

'hodatella chodati){!).



- _


Cell membrane smooth, sometimes with irregular thickenings; cells solitary,.large and free-living, spherical O!,ellipsoidal to naviculoid and with numerous disc-shaped to angular chloroplasts, ~ach with. one or more pyren~ids .' : .Subfam.Eremosphaeroltltu Cells naviculoid or rarely sigmoid to crescent-shaped; with oogamous sexual Oocystaenium ( P 177 ) reproduction........


DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, W. Africa, India, Java,

and Australia.

Though Fott (l.c.) gave the maximum length of the seta as 20 p, in the Indian


Cell membrane without bristles; usually in colonies of 2-4-8-16 cells, rarely solitary; cells spherical, ellipsoid, sub-cylindrical to reniform; chloroplast when present one or more, parietal and laminate or disc-shaped, with or without pyrenoids. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .'.. . . . . . . . .Subfam. Oocys/Oitltu a. b. Cells spherical cells to ellipsoid, usually in colonies of 2-4 with dark gelatinous bands separating the; .Gloeotaenium ( P 178) usually in colonies of 4-8-16, rarely solitary; without dark

Cells ovoid, ellipsoid to cylindrical, bands separating the cells


Not living in association with any blue green alga


Oocystis ( p 179 ),.1.:<

"iiIlaterial sometimes it was as long as 22 p. , There is lot of confusion between Lagerheimia Chodat and Chodatella Lemmerr~nn (1898 a, p 309) as conceived by different authors. According to Lemmermann, c.hodatelladiffers from Lagerheimia in the absence .of tubercles at the base of the setae r~d the development of setae by the autosporeS only after their liberation from the ,~arent cell membrane. Wille (1909) did no(c~nsider these differences sufficiently ,Characteristic to recognize Chodatellaand he included Chodatellaas a section of Lagerheimia. .R!intz (1927), Smith (1933), and Korshikov (1953) followed Wille. Lemmermann ,910, pp 307-08) still retained both genera and the same was adopted by Brunnthaler "1915), West and Fritsch (1927) and Fritsch (1935).







Ley (1948) considered Lagerheimia invalid on the ground that the name had been used earlier by Saccardo (1892) for a fungus, and he merged all known species of Lagerheimia in Chodatella. Smith (1950) followed Ley. Bourrelly (1951), who considered the difference between the two genera minimal, also followed Ley though he believed that some of the species of Chodatellawill have to be transferred to such genera as Golenkiniaand Franceia. However, as pointed out by Skuja (1956), Ley was in error in considering Lagerheimia Chodat invalid' since Saccardo used the name Lagerheimaand not Lagerheimia, Even if it is contended that the use of two phonetically similar names for two different plants might lead to some confusion, there is a new name Lagerheimiella suggested by Boedijn (1940) for Lagerheimia. Thus, the only valid reason that can be advanced for not recognizing two independent genera is that the differences between them are minimal. Fott (1948 a), who conSolidated all the then_known information on Lagerheimia and Chodatella, stated that the difference between Lagerheimiaand Chodatellawas small, though sufficient, when a well developed material was observed; and that the young autospores of Lagerheimia could be, mistaken with the various species of Chodatellal
However, this.fact " camwt threaten the validity and independence of both g~nera


~ ~.,


For this reason, he recommended study of good material of the algae all stages of their development and reproduction. In the present account both Lagerheimia and Chodatellaare retained., Speciesof Lagerheimia not recordedrom the 1ndian region f


L. cyanae Schiller, 1954,p 240

According to Lund (1960, p 92) it is identical:to Golenkiniopsis tongispina- (Konh.) Korsh,. (1953), except for the delicately blue chromatophore and the occasional four-celled colonies L. genevensis Chodat, 1895, p 90, f'I-12 =Chodautla genevenis (Chod.) Ley, 1948, p 26 var. subgtobosa (Lemm.) Chodat, 1902, p 188 =L. su5gtobosa Lemm., 1898a, p 309 =Chodautla subgtobosa (Lemm.) Ley, 1948l p 36 =C. genevensis var. subgtobosa (Lemm.) Bourrelly, 1951, p 680 L. griffithsii Fott, 1948 a, p 9, p12, f e-f =Lagerheimia sp. Griffiths, 1916, p 430, pi 34, f 11-12 _ =L. subsala Lemm.-G. M. Smith,.pp 1926, p 168, pili, f9, 12, 13 only L. marssonii Lemm., 1900 c, p 274 =Chodatetla marssonii (Lemm.) Ley, 1948, p 36 L. minor Fott, 1933, pp 580-83, f 4 . L. oct{J£antha Lemmermann, .1900, p 28 _ _=Chodatetla octacantha (Lemm.) Ley, -1948, p 36.L. ulradriensis Roll,-1927, p 230, pi 15, f 7 L. wratislaviensis Schroeder, 1897, P 373, pi 17, f 7 =Bernardia WTiUislaviensis (Schroeder)' Playfair, 1917, p 847, pi 59, f 3-4 =Chodatetla wralislaviensis (Schroeder) Ley, 1948, p 36 Lagerheimia urmaniensis Woloszynska (1911, pp 227-28, pi 3, f6) has been considered by Folt (1948 a, p II) as a species of Polyetlf.iopsis,probably P. sPinulosa .



81 b


FIGs. 79-81. 79, Lagerheimia chodali BERNARD; 80, Chodatetla quadrisela LEMM.; 81, DendroCYSlisraoi IYENGAR; 81 a, I2ENDRom COLONY;8t b, FORMATION AUTOOF SPORES,81 c, AN AUTOSPORE;81c (b, FAT BODY, n, NUCLEUs). (81, FROM IYENGAR, 1962; 79-80, x 1500).

Chromat9phore single, parietal, and. with a pyrenoid. Older cells fomung autospores -autospores. may have 2-4-8 chromatoph,ores according to the number ., of arising Reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8 autospol'es which are liberated by the gelatinization after liberation.or rupture of the mother cell ~an and which do not develop setae until
. Only

one species recorded from the Indian region. quadriseta Lemmermann
1915,p 139, f 141j B. FOil,1948a,



Genus CHODA~

Lemm. emend. Fott, 1948 a, p 11

E. Lemmermann, M. SmIth, 1950, p f 10; J.JIrunnthaler, p 20, p14, fb-c; G. 1898 a, p 310, plIO,262, f 177 D
p 251, pi 46, quadrisela (Lemm.) =Lagerheimia f 11 G. M. Smith, 1926, p 180, pi 12, f 5-9; G. W. Prescott,


Cells solitary and free-floating, ovoid, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical or lemonShaped. Cells with four to many setae which are only subpolar or subpolar and equatorial but not covering the whole surface of the cell. Setae fine or firm, usually tapering towards the end and without any tubercle at their bases.

Cells ovoid or ellipsoid or nearly spherical with two long setae a little below ;each end. The two setae usually in the same plane and straight but sometimes,Jb".e , " .'"




planes of each pair of setae are crossed and the setae may be slightly curved. Chloroplast parietal. Cells 3' 5-8 P broad, 5' 5-12 P long. Setae 11-23 p long (Fig. 80). HABITAT. Planktonic in a pond at Cuttack, rare-August (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, Argentina, Africa, Siberia, India, and


; 't . ,~

lakes of Wisconsin and Michigan are cited as giving some support to this argument. Identification of unicellular and coenobial stages from the same site followed by pure culture, doubt.appears to be very essential to confirm the identification of such organisms beyond thus



Though most of the individuals in the Indian material (cells 5; 3-7 p broad, 8 '8-12 P long) came within the range of dimensions given by Fott, a.single cell which had four daughter cells (Fig. 80 a) was much larger, 9' 7 P broad and 21 p long. This appeared to be due to the expansion of the parent cell membrane during reproduction.
Species of Chodatella not recorded from the Indian region



Iyengar, 1962, p 4

C. balatonica Scherffel ex Kol, 1938, p 168, f 3 a-c C. cilliata (Lagerh.) Lemmennann, 1898 a, p 310 =Oot;)lstis ciliata Lagerheim, 1892, p 76, pi 3, f 33-37 =Lagerheimia ciliata (Lagerh.) Chodat, 1895, p 86 C. cingula (G. M. Smith) Ley, 1948, p 37 = Lagerheimia cingula G. M. Smith, 1926, p 181, pi 12, f 25 C. citriformis Snow, 1903, p 389, pl2, f8 =Lagerheimiacitriformis (Snow) G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 130-31, pi 30, f 1-2 C. granulosa Kol, 1959 C. longiseta Lemm., 1898, p 310, ~I 10, f 11-18 =Lagerheimia longiseta (Lemm.) Wille, 1909 C. octoseta Alten, 1910, pp 47-65

C. playfairii Folt, 1948a, p 23, pi 4, f g


Thallus microscopic, forming a dendroid colony of cells, colony attached to the substra~UIIl by a prominent mucilaginous pad, secreted by the lowermost cell of the colony at its base. Cells ellipsoid, slightly broader at the upper end than at the lower. Each cell having a single nucleus in the centre with two round fatty bodies, one on either end of the cell inside a special vacuole. Chromatophore diffuse and more or less laminate, and without a pyrenoid, but with plenty of starch grains. Cell wall generally furnished with straighf or curved hollow spines as in Lagerheimia, but without a basal granule; many of the cells of the colony, however, not developing any - spines at alL Cells dividing into two through a longitudinal division of the protoplast. Cell division sooner or later followed by a rupture of the parent wall at its apex; the two daughter cells formed at each division both passing-to the mouth of the ruptured parent membrane and becoming attached to it near the opening by a basal secretion of mucilage. A repetition of this process of cell division leading- to the formation of a dendroid colony. _ tion not known. Reproduction

=Lagerheimia ciliata (Lagerh.) Chodat 'var. subsala (Lemm.) Playfair forma mixta 2; var. subsala (Lemm.) + L. ciliata (type) C. striolata (Phyfair) Folt, 1948 a, p 23, pi 4, f j =Lagerheimia ciliata (Lagerh.) Chodat var. striolata Playfair, 1912, p 525, pi 53, f 22-25 =L. coronata Playf. var. striolata Playfair, 1917, p 847 C. subsala Lemm., 1898 a, p 310 C. symmetrica Hortobagyi, 1955, p.418; 1959, P 295, pi 13, f264-71 C.longispina Walton (1930), Lagerheimia comosaPlayfair (1917), L. coronata Playfair (1917), L. acuminata Playfair (1917), L. elliPtica Playfair (1918), and L. dofteinii Schroeder (1921) have alI been considered by" Folt (1948 a) as varieties of one or the other of the species ofChodatella list,ed above. Folt (/.c.) also stated that Chodatella,amphitricha (Lagerh.) Lemm. (1898 a), C. armata Lemm. (1898 a), C. breviseta W. et G. S. West (1902 a), C. brevisPina Fritsch (1912), C. javanica Bemard (1908)... and C. droescheri Lemm., (1900 b) should all-be excluded from the genus (al:o see Bourrelly, 1951). _

by the formation of two autospores in a cell.

Sexual reproduc-

" At present, monospecific. 81. Dendrocystis
M.O.p. Iyengar,

raoi Iyengar
1962, p 4, Text-f 1-12


According to Traino; and Hilton (1963, 1963 a), there is some doubt concerning' .the validity of Chodatellasubsala Lemm. because of the fonowing reasons. Scenedesml!' longus grown by these authors in unialgal, bacteria-free culture, in liquid media or: inorganic composition, invariably showed only unicells bearing three or four spines from each pole, thus showing a close resemblance to C. subsala, but by changing the medium to firm (2' 5 per cent) agar or by the use of a thermal shock to the liquid medium the percentage of coenobes of the Scenedesmus type'increased markedly almo~ to the exclusion of unicells. In- soH-water media the unicellular form was oftep. found suspended in the culture liquid while some coenobia were noted in the bottom of the culture tube. Thus, apparently soil-water media are the nearest to conditions eXisting, in the field. According to the authors, there is a possibility of C. .subsalareported from the plankton of lakes having a coenobial Scenedesmuscounterpart in the lake bottom. Reports by Prescott (1951) of the occurrence of both S. longus and C. subsala in the.,

Colonies up to about 180 p long ~nd 150 p broad. Cells 10-16 p broad and 24-36 p long. Cell wall thin, firm and generally furnished with 3-6 elongate, straight or curved spines. Spines hollow and without' a basar granule. Spines 16-22 p long and about I' 5 P broad at the ~ase. Quite a number of cells in the colony without any spin~s at all (Fig. ,81). , . HABITAT. Growing gregar!ously-on stones inside the water in a hilI stream at Yercaud, South India, at an' elevation -of about 1,334 metres.
' DISTRIBUTION. India (Madras). '


\ '.theIndian region

Oe':" g~nerawhich may be includedin the Lagerheimioideae, but not recorded from


.Bohlinia Lemm., 1899, emend. G. M. Smith, 1933 p 505 monospecific B. echidna (Bohlin) Lemmennann, 1899 =Oot;)lstis echidna Bohlin, 1897, p 517, f7 =Lagerheimia echidna (Bohlin) Wille, 1909, p 59 =Franceia echidna (Bohlin) Korshikov, 1953, p 249 ,..{ill/cera. 1'101 !hough Smith (/.c.) was in favour of retaining the genus, Korshikov


(1953) treated it as a species of



172 ,


for Bohlinia. Bourrelly (195~:,-),


Free living

and with thin smooth membrane'........ C. vulgaris ( p 173 ) C. eonglomerata ( p 173 )

, ' 11 (1948) appears to be only a new nam~ et de creer pour une algue VOlSlne pseudobohllma B~trrBohlinia permet de remaner ce genre a FranCtla stated: .. L" examdb hl~ 'a (Ch10rococca1es). .. Ie novo gen, : pseu 0 0 In'.

Cells spherical, chloroplast cup-shaped a. Cells usually solitary, about 5-10 IAin diameter

d ll.h' Korshikov 1953, p 253, monospeclfic : Cho ale o[;s~ea Korsh., i953, p~53, f 202 , C. el rshikov monospeclfic:

' DlCaI'jf°t e Ien? °phorus Korsh.-see Korshikov, 1953,.p 263, f: l , renk o , 1926, P 85, with three specOes : II DIce uIa S WI k 1953 P 4 6 eminata (Printz) Korshl ov, , f 116 18 D. !Franeeia geminata Printz, 1914, p 61, p14, -



;, "



In 4-16 celled colonies, rarely solitary; cells with fairly thick membrane.. ..............
, .' Cells spherical to ovoid, 3-6 IAin diameter 1.5-3 , lA, sometimes and living inside coelentrates, more, , in diam.





. .-

Llvmg wlthm the cells or tissues of mvertebrates.

ciliates, etc.... C. eonduetrix( p 174 )

Cells ?,:,oid, usually

D. inermisFott, 1941, P 66, f 1-4
=Didymocystis tubereulata Korsh., 1953, p

397 £401

Ophynd,um,etc . ;

' and living ~s!.je sponges, .C; parasl/lCa ( p 175 )

. ,


F . L metmann 1898a, p 307,wit a ~O el a . arm ' rane;a e~ a (Lemm) Korshikov,1953,p 23 nn 19 =G0lenklnl'a a";'ala Lemm., 1898, P1898 a =Choda~llarmata a ~Mesmrth '1933,p 505,f 344C-D F. ~C~c~r:H;;er;:r;:;1heri L;m:., '1900b, P 98 F. dong:t:Korshikov,1953,b;5~, f1~1, p 28, p143, f "alllCa (Be~~~ e)~~~~~rd,SY908, 172 ' F. ja p . - Ch0date1IaJav-.. ~ 157 f 10 F.;blonga P1ay£air, 918,p fiiti 1 p 308. _ F. ovalis(~rancel)}F~~n~~'1894, 2, f 1-5 =Phy he/10Sova ' .' =Golenkiniafranee: Chodat 252 £ 200'1., Pina r~h' F. tenuis K oh rsch 19~~r;hiko~, 1953,p 251, f 199 S ) h (

ata. D. planeton!ea sWirTkoc/~6s~~~ 1926, p 182, pl12 f27-30 =FranCtI,a tubercu Ii I . nder :he Micractiniacea~ Korshikov mclude d D ICeu au. h b t .ght species:



Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck .. . . _ . M. W. BelJermck,1890,p 758; K. Blswas,1930,p 536, pi 4, f6 a-b; 1936,p 121;A. K. Mitra, 1947,P 114, 13;29, f280Prescott, 1951,p 237, pi 53, 'f 13; L. H. Tiffany andM. E. Britton, 1952, P 2, f pi G. W. .

-. 527-29.' _ _ .>,.~;. '

_ Alga tree living. Cells usually solitary or in small colonies, spherical and wi~, a thin cell membrane. Chloroplast parietal, cup-shaped and with a pyrenoid which is:' sometimes indistinct. Cells usually 5-10 fl in diameter (Fig. 82).






. ta W et 1 . . . h ) LeJI1m., 898a, C. brllJlSe . 51 11 (19 ).' Chodatella amphllneha (~ge..r rd 1908 could alsobe referred to Berna '. d C J'avanlCa 912 A d'ng to Bourre Y H t bi""" ( 1962) ~ S Wc~~ \902 a, C. brevisPinaFrttsch, 1 , d'nFott). -Following' this suggestion or 0 rw. ~~nc~ia (se; also under qhodatella, L~m::; :~~): . fic ~ d C javanlCao Franetl ( t has trans rlwiocYstis Bohlin, 89!a, P 15,mOfSSPfcii4-20 1 f

Fpolyeaeta Cl


=Ooeystis polyehaeta Schirsch


. HABITAT.In tap water or in cultures of saline from Bengal (Biswas, 1930) ;.in I: .freshwater forming the favourite food of several animalcules (Biswas, 1936); iu cultures of paddy field sods from U.P. (R. N. Smgh, 1939; Mltra, 1951); m the suburbs of Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); in soils from Delhi (Dutta- and Venkataraman, 1958'; l ~"; ., ,in the plankton of a pond. at Kausalya G'anga, Puri, (Orissa), abundant-September;_ . ~. ) , m a pond mfested WIth WolfJiaat Satya b hamapur, Cuttack, rare- :J une ( .. . .





. .




Most authors give the dimensions of this species as 5-10 fl.

~.'observedby BlSWas (1930, 1936) the cells were normally.4-12 fl. m dlameter,.but m


In the field material




P. endophytie~ ~oh~doP~:'?~ (lhli~r wille, .19<>?, 59 P
1953, p 25403monospeclfic


-.'1 - _'


S.fuseaKors~.,1953,p 254,f2


'.dimensions of the alga as 2-6 fl, sometimes up to 10 fl.

XXVI.. -Genus- C~O~LLA-Beijerinck,


1890, p 758

i- "

Cells small, spherical to broadly ellipsoid, solitary or aggregated in small.. colonies of irregular shape.' Free living or symbiotic. Chloroplast usually single~ parietal, cup-shaped or laminate, rarely reticulate and usually with a pyrenoid. pyrenoid not' always clear. ' Reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8-16 autospores. Species of Chlorell{lare found in freshwater, sea, subaerial habitats and in, syIJlbiotic relationships. Four species have been reported from the Indian region.

cultures of saline they were sometimes as small as 2-6 fl. Mitra (1947) gives the According to-him, the material "'with usually small dimensions of tells and with constant presence of a pyrenoid hi'ving I!a distinct sheath combines the characteristKs'oW: pyrenoidosaand of Chodat's (1913) strain of C. vulgaris. In the author's material the cells measured 4-7 fl jn diameter. Beijerinck ,(l.c.) includes -under this species only--the free living form. Two similar forms, -one living inside Hydra, Slentor or Paramoecium, and the other 1n Jreshwatw sponges (Spongilla) and Ophyridium,and originally described by Brandt (188~) ;i'as /(,oochlorella onductrixand Z: parasitica, respectively, are treated by Beijerinck as the c ';,~espectivespecies of Chlorella. Some authorities (see Brunnthaler, 1915) even go to .:!he extent of treating these two species occurring inside animals as identical with

'C. vulgaris. However, Fritsch (1935) believed that organisms inhabiting different

;,hostsare probably different elementary'species of Chlorella. So, in the present account, ~C:hlorella occurring on animal hosts are excluded from C. vulgaris. Chlorella conglomerata (Artari) Oltmanns

F.Oltmanns, 1904,p 183;J.Brunnthaler, 1!J'15,p 112, £73 Pleurococcus on,lomeratusArtari, 1892, p 28..p1 7. f 12-20 c


'FoU .." (1959) " _"".d F,.".;'_,


U."...,...,..10 F...~ (F=<,)"';;;;;;f ,. . ....
fr.~ !

