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DAY 1

TOPICS INRODUCTION HISTORY BASICS

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INRODUCTION:
Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more.
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The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves.
When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen.
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See below fig

IP BE

plate

delamination

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Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method. Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include:

It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods. Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used.
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It is high accuracy in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape.

Minimal part preparation required.


Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results. Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. It has other uses such as thickness measurements, in addition to flaw detection.
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As with all NDT methods, ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations, which include:
Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound. Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods. It normally requires a coupling medium to promote transfer of sound energy into test specimen.
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Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect. Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected. Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration, and characterization of flaws.

Applications:
Ultrasonic inspection is used for quality control and materials inspection in all major industries. Ultrasonic inspection is used for finding flaws in production of metallic and composite materials. It is used in fabrication of structures such as airframes, piping and pressure vessels, ships, motor vehicles, machinery , jet engines and submarines.

In-service ultrasonic inspection for preventive maintenance is used for detecting the impending failure of rails, rolling-stock axils, mill rolls, mining equipment and nuclear systems.

And also used for thickness measurement in refinery and chemical pressure vessels
And many more in medical , rail track inspection, liquid height measurements, material analysis. Etc..
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HISTORY:
UT is the discovery of Curie the brothers in 1880 that the quartz crystal cut in a certain way produces an electric potential subjected to pressure. In 1881 Lippmann theorized that the effect might work in reverse. In 1929 Russian physicist sokolov experimented with the techniques of passing the vibration to metals to find the flaws. The first flaw detector was made by D O Sproule in 1942.
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Prior to World War II, sonar, the technique of sending sound waves through water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects, inspired early ultrasound investigators to explore ways to apply the concept to medical diagnosis. in 1931, obtained a patent for using ultrasonic waves, using two transducers to detect flaws in solids. Firestone (1940) and Simons (1945) developed pulsed ultrasonic testing using a pulse-echo technique.

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Shortly after the close of World War II, researchers in Japan began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. The first ultrasonic instruments used an Amode presentation with blips on an oscilloscope screen. That was followed by a B-mode presentation with a two dimensional, gray scale imaging. Japan was also the first country to apply Doppler ultrasound, an application of ultrasound that detects internal moving objects such as blood coursing through the heart for cardiovascular investigation.

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BASICS:

WHAT IS ULTRASONIC: It is a High frequency Sound.


We generate the Ultrasonic Sound sound by using piezo electric crystals
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What is sound, frequency


Sound is a mechanical vibration (oscillation) of particles in a medium. Sound travels in a medium(where particles are present) but not in vacuum. Particles are oscillating and comes in contact with another particles and form a wave form.

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Examples of oscillation
ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth

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Oscillation

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In vibratory motion the motion in which a body moves to and fro repeatedly in a fixed interval of time about a fixed point is called mean position. Mean position is also called equilibrium position or zero position.

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The deviation of a vibrating or oscillating body from the mean position of oscillation with time is called displacement.

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Atomic structures gas liquid solid

low density weak bonding forces

medium density medium bonding forces

high density strong bonding forces crystallographic structure

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Understanding wave propagation:

Ball = atom

Spring = elastic bonding force

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T
distance travelled

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Frequency:
Number of oscillations for second Its measured in Hertz(Hz)

1 OSCILATION

2 OSILATIONS

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In 1second 1 oscillation so frequency 1 Hz

FREQUENCY

In 1 second 2 oscillation frequency 2 Hz

1sec 1 cycle=1Hz

1sec> 2cycles=2Hz frequency

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One vibration in one second is called One Hertz Ten vibration in one second is called Ten Hertz One thousand vibrations in one second is called One Kilohertz( kHz) One million vibrations in one second is called One Megahertz ( MHz)

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The distance travelled by a wave at one complete cycle is called wave length. Wave length is denoted by lambda().

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The minimum time taken to complete one complete vibration is called time period. Time period is denoted by T.

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The force which tends the vibrating particles towards its mean position is called restoring force of vibrating particles.

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VELOCITY = (mts/sec)

DISPLACEMENT() _______________ TIME PERIOD(T)


VELOCITY= *F

WHERE

FREQUENCY (F) = 1/T

c=f ; =c/f=cT; f=c/


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Wavelength = Velocity Frequency or = V F

If we want to know the wavelength of a 2 Megahertz compression wave traveling through steel, we can use the formulae as we know compression sound speed of sound in steel is, 5920 meters per second.

5,920 2,000,000 = 2.96 mm


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DAY 2
TOPICS 1. PROPERTIES OF ULTRASONIC WAVES 2.MODES OF SOUND ENERGY 3.PRINCIPAL OF UT 4.REFLECTION ,TRANMISION , , DIFRACTION 5.SNELLS LAW
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RAREFRACTION

SPECTROM OF SOUND:
Frequency range Hz Description Example

0 - 20 20 - 20.000

Infrasound Audible sound

Earth quake

Speech, music

> 20.000

Ultrasound

Bat, Quartz crystal

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General we are using 0.5 M Hz to 10 M Hz Ultrasonic Frequencies. In special testing's we go for up to 25 M Hz also(Immersion Testing) For high thickness, high grain size materials we are using low frequencies bcoz low frequencies travels more distances and less attenuation.

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High frequencies are give good sensitivity and resolution But these high frequencies are more attenuated due to high grain sizes and more thickness.

High frequency

low frequency

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Factors Affecting the propagation of ultra sound:

The propagation of ultrasound in a material I depend on the density elastic properties of the material and type of the wave transmitted. The test material grain size Attenuation( scattering, absorption) Acoustic impedance of the material Characteristic impedance of inclusion Diffraction Lack of homogeneity Anisotropic material
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Attenuation of Sound Wave o When sound travels through a medium, its intensity diminishes with distance. In idealized materials, sound pressure (signal amplitude) is only reduced by the spreading of the wave. o Natural materials, however, all produce an effect which further weakens the sound. This further weakening results from two basic causes, o which are scattering and absorption.

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Scatter: This is the major cause of attenuation and is the redirection of the sound waves reflecting off grain boundaries, porosity and non-metallic inclusions, etc., And becomes more apparent on the inspection when the size of grain become of the wavelength of the search unit being employed.
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ABSORPTION: As the sound travel through a material a small amount of the energy is used up by the interaction of the particles, as they vibrate, causing friction which is dissipated as heat. As the frequency of the sound is increased the attenuation increases due to more particle vibration and increased sensitivity to small reflectors which is related to the wavelength of the sound. Materials such as castings and austenitic stainless steel are highly attenuative due to their coarse grain structures, etc., The attenuation factor of material can be measured and is expressed in db/mm.
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Natural attenuation also occurs due to the divergence of the beam in the far zone, i.e. assuming compression probe use, the amplitude of the backwall echo will be halved(-6db) every time the distance from the probe is doubled.
Materials such as castings and austenitic stainless steel are highly attenuative due to their coarse grain structures, etc., The attenuation factor of material can be measured and is expressed in db/mm. natural attenuation also occurs due to the divergence of the beam in the far zone, i.e. assuming compression probe use, the amplitude of the backwall echo will be halved(-6db) every time the distance from the probe is doubled.
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=s+a
where is attenuation constant s scattering constant a absorption constant

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Reflection, Transmission:

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Reflection: How much sound energy coming back while hitting an interface. Transmission: How much energy transmitted from one medium to another medium.

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Reflection and Transmission Coefficients

Ultrasonic waves are reflected at boundaries where there is a difference in acoustic impedances (Z) of the materials on each side of the boundary. (See preceding page for more information on acoustic impedance.) This difference in Z is commonly referred to as the impedance mismatch. The greater the impedance mismatch, the greater the percentage of energy that will be reflected at the interface or boundary between one medium and another.
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T= 1-R
R= Parentage of reflection coefficient T= Percentage of Transmission coefficient Where Z= pV p= Density of material V=Sound velocity in that material
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As soon as a sound wave comes to a change in material characteristics e.g. the surface of a workpiece, or an internal inclusion, wave propagation will change too:

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Behaviour at an interface
Medium 1 Medium 2

Incoming wave

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave
Interface

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Reflection + Transmission: Perspex - Steel


1,87

Incoming wave

1,0 0,87

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave

Perspex

Steel
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Reflection + Transmission: Steel - Perspex


Incoming wave
1,0 Transmitted wave

0,13

-0,87 Reflected wave

Perspex

Steel
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Amplitude of sound transmissions:

Water - Steel Strong reflection Double transmission

Copper - Steel

Steel - Air Strong reflection with inverted phase No transmission

Less reflection Single transmission

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UT Principle

(Acoustic impedance mismatch)

Acoustic Impedance Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure. Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one another, the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the solid. The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of density (p) and acoustic velocity (V) of that material. Z = pV
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Acoustic impedance is important in The determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary of two materials having different acoustic impedance The design of ultrasonic transducers. Assessing absorption of sound in a medium.

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PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

BACK WALL ECHO AMPLITUDE DISCONTINUITY INDICATION INITIAL PULSE TRANSDUCER HORIZONTAL SWEEP

MATERIAL

DISCONTINIUITY

REFLECTION FROM DICONTINUITY

BACK WALL REFLECTION

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Modes of sound waves:


In solids, sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based on the way the particles oscillate. Sound can propagate as longitudinal waves, shear waves, surface waves, and in thin materials as plate waves.

Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely used in ultrasonic testing
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Wave Types in Solids Longitudinal Transverse (Shear) Surface - Rayleigh Plate Wave Lamb

Particle Vibrations

Parallel to wave direction Perpendicular to wave direction Elliptical orbit - symmetrical mode

Component perpendicular to surface (extensional wave)

Plate Wave Love

Parallel to plane layer, perpendicular to wave direction

Stoneley (Leaky Rayleigh Waves)

Wave guided along interface

Sezawa

Antisymmetric mode
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Reflection ,Rarefaction
When an ultrasound wave passes through an interface between two materials at an oblique angle, and the materials have different indices of refraction, it produces both reflected and refracted waves. Refraction takes place at an interface due to the different velocities of the acoustic waves within the two materials.
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Angle of incidence=angle of reflection

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Snell law, mode conversion:


Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the velocities of the waves. Snell's law equates the ratio of material velocities V1 and V2 to the ratio of the sine's of incident (Q1) and refraction (Q2) angles, as shown in the following equation.