:'i.... ...-





Cells globose or broadly ovoid, usually compactly arranged within the animal host. Chloroplast usually one (rarely two), parietal and with a pyrenoid. Cells 3-6 p in diameter (Fig. 84). HABITAT. Inside the polyps of Myrionema amboinensis found in the sea coast near Galle, Ceylon (Svedelius, l.c.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America and Ceylon. The alga occurs also in Hydra, Stentor and Paramoecium, the infected animals becoming green.
85. Cblorella parasitica (Brandt) Beijerinck


~.,,;,'(,,~.,.. ,.'. ":..' ,"... .-.:..;: .." .

vulgaris eijermck-seeG. S. Venkataraman, 1957,p 909 B

M. W. Beijerinck, 1890, p 758; L. H. Tiffany, and M.E. Briton, 1952, p 114, pi 29, f281 =ZoochlorellaparasiticaBrandt, 1882, p 140; G. W. Prescott, 1952, p 235, pI53,f9; as Chlorella


82 a

82 b

83 a'

@@ @ @
Q r.;:,.

~ ~,..


:. .




86 a

~ ~



Cells ovoid with usually a single (rarely two) chloroplast which is in the form of a perietal plate. Cells l' 5-8'1 P in diameter (Fig. 85). HABITAT. In the freshwater sponge in ponds, Banaras (Venkataraman, l.c.). ~his alga is kno~n to occur -also in Ophyrid~um. Both Prescott, and Tiffany . and Britton (1952) gave the d~ensions of cells as 1'5-3 p. The Ip.dian alga, with .ceqs 3'6-8'1 p in diameter, is larger. ' Species of ChIorella not recordedfrom-the Indian region
C. acuminata Gerneck, 1907 C. DSymmelrica Mainz, 1928, p 93 C..aureoviridis Meyer, 1932, p 510 _ C. bacteroidea Hortobagyi, 1941a, pp 474:-76, f 3 .C. botT)'oidesPetersen,. 1932, p 36, f 18 tC. brasilieT!Sisde Almeida et da Silva, 1946, p 295 C. cladoniae Chodat, 1913, pp 108-11, f 103-06 C. coelostroides Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 14, fD-E

86 b'

@O'< . ~


@) i(::I

t'1'1\ ~



.Ji!) @) crJT ,'.':.':

0 LTh\W
~... Q

~ ~


& MEHRA, 1959).

C.communis Artari, 1906,p 179



FIGs. 82-87. 82, Chlorella vulgaris BEljE~GK; 83, C. conglomerata (ARTARI) OLTMANNS;84, C. conductrix '(BRANDT) BEljERINCK; 85, C. parositica {BRANDT1BElj~; 86, PalmeJlococcus saccharoPhilus (KRUEGER) CHODAT; 87, Oocystaenium elegans GONZ. ET MEHRA. (82- a-c, FROM' GRINTZESCO; 82 d, FROM BISWAS, 1930; 83 FROM ARTARI; 84-85, FROMTIFFANY & BRIT!.0N, 1952; 86, FROM MIGULA; 87 a-b, AFTER GONZALVES& MEHRA
1959; 87 c-e, FROM GONZALVES


Colonies usually 4-16 celled, rarely solitary; 'cells spherical with 'a fairly thick membrane. Chloroplast hollow-spherical with a pyrenoid (Fig. 83). HABITAT. As pale green patches on a flowe~ pot in a laboratory, Rangoon, in March (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Switzerland, Siberia and Burma.



.C. ellipsoidea Gerneck, 1907, p 250, pill, f 45-51 C.faginea (Gemeck) Wille, 1909, p 56 C. genevensis Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 14, f A-B C. homosphaera Skuja, 1948, p 130, pi IS, f 13 a-k C. koelllitzi (Fritsch) Wille, 1924 C.lacustris Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 15,fK C.lichina Chodat, 1913,pp 92-94, f81-84 C. luteo-viridis Chodat, 1913, pp 107-08, f 101-02 C. marina Butcher, 1952 C. m'ucosa Korshikov, 1953, p 237, f 178C. neustoniea Bourrelly, 1958, p 117, f 10 C.nordstedtii Printz, 1938, p 82, f I C. ovalis Butcher, 1952 C. pachyderma Printz, 1915 a, p 23, p12, f 124-33 C. paramecii Loefer C. pyrenoUlosa Chick, 1903, p 458 C. regularis (Artari) Oltmanns, 1904, p 183 =Pleurococcus regularis Artari, 1892, p 29, pi 7, f21-29 C. rubescens Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 15, f G-H C. rugosa Petersen, 1928, pp 431-32, f 35-36 C. salina Butcher, 1952 .C. simplex (Artari) Migula, 1907 · See Addendum






. M. W. Beijerinck, 1890, p 758; L. H. Tiffany and M. E. Britton, 1952, P 114, p129, f 282 =Zoochlorella conductrixBrandt, 1882; p 14(); N. Svedelius, 1907, p 32; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 235, pi 53, f "10 .

t Isolated by the authors from the lesions of patients with mycoses. !X'ntaminant, they wondered whether the antibiotic substance "chlore1lin" !lot reduce the pathogenicity of the fungus (see Schwimmer and Schwimmer,

Though not considered a present in the alga might 1955).

. 176
C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C.


OOCYSTAENIUM =Pleuroeoeeus simplex Artari, 1892, p 243 sparkii Alvik, 1934 stigmatophora Butcher, 1952 terrieola Hollerbach tetraedriea Wille, 1924 viseosa Chodat, 1913, pp 105-07, f97-100 werthii Wille, 1924 xanthella Beijerinck, 1890 zopfingiensis Donz, 1934, p 131 P. symbioticus Chodat, 1913, p 112, f 107-08. P. thermalis G. S. West, 1904 a, p 287 P. variegatus (Beij.) Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 15, f M =Chlorella variegata Beijerinck, 1890



regionOthergenerawhich-ma)' be included in the Chlorelloideae,

not recordedrom the Indian f


Genus PALMELLOCOCCUS Chodat, 1894 b, p 601

Cells spherical to ellipsoid, solitary or in an expanded stratum. Mature cells with one to several discoid or plate-like chloroplasts which are generally devoid of a pyrenoid. Structure of chloroplast often masked by the accumulation of a reddish oil within the chloroplast. Reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8-16-32 autospores which are liberated by the rupture of the,mother cell wall. Sometimes, the entire cell contents converted into an aplanospore. G. M. Smith (1933) stated that it is the usually ellipsoidal cells and the shape and number of chloroplasts-which are more significant in distinguishing Palmelloeoecus from Chlorella than the presence or absence of pyrenoid. According to him, PalTTt§llococcus may have a pyrenoid occasionally. Wille (1909), Brunnthaler (1915), and", Printz (1927) treated PalmelloeoccusChodat as a . section of Chlorella along with Euehlorella Wille, ChloroideumNadson (1906) and AerosphaeraGerneck (1907f Only one species is recorded ftom th~ Indian region~ 86. PahneUococcus saccharophilus R. Chodat, 1909,p 103
. Chlorotheciumsaccharophilum Krueger, 1894, p 94=Chlorella saceharoPhila (Krueg.) Wille, 1909, p 56 =C. saceharophila (Krueg.) Nadson, 1906;J. Brunnthaler, p62
1915, P 113, f 77; H. Skuja, 1949,

Eomyees Ludwig, 1894, p 905, monospecific : E. erieanus Ludwig 1894, p 905 ](lagia Vischer, 1955, p 517 -=Chlorellopsis Zeitler non Reis, monospecific :


aquatica Vischer,

1955, p 517

KerioehlatTI!JIs Pascher, 1943, p 194, monospecific : K. s{yriaca Pascher, 1943, p 194, pI 1-3 Mieracantha Korshikov, 1953, p 256, monospecific : M. minutissima Korsh., 1953, p 256, f 204 Muriella Petersen emend. Vischer, 1936, p 406, with five species: M. aurantim;a Vischer, 1936, p 406, pi 17, f 1-3 M. australis Phillipson, 1935, p 276, f 20 M. deeolor Vischer, 1936, p 407, pi 17, f 4-5 M. magna Fritsch etJohn, 1942, p 378, f 3 A-D M. terrestris Petersen, 1932 a, p 403, f 9 MyeacanthoeoecusHansgirg, 1890'a, with three species :

M. antareticusWille, 1911


M. eellaris Hansgirg, 1890 a M. ovalis Gain, 1912 Myur~r;'rcus Hansgirg, 1890 a, monospecific M. uroeoeeusHans.girg, 1890 a Prototheea Krueger, 1892, with four species: P. chlorelloides Beijerinck P. moriformis Krueger, 1892, p 78, pi 4 P. portoricensis.Ashford, Citerri et Dalman, 1930, p 636* P. zopfii Krueger, 1892, p 78, pl4 Sestosoma Hortobagyi, 1947 a" monospecific : S. villosum Hortob., 1947 a, p 45, f 1-12 Sideroeelis (Naumann) FOIt, 1934, with ten species S. balatonicus Hortobagyi, 1948, p 27, f 6 S. elegans FOIt, 1953, P 144, f 5 c S. estheriana Hortobagyi, 1948, p 26, f 1-5 S. hexacosta Thompson, 1952, p 365, f 3-5 S. kolkowitzii (Naumann) Folt, 1934 =Chlorella kolkowitzii Naumann, 1919 S. mintJt (Naumann) Fott, 1934 ~Chlorella minor Naumann, 1919 S. minutissima (Korsh.) Bourrelly, 1961, p 318 =Amphikrikos minutissima Korshikov, 1953, p 244, f 189 S. nana Folt et Heynig, 1961, p 351, pi 1-2, 3 b S.. oblonga (Naumann) Fott.1934, p 117. =Chlorella oblonga Naumann, 1919 S. ornata (Folt) Fott, 1934, pp 114-16, f 1-2 =Oocystis ornata Fott, 1933 ThelesPhaera Pascher, 1943, monospecific : T. alPina Pascher, 1943, p 194, pi 4-7

(Krueger) Chodat

III ',~

Cells e1lipsoid, ovoid or rarely spherical, bean-shaped Qr pear-shaped.. Cem membrane thin, colourless and slimy. Chromatophore in the form of a flat plate and '" devoid of a pyrenoid (Fig. 86). _' -HABITAT; As pale green patches on flower pot in a laboratory" Rangoon, duringMarch, along with Chlorella eonglomerata(Skuja, l.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Europe and Burma. This alga is normally found in excretions of trees (Brunn thaler, op.e.). Species of Pal~ellococcus not recordedrom the Indian reg;on f

Subfamily XXVIII.

EREMOSPHAEROIDEAE Gonz~lves et Mehra, 1959, p 206

P. marinus ColJins, 1907, P 197 P. miniatus (Kuetz.) Chodat, 1894 b, p 599 =Protocoecus miniatus Kuetzing, 1845, p 203 =Pleuroeoeeus miniatus (Kuetz.) Naegeli, 1849, p 65 =Chlorella miniata (Kuetz.) Wille, 1909, p 56 =C. miniata (Naegeli) Oltmanns-seeJ. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 113 P. prototheeoides (Krueger) Chodat, 1909, p 103, pi 15, f I, J, N =Chlorella prototheeoides Krueger, 1894


Cells solitary, naviculoid, rarely sigmoid or crescent-shaped, sometimes with an ~nspicuous ,thickening at the poles; male cells more slender than that of female; ::oroplasts numerous, each with an embedded pyrenoid. Vegetative multiplication by
'~ *Isolated from the stools oftropicaJ sprue patients in San Dominll'o.

r I




2-4- autospores from a cell. Sexual reproduction oogamous. Antherozoids ovoid; oospheres globose, rarely ovoid; zygotes globose or ovoid with median layer of wall verrucose. Monospecific. 87. OocystaeniulD elegans Gonzalves et Mehra a Cells usually naviculoid, rarely sigmoid or crescent-shaped, sometimes with an inconspicuous thickening at the poles. Chloroplasts numerous (over 200) and frequently arranged in a reticulate manner. Each chloroplast lanceolate to irregular with a central pyrenoid. Cell uninucleate. Male cells 37-4-5 It broad, 150-198 It long., Female cells 55-64- ,a-broad, 160-216 ,a long (Fig. 87). HABITAT. In accumulation of rain water in a field in Goregaon ~ear Bombay (Gonzalves and Mehra, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.India (Bombay). . This alga, placed by the authors near Oocystis,-shows a fair degree of resemblance to EremosPhaerain the cells being solitary and having numerous chloroplasts (each with a pyrenoid) which show a tendency for reticulate arrangement. So, it is included here under the subfamily Eremosphaeroideae within the family Oocystaceae. -' Generaof subfamily. Eremosphaeroideae ,not recorded from the Indian region b


E. A. Gonzalvesand K. R. Mehra, 1959,pp 201-06,f 1-20 88

Fro. 88. -G/oeolaenium/oil/esbergerionum b-d, 1892). HANSO.(a, FROM GONZALVES JOSHI, 1946; &

Eremosphaera De :!Jary, 1858, p 56, 'wit~ two species : E. oocysloides Prescott in Prescott, Silva and Wade, 1945, pp 85, 93, pi I, f 20-21 E. viridis De Bary, 1858, p 56, pi 8, f26-27 Both these spedes occur in acidic waters Excenlrosphaero G. T. Moore, 1901, p 320, monospccific :


E. viridis Moore, 1901,p 320


This alga has an irregularly thickened cell wall

Subfamily. OOCYSTOIDEAE XXIX. Genus GLOEOTAENIUM Hansgirg, 1890, p 10

Colony broadly ellipsoid in front view and oblong in side view. Cells spherical tel ovoid and completely filling the space inside the mother cell wall. Gelatinous ;",bands broad. Chloroplast usually with a .distinct 'pyrenoid. Colonies (2-4 celled) * '20-80 It in diameter and 20-30 It thick. CelIs 12-30 It in diameter (Fig. 88).' "HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, I.e.); pond, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, I.e.); pond, Mandalay-November and trench, Rangoon (Skuja, 194-9). UiiPan. DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, W. Indies, India, Burma, China, and . .~ recorded from Austria. known is G. minus Pascher (1915, p 215, f 18-20), The onl~ other species It has

Cells spherical to ellipsoid, llsually in flat or pyramidal cplonies of 4-, rarely 2 'or 8, cells lying within' the clos(} fitting mother cell wall. Cells in a colony separated from each other within the mother cell wall by dark gelatinous bands which are cI'QSS" wise in 4-celled colonies and transverse in 2-celled colonies. Cell wall thick and lamellated. Old cell wall enclosing the colony very- often with folds and dark gelatinous discs opposite the cells. Chloroplast pari<;tal, .filling the cell and with or without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by the formation of 2-4-8 autospores or akinetes. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. 88. GloeotaeniUDl loitlesbergerianUDl Hansgirg
A. Pascher, 1915,p215,f 15-11;



Naegeli in A~ Braun, 1855, p 94-

,.," Cells usually free-floating, solitary or enclosed within the expanded mother cell ~embrane to form te~porary colonies. Cells spherical, ovoid, ellipsoid, fusiform or Cylindricalwith rounded or pointed ends. Cell wall smooth or with conspicuous nodular 'ckenings at the poles, rarely granular. Chloroplasts one or more, parietal, disc..,.ped,.laminate, irregularly stellate or reticulate, and with or without pyrenoids. by the formation of ~n Reproduction cell wall for some time. 2-4--8-16 autospores which. are retained the mother Twelve species are recorded from the Indian region.
,~: .


A. Hansgirg, 1890,p 10; W. B. Turner, 1892,p 157, pI21,fl2; E. A. Gonzalves and D. B. Joshi, 1946, p 174,pi I , f 8

.~ Gupta their Nair (Bal. Go.(;., 124; 144-46, the Ulotrichales. ~. and significance in the evolution of 1962) have reported filamentous

colonies in this alga



KEY TO THE SPECIES 1. Cells with polar nodules i. Polar nodules distinct a. Cells solitary or in colonies and with numerous (12-25) disc-shaped chloroplasts............ O. solitaria(p 180)

181 in which sexual reproduction is known is Oocystaenitlm (Eremosphaeroideae) and the sexual fusion in this genus takes place between motile antherozoids formed in female numbers within male cells and non-ciliated oospheres formed singly within large cells. 90. Oocystis Iacustris Chodat

b. Usually in colonies and with 1-3 laminate chloroplasts... . . .'. . . . . .. .O.lacus/rit p 181) ( ii. Polar nodulesinconspicuous, .
II. Cells without polar nodules i. Cells solitary and forming two kinds of autospores Chloroplasts up to about 15 and disc-shared. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . O. kumaonensis 181) (p Ii. Colonial and forming only one kind of autospore. Chloroplasts 1-4, parietal and laminate or' more in number and disc-shaped A. Cells broadly ellipsoid to round, about 11-li times longer than broad a. Outer envelope more or less round and narrow
Cells with 4-10 disc-shaped angular chloroplasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O.
crassa (p 181)

1>,69, pi 3, f J. Brunntharer,30

R. Chodat,

1897 a, p 119; 1897 b, p 296, plIO, f 1-7, 13; H. Printz, 1913, p 180, pH, f22-23; 1915, p 125, f96; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 112, pi 22, f 8-9; K. Biswas, 1949, Pt I,


~Cells 9-14 pobroad, 9-19 polong. Chloroplasts1-4
Cells irregularly ellipsoid to round, 16-20

. . . . . . . . . . O. borgei

(p (83)

+ +Cells usually 29-40 pobroad and 40-51 . 8 po long .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .. O. gigas (p (83) Outer envelope irregular with cells somewhat crowded towards one end

broad, 24-30 polong; chloroplast


O. imgularis (p (84) B. Cells oblong or oblong-ellipsoid and about 2-3 times as long as broad , a. Envelope of colony lemon-shaped .. :".....O.macrospora (p (84), b. Envelope of colony not lemon-shaped ' '" +Cells with one or more parietallalI!-inate chloroplasts ' ".' Cells 3-7 .5. pobroad, 6-12 polong chl01'.Opiasts -3.. .. .. . . . ... O. pusilla (p 184) 2 Cells 9-26 pobroad, 16-40 po long; chloroplast single. + +Cells with a number of disc-shaped chloroplasts Cells 7-9'1 pobroad, 18-24 polong;5hloroplasts--2-8.. Cells'II-12'5 .0. naegelii(p 185) O. ecballocys/iformis 186) (p

Cells ellipsoid with somewhat pointed ends, about I! times longer than broad and usually in 4-8 celled colonies with polar nodules. Chr:omatophores 1-3, parietal and laminate without pyrenoids. Margins of chromatophores entire or' irr~gularIy lobed. Cells 8-22 p, broad and 13-32 p, long. Four-celled colonies 26 p, broad, 32-37 p, long. Eight-celled colonies 26-43 p broad and 30-75 p, long (Fig. 90).

HABITAT.Ponds, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); Dibrugarh (Assam), ' t'straY-May; Cuttack, rare-July and August; Azhicode (Kerala), rare-February; :fishery bundh, Chandrakona - Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), rare-December;

,swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri (Orissa) stray-April


~~ J~

DISTRIBUTION.Europe, 'N. America, Africa, India, Japan, and New Zealand. This alga Occurs bot:}:lin fresh and slightly saltish water (.printz, I.e.).
Oocystis Cra~sa Wittrock

pobroad, 22-25 po long; chloroplasts 10-20. . . .. . .. O. ellip/ica(p 1a6~'






ex V.B. Wittrock 1913,pp J. Brunnthaler,1915, and-G.F.o. f99; G. M. Smith, p 117; pH. Printz,22, f 12-13 175-76, pH, r 12-14; p 125, Nordstedt, 1880, 1920, 113, pi

ex V.B. Wittrock et C.F.O. Nordstedt, 1879, p 24, r 1-5; H. Printz, 1913, p 183 pl5, f 36-39;' J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 124. r 94; G. M. Smith, 1920,p 113, pi 22, f II; G. W. Prescott, 1951.. p 247, pi 54, f 10 .


Cells 'solitary or in colonies of 2, 4 or .8 cells enclosed w~thin -th~ old mother ceil wall; ovoid to ellipsoid, thick walled and - with markedly thick polar nodules. Chloroplasts num<:rous, p~rietil and discoid. Cells 3-20 p, br?ad, 7-39 p, long; (Fig. 89). HABITAT. In shallow pools overgrown with weeds in.,Mansang, Upper Burma (W. and G. S. West, 1907); embedded in the mucus of Gloeocapsamonlana on ,dripping rocks in Assam at an altitude of 200 metres-October (Biswas, 1934); pond, Bombay' (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); ponds, Cuttack, rare-August; Ochira (Kerala); stray-February (!). . .. DISTRIBUTION.Widespread. ,. This species also occurs in brackish water (Moebius, 1889). Heynig (1962, P 488) reported conj1,lgation between two adult cells of this species by the disappearance of the cell wall 'at the point of fusion and migration of'nucl~ towards the copulatory opening. However, he has not been able to follow the place of meiosis, amphimixis of the nuclei and development of the zygote. If this record is can. firmed, it will be extremely interesting since the only other member of the Oocystacea~"

Cells solitary or in colonies of 2-4, ellipsoid, nearly twice as long as broad and :!with mammillary th}ckenings at the poles. Chromatophores parietal, fairly large 'i{Fig.91). in each cell, each with a pyrenoid. ~~d 4-10 Cells 10-20 p, broad and 12-26 p, long ~ ,- 'HABITAT. In shal!ow pools overgrown with weeds in Mansang, Upper Burm.a\January (W. and G. S.-West, 1907); rock pool and tanks, Ceylon _.(Crow, 1923); pond, 'Cuttack, stray-August (!).,' ~fSiberia,and Australia. r 'DISTRIBUTION. Europe, Oocystis N. America, Madagascar, India, Burma, Ceylon,

~ '.

kumaonensis K. P. Singh

K. P. Singh, 1960,pp 29-30, f 1-4 Cells solitary, broadly ellipsoidal with rounded poles. Cell wall. thin and ,ooth" in young cells, appreciably thickened in older resting cells. Chloroplasts up :~ about 15 in number, parietal and discoidal and with a pyrenoid. Reproduction by rour cruciately arranged autospores, two big (macro-autospores) and two small (micro~titospores), which are liberated by the gelatinization of the parent cell wall. Cells lp'5-23'4 p, broad, 31'2-35'1 p, long; macro-autospores 15'6-19'5 p, broad, 23'4,7'3 II long; micro-autospores 6'8-9'7 p, broad, 8'5-14'6 p, long (Fig. 92).

:~\.I .,~f..~....



...~' " ~




183 (Singh, i.e.). is not known,

HABITAT. In a dripping rock, Naini Tal, Uttar Pradesh
DISTRIBUTION. India (Uttar Pradesh).

91 a

According to Singh (l.c.), the exact fate of the micro-autospores but apparently they degenerate. 93. Oocystis borgei Snow


J.111,pI22, f4; 379,W. rrescott, 1-5; H. p243, pI1913,flO 173, p14, Snow, 1903, p p12, f 7: Printz, p p G. 1951, 51,
=Oocys!is gigas var. borgei Lemmennann, 1904, p 107;

t 1-2; G. M. Smith, 1915, p 127, f 106




Cells broadly ellipsoid with rounded ends. Poles not thickened. Chloroplasts 1-4; parietal, each with a pyrenoid. Cells 9-13 p broad, 9-19 p long. Usually in 2-8 celled colonies,. the enclosing envelope being more or less round and' narrow (Fig. 93).


HABITAT. Fishery bundhs, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), very rare-December; ponds, Padampur (Orissa), stray-December; Cuttack strayJuly, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh), stray-December, Madras, rare-October and .7November, Azhicode (Kerala), rare-Februarr, and Ochira (Kerala), rather common-=-February. . DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, S. and W. Africa, Faeroes, India, Java, ;. Japan, and Australia. Thementioned. :localities alga was usually found in soft waters (also see, Prescott, op.c.) in the .


Oocystis gigas Archer
W. Archer, 1877, pp 104-05; H. Printz, 1913, p 189; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 127, f 105; P A. Pascher, 1915, p 235; G. W. rescott, 1951,p 244, p151, f 14


Usually in colonies of 2-4 cells. Envelope more or less round and narrow. ..cells broadly, ellipsoid, about 'I! times longer than broad with. the ends broadly 'ounded and not thickened. Cells usually 29-40 p broad and 41-51'8 p long, rarely ~8-20 p broad and 31-32 p IOI\g (Fig. 94 a). '


ovember (Skuja, 1949).







;; DISTRIBUTION.Europe, !Bunna.

N. America,

Africa (Sudan and N. Rhodesia),


92 d

var. incrassata

W. et G. S. West

W. and G. S. West, 1894, p 14, p12, f37; H. Printz, 1913, pp 189-90, pI 6, f 71; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 127, f 107; A. Pascher, 1915, p 235; O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 272 =Oocyslis incrassalus (W. et G. S. West) C~dergren, 1933, p 85

. Cells with thicker membrane than in the 'type and with the poles somewhat ~inted and drawn out. Cells 39 p broad and 56p long (Fig. 94 b). ~ HABITAT. In artificial tank, Peradeniya (W. and G. S. West, 1902). DJSTRIBUTION.Europe and Ceylon.

184 95. OQcystis irregularis


(Petkof) Printz


H. Printz, 1913, p 178, pI4,f21; A. Pascher, 1915, p 236, f 39 =Oocystis tlaegelii A. Braun var. tyPica Kirchner f. irregularis Petkof, 1910, p 159, pi 3, f 3

Cells irregularly ellipsoid to round and usually crowded towards one side in 4-celled colonies. Cell wall thin and without apical thickenings. Chromatophore single, parietal, covering the cell completely and without a pyrenoid. Cells 16-20 ~ broad and 24-30 p, long (Fig. 95). HABITAT. Ponds', Mandalay-November (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Europe and Burma.






(Turner) Brunnthaler

J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 127, f 109 =Hydrocytium macrosporum Turner, 1892, p 154, pi 20, f 32

Colonies 2-4 celled. Envelope lemon shaped. Cells elongate-ellipsoid to oblong .with rounded ends and about two times as long as broad. Colony 39-52 ~ broad, 50-65 p, long. Cell 19 p, broad, .39 ~ long (Fig. 96). HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, i.e.) DISTRIBUTION.India; Printz (1913) believed O. _elliPtica W. West.
97. Oocystis pusllla

, ~

a 99b

99 f



this sp~ies ...

can probably

be included



A. Hansgirg, 1890, p 9; H. Pdntz, 1913, p 181, pi 4, f 31-32; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 124; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 246, p151, f IS, pi 54 f 4-5 =Oocystis naegel~i . Br. var. minutissimaBernard, 1908, p 172 A



Usually solitary but sometimes in coloJ!ies of 2-4-8 cells enclosed. by the en;' larged mother cell wall. Cells cylindrical, about two times longer than broad and with the' poles rounded and without nodular thickenings. Chromat~phores 2-3, not' occupying the entire cell and without pyrep,oids. Cells frequently 'with oil globules dispersed and the chromatophores may also be yellow-green. Cells 3-7' 5 P, broad, 6-12 p, long.. " The type species has not been recorded from the Indian region. var. maior
H. Skuja, 1949, p 63, pi 9, f 18-28

FIGs. 95-100. 95, Oocystis irregularis (PETXOF) PRINTZ; 96, O. macro_ spora (TURNER) BRUNNTH.'; 97, O. pusilla HANSG. VAR. MAlOR SXUjA; W. O. naegeliiA. BRAUN; 99, O. ecballocystiformis IYENGAR; 100, O. elliptica WEST. . 98, (95, FROM PRINTZ, 19'13; 96, FROM TURNER, 1892 (AS Hydrocytium .'1946). macrosporum TURNER); 97, FROMSXUjA, 1949; 98, FROM CHODAT; 99, FROM lYENGAR, 1932; 100 a, FROM W. WEST; 100 b, FROMGONZALVES,&JOSI!I,

HABITAT. In ponds, Rangoon and ~andalay ilatter locality as a scum (Skuja, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Burma.

(April and November),

in the


Oocystis naegelii A. Braun
L. H. Tiffany and 94; H. Britton, 1913, pp 117, pi 32, f320 64;J. Brunnthaler, A. Braun, 1855,p M. E. Printz, 1952, p 178-79, pIS, f

Cells elongate-ellipsoid with the ends truncate to rounded, and sometimes with a slight median inflation. Solitary or as 2-4 autospores inside the old mother.ceI1 wall. Cell membrane thin and without polar thickenings. Cells much larger than in the type, measuring 6'8-II p, in breadth and II-23 p, in length. Chromatopho~

1915, p 127, f 108;

apparelltly without pyrenoids (Fig. 97).



; Coloniesusually 2-4--8 celled with the envelopemore or lessclose fitting. SomeIOn" .. 'Out"y ,oil,. Coil, ovoid 0' dongat, with roundod 'n"'. Coli mombeano lJii,iy thlok. Clucomatopboco,iogl, and io th, fonn of a Pari'tal plare, wbich " ~ f' lon~ (Fi~.98). lobod and without Pyreuoid. Cd" 9--26I' broad a"d Otially 0' onmpl,rely






186 HABITAT. Adhering to water plants in Afghanistan (Schaarschmidt, 1886). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread, incl. Europe, N. and S. America, W. Africa, Afghanistan, Singapore and Hawaii. 99. Oocystis


7 M-T.

1932, p 224, Text-f

O. pseudocoronala Korsh.-see Korsh., 1953, p 271, f 224 O.pyriformisPrescott, 1944,p357,pll, £12-13 O. reliculala Beck-Mannegetta, 1926, P 180, f4 O. rhomboidea Fott, 1933 a; T. Hortobagyi, 1957, p 14, f 275-76 O. rifeum Guerrer., 1929 p 253 O. rupestris Kirchner, 1880, p 169, p12, f2 O. socialis Ostenfeld, 190 I, p 138, f 10 O. slriata Guerrer., 1947 O. sfi;iuxagona Playfair, 1916, p 130, pi 7, f 32-33 O. s~lIiarina Lagerheim, 1886, p 45, f I O. subsPhaerica Playfair, 1916, p 132, pi 8, f 7 O. verrucosus Roll, 1927

Cells oblong-ellipsoid with broadly rounded ends. Cell membri"ne thin and without polar thickenings. Chloroplasts 2-4-8, parietal and disc~shaped, each with a minute pyrenoid. Reproduction by 2-4-8 autospores for!1led inside the distended mother cell wall. Adult cells 7-9'1 fL broad, 18-24 ft long. Young cell 5'5 fL broad and 16 ft long (Fig. 99). HABITAT. In a rock pool near Jog Falls, Mysore (Iyengar, i.e.). DISTRIBUTION.India (Mysore).

100. Oocystis elliptica W. West
W. West, 1892, P 736, pliO, £56; H. Printz, 1913, p 182, pi 4, f33;J. £ 103; K. Biswas, 1934, P 19, p13, f2 Brunnthaler, 1915, p 126,

Usually in 4-8 celled colonies with the envelope narrow, rarely solitary. <;:Jells elongate-ellipsoid, about 2 (-21) times as long as broad and with broadly :-:'..Ulded' ends which are not thickened. Chromatophores numerous (about 10-20) and in the form of parietal disc~ without pyrenoids. Cells 11-15'6 ft broad, 20-25 fL long



HABITAT.In paddy fields, Heneratgodha, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902);embedded in the mucus mass of Gloeocapsa ontana' n dripping rocks at Therria,' m o
Assam, at an altitude of 200 meters during March (Biswas, i.e.); pond, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); pond, Azhicode (Kerala) stray-October (!). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread. Species f Oocystis not recorded o from the Indianregion o. arvernensis R. et F. Chodat, 1925,P 497, r 7
O. almophylica Krieger, 1943 O. auslraliensis P1ayfair, 1916, p 135, p18, f 12-13 '' . O. chodaliWoloszynska, 1912, p 669, p124, £ 6 a-h, non O. chodati Playfair, O. coronata Lemmermann ex Marsson, 1911, p 263 O. eremosphaeria G. M. Smith, 1918, p 630, pi 14, £8-9 O. exigua Van Goor, 1924 O. gloeocysliformis Borge, 1906, p 23, pi 1, f I a-b O. granulata Hortobagyi, 1962, p 33, pi 45, f 550-51 O. lism~rensis Playfair, 1923, p 219 O. manna Moewus 1951 O. m~ma Beck-M~nnegetta, 1926, p 180, f 5 O. minIma Lagerheim 1884 p 107 O. mucosa Lemmerma~n, 1908, p 174, pi 5, £ 23-24 .0. nodulosa W. et G. Wille, 1909, P p 15, f31 O. natans (Lemm.) S. West, 1894, 58 O. novaN!mli~ Wille, 1879, p 26, pI 12, f 3 O.panduriformuW. etG. S. West, 1894, P 15, f33-35 O.parva.W. et G. S. West, 1898, P 335 1916, p 134


Kufferath's COllradia (see, Kufferath, 1914-15) with one species, C. incrustalls, has been regarded by Printz (1927, p 125) as totally an Oocystis. Oocystis aPiculata W. West (1893, p 99), O. as)mmetrica W. et G. S. West (1894, p 14) and O. marssollii Lemm. (1899, p 119) have been considered by Printz (1913) as the respective varieties of O. solitario, O. solitaria and O. (rassa. However, Nygaard (1949, p 40) considered O. marssonii Lemm. suffi.£iently distinct to treat it as a separate species. A number of other species, varieties a-nd forms are considered by Printz (1913) as doubtful or in,sufficiently described. These include O. brunnea Turner (1892, p 156), O. mammillata Turner (1892, p 155), O. sphaerica Turner (1892, p 155), O. rotunda Schmidle (1895 a, p 8), O. geminata Naegeli (in :-w,,...Rabenhorst, 1868, p 53), O.lacustris £. nivalis Fritsch (1912, p 313), O. novae-semliae var tuberculata Schmidle (1895 a, p 7) and O. a.rymmetrica var. symmetrica Schmidle (1899 a, p 170). Turner's G,lindrocystisovalis (Turner, 1892, p 16, pi I, f5) has been considered by W. and G.'S, West l.J. Bot. No. 387, 1895, p 66-as cited by Playfair, 1916, p 136) as an Oocystis under the name O. ovalis (Turner) W. et G. S. West. This alga has a .. perfectly elliptical form with thick smooth membrane" and is 17-20 ,..broad and 40-50 ,.. long and has been recorded from Central India and the Himalayas (see Turner, I.e.). Playfair stated that the reference of this alga to Oocystis by W. and G. S. West is confirmed by his finding autospores in the Australian alga. Since the alga under consideration is imperfectly known, it is not included in the present account. It is not certain how many ofPlayf<lir's species listed above can be considered good or valid species. His Oocystis rotula (Playfair, 1916, p 130) has been subsequently considered by tbe same author (1918, "pp 518, 532) as a .. Gloeocystis" stage of Chlamydomonas. His.O. chodati (=0. solitaria p.p. Cbodat), even if acceptable~ is invalid siqce the same name ha& been used by Woloszynska (1912) for a different species of Oocystis.


XXXI. Genus GLAUCOCYSTIS Itzigsohn, 1854 No. 1935 in Rabenhorst, 1866 emend. Geitler, 1923 Characters same as in Oocystisj with the difference that chromatophores are ~Jacking. The vermiform blue green st~lIately arranged chloroplast-like bodies insige really belong. to a rod-shaped member of the Chroococcales (Myxophyceae) and the relationship between the colourless 009stis-like alga and the' blue green has beenconsidered as one of symbiosis. . Reproduction by autospores... , Originally (see Brunntlialer, 1915) the radiating bodies inside the cells were considered as Chromatophores, but now they are definitely known to belong to a rodshaped member of the Chroococcales. Opinion is, however, still divided regarding the . ~stematic position of the alga. Some authors (Fritsch, 1935; Korshikov, 1953; .Fott, 1959,) regarded it as a colourless member of the Oocystaceae living in symbiotic ,Felationship with the blue green alga, whereas others (Smith, 1950; Prescott, 1951) ,considered the blue green component more important and included it under the '~MYXophyceae. Skuja (1949) placed it under a separate class, the Glaucophyta, ',lietween the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. Because of reproduction by autospores, the alga is considered here as a colour:Jessmember of the Oocystaceae living symbiotically with a blue green alga. Two species are recorded from the Indian region.


O.JlflagU'4 I.~ermann,

1901, P 95, pi 4, f7


.See ddend~. A




I ,


KEY TO THE SPECIES Cells ellipsoidal and without any equatorial thickening, and with lessthan 20 radiating blue green bodies G. nostoehinearum

Other speciesoj Glaucocystis known

G. duPlexPrescott, 1944, p 371, p14, f 17-19 G. ooeystiformis Prescott, 1944, p 372, pi 4, f 20 Both are known from N. America XXXII. Genus NEPHROCYTIUM Naegeli, 1849, p 79

I. II.

Cells spherical to.ell.ipsoidal with a small thickening on the cell wall at theequatora!1d with numerous (20 or more) radlatmg blue green bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. emgulata

101. Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigsohn
in L. Rabenhorst, 1868, p 417;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 133,f 122; F. E. Fritsch and F. Rich, 1937-38, P 158; G. W. Prescott, 1951, P 474, pi 108, f2

Colonies of 2-8 (usually 4) cells enclosed within the old mother cell wall. Cells oblong-ellipsoid and with a number (less than 20) of radiating chromatophore-like bodies inside, which are vermiform and blue green and belong to a member of the Chroococcales. Cells 10-18 fl broad, 15-30 fl long. Colonies 2&-51 fl broad, 39-63 fllong (Fig. 101). 102 b





FIGs. 101-102. 101, Glaueocystis nostochinearum ITZIGS.; 102 a-c, G. cingula/a BOHLIN. (101,x 1000, 102, AFTERSKUJA, 1949)



Free-floating colonies with 2-4-8-16 cells enclosed within the partially gelatinized mother cell wall. Cells ovoid, oblong, fusiform to kidney-shaped or semispherical and arranged spirally or irregularly within the colonial envelope. Chloroplast single, parietal and with a single pyrenoid in young cells. Reproduction by 2-4-8-16 autospores from each cell. Four species are recorded from the Indian region.
. KEY TO THE SPECIES I. Cells more or less crescent-shaped Ends of cells pointed.. .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .N. lunatum ( I~ Cells kidney-shaped a. Adult cells 8-22 po broad, double as long
p 189 )

.N. opnrdhianum( p 189 )
191 )

b. Cells 20-25 pobroad, 28-57 polong.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..N. hydrophilum p (



Cells semispherical _ Colony 2-celled with thick smobth membrane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. obesum! p 191 )

. .




Nephrocyuum lunatum W. West
W. West, 1892, p 736, pliO, f49;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 140-41, fl44; pi 15, f 16-18; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 249, pi 54, f 19 H. Skuja, 1948, p 133,

102 C

(!) ;

HABITAT. Planktonic

in a pond at Azhicode (Kerala),


Madhya Pradesh (B. Prasad, 1961, Bull. Bot. Soc. Univ. Saugar, 13 : 44-45).

DISTRIBUTION. Europe, 'N. America, S. and W. Africa, and India.

102. GlaucQ.cystis clngutata Boh~in
K. Bohlin, 1897 a, p 13, pll, f 9-13; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 133, f 123; H.Skuja, 1949, P 58,

pI 9, f 12-14


. Cells more or less half moon to sickle-shaped with one.side convex and the other rconcave and ends pointed. - Cells spirally arranged' within an ellipsoid to oplong hyaline (gelatinous envelope to' form 4-8 celled colonies. Chloroplast single, parietal, and t)Yith a pyrenoid. Cells 4-7' 9 fl broad, 14-21 fl long. Colonies 25-37 fl broad, 138-75fllong (Fig. 103); HABITAT. Fishery bundh, Charidrakona Road, Midnapore (West- Bengal), "Common-December (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, Siberia, India, Japan, and .~ustralia. Nephrocytium
C. Naegeli,

Cells ovoid to nearly spherical, solitary or in colonies of 2-4. Cell membrane colourless and thick with the poles slightly thickened af!.d with a small equatorial groove which appears as a ridge on the inner side of the cell. Each cell with numerous (20 or more) chromatophore-like radiating bodies which -are deeper blue than in G. nostochinearum and resembling a Chroococcus Asterocystisand with a central brownish or carotinoid grain. Cells 12-20 I-' broad, 18-68 I-' long. Cell membrane up to 2 P thick. Colonies 30--160 fl in diameter (Fig. 102). . HABITAT. Pond, Mandalay (Skuja, I.e.). DISTRIBUTION.Paraguay and Burma.