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VL1 VL2

Where: is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1. is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2.
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Mode Conversion When sound travels in a solid material, one form of wave energy can be transformed into another form. For example, when a longitudinal waves hits an interface at an angle, some of the energy can cause particle movement in the transverse direction to start a shear (transverse) wave. Mode conversion, occurs when a wave encounters an interface between materials of different acoustic impedance and the incident angle is not normal to the interface.
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TRANSMISSION, REFLECTION & MODE CONVERSION OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES AT AN INTERFACE


INCIDENT LONGITUDINAL WAVE VELOCITY = VL
1 3

REFLECTED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY = VS

REFLECTED LONGITUDINAL WAVE VELOCITY = VL

MEDIUM - 1

INTERFACE

MEDIUM - 2

4 2 TRANSMITTED SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY = CS

TRANSMITTED LONGITUDINAL WAVE VELOCITY = CL

SNELLS LAW
VL Sin1 = VS Sin3 = CL Sin4 = CS Sin2
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Where: VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1. VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2. VS1 is the shear wave velocity in material 1. VS2 is the shear wave velocity in material 2.
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Diffraction: This occurs when sound waves pass the tip of a narrow reflector. Some of the sound scatters off tip causing waves in different directions that reinforce or cancel out the original waves. This results in a series of high and low intensity waves radiating out from the tips, gives imperfection of sound bending around the edges of the defect.

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LONGITUDINAL WAVES:

In longitudinal waves, the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction or the direction of wave propagation. In compression and dilatational forces are active in these waves. They are also called pressure or compression waves. They are also sometimes called density waves because their particle density fluctuates as they move.

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Compression waves can be generated in liquids, as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of compression and expansion (rarefaction) movements. These waves are high velocities compare to other waves, less sensitive and less attenuated. Compression waves can be generated in liquids, as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of compression and expansion (rarefaction) movements. These waves are high velocities compare to other waves, less sensitive and less attenuated.
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Sound propagation
Longitudinal wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

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SHEAR WAVES: In the transverse or shear wave, the particles oscillate at a right angle or transverse to the direction of propagation. shear waves require an acoustically solid material for effective propagation and therefore are not effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. Shear wave are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves in fact, shear waves are usually generated in materials using some of the energy from longitudinal waves.
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Sound propagation
Transverse wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

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Surface or Rayleigh waves:


Surface or Rayleigh waves travel the surface of a relative thick solid material penetrating to a depth of one wavelength. The particle movement has an elliptical orbit as shown in the image and animation below. Rayleigh waves are useful because they are very sensitive to surface defects and since they will follow the surface around, curves can also be used to inspect areas that other waves might have difficulty reaching.
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These waves are high sensitive compare to all other waves. These wave velocities are approximately 90% of shear waves in solids.

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Surface waves are formed when shear waves refract to 90 degrees. Particle vibration is elliptical motion by changing direction at the interface with surface. Penetration depth is 1 wave length only. Their velocity is approximately 90% of shear waves of that material. These are high sensitive .

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Plate waves can be propagated only in very thin metals.

Lamb waves are the most commonly used plate waves in NDT.
Lamb waves are a complex vibrational wave that travels through the entire thickness of a material. Propagation of Lamb waves depends on density, elastic, and material properties of a component, and they are influenced by a great deal by selected frequency and material thickness.
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With Lamb waves, a number of modes of particle vibration are possible, but the two most common are symmetrical and asymmetrical

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Typical Sound Velocities (m/sec)


Material Air Water Steel Aluminum Perspex Copper Brass Compression 332 1480 5920 6320 2730 4700 4430 Shear N/A N/A 3250 3130 1430 2260 2120

N/A= not applicable i.e. not travelling


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Air Water Steel, long Steel, trans

330 m/s 1480 m/s 5920 m/s 3250 m/s

Direction of oscillation

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Day 3
Topics Ultra sonic Sound generation Piezo electric materials Types of probes UT equipment

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ULTRAONIC SOUND GENERATION:


Piezo electric crystals generates ultra sonic sound. Piezo electric crystals generates ultrasonic sounds when we are giving electrical signal to them.

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Natural

Artificial Grown

Manufactured Ceramics

Quartz Crystals

Lithium Sulphate

Barium Titanate Lead Zirconate Lead Metaniobate Lead Zirconate Titanate

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Crystal material Quartz

Advantages Stable ,Good Wear Resistance

Limitations Poor piezo electric properties

Lithium Sulphate

Best Receiver and Easily Damped


Best Transmitter good piezo electric properties and may used as Focused beam

Soluble in water

Barium Titanate

Less critical temperature

Lead Zirconate

Good piezo electric properties Good transmitter and Round properties Poor silvering

Lead Zirconate Titanate

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Lead zerconate titanate crystal lattice:

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Crystal Thickness
Frequency depends on the thickness of the crystal, according to the formula :

t = v 2f
Where t=crystal thickness, v= sound velocity in crystal, f= frequency
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The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the basis for ultrasonic testing.

The active element is the heart of the transducer as it converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa.
The active element is basically a piece polarized material
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Piezoelectric Effect

+
Battery

Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz)


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Piezoelectric Effect

The crystal gets thicker, due to a distortion of the crystal lattice


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Piezoelectric Effect

+
The effect inverses with polarity change
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Piezoelectric Effect
Sound wave with frequency f

U(f)

An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f


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Piezoelectric Effect

Short pulse ( < 1 s )

A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystals resonant frequency f0


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Reception of ultrasonic waves


A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal, induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces.