1849;J. Brunnihaler, 1915, p 142

1849, p 79, pl3"fC

a-p; incl. var. ,..i,IUS Naegeli,

f 147; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 114, p123, 1'6-7 , =NephrocytiumnaegeliiGrunow i.. L. Rabenhorst, 1868, p 52; W. and G. S. West, 1902 -p 199 =Selenoeoecus fareinalis Sehmidle et Zacharias ex O. Zacharias, 1903. ,


Cells more or less reniform with rounded ends and usually in colonies of 4, 8, .rarely 1, 2, or 16 cells, within a gelatinous envelope. Cells arranged somewhat ~y in young and irregularly in old colonies. Chloroplast single, parietal, and


191 Wille

190 with one pyrenoid. Young cells 2-7 ft broad and 3-6 times as long. Adult cells 8-22 It broad and double as long. Colonies 40-95 ft in diameter (Fig. 104). HABITAT. Among Utrieuiariaflexuosain northern and eastern India (Turner, 1892); paddy fields, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902, i.e.); Kyauktaga and Mansang, Burma (W. and G. S. West, 1907, P 231); in ditch at edge of a rice field, Sadiya, Assam (Carter, 1926); trench with running water, suburbs of Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); ponds, Sambalpur (Orissa), rare-December, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh), strayDecember; Azhicode (Kerala), stray-February and October, Ochira (Kerala), stray-February; and reservoir, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), common-January (!). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread.

105. Nephrocytium



N. Wille, 1909, p 59;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 142, f 1.16 =Hydrocystis h).drophila Turner, 1892, p 157, p120, f27

\j ,


Cells kidney-shaped
usually in colonies

or elongated with rounded ends which are often brown,
by a colourless gelatinous envelope.

of four or more cells enclosed


Cells 20-:25 ft broad, 28-57 ft long (Fig. 105)., HABITAT. Baboosole, N. E. India, October 1855 (Turner, DISTRIBUTION.N. E. India. Printz (1927) believed that this species could probably Schmidieia eiegans W oloszynska (1914).

be identical with

................. /

.. :.

r:'~; .

\.. ".' ..-;/J;V.,/



106. Nephrocytium obesum W. et G. S. West
~ "
: :


.'.r. "r';...,..... ,: .

W. and G. S. West, 1894, p 13, p12, f 39-40; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 142, f 148; H. Skuja, 1949, p 63, plIO, f22; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 249, pi 54, f20


~" ,..;"'. J

101 b.

Cells semlspherical with rounded end's. Inner side oC cell' straight or very slightly concave. In colonies of tWo cells with the colonial envelope thick and hyaline. Cells 13-28 '(-38) '" broad, 25-49 ft long. Colonies 48-71 (-104) ft broad, 60-90 (-126) ft long. Envelope 10 '" thick (Fig. 106). HABITAT. Pond, Mandalay-among other algae (Skuja, i.e.).
_ ;

DISTRmUTIoN. urope, N. and S. America, N. Rhodesia, Siberia, Burma,'and E Japan.

SPecies of Nephrocytium

1Iot recorded from the I1Idia1lregion

N. allantoidtum Bohlin, 1897 a, p 18, pll, f 21=-22 N. ecdysiscepanum W et G. S. West, 1896 a, p 161 N. limneticum (G. M. Smith) G. M. Smith, 1933, p 503 =Gloeocystopsis limneticus G. M. Smith, 1916 b, p 475, pi 24, f 12 =NePhrocytium limneticum (G. M. Smith) Skuja, 1948, pp 132-33 N. persevtTans Printz, 1914, p 62, pi s., f 125-27 N. spirale Beck-Mannegetta, 1\126, p 181, f 17 N. varium Hortobagyi, 1962, p 32 pi 44, f 546 Korshikov (1953, P 279) did not recognise N. hydrophilum and N. alian/oideuTII

'Other genera which may be i/lcluded wilhi1l lhe Oocystoideae \ .
Indian region Chloropteris Paschcr, 1932, p 409, monospccific : C. tetragona Pascher, 1932, p 411, f I a-k Cryodactylon Chodat, 1922, p 80, monospccific : C. glacile Chodat, 1922, p 80 Ecdysichlamys G. S. West, 19]2, p 76, monospecific : E. obliqua G. S. West, 1912, p 77, pi I, f 18-29 Glaucocys/opsis Bourrelly, 1960, p 416, monospecific : G. africana Bourrelly, 1960, pp 416-18, f I Makinoella Okada, 1949, p 166, monospecific: M. tosaensis Okada, 1949, pp 166-68, f A-B Oocystidium Korshikov, 1953, p 275, monospecific : O. ovale Korshikov, 1953, p 276, f236 Scotitlla Fritsch, 1912, p 326, with about twelve species: S. antarctica Fritsch, 1912, p 327

hut /lot reeorckd from the

FIGS. 103-106. 103, Nephrocytium IUlla/um W. WEST; 104, N. agardhiaullm NAEG.; 105, N. hydrophilum (TURNER)WILLE; 106, N. obesUln W. ET G. S. WEST. (105, FROM TURNER, 1892 (AS Hydrocystis hydrophila TURNER); 106, FROMSltUJA, 1949. (103, x 1500; 104 a, x875; 104 b, x725).


192 S. cryoPhila Chodat,


19:.12 S.fri/schii Griffiths-see West and Fritsch, 1927, p 124, £ 41 E-F S. levicostata Hollerbach, 1936, P :.143 S. muscicola Beck-Mannegetta, 1926, p 180, [4 S. nivalis (Shuttlew.) Fritsch, 1912, P 326 S. oboviformisJao, 1947, P 249, £2 [-h S. oocystiformis Lund, 1957, P 41, [ I S. palustris Korshikov, 1953, P 244, [190 S. polyp/era Fritsch, 1912, P 327 S. sinica J ao, 1947, p 249, £ 2 a-c *S. tuberculata BourreUy, 1951, pp 673-74, [6-8 Zoocystis Sokol., 1933, P 47, monospecific:

9. Family RADIOCOCCACEAE Fott, 1959, P 251





P 47


An additional genu'. Ray"i,lIa, wi.h one species. vi.. R. h,mop"at,;caha, been recently described by Edelstein and Prescott t<Phycolog;a (2) , 121-25, 1964). This alga is allied to p,ph,o",I;""'. 4

Members of this family have spherical to ellipsoidal cells which are embedded in mucilage to form colonies. Chromatophore cup-shaped to parietal and with or without a pyrenofd. Reproduction is always by autospores, there being no formation of zoospores or gametes. Only one genus is recorded from the Indian region. XXXIII. Genus DISPORA Printz, 1914, p 32

* SeeAddendum



P. longiPes Duringer, 1958 (not seen in original).,



Another genus describedis Podohedra Duringer (Osterr.bot. zeitschr, 05 (1/3), 1958;Osterr.1

bol., 2: 112, 1965), with [our species including



Cells more or less round or flattened and angular. Chromatophore more or less cup-shaped and without a pyrenoid. Four or more cells joined together in a flat or slightly curved free-floating colony which is embedded ~n a gelatinous matrix. Growth of colony by the division of the cells in two planes, the resulting four cells having'straight sides where they adjoin. Reproduction by fragmentation of the colonies. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. Dispora cuneiformis (Schmidle) Printz
1902, p 81, pI 3, f 16 Brunnthaler, 1915, p 173; W. Conrad,


H. Printz, 1914, p 33, p12, £ 17 =Staurogenia cuneiformis Schmidle, =Crucigenia cuneiformis (Schmidle)

1949, p 86

Colonies 4-celled, quadrate and enclosed within a gelatinous envelope; rarely ,."inmultiple colonies. Cells more or less triangular or keel shaped with the oU,ter edge .pointed or slightly rounded. Cells 4 It broad, 6-8 It long-(Fig.107). HABITAT.' Tanks Barrackpore and Serampore (W. Bengal)) stray-February ".and.April( !) DISTRIBUTION.Mrica and India. The Indian alga with its cells only 2 .6-3 It broad and 3' 3-5' 3 It long is slightly 'smaller than the type. .
Three other species o£ Dispora known are : D. crucigenioides Printz, 1914, p 32, pi I, £ 13-15, pi 2, £ 16 D. speciosa Korshikov, 1953, p 324, £ 308 D. vilhemii Fott, 1933 Genera oj Radiococceaceae

not recordedfrom the Indian region

Coenochloris'Korshikov, 1953, p 322, with two species: C. ovalis Korshikov, 1953, p 324, £ 297 C. pyrenoidosa Korsh., 1953, p 323, £ 296 I





CHLOROCOCCALES Korshikov, 1953, p 321, with two species: C. pelagicuJ (Teil.) Lund, 1961 =RadioeoceuJ pelagiea Teiling, 1946, f 1 C. planetonieuJ Korsh., 1953, p 322, f295 =RadioeoceuJ planetonieuJ Lund, 1956 a, p 594 CoenoeYJtis Korshikov, 1953, p 328, with four species: C. obtuJa Korsh., 1953, p 330, f 305 C. Planetoniea Korsh., 1953, p 328, f 302 C. reniformiJ Korsh., 1953, p 330, f 304 C. Jubeylindriea Korsh., 1953, p 330, f303 GloeobotryJ Pascher, 1930, with five species: G. ehlorintlJ Pascher, 1930 G. eoenoeoceoideJFolt, 1961, p 203, f a-d G. ellipJoideuJ Pascher, 1930 G. limnetieuJ (G. M. Smith) Pascher, 1930 =AJterococeuJ limnetieuJ G. M. Smith, 1918, p 621, plIO, f 3-6 G. JubJaluJ Pascher, 1930 RadioeoceuJ Schmidle, 1902 a, p 41, with three species: R. nimbtJtuJ (de Wildem.) Schmidle, 1902 a, p 41 =PleuroeoceUJ nimbatuJ de Wildeman, 1893 = WeJtella nimbata de Wildeman, 1897, p 532 R. JubcylindrieUJ Korsh., 1953, p 325,f 299 R. wildemani (Schmidle) Schmidle, 1902 b, p 159 = TetraeoceuJ wildemani Schmidle, 1894, p 45 ThorakoehloriJ Pascher, 1932, p 415, with three species, including-: T. Planetoniea Folt, 1933, P 577 T. tetraJ Pascher, 1932, p 418, f 4-5




Wille, 1909, p 32

Members of this family are colonial and free-floating. Colonies irregularly spherical to indefinite, often united' together by tough mucilaginous bands to form' net-like compound colonies. Colonies provided with an elastic gelatinous investment, .the cells being arranged radially and close together in the periphery of the envelope. Cells ovoid to ellipsoid or obovoid or spherical and with a parietal laminate or reticulate and oil. chloroplast having a distinct or indistinct pyrenoid. Assimilatory product starch Reproduction by fragmentation or by autospores.

The genus PlacoJphaera Dangeard (1889) with two species (P. opaca Dangeard, 1889 and P. velebitica Pevalek, 1924) has bee~ shown by Thompson (1956) to be only a stage in the life history of SchiZl!.ehlamys A. Braun (in Kuet.zing; 1849), a genuji belonging to the Tetrasporales. It has, therefore, to be excluded from the Chlorococcales. Biswas (1936) recorded Plaeosphaera opaea from N. E. India. Bourrelly (Arch.';'Iilrobiol.42: p t57, 1962) has. described a third species of Coenochloris, C. prings~imii. vi..

Two genera, Botryococcus BotryosPhaera latter nof known from the Indian and (the region), "belong to the family. Some authors (pascher, 1925; Fritsch, 1935; G. M. Smith, 1950; Prescott, 1951) have included BotryosPhaeraunder Botryococcus. Fott (1959, p 251) followed Chodat (1915, p 193) in keeping it as a distinct genus because the "colonies of BotryosPhaerahave only a very thin gelatinous envelope, the colonies are smaller and the cells are always spherical in this g-enus.

Turner, 1892, p 159

Kuetzing, 1849, p 892
1903, p 80


=Ineffigiafa W. et G. S. West, 1897 a, p 503 emend.

Free-floating colonies of irregularly spherical or indefi'1ite shape '(\rith the celIs :..arranged.densely and more or less radially within a gelatinous tough membrane which 'iis sometimes wrinkled or folded. Colonies usually with <:ellsin several net-like aggregates that are connected by broad or delicate strands of tough mucilage. Cells ovoid, :'ellipsoid or cuneate and sometimes embedded in a cup-like sheath of fatty material. f;tlliromatophore single, parietal, laminate, disciform or reticulate and with a central ;pyrenoid which may be distinct or indistinct~ Reproduction by fragmentation or by autospores.

KEY TO THE SPECIES Membrane. completely enclosing cells Membrane covering base of cells only
.~~08. . Botryococcus braunii Kuetzing

.B. braunii ( p 195 ) B. protuberallJ p 197 ) (

F. T. Kuetzing, 1849, p 892; W. B. Turner, 1892, p 157; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 84, pi 15, £5; A. Pascher, 1925, p 91, £ 71-75; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 232, pI 52, £ I, 2, II = ThallodeJmium wallichianum Turner, 1892, p 159, pI 20, £ 31 =Ineffigiata lIegleefa W. et G. S. West, 1897 a, p 503; 1907, p 231






\07 a

107 b


i @ ~~


Colonies free-floating and of irregular shape, without a conspicuous gelatinous envelope but completely enclosed by a tough, hyaline, orange-coloured or dark membrane that is produced into irregular wrinkles, folds or spines. Colonies often united in compound net-like aggregates by means of long delicate mucilaginous projections from the colonial envelope. Cells ovoid to ellipsoid and arra~ged radially at the periphery of the colony, the individual cells being invested .by an inner layer of fatty substance and an outer. layer of pectin. Chromatophore yellowish green to grass green, single, parietal, cup-shaped, laminate or reticulate and with a pyrenoid. Assimilatory products starch and a reddish oil that may colour the whole colony a brick red. Cells 3-6 p broad, 6-12 p long. Simple colonies up to 100 p and compound colonies up to l' 5 mm in diameter (Fig. 108). HABITAT. Malabar, ex Utricularia stellaris (Turner, 1892); Bengal (Turner, 1892); Upper Burma (W. et G. S. West, 1907); Lower Burma (Skuja, 1949); Lake Inle Rangoon, rather common-May (author-leg. J. A. Tubb); in confined waters from, several parts of India, esp. Bengal, Orissa and Madras, particularly during the winter season, rarely during summer, often forming reddish or yellowish green blooms (!; also see Philipose, 1959). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread.

109. Botryococcus protuberans W. et G. S. West
oW.and G. S. ':Vest,1905,p 507,piG, f8-9; A. Pascher, 1925,p 92, f77

. .





.,' ,~ ..'-


Colony irregular with ~16 or more cells held together by ~ tough gelatii~ous ,.membrane. Frequently jQinea together in compound colonies by long tough hyaline V strands of mucilage~ Cells ovoid, obovoid, or ovoid-cuneate with their inner narrower ends embedded in the envelope, the outer ends being not so enclosed and projecting ,out of the colony. Cel~ 9 '5-11'5 P broad, 16'5-20 p long. Colonies 100-120 p in diameter (Fig. 109). HABITAT. Kyauktan, Royal Lakes, Rangoon, Cantonment Gardens, Rangoon .and in running soiled trench water (Skuja, 1949); Lake Inle, Rangoon, ve~ common- , '~May and Minhla'Tank, RaD;goon, rare-May (Author-leg. J. A. .:tubb); Kendrol :'Bundh, Midnapore (W. Bengal), abundant-December; Tanks, Kausalya Ganga, !Puri (Orissa), common~November-December (!).' . D~TRmuTIoN. (incl. var. 'minor G. M. Smith, 1918) Hebrides, N. America, ,Burma; and India.
Species of Botryococcus

not recorded from the IndiaTi regloTi




FIGs. 107-109. 107, Dispora cuneiformis (SCHMIDLE) PRINTZ; 108, Botryococcus braunii KUETZ., 'a and f, COLONIES,(r, ONLY IN OUTLINE); 108 b, COLONY FROM OFCOLONY IN WHICH MANYCBLLSHAVE BEEN PRBSSBD OUT; 108 c, and E, PORTIONS SBCTION,108 D; A SINGLECELLENLARGED;IQ9, B.protub§rans W. ET G. S. WEST.



(107 a, FROMSCHMIDLE(AS Siaurogenia cuneiformis SCHMIDLE); 107 b, x 1500; 108 a and c-d, FROM KORSHIKov, 1953; 108 b, e, f, FROM HARRIS (SEE WBST & FRITSCH, 1927); 109,X 1500).

'" B. calcareusW. West, 1892, p 19 B. micromoTUs et G. S. West, 1897, P 238 W, B. pusillus Van Goor, 1924, p 309 _, B. giganteusReinsch (1877, p 239) and probably B.natans Schmidle are considered by Pascher ",(1925)as forms of B. braunii. He also considered B. terricola Klebs (1889, p 233) as one of the :retraspor. , The only other genus belonging to the family Botryococcaceae and which has not been recorded 'from the Indian region is : Botryosphaera hodat, 1915, p 193, emend. Korsh, 1953, p 341, with two species: C B. planctonicaR. et F. Chodat, 1925, p 459, f 14 (the mention of B. Planctonica the authors by as /1011. is obviously an error). var.



B. ~udelica (Lemm.) Chodat, 1915, p 193; 1921, p 93 =Bolryococcus sudeticus Lemm., 1896, p. III, f6-7

The systematic position of the genus Botryococcusincluding BotryosPhaera) ( has been considered uncertain for quite a long time. Earlier authors (Wille, 1897; 1909; G. S. West, 1904; 1916; Oltmanns, 1904, 1921) included it under the Chlorophyceae. Pascher (1925) tentatively placed it in the Heterokontae (Xanthophyceae). West and Fritsch (1927) stated that if the reported presence of starch and a " pyrenoid " is correct, Botryococcus have to be transferred from the Heterokontae. However will (Fritsch, 1935; 1951) Smith (1933; 1950), Tiffany and Britton (1952) and most other authors continued to put it under the Xanthophyceae. Blackburn (1936), after a critical reinvestigation of Botryococcus braunii,concluded that the alga has normal green chloroplasts and contains, at times, considerable quantities of starch and it should be removed to the Chlorophyceae. Since the colonies are produced by the persistent membranes and secretions of the mother cells of successive generations, she suggested for the family Botryococcaceae a place amongthe colonial Chlorococcales near the Dictyosphaeriaceae. Prescott (1951) and Korshikov (1953) accepted this yiew and included the family under their Chlorococcales and Protococcales ~espectively. Belcher and Fogg (1955), after studying the affinities of Bot~yococcus from the biochemical point of view, not only confirmed the occurrence of starchJn B. braunii, but also reported 'the presence of chlorophyll-b, a pigment not occurring in the Xanthophyceae. According to' them, the accumulation of fat, which is generally considered as one_of the characteristics of the Xanthophyceae, is n~t a reliable indication. - Further, the' ether soluble material of B. braunii consists largely of an' unsaponifiable liquid rather than true fat. The presence of cWorophyll-b together W!th starch in B. braunii clearly indicates, according to these authors, its affinities to the' Chlorophyceae. Fott (1959) placed the family Botryococcaceae between the families Radiococcaceae and Dictyosphaeriaceae under the Chlorococcales. The same arrange.ment is followed in the present account.

11. Family DICTYOSPHAERIACEAE (De Toni) C.S. West,- 1916, pp 160, 190 Members of this family are colonial with the cells held together by the thread,like remains of the old mother cell wa'lIs of Successive generations, and with or without a colonial envelope. Cells spherical, ellipsoid, oblong or curved.


Reproduction usually by auto-colonies, rarely by ZOOsporesor oogamous gametes. Three gen~ra are known from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE GENERA -I. All cells of a colony of one shape i. Cells usually arranged irregularly; colonies spherical to ovoid; cells with distinct dichotomous
connecting threads. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . 00. . . . .. . 0. : . . . 0. . DiClyosphaerium
( p 199 )

ii. Cells arranged in groups off our ; colonies irregular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weslella ( p 203 ) II. Cells in a Colonyof two different shapes, arranged in groups of four in irregular colonies 0.. 0', Dimorphococcus p 204 ) (


Genus DICTYOSPHAERItJMNaegeli, 1849, p 72 Coloniesfree-floatingwith the celIsenclosedwithin a hyaline homogeneous gelatinous envelope. Cells spherIcal, ovoid or kidney-shaped and connected to each other

by cruciately or with a single pyrenoid. cup-shaped and dichotomously branching threads.

CWoroplasts one to two, parietal,


Reproduction by the division of the cell into two or four a!ltospores, the daughter cells remaining connected to the colony by the old-mother cell wall which divides to form branching th]'eads. Daughter colonies are'formed by the fragmentation of larger colonies. anotherspecies. ductionin Zoospore formation . is known. in one species and oogamous sexual repro-

Four speciesare r~coraedfrom the Indian region.
Mature cells spherical to ovoid cells ovoid to ellipsoid a. b.
0 0 0 .Do puttllellum

( p 199 )

Cells 4-7 p. broad, 6-10 p.long Cells 8'4-10 p. broad, 11,7-15 p. long
cells kidney-shaped...; 0 0


.D. ehrenbergianum p 201 ) ( .D. indicum( p 201 )
.D. reniforme ( p 202 )




Wood 1915,pp 184-85,f 277; GoM. Smith, 1920

p 105,Wood, f 13, p121, f I H. C. pi 20, 1872,P84,pllO,f4;JoBrunnthaler, =Diclyosphaerium g/obosumPo Richter, 1884, p 65





Colonies nearly spherical and of 4-64 or more cells. Cells spherical to ovoid with a single parietal cup-shaped chloroplast having a single pyrenoid. Cells 3-10 ~ in diameter. Colonies up to about 64 p in diameter (Fig. 110).

var. nUnutuin
G. Deflandre, 1926, p 708, £ II-IS;

19H, p ?, £19

A. K. Mitra,

.' .