Electrical energy

Piezoelectrical crystal

Ultrasonic wave

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Probe frequency , bandwidth & damping:


UT probe transmits range of frequencies, this I know as bandwidth. For example 5 M Hz probe trans mitts 4 t0 6 M Hz
Broad band probes Narrow band probe

Highly damped Short pulse length Less dead zone Good resolution

Low damping Longer pulse length More dead zone Poor resolution

Poor penetration

Good penetration

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Near zone, Far zone, Dead zone, divergence


Crystal Focus

Beam

Accoustical axis

Angle of divergence
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D0

Near field

Far field

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Since the ultrasound originates from a number of points along the transducer face, the ultrasound intensity along the beam is affected by constructive and destructive wave interference These are sometimes also referred to as diffraction effects in the NDT world. This wave interference leads to extensive fluctuations in the sound intensity near the source, known as the near field.
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Because of acoustic variations within a near field, it can be extremely difficult to accurately evaluate flaws in materials when they are positioned within this area. The pressure waves combine to form a relatively uniform front at the end of the near field. The area beyond the near field where the ultrasonic beam is more uniform is called the far field. In the far field, the beam spreads out in a pattern originating from the center of the transducer
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Transducer Beam Spread

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The energy in the beam does not remain in a cylinder, but instead spread out as it propagates through the material. The phenomenon is usually referred to as beam spread but is sometimes also referred to as beam divergence or ultrasonic diffraction.

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Full beam angle (Beam spread)

Half beam angle (Beam divergence)

Where:

= Beam divergence angle from centerline to point where signal is at half strength.
V = Sound velocity in the material. (inch/sec or cm/sec)

a = Radius of the transducer. (inch or cm)


D= Dia of probe=2a F = Frequency of the transducer. (cycles/second)

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Low frequency Long wavelength More beam spread Shorter near zone Better penetration Less attenuation Longer dead zone

HIGH FREQUENCY Short wavelength Less beam spread Longer near zone Less penetration More attenuation Shorter dead zone

Less sensitivity

Higher sensitivity
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Transducers:
The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the basis for ultrasonic testing. The active element is the heart of the transducer as it converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa. The active element is basically a piece polarized material
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Contact transducers are used for direct contact inspections, and are generally hand manipulated.
They have elements protected in a rugged casing to withstand sliding contact with a variety of materials. These transducers have an ergonomic design so that they are easy to grip and move along a surface.

They also often have replaceable wear plates to lengthen their useful life.
Coupling materials of water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap between the transducer and the component inspected.
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Ultrasonic Probes
socket crystal Damping Delay / protecting face Electrical matching Cable

Straight beam probe

TR-probe

Angle beam probe


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Delay line transducers provide versatility with a variety of replaceable options. Removable delay line, surface conforming membrane, and protective wear cap options can make a single transducer effective for a wide range of applications. As the name implies, the primary function of a delay line transducer is to introduce a time delay between the generation of the sound wave and the arrival of any reflected waves. This allows the transducer to complete its "sending" function before it starts it "listening" function so that near surface resolution is improved.
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Dual element transducers contain two independently


operating elements in a single housing.

One of the elements transmits and the other receives.


Active elements can be chosen for their sending and receiving capabilities providing a transducer with a cleaner signal, and transducers for special applications, such as inspection of course grain material. Dual element transducers are especially well suited for making measurements
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Angle beam transducers and wedges are typically used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material. Transducers can be purchased in a variety of fixed angles or in adjustable versions where the user determines the angles of incident and refraction. In the fixed angle versions, the angle of refraction that is marked on the transducer is only accurate for a particular material, which is usually steel.
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The angled sound path allows the sound beam to be reflected from the back wall to improve delectability of flaws in and around welded areas.

They are also used to generate surface waves for use in detecting defects on the surface of a component

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Normal incidence shear wave transducers are unique because they allow introduction of shear waves directly into a test piece without the use of an angle beam wedge. Careful design has enabled manufacturing of transducers with minimal longitudinal wave contamination. Paint brush transducers are used to scan wide areas. These long and narrow transducers are made up of an array of small crystals that are carefully matched to minimize variation of performance and maintain uniform sensitivity over the entire area of the transducer. Paint brush transducers make it possible to scan a larger area more rapidly for discontinuities.
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SELECTION OF TEST FREQUENCIES

TEST PARPMETERS

RECOMMENDED FREQUENCY RANGE

CAST IRON & COARSE GRAIN MATERIALS REFINED GRAIN STEELS, SMALL DISCONTINUITIES, (BURST,FLAKING,PIPE) LARGE FORGINGS SMALL FORGINGS MICROSCOPIC DEFECTS, FATIGUE CRACKS ETC.

0.5 MHz 2.25 TO 5.0 MHz

5.0 - 10.0 MHz 10.0 MHz

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SELECTION OF PROBES
TYPE OF PROBE NORMAL BEAM PROBE SIZE
LARGE DIAMETER D

APPLICATION / ADVANTAGE
USED FOR THICKER SECTION MAXIMUM BEAM COVERAGE
D

MINIMUM NUMBER OF SCANNING

PASSES
LOW BEAM SPREAD SMALL DIAMETER LESS THICK SECTION BEAM SPREAD IS MORE DESIRABLE FOR RANDOMLY ORIENTED FLAW
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Couplant:
A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates the transmission of ultrasonic energy from the transducer into the test specimen.

Couplant is generally necessary because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and solids, such as the test specimen, is large and, therefore, nearly all of the energy is reflected and very little is transmitted into the test material
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The couplant displaces the air and makes it possible to get more sound energy into the test specimen so that a usable ultrasonic signal can be obtained. In contact ultrasonic testing a thin film of oil, glycerin or water is generally used between the transducer and the test surface.
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Ultrasonic Flaw Detector:


amplifier

IP

screen
BE

horizontal
sweep clock pulser

probe

work piece
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The pulse generator:It is also known as clock or timer. It generates electrical signal frequencies. The time base generator:It is also known as sweep generator. It controls the voltage or charge on the X-plate causing beam on the CRT to sweep across in a linear motion.

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The pulse transmitter:- It is also called a pulsar circuit. This circuit burst the electrical energy to activate the probe. The receiving amplifier:- This circuit amplifies the incoming electrical signal. The attenuator:- It is also called a gain control circuit. It reduces the amplification from the amplifier by controlling the voltage on the Y-plate in CRT , which will control the signal heights
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CATHODE RAY TUBE(CRT)

Cathode is an out put device which shows the flaws of the job material. Let us see the cross sectional view of CRT.

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Cathode ray tube : CRT

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Modes of displays:
Ultrasonic data can be collected and displayed in a number of different formats. The three most common formats are know in the NDT world as A-scan B-scan C-scan

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A-Scan Presentation
The A-scan presentation displays the amount of received ultrasonic energy as a function of time. The relative amount of received energy is plotted along the vertical axis and elapsed time . In the A-scan presentation, relative discontinuity size can be estimated by comparing the signal amplitude obtained from an unknown reflector to that from a known reflector. Reflector depth can be determined by the position of the signal on the horizontal sweep
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The B-scan presentations is a profile (cross-sectional) view of the a test specimen. In the B-scan, the time-of-flight (travel time) of the sound energy is displayed along the vertical and the linear position of the transducer is displayed along the horizontal axis.

B-Scan Presentation

From the B-scan, the depth of the reflector and its approximate linear dimensions in the scan direction can be determined.
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C-Scan Presentation
The C-scan presentation provides a plan-type view of the location and size of test specimen features. The plane of the image is parallel to the scan pattern of the transducer. C-scan presentations are produced with an automated data acquisition system, such as a computer controlled immersion scanning system.
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Cables and Connectors:


For Ultrasonic testing Coaxial cables are used for connecting transducer and UT flaw detector. Because coaxial cables are S/N ratio is good.

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DAY 4
Ultrasonic Testing Techniques Calibration blocks Weld scan

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Ultrasonic Testing Techniques:


A. Contact Testing 1.Pulse echo Testing 2.Through Transmission Testing B. Immersion Testing C. Through Transmission Testing D. Air Coupling Testing
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Contact Testing:

In Contact Testing the Transducer is on contact with testing object with the help of couplet. Pulse Echo Testing: .In which single Transducer is used .From the reflected echo I to be considered. .It is mostly used industrial UT technique. . In which avoid lack of coupulant, which causes improper contact .
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CONTACT TESTING

SIDE - 1

SIDE - 2

SIDE - 3

SIDE - 4

DOUBLE V BUTT JOINT SCANNING FROM ALL FOUR SIDES

ADVANTAGES

IT IS PORTABLE.

SYSTEM DOES NOT REQUIRE LARGE AMOUNT OF ACCESSORIES


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METHODS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING OF MATERIALS

PULSE ECHO METHOD


AMPLIFIER

RECEIVER
HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR

TRANSMITTER

PULSE ECHO METHOD


CONTACT TESTING
NORMAL PROBE ANGLE PROBE T.R. PROBE NORMAL PROBE

IMMERSION TESTING
ANGLE PROBE

0.5 TO 6 MHz 10 TO 25 MHz

COMMONLY USED FREQUENCY FOR CONTACT TESTING IMMERSION TESTING


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Depth of defect is possible.

Near zone and Dead zone are major draw backs in this technique.
In which from the reflected echo we will estimate depth, size, shape and type of defect. For weld scanning angle beams are used in this technique.
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Through Transmission technique:

In which separate Transducer and Receiver is used. In which both side accessible is important. Tx, Rx are in same axis. It mostly used for less thickness plate scanning. Only normal probes and delay line probes are used. Depth of defect is not possible. Initial pulse is not appear, dead zone and near field effects are eliminated.
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METHODS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING OF MATERIALS 2. THROUGH TRANSMISSION METHOD


INTENSITY OF ULTRASOUND IS MEASURED AFTER IT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE TEST PIECE
TRANSMITTING PROBE RECEIVING PROBE

INTENSITY METER
HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR

AMPLIFIER

0 100% INTENSITY

AMPLIFIER

25% intensity due to partial energy being received because of the discontinuity DISCONTINUITY

ADVANTAGES

CAPABILITY OF TESTING THICKER TEST SPECIMENS DEFECTS VERY NEAR TO THE SURFACE CAN BE DETECTED DEFECT LOCATION IS NOT POSSIBLE.

LIMITATIONS

BOTH SIDES SHOULD BE ACCESSIBLE.

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AIR COUPLING METHOD


In this we used air as a couplent This method is used when we test heated objects.

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Straight beam inspection techniques:


Direct contact,
single element probe Direct contact, Fixed delay

dual element probe

Through transmission

Immersion testing

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Sound reflection at a flaw


s

Probe

Sound travel path

Flaw

Work piece

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Plate testing
IP BE

plate

delamination

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IP = Initial pulse

F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo

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Wall thickness measurement

s
s

Corrosion

10

200

Through transmission testing


Through transmission signal

R
0 2 4 6 8 10

Flaw

201

Immersion testing
1
surface = sound entry backwall IP

2
water delay flaw

IE

1
BE

IP

IE

2
BE
F

10

10
202

IMMERSION TESTING METHOD


In this case near field is minimize in water

velocity of water min water path= --------------------- X thickness velocity of job material

203

The main disadvantage of this method is shocking problem. The main advantage of this method is near field is minimized.