~~-" .. - " "............. t"\\



". "\ ~

Colony spherical, 30-50 p in diameter and composed of 4-32 (usually 16) cells; without any evident gelatinous envelope. CeIls globular, 4-5 p in diameter and with a cup-shaped chloroplast having a single median pyrenoid. HABITAT. In cultures of soil from rice fields near AIIahabad DISTRIBUTION.Europe and India (D.P.). (Mitra, l.c.).

\. .. .


. .. 110b

According to Mitra, no gelatinous envelope could be detected even after suitable staining. The absence of an envelope is also suggested by the fact that colonies any envelope. up into fragments when handled. Deflandre (l.c.)also does not figure readily break



1I I. Dictyosphaerlum 110 a
..... .........


1915, pp 183-84, £ 276; G. M. Smith,

1920, p 105, pi 20, 73, pl.2, C. Naegeli, 1849, p £ 11-12 £ E a-d;
,'. .....


J. Brunnthaler,

{(~~~:~;,'" .......

\. .


.::'x-:..;: ">..,'"

.:./..:::;:': ;r ;.. .





Colonies spherical to ovoid and. consisting of 4-8-16, rarely more, ceIls. CeIls ovoid to ellipsoid or nearly spherical. Chloroplast one to two in each cell, parietal and with a pyrenoid: diameter (Fig. II 1). - CeIls 4-7 p broad, 6-10 p long. Colonies up to 80 p in,. it:- - £LwiTAT. Ro~k pools, tanks and lakes, Ceylon, September-October (Crow, 1923); fIshery bundhs, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), rather common to very common-December; Rallia reservoir, Coonoor (Madras), abundant-May; Sim's Park Pond, Coonoor, rare--June; ponds and tanks, Barrackpore, rare-December; ]eypore (Orissa), rare-February; O~tacamund (Madras), rare-June; Nandi Hills (Mysore), rather common-February; and Chikkanakarai (Coorg, Mysore), ,rather common-February (!). DISTRIDUTION.Widespread, including Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, India, Ceylon,:Malaya, Singapore, Java, and Japan. _ The figure given by Brunnthaler Dic:tyosphaerium
M.O.P. Iyengar


\.::' ~Ji:{

':;;~:":~.~':~:~2~:"'/: ;



,., ,

1..;1 a .





FIGS' 110-111. 119>- Dictyosphaerium pulchellum WOOD; II 1, D. ehrenbergianumNAEGELI. (1I0,xI000;III,XI500). .


HABITAT. RiverCooum, Madras-(Iyengar and Venkataraman, J951); ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh and Sibasagar (Assam),' common to 'abundant, May-June;. Barrackpore (W. Bengal), rare-December; Bhopal (M.P.), stray-July; Cuttack, rather common-July, common to abundant-August, Sambalpur (Orissa)" common -December, Linghipur, Puri, (Orissa), common-April; Kurnool (A.P.), rareDecember; Trichur (Kerala), common-December,. and Ochira (Kerala), strayFebruary; River Sone, Dehri (Bihar), rare-May; River Mahanadi, Cuttack, rareMarch; fishery' bundh, Chandrakona Road, rare-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga (Puri), rare-April; Moat, Vellore (Madras), rare-December; reservoirs, Hyderabad, Mysore, Mercara and Trivandrum, rare-February; canal, Chalakudi (Kerala). common-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Widespread.

(op.c.)s not quite typical. i



Iyengar et Ramanathan
1940, p 199, Text-£ 1-14, pl8



and K. R. Ramanathan,

Colonies spherical to broadly ovoid or slightly irregular and of 4-16-64 or more '~elIs. Cells eIlipsoid, spindle-shaped, somewhat pIano-convex when young and ,;broadly ellipsoid when mature. Chloroplast single in young cells, two in older ceIls; Parietal and plate-like and with a single pyrenoid. Young cells 5-8'4 P broad, 1'7-15 p long. Mature ceIls 8'4-10 p broad, Il'7-15 p long (Fig. Il2). ! Vegetative multiplication by the formation of 2-4 autospores in each ceIl. ~exual reproduction by the fusion of a biciliate antherozoid with a non-motile egg.





DISTRIBUTION.North East India.

a yeyCJ ~o/'~
O-O-O~(?-~\5D 0;\;jC;::/y"c)Q \S<::;>C;S~ 0

Full details of this form originally described by Wallich in MSCR 332 B (see
Turner, i.e.) are not available. a Cosmocladium. Turner believed that there is a possibility of its being

Species of Dictyosphaerium
D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

not recordedfrom the Indian region




anomalum Korshikov, 1953, p 339, f313 elegans Bachmann, 1913, pp 184-87, f 1 minutum Petersen, 1932, p 39 oviforme Lagerheim, 1893, p 161 Plarutonicum Tiffany et Ahlstrom, 1931, p 458 pusillum Steinecke, 1926, p 474 regutare Swirenko, 1926, p 85 simplex Korshikov, 1953, p 337, f31O, non Skuja, 1956, p 181

D. skujae

nom. novo


=D. simPlex Skuja, 1956, p 181, pi 29, f 13-20 D. termtre Fritsch etJohn, 1942, p 378 D. tetrachotomum Printz, 1914, p 24, pi 1, f 1-6 Reproduction by zoospores is known in the terrestrial species D. termtre. regarded D. regulare as probably synonymous to Westella botryoides. Korshikov (1953, p 361)

~_113V ill




de Wildeman,

1897, p 532




FIGs. 112-113. 112, Dictyosphaerium indicum IYENG. ET RAMA:::.TH.; lf2a, COLONy;1l2 b-c, CELLSENLARGED;113a, D. reniforme BULNHEIM; 113b-c,F. major TURNER. (112, FROM IYENGAR & RAMANATHAN,1940; 113 a, FROMWOLLE; 113b-c, FROMTURNER, 1892).

Antherozoids spindle- to pear-shaped, 3'3 J-l1;>road and 8:4-10 J-l long. Egg cells round and 8'4-10 J-lin diameter. Zygotes round and smooth-walled, 10-11'7 J-lin diameter. HABITAT. Planktonic in a muddy rainwater pool near Madras (Iyengar et Ramanathan, i.e.). DISTRIBUTION.India (Madras).

Colonies free-floating and ~sually without a gelatinous envelope, made up of about 30-100 cell; held together by the non-gelatinizing remains of the old-mother cell walls. Cells more or less spherical and usu!l,lly' grouped in fours, rarely in eights. .Chloroplast single, parietal and c~p-shaped, with or without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by the formati,pn of 4-8 autospores from each cell which remain connected to the mother colony till they are broken off. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. 114. Westella botryoides

(W. West) de Wildeman

De Wildeman, 1897, p 532; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 107, pi 21, f 4; G. S. West and F. E. Fritsch, 1927, p 135, £45; M.-T. Philipose, 1940,p 161, p12, f30 = Tetracoccus botryoidesW.West, 1892, p 735, pliO, f43~48jJ. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 116, f 81



Bulnheim Colonies of irregular shap~ and of about 40-80 cells. Cells usually small, spherical and arranged.in groups of four or eight. Chloroplast single, cup-shaped . 'and with or without a pyrenoid. Cells 3-9 J-l in diameter. Colonies 30-84 p in diameter (Fig. 114). HABITAT. Tank, Ceylon-October (Crow, 1923); ditch at edge of rice field, '!.Sadiya, Assam-August (Carter, N., 1926); Museum Pond, Madras, rare to very common, October-November (Philipose, l.c.); pond, Bombay (Gonzalves andJoshi, ,1946); Museum Pond, Calcutta, common-June; ponds, Barrackpore, commonJune, stray-November and December, Cuttack, rare to common-July, August ;'and September and Nuapara (Cuttack), stray-December (!). DISTRJBUTION.Europe, N. America, Africa, India, Ceylon, Siberia, Japan, and Australia. Korshikov (1953, p 361, f 340) recorded a distinct mucilaginous envelope in

o. Bulnheim,1859,P 22, pi 2, f 6; G. B. De T~iii, 1889,P 660; J. Brunnthaler,1915,p 185, £ 278 Cells usually kidney-shaped, sometimes heart-shaped or somewhat irregular. Cells in the colonies often grouped in bundles. Colonies 40-70 J-lin diameter. Cells ~10 J-lbroad and 10-20 J-llong (Fig. 113 a). The alga is not known from the Indian region.

? f. major Turner
W. B.Turner, 1892,p 156,p120,£28 Cells kidney-shaped and grouped in a bundle, the cells being held together by slender brown filaments. Cells 9-17 J-lbroad and 25 J-llong (Fig. 113 b, c).






Westella and treated Swirenko's (1926, p 85) Dictyosphaeriumregulareas synonymous to Westella botryoides.

115. Dimorphococcus lunatus

A. Braun
1920, p 106, p121,

A. Braun, 1855, p 44;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 185-86, f280; G. M. Smith f 5; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1926, p 266, pI I , f9 =Scenedesmus radiatus Reinsch, 1867, P 81, pi 6, f 6







~\ ~ " ~ ~




FIG. .114.

' :''J/~ ~.

. i'.

'.:'.: .:;~.

Colonies irregular. Cells in groups of four and arnmged alternately in a zigzag fashion. Outer cells of each group reniform or somewhat crescent-shaped, t Inner cells elongate-ovoid to ellipsoid. Ends of cel~s rounded. Chloroplast a parietal plate nearly covering the entire cell wall in mature cells. Cells 4-15 fl broad, ,', 9-2.5 fllong. Colonies up to 100 fl in diameter. (Fig. 115). HABITAT. Planktonic, Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl and Biswas, i.e.); pond, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); Royal Lakes aI'ld pond, Cantonment Gardens, 'Rangoon-December (Skuja, 1949); ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh and Joyasagar (Assam), stray-May and June; Cuttack, stray-February, Sambalpur and Pachikot (Orissa), stray-December;'!:fyderabad, stray-January; Bangalore, rather common~;j

Westella botryoides ryv. WEST) DE WILDEMAN. la, FROM PHILIPOSE, 1940; b, x 1500).

Species oj Westella not recorded from the Indian region
W; linearis G. M. Smith, 1920, p 107, p121, f2-3 W. natans (Kirchner) Printz, 1927, p !40 '=Coelastrum natans Kirchner =Tetra£oCtus natans (Kirchn.) Lemmermann


Genus DIMORPHOCOCCUS A. Braun, 1855, p 44

Irregular free-floating colonies, usually without an outer gelatinous envelope, rarely with one, the cells being held together by the branching remains of the old. mother cell wall. Cells in groups of four, of wbi~ the outer two cells are kidney- to heart-sb,aped and the inner two cells are more or less ovoid, ellipsoid or cylindrical with rounded ends. Chloroplast single, parietal, more or less occupying the entire cell and with one pyrenoid. _ Reproduction by the division of a cell irito four daughter cells, which remain attached to the colony by the thread-like remains of the old-mother cell wall till they are broken off. . . Three species are recorded from India.
KEY TO THE SPECIES I. Colonies irregular and without enveloping mucilage i. Cell. ovoid-ellipsoid to reniform and without basalstalks ii.




117c 117 d.

117 e

.D.lunatus (p 205)


Cells heart-shaped to reniform and with short stalks. . . . . ... . . . . ... . . . . . D. c.ordatus 205) (p
regular and ellipsoid; with enveloping mucilage

117, D.Jritschii


115, DimorPhococcus lunatus A. BRAUN; 116, D. cordaius CROW.

Colonies somewhat


Cells pomt of attachrne£t to cellheart-shaped to cylindrical and with short stalks having a lappet at the .D.fritschii (p 20

(115 a-b, x 1500; 116 a-b, FROM CHODAT; 117 b-e, FROM CROW, 1923 a; 117a, AFTER CROW, 1923 a; a, COLONY, b-e, DIFFERENTKINDSOF CELLSENLARGED).




(/.c.) also placed the genus under the

February; Chalakudi, Iringalakuda, Azhicode and Debira (Kerala), rare-February; fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (West Bengal), rare-December (!). DISTRIBUTION. Widespread-including Europe, N. arid S. America, Africa, India, Burma, Siam, Java, Formosa, and Japan. D. lunatus is characteristic of soft waters, acid bogs and mountain tarns (see West and Fritsch, 1927, p 136; Prescott, 1951, p 252). The author also found the alga in soft waters. 116. -Dim.orphococcus cordatus Wolle

ground that no starch is produced Xanthophyceae.

by the alga.

Folt and Komarek

The exact systematic position of S/einiella balatonica Hortobagyi (1952, p 237, f 11) is not understood. Steiniella was originally established by Bernard (1908) with the type species S. graeventzii Bernard. It has been considered by later authors as synonymous to Scenedesmus bijuga, bijugatus var. alternans or ovalternus var. (see G.M. Smith 1916; Chodat, 1926, Korshikov, 1953). No other species of S/einiella is known. Hortobtigyi's species shows ait.great resemblance to LoboC)'s/is Thompson and could probably be placed near it, if not merged with '"

F. Wolle, 1887, p 199, pI 160, f30-38; F. S. Collins, 1909, pp 174-75, pI 6, f60;J. Brunnthaler, 1915,pI86,f281 .

Colonies like a bunch of grapes. Cells heart- to kidney-shaped with the concave sides directed outwards, and with a short basal gelatinous stalk. Cells 4-8 p broad and 6-16 p long (Fig. 116). HABITAT. Pond, Rangoon-January (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Switzerland, N. Amerka, Abyssinia, and Burma. 117. Dhnorphococcus fritsclUi Crow
1923, p 165. !t

W. B. Crow, 1923 a, p 141, f A-F;

Colonies faitly large consisting of up to 128 cells, regular and ellipsoid, of com~ pact compound grollps of four cell~ each, embedded in distinct envetoping mucilage. Each group of cells dimorphic, one pair heart-shaped and the alternating pair cylindrical and slightly bent inwards. Each cell with a short mucilaginous stalk having a small lappet at the point of attachment 1:0the cell. Colonies 70-90 p broad, 85-100 p long. Cells 12-20 p in height. Cylindrical cells 5-6 p broad (Fig. 117). HABITAT. In rock pools, tanks, canals and lakes, Ceylon-September
(Crow, i.e.).


Genera oj Dictyosphaeriaceae

not recordedfrom the Indian region

Da£/ylospfaerium Steinecke,. 1916, p 68, monospccific D. sociale Steinecke, 1916, p 68 Lobocystis Thompson, 1952, p 366, monospecific : L. dichotoma Thompson, 1952, p 366, f 8-9 Quadricoccus Folt, 1948, p 11, with two species : Q.laevis FOIt, 1948, P 11, fig

Q. verrucosus Folt, = Tetratomococcus

1948, ornatus

p 11, f 1 a-f, Korshikov,

h-i 1953, p 340, f 315

Dic!Y06)'s!isLagerheim (1890, p 226), based on the single species D. hi/chcoc~ii (W~~le) LagerheiDl, has been-consldered by -G. M. Smith (1933) as a Cosmocladium with the name C. httchcockn (Wolle) G. M. Smith. _ Smuh Euteltamorus Walton (1918, p 126) with one species, E. globoslls Walton, has been considered by G. M. (1933) as synonymous to Sphaerocystis Chodat, 1897. Drchotomococcus Korshikov (1928, p 418) with three species: D. capitatusKorsh. (1928); D. curvatus Korsh. (1939) (=D. dongatus Folt, 1948) and D. luna/us Folt (1948) has also to be excluded from the


order. Korshikov (1928) originally placed his genus in the Chlorophyceae and it was followed by la:. authors. However, In 1939, he (cr., Folt and Komarek, 1960), transferred it to the Xanthophyceae on e




C. Naegeli,


Naegeli *
1951, p 255, pi 56, f 13

1849, p 85, pI 3, f F; Go W. Prescott,

12. Family SELENASTRACEAE (Blackman et TansIey) Fritsch in West et Fritsch, 1927, pp 103, 127
Members of this family are usua11y free-living, rarely attached and they usually occur in loose colonies held together by a mucilaginous envelope or by the adhesion of cells at certain points, rarely solitary. Cells club-shaped, fusiform, acicular, lunate or ovate-cuneate. Chloroplast parietal and with or without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by autospores. Nine genera belonging to this family are recorded from the Indian region:KEY TO THE GENERA 1. Cells elongated, in small groups or solitary
a. Cells attenuated to acute apices and often connected at apices to form loose colonies.. . 0. . .. ....
Dm;tylococcus (p 208).

Cells fusiform, solitary or attached pole to pole to form false branched filaments or.5-4 P broad, 9 p long (Fig. lIB). sometimes with an indistinct pyrenoid. Cells chains. Chloroplast parietal, 2

b. Cells fusiform .to acicular, solitary or in loose aggregates i. Cells of moderate length and with or without a single pyrenoid tSolitary or in loose aggregates and usually without a mucilaginous

envelope. . .. ........ Ankistrodesmus (p 210)

~2-4-8 or more cells within a mucilaginous envelope. 0

Quadrigula(p 215)

ii. Cells solitary, very.long and with an axial row of a dozen or more pyrenoids. . . . . . . .-: .. . . . ., Closteriopsis(p 216)

~~. ~?


c. Cells oblong-ovoid or club-shaped, usually joined by their ends to form radiating colonies.. . ..... Actinastrum(p 217) Cells more or less lunate and in colonies a. C«;lIsattenuated, fairly regularly arranged back to back and usually without a mucilaginous
envelope. . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Selenastrum (p 218)



bo Cells usually small in number (1-2-4, rarely 8) and arranged within the enlarged mother cell wall. . . . . ., 0.. . . 00. . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 0. . . .. Nephrochlam'y~p 221) ( c. Number of cells often larger (4 to many) and arranged loosely within a wide mucilaginous
envelope. . 00. . . . . 0 . . 0. . . . 000. . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Kirchneriella (p 222)


Cells ovate-cuneate and in colonies Cells arranged in radiating groups at the periphery of an envelope with the broad ends towarOs the centre and touching each other. 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Gloeom;tinium (p 225)


Genus DACTYLOCOCCUSNaegeli, 1849, p 85 1I9d
FIGs. 118-119. 118, DactylococCU$ infusionum NAEGELI; 119 a-c, Ankistrodesmus spiralis (TURNER) LEMMo;1 19d. vAR.fasciculatus G. Mo SMITH. (118, FROM G. M. SMITH, 1950; 119c, FROM TURNER, Raphidium spirale TURNER); (1I9a-b,x 1500; 119d,x 725). 1892 (AS

Cells solitary or joined' end to end to form fragile colonies, usually fusiforDl with attenuated apices. Cell wall thin and mucilaginous. Chloroplast parietal, laminate and with an indistinct pyrenoid. Reproduction by oblique division of the- protoplast leading to autospore formation. Only one species recognized. Four other species known have been transferred by Pascher (1915) and Petersen (1928) to Keralococcus Pascher, 1915. 208

... . .After studying Sa..d,smus dim.,phus and S. 06/iguus in axenic culture using different -media, Trianor (ConodiQnJ. 1~ 41 · 967-68, 1963; ibid. 42 : 515-18, 1964) concluded that unbranched or branched DQdylDtDttus stages with a can. -.IIeCting band between adjacent cells OCcur in these species. With S. dim.rphus, Datlyloc.ttlu stages occurred when yeast extract /"as Used and they Were never in abundance, whereas in inorganic media, with sodium citra.e as a buffer, coenobia typical ;Of Su""smus were formed. With S. obliguus, the DQdy/oco<<ustages Were produced in the absence of an organic ~ubitrate. s ,'OIIte of the branched stages being composed of as many as 30 cells. S,nce the Ducly/oc,,«us .stages of S. o6/.gous ~re lfonned in Bristol's solution and in complete medium which are simple, defined media and not concentrated m~dia or with tldd.ition of organic compounds, Trainor is opinion that the DQ"y/~,,,,s stage i. likely to be a naturally occusnng form. The above findings of Trainor Once again cast doubts on the validity of DQ"Yro-tIU i./Usi.num Nae,,'"



, I

1210 HABITAT. Adhering to aquatic phanerogamic plants in Afghanistan (Schaarschmid t, 1886). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, and Afghanistan. Since colonies of this alga break up readily, several authors (Wille, 1909; West and Fritsch, 1927; Fritsch, 1935) doubt the independence of Dactylococcus and consider it probable tbat D. infusionum Naegeli is a naturally occurring state of Scenedesmus obliquus,but G. M. Smith (1916; 1933; 1950) stated that a strain of D. irifusionumNaegeli isolated in unialgal culture from material collected in Wisconsin (Smith, 1914) developed typically many-celled colonies and lacked Scenedesmus-like stages.