In this we use high frequency probes are used around 25 Mhz. In this object we can generate all type of incident angles, generally it is used in automatic testing or hydro testing.
204

205

Automated Immersion scanning:

206

207

208

Weld inspection
a = s sin

F
s
0 20 40 60 80 100

a' = a - x d' = s cos d = 2T - t'

= probe angle s = sound path a = surface distance a = reduced surface distance d = virtual depth d = actual depth T = material thickness

Work piece with welding

a a' s
Lack of fusion

209

210

211

212

213

Shear Wave Propagation


Transmitter / Receiver

Propagate at same angle through part

Time (distance)

No reflected echo
214

Shear Wave Beam Spread


Transmitter / Receiver

215

Reflection
Transmitter / Receiver

Wave reflected from acoustic interface

Time (distance)

Reflected echo
216

Reflection
Transmitter / Receiver

Strong reflected echo


217

Reflection
Transmitter / Receiver

Scattered reflected echo


218

Reflection
Transmitter / Receiver

No reflected echo
219

Raster Scan
Transducer moved into and away from weld while being

indexed Manual or automated (encoded for position) Slow

220

Line Scan
Transducer moved along the weld Fixed distance from weld Manual or automated, encoded for position

Fast

221

Different types of probe movement:

222

Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment. In ultrasonic testing, several forms of calibration must occur 1. The electronics of the equipment must be calibrated to assure that they are performing as designed. This operation is usually performed by the equipment manufacturer . 2.This user calibration is necessary because most ultrasonic equipment can be reconfigured for use in a large variety of applications.
223

Calibration Methods

The user must "calibrate" the system, which includes the equipment settings, the transducer, and the test setup, to validate that the desired level of precision and accuracy are achieved. In ultrasonic testing, there is also a need for reference standards. Reference standards are used to establish a general level of consistency in measurements and to help interpret and quantify the information contained in the received signal. Reference standards are used to validate that the equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and that similar results are produced by different systems.

224

Reference standards also help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. In a pulse-echo type setup, signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance between the flaw and the transducer. The inspector can use a reference standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal.

By comparing the signal from the reference standard to that received from the actual flaw, the inspector can estimate the flaw size.
225

CHARACTERISTIC OF ULTRASONIC PROBES


SENSITIVITY
ABILITY OF THE PROBE TO DETECT SMALLEST DISCONTINUITY REFLECTED FROM A STANDARD MEASURED BY THE AMPLITUDE OF ITS RESPONSE TO ENERGY DISCONTINUITY

100

PROBE NO. - 1

PROBE NO. - 2

80

60

40

20

10

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

FLAT BOTTOM HOLE

FLAT BOTTOM HOLE

SAME REFLECTOR, SAME DISTANCE & GAIN SETTING PROBE N0 - 2 IS MORE SENSITIVE

HIGHER THE FREQUENCY, MORE THE SENSITIVITY


226

IIW V1 Block:
1). Material: carbon steel 2). Dimensions: 300mmL*100mmW*25mmT. 3). Application: Used for calibration of shear , longitudinal transducers, verification of shear wedge exit point and refracted angle. Can also be used for resolution and sensitivity checking. Includes a 100mm radius on one end . Also includes a 50mm diameter and a 1.5mm diameter hole. In accordance with International Institute of Welding and ASTM E164
227

228

229

230

RESOLUTION
ABILITY TO SEPARATE ECHOES FROM TWO OR MORE DISCONTINUITIES LOCATED CLOSE TOGETHER IN DEPTH

100

80

60

40

20

10

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

GOOD RESOLUTION

POOR RESOLUTION

HIGHER THE FREQUENCY, BETTER WILL BE RESOLUTION


231

CALIBERATION OF ULTRASONIC EQUIPEMENT


GENERAL RULES

MINIMUM TWO REFERENCE POINTS ARE NECESSARY

KNOB

FIRST REFERENCE ALWAYS CONTROLLED WITH THE HELP OF

DELAY

CONTROL

SECOND REFERENCE POINT ALWAYS CONTROLLED WITH THE HELP OF


INITIAL ECHO IIW V1 BLOCK
100

RANGE

CONTROL

KNOB
1ST BACK WALL ECHO (BWE)

20

40

60

80

10

232

CALIBERATION OF ULTRASONIC EQUIPEMENT


RANGE CALIBERATION BY NORMAL PROBE
INITIAL ECHO 1ST BACK WALL ECHO (BWE)

IIW V1 BLOCK

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

1ST BWE
100

2ND BWE

INITIAL ECHO
100

1ST BWE 2ND BWE

60

40

20

20

40

60

INITIAL ECHO

80

80

10

10

233

IIW:V-2: OR Miniature Aperture Block

Description: 12.5mm thick, small calibration block For on-site checking of miniature shear wave probe index, time base, beam angle , Sensitivity(1.5 mm) Includes a 25mm and 50 mm radius, 1.5mm hole engraved reference mark scales from 35 to 75 degrees. In accordance with BS EN 27963:1992, ISO 7963 Cal block No. 2, Fig. 1.

234

235

ASME Angle Beam Calibration Blocks:

Meet the requirements of ASME Section V, Article 5, Fig. T-542.8.1.1 and contain EDM notches at 10% of nominal wall on both OD and ID oriented longitudinally and transversely.

236

237

AWS Resolution Calibration (RC) Block

238

The RC Block is used to determine the resolution of angle beam transducers per the requirements of AWS Engraved Index markers are provided for 45, 60, and 70 degree refracted angle beams.

239

Step and Tapered Calibration Wedges

240

Step and tapered calibration wedges come in a large variety of sizes and configurations. Step wedges are typically manufactured with four or five steps but custom wedge can be obtained with any number of steps.

Tapered wedges have a constant taper over the desired thickness range.
241

Distance/Area-Amplitude Blocks

242

Distance/area amplitude correction blocks typically are purchased as a ten-block set, as shown above. Aluminum sets are manufactured per the requirements of ASTM E127 and steel sets per ASTM E428. Sets can also be purchased in titanium. Each block contains a single flat-bottomed, plugged hole. The hole sizes and metal path distances are as follows: 3/64" at 3" 5/64" at 1/8", 1/4", 1/2", 3/4", 11/2", 3", and 6" 8/64" at 3" and 6"
243

DAY 5
DAC CURVE DGS CURVE

6dB,20dB DROP METHODS


DISCONTINUTIES Accept and Rejection criteria
244

DAC Curve:
Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the transducer. Distance amplitude correction (DAC) provides a means of establishing a graphic reference level sensitivity as a function of sweep distance on the A-scan display. The use of DAC allows signals reflected from similar discontinuities to be evaluated where signal attenuation as a function of depth has been correlated. Most often DAC will allow for loss in amplitude over material depth (time), graphically on the A-scan display but can also be done electronically by certain instruments
245

246

247

A distance amplitude correction curve is constructed from the peak amplitude responses from reflectors of equal area at different distances in the same material. Reference standards which incorporate side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH), or notches whereby the reflectors are located at varying depths are commonly used
248

While drawing DAC 1st echo set to 80% FSH, and note down the gain . Which is Actual gain or Actual dB. And trace the next 2 or 3 indications, and make a curve. While scanning on job increase gain to(DAC+6dB), which is called as scanning dB. If any echo touches DAC curve reduce gain by 6dB, still it is touches then mark as defect at that place.
249

DGS curve:
DGS Distance Gain Size is a method of setting sensitivity or assessing the signal from an unknown reflector based on the theoretical response of a flatbottomed hole reflector perpendicular to the beam axis. The DGS system was introduced by Krautkramer in 1958 and is referred to in German as AVG. A schematic of a general DGS diagram is shown in the Figure. The Y-axis shows the Gain and X-axis shows the Distance from the probe.
250

251

In a general DGS diagram the distance is shown in units of Near Field and the scale is logarithmic to cover a wide range. The blue curves plotted show how the amplitudes obtained from different sizes of disc shaped reflector (equivalent to a FBH) decrease as the distance between the probe and the reflector increases.
252

Finding Length of defects:

Length of defect by 2 techniques. 1. 6dB Drop method 2.20 dB drop method

253

254

255

DISCONTINUTIES

256

DEFECTS IN PLATE MATERIAL


LAMINATIONS INCLUSIONS > LINEAR INCLUSIONS > SCATERED INCLUSIONS STRINGERS A ROLLING LAP
257

DEFECTS IN WELDS
ROOT DEFECTS:>LACK OF PENETRATION >LACK OF ROOT FUSION >ROOT CRACK >ROOT UNDER CUT >OVER PENETRATION >ROOT CONCAVITY
258

DEFECTS IN PLATE MATERIALS

259

LAMINATIONS:

THESE ARE FORMED WHEN A BILLET IS FLATTENED AND SPREAD OUT MAY CAUSES LAMINATION.PIPE AND POROSITY ALSO MAY CAUSES LAMINATION.
260

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

TESTING OF LAMINATION IN PLATES


INITIAL ECHO

INITIAL ECHO

1ST BWE

2ND BWE

1ST BWE FROM DEFECT

2ND BWE FROM DEFECT 3RD BWE FROM DEFECT

100

80

60

40

20

10

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

NO DEFECT

DEFECT INDICATION

PLATE

LAMINATION IN THE PLATE

4TH BWE FROM DEFECT

261

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

BOND TESTING
INITIAL ECHO
FIRST ECHO FROM INTERFACE INITIAL ECHO

1ST BWE

1ST BWE FROM DEFECT

2ND BWE FROM DEFECT

100

80

60

40

20

10

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

NO DEFECT INTERFACE

DEFECT INDICATION

DEFECT IN BONDING AT INTERFACE CALLED DISBONDING BEARING CASTING PORTION

BABBIT METAL

262

APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

BOND TESTING
INITIAL ECHO
FIRST ECHO FROM INTERFACE INITIAL ECHO

1ST BWE

1ST BWE FROM DEFECT

2ND BWE FROM DEFECT

100

80

60

40

20

10

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

NO DEFECT INTERFACE

DEFECT INDICATION

DEFECT IN BONDING AT INTERFACE CALLED DISBONDING BEARING CASTING PORTION

BABBIT METAL

263

INCULUSIONS
LINEAR INCLUSIONS:

264

SCATTERED INCLUSIONS:

265

INTERPRETATION OF ULTRASONIC FLAW - ECHO INDICATIONS

SPHERICAL FLAW (POROSITY)


REFLECT ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF SOUND ECHO HEIGHT SMALL ECHO HEIGHT REMAINS UNCHANGED WHEN ANGLE OF APPROACH IS

CHANGED
INDICATION FROM SPHERICAL FLAW INITIAL ECHO BWE

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

SPHERICALFLAW

SCREEN PRESENTATION WHEN PROBE IS AT 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4

266

STRINGERS:
These are formed when the non metallic inclusions in the ingot.
The signal response Is like the linear Inclusion signal

In the rolling direction The BWE is still present But the signal can be Maintained along the Defects length
267

A ROLLING LAP:
This defect occurs in the rolling process.