Dibrugarh (Assam), straY-May, Chikkanakarai (Coorg), rare-February and Azhicode (Kerala), rare-February; fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. (!). swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri (Orissa), rareApril Bengal), rare-December; DISTRIBUTION.Widespread, incl. Europe, N. America, S. and W. Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Singapore, Java, China, Siberia, and Japan.

var. fasciculatus
G. M. Smith, 1922, p 336, pi 8, f 19

G. M. Smith


Genus ANKISTRODESMUS Corda, 1838, p 196 =Raphidium Kuetzing, 1845, p 144


Free-floating, solitary or in loose temporary colonies usually. not enclosed within a mucilaginous envelope. Cells acicular to fusiform, straight, curved or sigmoid with gradually tapering ends. Chloroplast single, parietal and with or without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by oblique-transverse and longitudinal division of protoplast leading to autospore formation. "'" Four species are recorded from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE SPECIES 1. Cells sigmoid and usually in colonies of2-4-8 or more a. 4-8 or l!10recells twisted around <!.ne nother a
b. In fasci~late bundles of 2-3-4, sometimes solitary.

Cells curved or sigmoid, twisted around one another and united in colonies of 50-200 cells with the median portion of the cells in contact and the apices free. Cells 3 '75-5 p, broad, 55-70 p, long. Colonies 75-180 p, in diameter (Fig. 119 d). HABITAT. Ponds and tanks, Sibsagar (Assam), s,tray-June, Dibrugarh (Assam), rather common-May; Sambalpur, Kamakhyanagar and Chatrapur (Orissa), rareFebruary, Chikkanakarai, Coorg, and Azhicode (Kerala), rare-February; fishery bundh,. <;:handrakona rare-April (!). Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), rare-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, DISTRIBUTION.N. America and India. This variety differs from ,the type in the larger number of cells in a colony. The author observed the variety frequently in association with the type in neutral or slightly acidic waters with low total alkalinity. 120. Aokistrodesmus sigmoides (Rabenh.) Bruhl et Biswas
1868, p 45; F. WolJe, 1887, p 155

~.. ',' .A. sPiralis(p. 210)....
. . . .. . . . . . . : . .. .. . . . . .A. sigmoides(p. 2Jl)

2. 3.

Acicular cells not twisted around each other Celis fusiform, strongly curved and sickle shaped

.A.falca/us (p. 2Jl) .A. convolu/us(p. 213)',

P. Bruhl and K. Biswas, 1922, p 12, pi 3, f22 =Raphidiumpolymorphum var. sigmoideum Rabenhorst,




(Turner) Lemmermann Cells solitary or in fasciculate bundles of 2-3-4, fusiform, slen~er, gradually attenuated from the middle towards the enqs and distinctly sigmoid. Ends of cells very acute. Cells 2-3 p, broad and about 2~ p, long (Fig. 120).' HABITAT. Filter beds, Bengal (Bruhl and Biswas, l.c.). 'DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, and India.

E.Lemmermann', 1908, p 1-76;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 190, f 293; G. M. Smith, 1920, pp 135-36, pi 32,f6-7 ' =RaPhidium spirale Turner, 1892, p 156, pi 20, f 26 =R. polymorphum FJ:es. var. /urneri W. et G. S. West, 1902, p 197, pi 17, fI8 =Ankis/rodesmusfalfa/us var. spiralis (Turner) G. S. West, 1904; N. Carter, 1926, p 277 =Riiphidium /u!fleri (West) Bern!lrd, 190~, p 176, f376-19; 1909, p 76, f 156-59,

Aokistrodesmus fa1catus (Corda) Ralfs 1920. J. 134, pi 1848,I; M. R. Handa,3 a-d;J. p Brunnthaler, 1915, p 188, f 283; G. M. Smith, p Ralfs, 32, £ p 180, pi 34, £ 1927, 262, pi 6, £6 =Micras/eriasfalca/aCorda, 1835,p 206, pi 2, £29 =Ankis/rodesmusfusiformis Corda, 1838, p 199 =Raphidiumfasciculalum Kuetzing, 1845, p 144

Cells acicular with acute-apices; in colonies of usually 1=-8-16, rarely two, cells . spirally twisted round one another in the median region, but free at the ends. Chloroplast single and without a'pyrenoid. Cells 1-3'0 P,broad, 20-45 p, long (Fig. 119 a-c). HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, t.e:); paddy fields, Heneratgodha, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902); ditch at edge of rice field, Sadiya, Assam-August (Carter, l.c.); Royal Lakes and trench, Rangoon. (Skuja, 1949); ponds and tanks,
Ankis/rodesmusis generally considered to be without a mucilaginous envelope. However, according to Korshikov (1953), some typical species ofthis genus possess a mucilaginous envelope. On this ground,. he included Q.uadrigula, always with a distinct envelope, and Selenas/rum, (See Korshikov, 1953, p 302, f264) which may have a gelatinous envelope, within the genus Ankislrodesmus. The author treats Q.uadrigu14'

C. Bernard, 1908, p 114, f 365-69 =R. polymorphum var.falca/um (Corda) Rabenhorst, 1868, p 45; W. and G.S. West, 1902, p 197;



CelIs acicular to narrowly fusiform with the ends tapering to acute apices, ,. Usually in fasciculate bundles of 2-+-8 or more, rarely solitary. Chloroplast single,

~nd Selenas/rum distinct genera. as


parietal and e). (Fig. 121 a, usually without pyrenoids. Cells 1'5-7'0

P, broad, 20-165 p, long






var. aclc:ularis (A. Braun) G. S. West
G. S. West, 1904, p223;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 188,f 284jG. W. Prescott, 1951,p253, p156, fl6 =Raphidium aciculare A. Braun in L. Rabenhorst, 1863, p 18, No. 442; W. B. Turner, 1892, p 156 =RaPhidium polymorphum var. aciculare (A. Braun) Rabenhorst, 1868, p 45; W. and G. S. West, 1902, p 197 =Ankis/rodesmus acicularis (A. Braun) Skuja, 1948, p 143 =A. acicularis (A. Braun) Korshikov, 1953, p 291

.t~ If



Cells mostly single, straight or slightly cOrved and with pointed ends. Cells 2-4'5 p-broad, 35-80, rarely up to 210 p-long (Fig. 121c). /
HABITAT. N. E. India (Turner, l.c.); paddy fields and artificial tanks, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902); paddy fields, Momauk, and shallow pools overgrown with weeds, Mansang,. Burma (W. and G. S. West 1907); ponds and Kokine Lakes, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949).
DISTRIBUTION. Cosmopolitan.

~..../ ~





E. Lemmermann, 1908, p 175; J. Bruniithaler, 1915, p 188 =Raphidium polymorphumFres. var. radia/umChodat, 1902, p t98; C. Bernard, 1908, p 175, r372-73; 1909, P 76, f 153-55


)'~'U>d trlb .


Cells in radiating bundles, straight or curved, 2-3 ~ broad and 70-80 p- long (Fig. 121 d). HABITA,!,. Cantonment Gardens, Royal Lakes and trench, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949). Swamp, Ka!lsalya Ganga, Puri, Stray-Aprit (!). _ DisTRIBUTION. Europe, India, Burma, -Singapore, J~va, and Japan.

var. spiriWformis (W. et G. S. West) G. S. West
FIGs. 120-122. 120, Ankis/rodesmus sigmoides (RABENH.) BRUHL ET BISWAS; 121 a, e, A. falca/us (CORDA) RALFS; b, VAR. sPirilliformis (W. ET G. S. WEST) G. S. WEST; C, VAR. acicularis (A. BRAUN) G. S. WEST; d, VAR. radia/us (CHOD.) LEMM.; 122 a-d, A. convolu/us CORDA. (120, FROMBRUHL & BISWAS,1922; 121 a, d,x 1000; 121 b-c, FROMWEST; '121 e, IROM BISWAS 1949; 122 :;r-b, x 1500; c-d, FROM BISWAS, 1936 (AS A. convolu/usORDA VAR. minu/um(NAEGELI) RABENH.). C

G. S. West, 1904, p 224; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 188, f288; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 182, p113, f6
=Raphidium polymorphum var. spirale W. et G._S. West, 1898 .=R. polymorphum var. sPiroides Zacharias, 1903 7"R. angus/um Bernard, 1908, p 177 _ =Ankis/rodesmus angus/us (Bernard) Korshikov, 1953, p 297; incl. Brebisson, 1856, p 158 _ A. con/or/us Thuret


in de


HABITAi. Paddy fields, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902,) Tanks and pools, Ceylon (Crow, 1923); banks and backwaters of the Irrawady, and shallow pools overgrown with weeds, Mansang, Burma (W. and G. S. West, 1907); Royal Lak~, Rangoon (Handa, l.c.); aquarium and Cantonment Gardens, Rangoon, and pond, Mandalay (Skuja; 1949); Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl and' Biswas, 1926);' pOl1d, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); River Cooum, Madras (Iyengar. and Venkataraman, 1951); ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam) stray-May; Barrackpore and Seranlpor_e (W. Bengal) stray-to rare-January to October; Cuttack, stray-July and August,Nuapara; (Orissa) stray_February;.Sambalpur, (Orissa) stray-December; Azhicode (Kerala) stray-Octobe~, rare-February and Ochira, Kerala, rather common-February; fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, W. 'Bengal, rareDecember (!).

Cells solitary, spir;tlly curved and with pointed ends, 1-2'2 p- broad, 16-40 p;)ong (Fig. r21 b). . HABITAT. Free-floating in a pond, Cantonment Gardens, Rangoon-May 'f(Skuja, 1949). _ DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America, Africa, Burma, Java, and Siberia. Though most authors, including G. S. West, Brunnthaler and Smith, referred


the variety

\'Decessaryo include t

as var. ·


G. S. West,






W.et G. S. West'

within brackets immediately after the varietal

e since the alga is synonymous to Raphidiumpolym01phumvar. spiraleW. et G. S. West. Aukistrodesmus cODvolutus

A.J. C. Corda, 1838, p 199, p12, f 19;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 190, f292; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 182, p113, f 7-9





Raphidium convolulum (Corda) Rabenhorst, 1B6B,p 46

. Ankislrode~musonvolutus ~Rabenh.) G. S.in Brunntha1er,204; W.190; F. E.S.Fntsch c West, 1904,P and G. ~est, mc\. var. mlnulum (NaegelI) Rabenhorst 1915,p
1930, P 27; K. Biswas, 1936, P 125, pI B,'f 10; G. Nygaard, 1945, p 4B,p14, f 46 Solitary pointed, or in groups of 2-4 cells. and stumpy. Cells strongly

1907, P 2.30; and F. RIch '

curved or twisted with the ends 3-28 p, long (Fig. 122 a-d).

Korshikov (1953) transferred Ankis/rodesmus spiro/aenia G. S. West (1911) to Raphidonema Lagerheim, and, unlike most authors who include Raphidonema under the Ulotrichales, he placed it under genera of uncertain systematic position in his Protococcineae. Hindiik (1963) created a new genus Koliella (outside the Ch10rococcales) and treated A. spiro/aenia,A. nivalis (Chodat) Brunnthaler (1915, p 190, f294) and A. vireli (Chodat) Brunnthalcr (1915, p 190, f 295) as its respective species. Ankis/rodesmus minulissimus Korshikov (1953, p 295, f255), A. subcapitalus Korshikov (1953, p 295, f254) and A. rolunaus Korshikov (1953, p 294, f 253) look more like species ofSelenos/rum than Ankistrodesmus. Incidentally, it may be mentioned here that Korshikov (op.c.) included Selenoslrum, with its well known species, as well as Q.uadrigula .and Closteriopsis, within Ankis/rodesmus.

rarely blunt

Cells l' 5-5 P, broad,

HABITAT. In springs on the river bank, Bhamo, Upper Burma (W. and G. S. West, i.e.); among a colony of rotifers, N. E. India (Biswas, i.e.). Brunnthaler (op.c.)stated that Ankislrodesmus convolulUS Corda has strongly curved cells with pointed, rarely stumpy ends and that var. minulum (Naeg.) Rabenhorst (4 p, X 12-28 p,) differs from the former in having crescent-shaped cells and being always single celled. However, he did not give the dimensions of the typical form or the figure of the variety. The dimensions of the typical form as given by De Toni (1889) and Prescott (1951) are 3'5-5 P, X 3'7-12 P, and 3-4'5 P, X 12-15 P, respectively. Nygaard's alga is 2' 5-4 P, broad and 5-11 p,long, which is very near that of the typical form. The variety described by Biswas is l' 5-2 P, broad and 15-20 P, long. Thus, apart froI!l the overlapping of the dimensions of the typical form and of the variety given by Brunnthaler as var. minulum (Nae&..) RabenhOlst and subsequently followed by others, the-var~ety itself appears to be invalid since the acj:ual name of Raphidium var. minimum(Naeg.) Rabenh. given by Rabenhorst is for a different alga convolulum originally described by Naegeli, viz. Raphidium minulum Naeg. (f849) measuring 2-3 p, X 7-9 P, and with. crescent-shaped cells, which has been considered by Collins (1909) as Selenaslrum minulum (Naeg.) Collins. The variety millulum (Naeg.) Rabenhorst . is, therefore; §uppressed i!l the present account. The Danish and the Indian alga described by Biswas with their slightly twisted ends belong to an Ankislrodesmusrather than a Selenaslrum! Some oj lhe speciesof .Ankistrodesmus not recordedrom Ihe Indian region f
A. A. A. A. A. aculissimus Archer, IB62, P 256 amalloides Chodat et Oettli anguslllS Chodat et Oettli arc.ua/us.Korshikov, 19~3, p 296, f 257 bernardense Chodat et Oettli (considered by Korshikov, 1953, p 290, as synonymouS to A. braunii) A. biplex (Reinsch) G. S. West, 1904, P 224 A. biplex (Reinsch) Brunntha1er, 1915, p 190, f297 A. braunii (Naegeli) Lemmermann, 190B, p 16B =RaPhidium braunii Naeg. ex Kuetzing, IB49, p 891 =Ankis/rodesmus braunii (Naegeli) Collins, 1912, p 7B =A. braunii (Naeg.) Brunnthaler, 1915, p 1B9 A. densus Korshikov, 1953, p 300, f 262 A. dulcis P1ayfair, 1917, P B36, pI 57, f 20 A. ex/ensus Korshikov, 1953, p 296, f 256 A.falcula (A. Braun) Brunnthaler, 1915, p 190 *A.frac/us (A. Braun) Brunntha1er, 1915, Ii IB9


Genus Q.UADRIGULA Printz, 1915, p 49

Cells in groups of 2-4~8 or more arranged with their longitudinal axes parallel to the long axis of the colony inside a homogeneous hyaline gelatinous envelope. Colonies ellipsoid to sphelOid. Cells cylindrical to fusiform, about 4-20 times as long as broad, straight or slightly curved. Chloroplast single, filling the 'cell, and with or without pyrenoids. Reproduction by 2-4-8 autospores, which separate from each other slightly as the parent cell wall gelatinizes and merges with the colonial matrix. Only one species recorded from the Indian region.

123. Q.uad~igula quateruata (W. et G. S. West) Printz H. Printz, 1915 a, p 29
=Ankistrodesmusqua/ernatus . et G. S. Wes~, 1907, p 230, f23-25;J. W f299

B~unnthaler, 1915, p 191,


Colonies four-celled. Cells more- or less semilunar with their apices rounded, and arranged cruciately in a compact manner within -a gelatinous envelope, the concave sides of the cells facing the centre of the colony. Cells 7-7' 7 J.l broad,

.23-24' 5 .p, long (Fig. 123).
HABITAT. In shallow pools

overgrown with weeds, Mansang near Hsipaw,

Upper Burma (W. and G. S. West, l.c.).
DISTRIBUTION. Burma and Siberia.

Speciesnot recorded from lhe Indtan region Q..choda/i(Tanner=Fullman) G. M. Smith, 1920, p 13B "=':.Raphidium choaa/iTanner-Fullman, 1906, p 156, f I-II =Ankis/rodesmuschodati1,Tanner- Fullman) Brunnthaler, 1915, p 193 Q..closterioides(Bohlin) Printz, 1915, p 49 =NePhrocyliumc/osterioides ohlin, IB97 a, p IB, pi I f 23-24 B =Raphidium pji/zeri Schroeder, 1902, p 152, pi &;f6 =Ankis/rodesmuspjitzeri (Schroeder) G. S. West, 1904, p 224 . =A. closterioides(Bohlin) Printz, 1914, p 9B =Q.uadrigula pjitzeri (Schroeder) G. M. Smith, 1920, p 13B Q..foscicula/aLundberg, 1931, p 2B2 =Ankis/rodesmuslundbergii(Lundb.) Korshikov, 1953, p 305, f 26B Q..lacus/ris (Chodat) G. M. Smith, 1920, p 139, pi 33, f 4-6
. =Raphidium braunii var. laclLSlreChodat, 1902, p 200, f 117 1901

A. mucosUSKorsnikov,
A. A. A. A. A.

1953, p 290, f250

=Ankistrodesmuslacustris(Ohedat) Ostenfeld, 1907, p 3B4
=Raphidium pyrenogerum var. -gelifac/um ChOdat,

muscicola (Hustedt) Teiling, 1942 a, P 216, f 8 nannoselene Skuja, 1948, P 142, p116, f 14 oblusUSKorshikov, 1953, p 290, f249 pseudomirabilis Korshikov, 1953, p 297, f 258 sepIa/us Chodat et Oettli


=Ankistrodesmusgelifactum'(Chod.) Bourrelly,1951, p 679, f20 Q..montanaStrcpm, 1926, p !6B, pi I, f 10-12 Q..pannonica Hortcpb~gyi,1962, p 36, p14B, f575-77 Printz (1927) believed that Strc;m's species should be merged with Q.loJ/erioides,


(also considered by Korshikov, 1953,p 290, as synonymous to A. braunii)
W. et G: S. West, 1912, P 431, p19, f9-10

*See Addendum.





123 a 123b

I .. . . ~. '.. .

,.' .., ( '" : (AD





.. .

.o.'\ ;.,.-.' C@) .:.
i .',.

=Raphidium pyrenogerum Chod., 1902, inc!. Raphidium longissimum Schroeder, 1897, p 373 =Ankis/rodesmus longissimus (Lemm.) Wille, 1909, p 68; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 191, f 300; O. A. Korshikov, 1953, p 288, f247 =A. pyrenogerum (Chodat) Printz, 1927, p 151


:.", ':C','.




Cells solitary and free-floating, very variable, usually long and spindle-shaped, slightly curved with the ends very long and gradually tapering to a fine point. Cell wall very thin. Chromatophore plate-like with numerous pyrenoids arranged in a linear row. Cells 3'5-7"5 fl broad, 190-530 fllong. The alga has not been recorded from the Indian region. Out of several varieties known, ollly var. tropica is recorded from the Indian region.

var. tropica (Wet G. S. West) W. et G. S. West
W. and G. S. West, 1905, p 31, pi I, fl; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 136, P 132, f8 =Raphidium longissimum Schr. var. tropicum W. et G. S. West, 1902, p 198 =AnkistrodtSmus langissimus (Lemm.) Wille var. tropicum W. et G. S. West . 1915, P 191 in Brunnthaler

Cells elongate, spindle-shaped with gradually attenuated ends but not ending in sharp points. Chromatoph9re-in the form of a. plate with a number of pyrenoids arranged"in a linear series. Cells 6-7'5 fl broad, 225-370 fllong (Fig. 124). HABITAT. Paddy fields, Heneratgodha, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902). DISTRIBUTION.Shetlands, N. America, and Ceylon.' f 'Fhe only' other species of Closteriopsi~nown is C. brevicula k _Wheldon, 1947~
... I





1882, p 70




FIGs. 123-125. 123, Quadrigula quaternata (W. ET G. S. WEST) PRINTZ a, COLONY IN SIDE VIEW; C, TOP VIEW; b, THREE CELLS IN SIDE VIEW; 124,Closteriopsis
longissima (LEMM.) LEMM. VAR. tropic a (W. ET G. S. W!!ST) W. ET G. S. WEST; 125 a-c, Actinastrum..h.antz;schii LAGERH.; 125 d, VAR. elongatum G: M. SMITH.. (123, FROM W. ET G. S. WEST, 1.907 (AS Ankistrodesmus quaternatus W. ET G. S. WEST); 124, FROM W. ET G. S. WEST, 1902 (AS Raphidium longissimum SCHROEDER VAR. tropmzm W. ET G. S. WEST); 1.25 d, FROM G. M. SMITU, 1920;

Colonies free-floating and made up of 4-8-16 cylindrical or club-shaped cells radiating from <\co~on centre. Colonies sometimes joined together to form irregular multiple colonies. Cells with a single parietal chloroplast with or withcut a pyrenoid. Reproduction by the formation of autocolonies from each 'cell. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. ActinastrulD hantzschii Lagerheim

G. Lagerheim, 1882, p 70, p13, f25-26; p 164, pl.43, f6-7

J. Brunnthaler,

191'5, p 168, f 237; G. M. Smith, 1920,

125 a-c, x 1500).

. -.





1899, P 124

Cells solitary, acicular, without gelatinous sheaths and usually much longer than in Ankistrodesmus. . Chloroplast parietal with an a"Xialrow of a dozen or more pyrenoids. The genus which resembles a Closteriumalso is distinguished from' it by the chloro... plast being not interrupted in the middle. Only one species recorded from the Indian region. 124. Closteriopsis


(Lemm.) Lemmermann

1899, p 124, p12, r 36-38

Colonies of 4 or 8 radially arranged cells, sometimes joined together to form multiple colonies. Cells spindle-shaped and 3-6 times as long as broad. Middle of cell twice as broad as the apices. Apices attenuated or slightly rounded. Cells 3-6 fl broad, 10-26 fllong. Colonies up to 50 fl in diameter (Fig. 125 a-c)~. . HABITAT. Tanks, Ceylon, September-October (Crow, 1923); free-floating in :,~Eond, Cantonment Gardens, Rangoon-May (Skuja, 1949); River Cooum, Madras ..(Iyengar and Venkataraman, 1951); Museum Pond, Calcutta, rare-July to August 'alld November; ponds and tanks, Sibsagar and Joyasagar (Assam), stray-May [alld June; Barrackpore (W. Bengal), very rare-January, May-July and October,iNovember; Serampore (W. Bengal), rare-July and October; Bhopal, rare to


=Clos/tTium pronum var.longissimum Lemm., 1896(?)


1868, p 46



common-July j Cuttack, rare to very common-1'lay, July and August; Srikakulam, Rajamundry and Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), stray-December, Sunkesala, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh), common-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri (Orissa), rare-April; moat, Vellore'~[adras), common-December" (!). DISTRIBL'110N.Cosmopolitan. val'. elongatum
G.}'[. Smith,


=RaPhidium mi/lulum Naegeli, 1849, p 83 =R. convolulum var. minimum (Naegeli) Rabellhorst,


Cells crescent-shaped, usually uniformly curved and plump with pointed ends, solitary or, rarely, united in colonies. Cells 2-3 p, broad, 7-9 p, long (Fig. 126). HABITAT. Ponds, Mandalay-January and November (Skuja, 1949). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, S. Africa, Burma, and Japan. 127. Selenastrwn bibraianUID Reinsch

G. M. Smith

1918, P 636 pi 12, f3; 1920, P 165, ~143,f

Cells much



in the







P. Reinsch, 1867, p 64, p14, f 2 a-c; W. B. Turner, 1892, p 162, pi 21, f 15; 1915, p 182, f273; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 133, p131, f6-7 =Ankislrodesmus bibraianus (Reinsch) Korshikov, 1953, p 302, f 264



slightly towards the poles. Cells 4-5 p, broad HABITAT. Planktonic in Lake Gregory, DISTRIBI:110N. N. America arid Ceylon. Someother species Actinastrum of

and 30--35 P, long (Fig. 125 d). Colombo, Ceylon (Holsinger, 1955).

not recorded from the Indian region


A. bacillarePlayfair, 1917, P 838, pi 57, f28-29 A. gracillimumG. M. Smith 1916 b, P 480, p126, f 23 A. minimumG. Huber, 1929, P 357, p14, f 1-3 A. raPhidioidesReinsch) Brunnthaler, 1915, p 169, f242 ( A. schroeteri . Huber, 1929, P 350, pi 2, f 1-6 G A. letaniformeTeiling, 1912 A. aciculareP1ayfair (1917>-p838, pi 57, f 30) "has been considered by Huber_Pestalozzi(1929) as' f. playiairii Huber of A. schroelerivar. curvalumHuber. A. gut/ula Playfair (1917) is, according to Fott, . .. (1953 a), the same as Paradoxiam/liliselaSwirenko (seeunder, Para~oxia).

Cells crescent- to sickle-shaped with sharply pointed ends and in colonies of 4-8-16 or more cells. Chloroplast single, parietal and usually with a pyrenoid. Cells 5-8 p, broad, 16-38 p, long -(Fig. 127). HABITAT. Searsole, X E. India (Turner,Jf.); swamp, -!<-ausalya Ganga, Yuri (Orissa) very rare-April; pond, Chikkanakarai, Coorg, Mysore, very. rareFebruary (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, S. and W. Africa, India, Java, and Japan. There is a possibility that C. bellgalicumis only a partially desiccated Sele/l(zstmm.~".b'ibraianum(see also, up-def Closteridium-bellgalicumTurner). .





Genus SELENASTRUM Reinsch, 1867, P 64

P. Reinsch, 1867, p 65, pi 4, f 3 a-bj J. Bru'lnthaler, 1915, p 183, f 274; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 133, p131, f 5 =S. bibrtiianum var. gracile (Reinsch) Tiffany et Ahlstrom, 1931 j L. H. Tiffany & M.E. Britton, 1952, p 117, p132, f 326 , =A/lkislrodesmus gracilis p.p. (Reinsch) Korshikov, 1953, p 305, f 267

Free-floating colonies made up of 4-8-16 cells usually without an outer mucilaginous envelope. Sometimes, several such groups joined together to form, larger colonies containing as many as 100 or mOle cells. Cells semi-lunar, acicular or spirallY twisted, joined to each other by their convex sides, rarely free. -Ends usually acutely pointed, rarely oifid. Chloropiast single, parietal, fiJling the cell and usually with a pyrenoid. --Reproduction by the formation of. 4-8-16 autospores from e!!ch cell which on liberation arrange themselves as in the mother colony. " Four species are recorded from the "Indian region.
KEY TO THE SPECIES 1. gells crescent-to sickle-shaped .~. Cells very_small,crescent-shaped and plump, 2-3 ~ broad, 7-9 ~ long 11. Cells larger, arcuate to sickle-shaped with sharply pointed ends 't

Cells lunate to sickle~shaped and quite narrow in proportion to the length. ',Apices of cells acute. Chloroplast without a pyrenoid. Cells 3-5 p, broad, 13-30 p, 'long (Fig. 128).-.HABITAT. Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Handa, 1927); N. E. India (Turner, 1892); '[po?d, Bombay (Gonzalves_ and Joshi,- 1946); fi~hery ?uudh, Chandrakona Road, ~Mldnapore (W. .Bengal)', .rather -common-December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, 'iPuri (Orissa), rather common-April; ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam), stray~~ay, Sambalpur (Orissa), stray-December, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), rare~pril, Bangalore, stray-February, Chikkanakarai, Coorg, Mysore, very common:F,ebruary, Trichur, Chalakudi and, Iringalakuda (Kerala), stray-February, f!:\zhicode (Kerala), rather common-February and Ochira (Kerala), rarel':ebruary; moat, Cuttack, rather common-April, very abundant among decaying "egetation-November and December (!). DISTRIBUTION.Cosmopoli tan.

. .S. minulum(p.218)
" "


Cells 5-8 ,.. broad


d ' . _,.. Cellsarcuatebutneversick le sh ape, I 53 b road

b. Oells3-5,..broad



.-... . . .. . .S. bibraianum (p.219) "


) 1 (p 221 .S. graciletp.219), S

. wes 1\ .

This species differs from S. bibraiallum only in its more delicate cells, 3-5 p, in




(Naegeli) Collins
1915,p 182,f272

:~eadth compared to 5-8 p, in S. bibraianum. Smith (1920) was probably the first to lint out this and suggest that possibly S. gracile should be considered as a variety of

F. S.Col1iJis.l~09,p

171,p16,f 55;J.Brunnthaler,









121 a

S. gracile may be justifiably considered as a variety of S. bibraianumthe sanction of long usage is in favour of retaining the species. Korshikov (1953) included Selenastrum under Ankistrodesmus. He combined S. gracile Reinsch and S. westii G. M. Smith in a new combination, Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch) Korshikov. Handa's specimens of Selenastrum gracile from Burma ,are smaller than usual, only 2-3 fl in broad and 11-13 fllong. The alga observed by the author in a number of localities in India occurred abundantly mostly during winter and that too in neutral or slightly acidic waters frequently with decomposing vegetation.

129. Selenastrum westii G. M. Smith
G. M. Smith, 1920, p 133, pI 31,-f 8-10; G. Nygaard, 1945, p 46, f 62; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 257; pI 57, f 10 =Selenaslrumacuminal~mG. S. West, 1912 a, p 88, f 5 a-g, lionLagerheim, 1882, p 55 ?=S. gracilevar. minulum PlaYfair, 1917, p 834, pI 57, f 10 =S. weslii F. E. Fritsch in G. S. West and F. E. Fristch, 1927, p 133, f 42 E-G ....... Colonies of 2-4-8 irregularly arranged cells with their convex sides in contact,

r~ely free. Cells lunate to arcuate but not sickle-shaped, and with acuminate apices. 'Chloroplast without a pyrenoid. Cells 1'5-3 fl broad, 15-39 fI- long (Fig. 129). - HABITAT. Planktonic it! swamp, Kausalya Ganga, rare-April; tank, Ochira

(Kerala),rare-February 0). -,., _DISTRIBUTION. Europe, N. America,N. Rhodesia,India, Japan, _China,and? . Australia. '
The Indian alga is much longer than the American one which is only 15-18 fl long between the apices; and in this respect, is more like the Danish alga which is 15-39 fA long. (Nygaard, op.c.). Playfair's S. gracile var. minutum, 1'5-2 fA broad and 9-18 fllong is most probably as. westii since his figure shows the cells arcuate, but not sickle-shaped. Korshikov P953) did not con~ider this alga as a distiQft species, and treated it along with Selenastrum gracile as, synonymous to his Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch)



Species oj Selenastrum IlOtrecorded from the Indian regioll s. bi/idum Bennett, 1887,p 13
S. capricornulum Printz, (1953) 1914-, p 92, pi 7, f 195 Allkislrodesmus species could probably be considered as the respective


'-.:,. Some of Korshikov's species of Selenaslrum.




Korshikov] 1953, p 310

S. bibraianum. However, in his later works (Smith, 1933, 1950) he still retained the species. Tiffany and Ahlstrom (1931) gave the alga the status of only a variety... Skuja (1948) merged S. gracile with S. bibraianum. In the author's collections, S. gracile was observed from a number of localities, but the more robust S. bibraian~'., was observed only in two collections, along with S. gracile. In his opinion, thouffli'I,; /,:-'

Cells usually small in number (usually 2-4-8, rarely 1")and arranged within ~the enlarged non-gelatinizing mother cell wall, reniform: to strongly curved with their "ends rounded or blunt. Chloroplast parietal and without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by autospores.

Only one species recorded




from the Indian


=Raphidium convolutum (Corda) =Kirchneriella lunata (Kirchner)

Rabenh. var. lunare Kirchner, 1878, p 114 Schmidle, 1893, p 16 (83), pi 3, f 1-3

130. Nephrochlal11Ys


(G. S. West) Korshikov Colonies spherical to ellipsoid with an outer gelatinous envelope. Cells irregularly arranged within the envelope in groups of four or eight, flattened and crescent;. ,.shaped with pointed ends and about twice as long as broad. .Chloroplast nearly filling the cell and with a singl~ pyrenoid. Cells 3-8 fl broad, 6-15 fllong. Colonies up to 250 fl in diameter (Fig. 131). . HABITAT. Gregory 'Lake, Colombo-January (Lemmermann, 1907); tanks and lakes, Ceylon, September-October (Crow, 1923); Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Handa, '1927); pond, Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946); pond, Kamayut, Burma-April (Skuja, 1949); ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh and Sibsagar (Assam), rare, May-June, Balasore, Pachikot, Kujang and Sambalpur (Orissa), stray-December, Cuttack, .stray-July and february, rather common-August; Kausalya Ganga, cornmon'November, Hyderabad, rare-January, Bangalore, stray-Fe,bruary, Ponnampet and

O. A. Korshikov, .1953, p 311, f278 =Kirchnerie/la subsolitaria G. S. West, 1908, p 284, pi 20, f 20-30; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 182, f 27!; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 184, pi 14, f 6-9; G. W. Prescott, 1951, P 259, pi 58, f 8;

K. M. Salim, 1963,p 211


Cells crescent- to sickle-shaped having more. or less rounded ends, with one end frequently sl~ghtly broader than the other. Solitary or 2-4 cells enclosed within the' persistent non-gelatinizing mother cell wall. Chloroplast nearly filling the cell and without a pyrenoid. Cells 1'8-6'5 fl broad, 5-14 fllong (Fig. 130). HABITAT. Pond, Cuttack, stray to rare-July and August (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, China, W. Pakistan and India. In his original description of Kirchneriella subsolitaria, West did not give the measurements of the alga though he stated that it is much smaller .than K. -obesa. Smith's (1926) specimens from Iowa measured 6-9 fl in breadth and 10-15 fl in length with the cells 2'5-3'5 fl broad and.5-6'5 fllong. Prescott (op.c.) gave the dimensions of the cells as 3-4' 5 fl X 10-14 fl, whereas Korshikov gave them as 4-6.5 fl broad and up to 13 fl long. The Indian alga, with cells l' 8-3' 2. fl broad and 7-8 fllong, comes very near Smith's alga.
Other speciesof Nephrochlamys



..: ..

~:..."" ...~ . :,;~
. ..





:~~.~~~................. ~- . ...







~ ~
-" '.


N. allanthoidea Korshikov, 1953, p 311, f280 N. rotunda Korshikov, 1953, p 311, f279 N. willeana (Printz) Korshikov, 1953', p 312, f281 =Nephrocytium willeanum Printz, 1914, p 63, pi 5, P II

\\.~..~./// :.
a :.....

. 131

. .... ..


. ... 1;2&



Schmidle, 1893, p 16 (83)

Colonies free-floating with the cells enclosed within a homogeneou.s gelatinous envelope. Cells lunate to sickle-shaped, elongate, vermiform, curved or spirally twisted with their ~nd~ pointed or rounded, and irregularly- arranged within 'the envelope usually in twos or fours. Chloroplast single, parIetal and u.sually with a "single pyr~noid. Reproductiorfby the formation of 4-8 autospores in each cell,. whic;:hare liberated into the colonial envelope by the rupture of the old mother cell wall. Three species are recorded from the Indian region.
KEY TO THE SPECIES I. 2. 3. Cells lunate to sickle-shaped and with pointed ends . Cells 3-8 /-' broad, 6-15 /-' long. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .K. lunaris (p. 222) CellsstrQngly lunate with theirrounded ends brought very near each other.. .K. obesa(p.224) Cells curv~d or spiral~ytwisted vermiform cylinders less than 2 /-'in breadth.. ... .K. contorta(p.224)


:...:...:.." ::..:;..:;:..l

r \. :~.".


\. .. . :i::...


.1::r.~ ;



......... 'f:ii b


;.:3 a'

. . ..



IS' Me>



\.. .


130 a


131. Kirchneriella



G. M. Smith, 1920, pHI, pi 34,


:'~ \ ,0
'. ...\




.I ... ~34.

M. Moebius, 1894, p 331;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 180, f264; f 4; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 258, pi 58, f 2

FIGs. 130-134. 130, Nephrochlamys subsolitaria (G. S. WEST) KaRSH.; 131, Kirchneriella lunaris (KIRCHNER) MOEB.; 132, K. obesa (W. WEST) SCHMlDLE; 133, K. contorta (SCHMlDLE) BOHUN; ~34. Gloeoactinium limneticum G.M.SMlTH (130-131. xIOOO. 132-134, x 1500).



224 Chikkanakarai, Coorg, stray-February, Azhicode (Kerala), common-February and October, Trichur, Chalakudi and Ochira (Kerala), rare-February; Sim's Park Pond, Coonoor (Madras), abundant-June; Fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal) rather common-Dccember; River Sone, Dehri (Bihar), stray-May (!); in the guts of anopheles larvae in Damodar Valley (Bihar) in partly or completely digested condition (Kachroo, 1959). DISTRIBUTION.Ubiquitous (including Europe, N. and S. America, S. and W. Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Java, China, Japan, Siberia, and Ausfralia). 132. Kirchneriella obesa (W. West) Schmid1c


=K.lunaris val'. irregularis G. M. Smith, 1920, p 142, pI 35, I' I K. malmeana (Bohlin) Wille, 1909, p 59 =Selenoderma malmeana Bohlin, 1897 a, p 21, pi I, I' 31-35 K. microscoPicaNygaard, 1945, p 52, 1'42 K.phaseoliformis Hortobagyi, 1952, p 241, fJ2-13 K. ,sinensis Skvortzov, 1927, P 55 K. subcapilala Korshikov, 1953, p 318, I' 290 K. aperla Teiling (1912) has been considered by Brunnthaler (1915) as a variety of K.lunaris: val'. aperla (Teiling) Bn,mnthaler. Kirchneriella major Bernard (1908), which has been considered by Brunnthaler (1915) as synonymous to K. lunaris Val'. dianae Bohlin (1897 a), is considered here as synonymous to Telrallanlos lagerheimii (see under that species).

t i'



G. M. Smith, 1926, p 184

W. Schmidle, 1893, p 16 (83); J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 181, £ 267; G. M. Smith, 1920, P 142, pi 35, £ 2-3 . =Selenaslrum obesum W. West, 1892, P 734, plIO, £ 50-52 =Kirchnerie/la obesa (W. West) W. et G. S. West, 1894, P 16

Colonies of 4-8 or more cells irregularly

arranged within a wide gelatinous

envelope. Cells strongly lunate with the ends almost near each other. Outer side of cell markedly convex, inner sige nearly parallel to it. Ends of cells tapering slightly and with rounded or bluntly pointed apices. Chloroplast covering the entire convex portion of the cell wall. Cells 2-8 P broad, 6-16 P long (Fig. 132). HABITAT. Ponds, Banaras (G. 'S. Venkataraman, 1957, p 909); swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri, stray-April; pond, Cuttack, stray-August, and pond, Azhicode (Kerala), stray-February (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, Africa, India, Siam, and Australia. 133. KirchnerieUa

Colonies free-floating with the cells arranged in radiating groups of two or four towards the periphery of a homogeneous gelatinous matrix. Cells narrow, ovate-cuneate, with broadly rounded apposed bases and apices tapering to acute points. Chloroplast parietal and laminate without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by 2-4 autospores from each cell that remain embedded within the colonial matrix. Only one species recorded from the Indian region.

134. Gloeoa~tinium Ihnneticum G. M. Smith


G. M. Smith,.J926,pp 184-85,p14,£ 12-13;G. W.Prescott, 1931,p58, pili, £].0 Cells In radiating groups of 2 or 4, mostly in the periphery of a gelatinous matrix. Cells ova~e-cuneate with broadly rounded bases and acute apices. Cells 1'5-2'5 p. broad, 3'5-7'5 p long. Colony 25-45 p, in diameter (Fig. 134). HABlTtT. Pond, Barrac~pore, stray-Febru~ry; Moat, Cuttack, strayAugust. '. DISTRIB\JTlON. N. Am!:rica, W. Africa, and India. 'i' The alga should not be confusedwith Marssoniella elegaps Lemm. (SeeG. M. Smith, 1933,p 66,:,.£ 23,) which -belong to the Myxophyceae. _ The only other species of the genus is G. malebae Kufferath (1956; also see,Woodhead and Tweed,
" 01960). (~ ;


(Schmidle) Bohlin

K. Bohlin, 1897a, P 20; J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 1-82, 269; 'G. M. Smith, 1920, p 143, £ . 1'135. r 7
Kircllllerie/la obesa val'. cOlllorla Schmidle, 1894, p 44, p17, £2

Colonies of 4-8-16

cells enclosed by a gelatinous envelope.