268

DEFECTS IN WELDS

269

ROOT DEFECTS
LACK OF PENETRATIN: High amplitude corner signals both sides of the weld, rapidly decreasing in amplitude on rotational path. Plotting at plate thickness depth, the width of the root gap apart, with no cross over.
270

WELD TESTING - INTERPRETATION OF ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS

LACK OF PENETRATION
INDICATION FROM CORNER INITIAL ECHO

ANGLE PROBE

WELD

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

LACK OF PENETRATION

SCREEN PRESENTATION WHEN PROBE IS AT 1 OR 2

SHARP ECHO FROM BOTH SIDES OF WELD MOVED ALONG THE


271

INDICATION REMAINS AT THE SAME POSITION WHEN PROBE IS LENGTH

ROOT CRACK
It would be normal to expect a high amplitude, multifaceted reflector probably from both sides of the weld.

The vertical height of the crack was substantial, a characteristic running signal on the time base would be noted on depth scan with the angle probe.
The response would raise and fall on rotational or lateral probe moments due to crack irregularity.
272

ROOT CRACK

273

ROOT UNDERCUT
Depend on how severe the undercut is will determine the type of amplitude received.

However, associated with the undercut echo will be as signal from the root bead as well. If the undercut is only one side of the weld the root bead is examined from the opposite side.
274

ROOT UNDERCUT

275

EXCESS ROOT PENETRATION


Root bead type signals on both side of the welds are plotting beyond expected beam path length to the bead and crossing over. Steeper angle probe(i.e., 38 and 45 degrees), access permitting will give best results. It is also called over penetration.
276

WELD TESTING - INTERPRETATION OF ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS

EXCESS PENETRATION
INITIAL ECHO INDICATION FROM EXCESS PENETRATION

ANGLE PROBE

WELD

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

EXCESS PENETRATION

SCREEN PRESENTATION WHEN PROBE IS AT 1 ECHO MAY BE ABSENT WHEN PROBE AT 2 DEPENDING ON SURFACE CONTOUR

SHARP ECHO DEPENDS ON SHAPE OF ROOT SURFACE


277

ROOT CONCAVITY
Low amplitude signals on both sides of the weld are plotting short of plate thickness and no cross over. If only slight concavity it is likely that it will not be observed ultrasonically.

278

WELD TESTING - INTERPRETATION OF ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS

ROOT CONCAVITY
INITIAL ECHO INDICATION FROM ROOT CONCAVITY

ANGLE PROBE

WELD

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

SCREEN PRESENTATION WHEN PROBE IS AT 1 OR 2

ROOT CONCAVITY

279

DEFECTS IN WELD REGION


High amplitude signal from a on full skip and c on half skip. Low amplitude signal from c and d.

280

SLAG INCLUSION
Detectable from all accessible positions and directions due to volumetric nature. Signal contains numerous half cycles and have a rounded peak. It should be detected with any angle probe.
281

SLAG INCLUSION

282

CLUSTER POROSITY
Detectable from all accessible positions and directions due to volumetric nature.

Very low amplitude response due to signal attenuation giving multiple signal with a wide time base.
It is also called as multiple small inclusions.
283

CLUSTER POROSITY

284

WELD TESTING - INTERPRETATION OF ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS

MISMATCH
INITIAL ECHO INDICATION FROM MISMATCH

ANGLE PROBE

WELD

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

10

SCREEN PRESENTATION WHEN PROBE IS AT 2

MISMATCH

ECHO MAY BE ABSENT WHEN PROBE AT 1 DEPENDING ON SURFACE CONTOUR

STRONG ECHO INDICATION WHEN SCANNED FROM LOWER SIDE OF NO INDICATION FROM OTHER SIDE

THE WELD

285

Accept and Rejection criteria:


According to CODES and STANDARDS we will interpitation the results. Codes and standards are intended to enhance the safety of workers and the public CODE: A systematic collection of regulations and rules of procedure or conduct
286

A standard is a set of "how to" instructions for designers, manufacturers, and/or users of the equipment covered. It can run from a few paragraphs to hundreds of pages. Standards are considered voluntary because they serve as guidelines only, without the force of law. Organizations such as ASME that develop standards can publish them, and can certify manufacturers
287

Some of the codes used in NDT


API 650 Oil and Storage Tanks. API 1104 Cross Country or Long Pipe Lines. ASME Sec V Preparation of NDT Procedures. ASME Sec VIII Div 1&2 Boiler and Pressure Vessels . ASME Sec IX Welder Qualification Tests. ASME B31.1 Power Piping. ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation system for hydro carbons. ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission & piping system. AWS D1.1 Structural Welding.
288