Cells vermiforID,


",lindri"", 'u"'''' 0' 'wi,'''' and with ,ound,d md', and i_ula,ly ""'ltred wi,hin the envelope. Cells 0'7-2'0 p broad, 8-Pt- p long (Fig. 133). HABITAT.Fishery bundhs, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W.~ Bengal),

. According to Fott and Komarek (1960) Gloeoaetinium M. Smith is probably G.


""amp, !{au,,"ya Ganga, Puri, ...,.-Ap,il;

pon"', Kuntoo\

(Andhra Pradesh), stray-Decc:mber and Ochira' (Kerala), stray-February (I). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, S. Africa, India, Japan, and China. Some oj'the speciesof Kirchneriella
africalla Pocock, 1933, P 506

the same as Dichotomococcus Korshikov (1926). Since Smith has not given details of the origin of the colony, which is the distinctive feature of Dichotomococcus,the' alga 'remains an insufficiently described taxon. Generaoj Selenastraceae not recordedrom the Indian region f

1Iotrecordedrom the I1Idianregiotl f

K; arcuala G. M. Smith, 1922, P 337, p18, £ 1-3 K. cornula Korshikov, 1953, P 319, £293

K. dalecarlica Lundberg, 1931,P 280
K. K. K. K.




K. irregularis

etegallS Playfair, 1917, P 838, pi 57 , £ 32 elongala G. M. Smith, 1916 b, p 473, pi 24, £ 7 gracillima Bohlin, 1897 a, P 20, pi I, £ 25-27 inlennedia Korshikov, 1953, P 316, £286
(G. M. Smith) K:orshikov, 1953, p 319, £ 291 (See Addendum)

Chlorolobion.Korshikov, 1953, p 283, monospecific : C. oblusum Korshikov, 1953, p 284, £245 Gloxidium Korshikov, 1931, p 25!r, monospecific : G. roiatoriae Korshikov, 1931, p 255, 1'19-20 (A c<?l~urless alga occurrin~ on the roti~er AlIeuropsis hypelasma) . Hyaloraph.d.um Paseher et Korshlkov ex Korshlkov, 1931, P 249, with six species : H. arcuatum Korsh., 1953, p 308, £276 H. contorlum Pascher et Korsh. ex Korshikov, 1931, p 249, f 1-6



H.curvatum Korshikov,

1931, p 251, £ 7-14-

H. moinae Korshikov, 1931, p 253, £ 15-18 (on Moina) H. obtusum Hortob agyi, 1959 b, p 511, £ 22 H. rectum Korshikov, 1953, p 307, £271 ]uranyiella Hortobagyi, 1962, p 29, monospecific : ].javorkae (Hortob.) Hortobagyi, 1962, p 29, pl44, £ 532 =KirchneriellajavorkM HortobaSyi, 1952, p 241, £ 14 . Kerotococcuspascher, 1915, p 216, with seven species : K. angulus pascher, 1915, p 219 £ 24 K. bicaudatus (A. Braun)Petersen, 1928, pp 429-30 =Dac!ylococcus bicaudatus A. Braun in Rabenhorst, 1868, p 47 K. caudatus (Hansg.) pascher, 1915, p 217, £21 =Da.:!ylococcus ColUdt.tus flansgirg, 1886, P 146 K. dybowskii Woloszynska, 1917; T. Hortobagyi, 1948 a, p 12, p14, £ 53 K. raphidioides (Hansg.) pascher, 1915, p 218, £23 =Dac!ylococcus raPhidioides Hansg., 1886, P 146 K. sabulosus (Hansg.) pascher, 1915, p 217, £22 =Dactylococcus sabulosus Hansg. K. sestonicusHortobagyi, 1952, p 238, f 12-13 pseudococcomyxaKorshikov, 1953,p 283, with one species : P. adhaerens Korsh., 1953, P 28~, £ 244 PseudoraciborskiellaKufferath ex Conrad et Kufferath, 1954, P 251, with two species : P. illinoensis Kuff. ex Conrad et Kufferath, 1954, p 251, p16, f2 P. rnessikommeriKuff. ex Conrad e_t~ufferath,-1954, p- 251


(West) Wille, 1909, p 64

Members of this fami~y are free-living and colonial, the colonies being more or less globose or cubical, rarely irregular, and made up of 4-128 cells. Cells usually spherical or' ovoid, rarely tetrahedric, pyramidal or pyriform, and connected to one another by mucilaginous pads or bands. Chloroplast single and parietal, and usually with a pyrenoid. Reproduction by ,autocolonies developed from each cell. Two genera are recorded from the Indian region.
1. Colonies spherical to polygonal, of 8-32 or more cells connected by special pads or processes. . . . . . . . Coe/astrum (p. 227)

Colonies regular or irregular.

Glosleriospira everdin (1919, p 86) monospecific: C. lemanen.sis R Reverdin which was considered-by.
several authors as a member of the Selenastraceae, has been recently shown 'by Geitler.( 1959) to be the

Cells pyrilorm and with a slightly bent solid apical horn. . . . . . . . . . . . Burkillia (p.234)

XLVII. Genus COELASTRUM Naegeli, 1849, p 9} Colony usually aJlOllow sphere, 'rarely polygonal to pyramidal, and of 4-8-16-32 or more cells. Cells spherical, ovoid or pyramidal, closely adjoined and compressed or interconnectecl by narrow processes to form small or large inter-.q:llular spaces. Cell wall composed of an inner cellulose layer and an outer pectic layer which is often locally thickened to form polar outgrowths or lateral processes that connect the cells. Chloroplast cup-shaped to diffuse and with a pyrenoid. Reproduction by autocolonies formed in any cell and liberated by the r""rupture of the old mother cell wall. Daughter colonies often remain joined together by the remains of the old mother cell wal\; Eight species are recorded fro:m the Indian region.
Cells without apical thickenings or processes a. Cells spherical to ovoid with inter-cellular b. Cells ovoid, compressed spaces much smaller than the cell diameter C. microporum (p. 228) spaces as large as hal£the cell diameter or larger

same as Spirotaenia (Desmidiaceae) in the nature o£the polar carotenoid bodies. . See under Add~ndllm.

!r ~-

, ~



and with intercellular


Cells with apical thickenings or truncate project.ion~ a. Cells with a single apical thickening i. Cells pyramidal,6-sided ii. Cells 10-12 sided and with short connecting processes

C. sPhaericum 229) (p. .C. proboscideum (p.229) .C. cambricum(p.230) . .C. cubicum(p.231) 227

b. Cells with three polar truncate processes; poles 6-sided






Cells with short connecting processes all round including a. Cells with 3-6 processes

apex , C. scabrum (p.231)
(p. 233)

b. Cells with 9-10 processes... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ., 4.

C. morus

Cells with apically springing or equatorial connecting processes which are veryC. rellculatum(p.. 23~) lon~. . . . . . .. . ....





ex A. Braun, 1855, P 70; G.Senn, 1899, p 66, £ 6;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 195-96, £ 307; G. M. Smith, 1920, P 160, p141, £ 12-13, pi 42, £ I =Coelastrum robustum Hantzsch in L. Rabenhorst, 1864-65, No. 1407; P. Reinsch" 1867, P 88 =C. indicum Turner, 1892, P 161, pi 20, f 11 =C. sphaericum var. compactum Moebius, 1892

(Crow, 1923); ditch at edge of rice field, Sadiya, Assam (N. Carter, 1926); Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl and Biswas, 1926); Royal Lakes, Rangoon (Handa, 1927); rain pool, Borivali, Bombay (Dixit, 1937); Museum Pond, Madras (Philipose, 1940); ponds, Windermere Park and Cantonment Gardens, and trench with running water, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); ponds and tanks, Barrackpore (W. Bengal), August arid "October-December, Serampore (W. Bengal), rare-August and October, Cuttack, common to abundant-July and August, Bhopal, abundant-July, Narasingpalli (Andhra Pradesh), common-December, Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), rareDecember, Madras, rare-May and August, and stray in many collections from Bihar, Orissa, Andhra, Madras, Mysore,and'Kerala (!). DISTRIBUTION.Obiquitous.
Coelastrum sphaericum' Naegeli 1915,

Colonies more or less spherical and of 8-16-32-64 (usually 16-32) cells with small intercellular spaces. Cells spherical to ovoid, enclosed by delicate gelatinous sheaths and int<;J;.connected by alm~st...~perceptible gelatinous processes. Cells with

sheath 4-27 I' fn!diameter. Colonlc!J0-90 I' in diameter (Fig. 135). HAB~TAT.Ranigunj tanks, N. E. India and_British Burma (Turner, l.c.); Colombo Lake, Colombo,June-July (Lemmermann, 1907); rock pool and tanks, Ceylon


C. Naegeli, 1849, p 98, pi 5-C, f I a-d; G. Senn." 1899, p 67, £ 14; J. Brunnthaler, p 196, £ 308; G. M. Smith, 1926, p 192, pi 18, f 1T::\14 Cr>;' =CoelastrumnaegeliiRabenhorst, 1868, p 79, p.P.r, ~...~

~: f



Colonies spherical to ellipsoid, of 4-8-16-32 _regularly arranged cells; cells ovoid _ ith the narrow end directed outwards; sides of cells where they are in contact with 'each other flattened and the outer -free side strongly curved. Intercellular sp<!f,e,s .~bout half the dia,meter of the cells or larger. Cells 6-25 pin diameter (Fig. l36).~tIi " HABITAT. Among Utricularia fasciculata, E. India (Turner, -1892); pool" CompanyiUnj, Khasia Hills, Assam-April (Bisw~s,_ 1934); aquarium and ponds, !JVindermere Park, Rangoon (Skuja, 1949); Ramgarh Tal;tJttar Pradesh (V. P. Singh, ~J959); in the guts of Anopheles larvae, DaroodaPValley, Bihar (Kachroo, 1959). DISTRmUTION.Widespread (incl. Europe, N. and S. America, West Indies, . Africa, Mac!agascar, India, Burma, Siam, Sumatra, Jap~n, China, SiQeria, Australia ~andNew Zealand). Coelastrum proboscidewn

... ~:

et G. Lagerheim, 187.7, Fasc, 26, No. 1240; K. Bohlin,


elo V. B. Wittrock,

Nordstedt 1897 1897

1897a, p.33,-pI2, 19-22; G. Senn, 1899,p 67,£8;J. Brunnthaler,1915,p 196,f310
=Coelastrummicroporum typicaWolle 1887 f.
=..C. irregulare Schroeder, =C. pseudocub~um ,Schroeder,




FiGs. 135-136.

135, Coelastrum microporum NAEGELI; 136, C. sphaericum NAEGELI.

Cofonies more or less pyramidal and of 4-8-16, rarely more cells. Intercellular ,p!ices usually large and polygonal. Cells conical, truncate. and six-sided with the . :teral -sides slightly concave. Poles of cells thickened. Cells 12-20 I' in diameter. ,lonies 20-110'1' in diamete'r (Fig. 137). _ HABITAT. Tanks near Trincomalie, September-October (Crow, 1923); pool -ear Companygunj, Khasia Hills, Assam (Biswas, 1934); po~s, Rangoon and suburbs, ~({Mandalay, MarCh .to May and November (Skuja, 1949); 'ponds, Cuttack, rare to ,~fhercommon-August and Coorg, Mysore, rather common-February (!). . DISTRmuTION. Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Japan ij Siberia.
.' f.

.. ", ~ " ~:.:'.


(135 a-b x 1500; 135 c, FROMPHIUFOSE, 1940; 136, FROM NAEGEU),




HABITAT. Padd,y fields, Heneratgodha, Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya ,and paddy field between Kosgoda and Urahaighasmahendai, Ceylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902); shallow pools overgrown with weeds, Mansang, Burma (W. and G. S. West,' 1907); ditch at edge of rice field, Sadiya, Assam-August (Carter, N., 1926); pond Bombay (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, Java, Sil;>eria,Japan, and Australia. , From the des.criptionsof G. M. Smith and G. W. Prescott (op:c.),it appears that they include the undermentioned variety also in the type.


. ....

var. intermediwn
=Coelas/rum pulchrum var. intermedium Korshikov,

(Bohlin) G. S. West
1897 a, p 35, pi 2, r 16-17

G.,S. West,1907,p 136; J. Brunnthaler, 1915,p 196, r 312; P. Bruhl and K. Biswas,1926, pi 268 pi 2, r 17 .
Bohlin, 1953,

=C. cruciatumSchmidle, 1900 r, p 418
-:;=C.intermedium (B'ohlin) p 348,

£ 320


Differs from the type in the outer face of the external cells being subspherical and ~adually arched. The outstanding projectio~ are also blunt and rounded and not truncate.' Interspaces between- cells more or less triangular. Cells 13-21 fl in

diameter. .

Colonies up to 108 fl in diame,ter (Fig. 138 b).





FIGs. 137-139.137,

Coelastrumprobos;;ideum BC)HLIN; a, C. cambricum-.\_~8 b, VAR.intermedium (BOHLIN) S. WEST;139,C. cubicum NAEGELI., G. (138 a, FROM WEST; 139, FROM SENN; REST, x 1500).



The colonies of this" species are very variable, either regular or irregulJ; According to Smith (1920) and Prescott (1951), Coelastrum compositum. S. West G

HABITAT. Loktak Lake, Manipur (Bruhl and Biswas, i.e.); ponds in suburbs of Rangoon, March a.nd May (Skuja, 19~9); .ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh, stray-May, Dum Dum, rare-October, Belgharia ~W. Bengal), r~\fe-May, Cuttack, stray. February, Athgar, Boiangir and Sambalpur (O~}ssa), stray-December, Hyderabad, ~ stray-January, Bangalore and Coorg, rather common-February and Azhicode :'(Kerala), common-February; fishery bundhs, Chandrakona Road,'Midnapore (W. ;'Bengal), rarC'---:December; swamp, Kausalya Ganga, Puri (Orissa), stray-April (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, S. America,' Africa, India, Burma, Siam, Singapore, 'Java, Japan and Siberia. Coelastrum cu~icum Naegeli 1899,p68,r 17; C.Bernard, 1908, p198,


ev..., "",led C. "mp""'" ..

I I I.

(1907, p 136, pI 5, f 8-9) is synonymoUS C. proboscideum. Brunnthaler (l.c.), hQw. to d"UncI ,peci", Fri"'h and Rioh (1930) ond Rich (193~) followed Brunnthaler. Here also, C. compositum is treated as. a ~istinct


Colonies juvenile, 138.

in Biswas's collections

(l.c.) and



in the author's



to be

C.Naegeli,r849,p98, pI5 c,r 2; G.Senn, r 519-20; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 1-97,r 315 =C. naegeliiRabenhorst, 1868, p 79, p. p.

=C. cornu/um Lamaire, 1-894, 82-83; G.W. Prescott,1931,p 71,pi 15,r II pp

the cells being only '5-9 fl in diameter. Coelastrum cambricum Archer

I ~

W. Archer, 1868, p 65; J. Brunntha1er, 1915, p 196, £ 311; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 161, p142, 1"2-3; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 229, p153, £ 2 =Coe/astrum pulchrum Schmid1e,1892,p' 206; G. Semi, 1899,P 67, f 16; W. and G. S.WeSt. 1902. P 198 Colonies spherical a"nd usually 32-celled, sometimes 8, 16, 64, or 128-ceiled.

Colonies subspherical. Cells six-sided when seen from the poles and with three ;'pbliquely truncate polar processes which are sometimes thickened at their apices. :£ells 10-20 fl in diameter (Fig. 139). H~ITAT. In artificial tanks, Peradeniya, deylon (W. and G. S. West, 1902). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. America, Ceylon, Java, Japan, China and Siberia. Coelastrum scabnun Reinsch


Cells spherical and thickened at the poles; 10-12 sided when seen from the ap$ connected to each other by 4-6 short gelatinous flat truncate projections. Interspaces

P. Reinsch, 1877, p 238; G. Senn, 1899, p 68, £ 21; J. Brunnthaler, 1915, p 197, £ 316; G. W. Prescott, 1951, p 230, pi 46, £3

between cells circular to triangular. to 70 fl in diameter (Fig. 138 a).


Cells 6-12 fl in diameter.

Colonies usually \lP








141. Coelastrwn morus W. et G. S. West
W. and G. S. West, 1896, p 381, p15, f4;J. Brunntha1er, 1915, p 197,f318; G. M. Smith, 1950, p249

Colonies ore or less spherical or ovoid, 4-8-16- celled. Cells angular globose m with three or more wart-like truncate processes from the outer surface. Cells 8-10 f' in diameter. Sixteen-celled colony 28 f' in diameter (Fig. 140). HABITAT. Ponds and tanks, Dibrugarh (Assam), rather common-May, Dum Dum (W. Bengal), rare-October, Bhopal, stray-July, Cuttack, very commonAugust and Sambalpur (Orissa), stray-December; fishery bundh, Chandrakona Road, Midnapore (W. Bengal), rather common-December; cement cistern with decaying Hydrilla, Cuttack, very common-March (!). DISTRIBUTION. .,~. and S. America, S. Africa, lndia, Japan and Siberia. ..


Colonies spherical, 8-16 cellt:d. Cells spherical with 4-10 small wart-like processes all round the cell membrane. Cells 9' 5-19 P, in diameter (Fig. 141). HABITAT. In River Dihang and its tributary, N. E. India, January (Carter, 1926). DISTRIBUTION.Central Mrica, Scotland, N. America and India.

142. Coelastrwn 'retic:ulatwn (Dangeard) Senn
G. Senn, 1899, p 66, p12, f 1-IO;J. Brunnthaler, 1915, pp 198-99, f322; G. M. Smith, 1920, p 161, p142, f4-6 =Hariolinareliculala Dangeard, 1889, p 162, p17, f15-17; C. Bernard, 1908, p 199, f 521-30 =Coelaslrum dislans Turner, 1892, p 161, p121, f 18 =C. subPulchrum Lagerheim, 1893, p 158 =C. reticulatum (Dallgeard) Lt'mmt'rm~nn. 1!!99, p 113

Colonies spherical and of 8-16-32 cells, often in multiple colonies held together by the remains of the old motht:r' cell walls. Cells spherical, enclosed by a gelatinous Sheath and inter-connected by 6-9 long gelatinous processes. Cells 6-24 p, in diameter. Colonies up to 65 p, in diameter (Fig. 142). HABITAT. Ranigunj Park, N. E. India, July (Turner, l.c.); rock pool and a number of tanks in Ceylon, September-October (Crow, 1923) ;_Cantonment Gardens, Rangoon-December (Skuja, 1949); pond with muddy water, Bolangir (Orissa), ''-abundant-December and pond, Mettur, Madras, common-December (!). DISTRIBUTION.Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, Japan, and Australia. Chief speciesof Coelastrum not known from the Indian region
C. bohlini Schmid1e et Senn-see Brunnthaler, 1915, p 199 =Scenedesml# coslatus var. coelastroides Bohlin, 1893, p 42; 1897, P 519, f 8_ =S. coelastroides (Bohlin) Schmidle, 1898, p 9, pi 1, f 1 C. compositum G. S. West,.1907, p 136, pI 5, f8-9 C. cong(omeratum (H. V. Alten) Steinecke, 1916 C. coslatum Kors/likov, 1953, p 352, f 329 C. echinatum Swirenko, 1926, p 85 C. g;ganteum Cedergren, 1933, p 89 C. octaedricum Skuja, 1948, pp 140-41, pi 16, f9-12 C. piliferum Goetz-see Brunntha1er, 1915, p 197, f 323 C. pseudomicroporum Korshikov, 1953, p 348 C. schizodermaticum F. Rich, 1921, p 239 C. shensiense J ao, 1948 C. slwjae Korshikov, 1953, p 355, f 332

= C. verrucosum

in Skuja,

1934 non De Toni,


FIGs. 140-142.1<W, Codaslrum scabrum REINSCH;

C. speciosum (Wolle) Brunntha1er, 1915, p 197, f 314 =C. m;cropcrum "ar. speciosum Wolle, 1887 C. tal'on:iBourrelly et Mangiun, 1950 C, I'errucosum (Reinsch) Reinsch, 1877, p 239, pi 6, f 3 =Sphaeraslrum verrurosum Reinsch, 1875, p 77, p112, f8; =C. verrucosum (Reinsch) De Toni, 1889, p 572; Brunntha1er,
141, C. morus W. ET

1915, p 197

Senn (1899) considered CoelastrumastroideumDe Notaris (1867, p 80) as either a C. microporum
Or a C. sphaericum. C. chodati Ducellier 1915, p 73, f 1-5 (= C. augustae Skl~a, 1934, p 54, f 63) and

G. S. WEST; 142, C. reticualum(DANG).SENN..

141, FROM WEST; 142 b-c, AFTER KORSHlKOV, 1953; 'REST, x 1500).

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