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Particuology

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ par t i c

Effect of volume-contraction on incipient ﬂuidization of binary-solid mixtures

Mohammad Asif

∗

Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 6 August 2010

Received in revised form 11 October 2010

Accepted 22 November 2010

Keywords:

Binary solid mixture

Bed void fraction

Volume-contraction

Minimum ﬂuidization velocity

a b s t r a c t

Towards the development of a predictive model for computing the minimum ﬂuidization velocity, the

volume-contraction phenomenon arising fromthe mixing of unequal solid species is accounted for in the

prediction of the bed void fraction of binary-solid mixtures at the incipient ﬂuidization conditions. Com-

parison with experimental data obtained from the literature clearly shows that signiﬁcantly improved

predictions are obtained except for cases where the stratiﬁcation pattern whether arising from the slow

deﬂuidization or the difference in the densities of the two species affects the mixing of the constituent

species.

© 2011 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of

Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

An accurate prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity is

an important prerequisite for a successful preliminary design and

subsequent scale-up of any ﬂuidized bed application. This issue

has been an active area of research spanning several decades. A lit-

erature review of the area yields a plethora of studies proposing

different correlations for the prediction of minimum ﬂuidization

velocities. Despite the availability of signiﬁcant literature, it is

still often difﬁcult to accurately predict the minimum ﬂuidization

velocity. This can often be attributed to the uncertainty associated

with the bed void fraction at the incipient ﬂuidization. Even a small

error in its speciﬁcation could lead to a signiﬁcant error in the pre-

diction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity owing to the strong

dependence of the pressure drop on the bed void fraction. Widely

used correlation for predicting the pressure-drop, e.g. the Ergun

equation, contains terms that involve bed void fraction as high as

third order. Only under limiting condition of laminar and turbulent

ﬂows, it is possible to get a reasonable estimate of the bedvoidfrac-

tion using the well-known Richardson and Zaki correlation (Asif,

2008).

This issue assumes added importance when two or more solid

species are present together in the same bed structure. This is due

to the fact that the mixing of unequal solid species often leads to

a contraction of the volume irrespective of whether the bed is ﬂu-

idized or in a deﬂuidized state (Asif, 2004b). This means that the

void fraction of the mixed bed of binary-solid is often less than

∗

Corresponding author. Tel.: +966 14676849; fax: +966 14678770.

E-mail address: masif@ksu.edu.sa

the void fraction of the mono-component bed of either of the two

components. This phenomenon affects the pressure-drop. Ignor-

ing this aspect of the binary-solid ﬂuidization could therefore lead

to a greater uncertainty in the speciﬁcation of the minimum ﬂu-

idization velocity. As a consequence, it is not uncommon to ﬁnd

several correlations with widely different underlying approaches

for the prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity whenever

the ﬂuidization of two or more solid species is involved.

In spite of the important bearing of the bed void fraction on

the ﬂuidization velocity, there is nonetheless a lack of literature

on the volume-contraction phenomenon even though its existence

at the incipient ﬂuidization has been pointed out (Chiba, Chiba,

Nienow, & Kobayashi, 1979; Chiba, Nienow, Chiba, & Kobayashi,

1980; Formisani, 1991; Formisani, de Cristofaro, & Girimonte,

2001; Formisani, Girimonte, & Longo, 2008). Using the data avail-

able in the literature, Li, Kobayashi, Nisjimura, and Hasatani (2005)

employed the Westman equation to compute the bed voidage at

the incipient ﬂuidization in order to predict the minimumﬂuidiza-

tion velocity of binary-solid mixtures. On the other hand, there

has been a growing realization of the importance of the volume-

contraction phenomenon on the hydrodynamics of binary-solid

ﬂuidized beds, especially in connection with the prediction of the

so-called layer-inversion phenomenon. This is in view of the fact

that the mixing-induced volume-contraction phenomenon leads

either to an increase or a decrease in the bulk-density of the mixed-

layer. The layer of higher bulk-density constitutes the lower layer

close to the distributor in conjunction with the stability considera-

tions (Asif, 2002, 2004a; Gibilaro, Di Felice, & Waldram, 1986). On

the other hand, the situation reverses for the case of the inverse

ﬂuidization, where the layer of lower bulk density constitutes the

upper layer closer to the distributor (Asif, 2010a, 2010b; Escudié,

1674-2001/$ – see front matter © 2011 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.partic.2010.11.001

102 M. Asif / Particuology 9 (2011) 101–106

Epstein, Grace, & Bi, 2007). Recently, there have been attempts to

modify the conventional models to predict the bed void fraction of

binary-solids subjected to liquid ﬂuidization at the layer inversion

point (Escudié & Epstein, 2008, 2009).

Inthepresent work, thevolume-contractioneffects areincorpo-

ratedinthe descriptionof the voidfractionof binary-solidmixtures

at the incipient ﬂuidization, and the improvement thus obtained

on the prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity is high-

lighted. Towards this end, the available bed void fraction data (at

the incipient ﬂuidization) reported in the literature for binary-

solid ﬂuidized mixtures are analyzed here for volume-contraction

effects. These solid mixtures mainly differ in the size of the con-

stituent species while one of the binaries differs both in the size

as well as the density such that the smaller species is denser than

its larger counterpart. Using the well-known Westman equation

capable of accounting for the volume-contraction phenomenon in

packed structures of binary-solid mixtures, the bed void fractions

of binary-mixtures are predicted, and a comparison is made with

the experimental data here for each set the data. The minimum

ﬂuidization velocity of the binary-solid mixture is then evaluated

using the mean solid properties in conjunction with the predicted

values of the bed void faction.

2. Predictive models

In the following, models for predicting void fractions of binary-

solidmixtures will beﬁrst discussed. Equations for thepredictionof

the minimumﬂuidization velocity using the mean solid properties

will be presented next.

2.1. Prediction of bed void fraction

As aﬁrst approximationtowards predictingthevoidfractionof a

bed containing two or more solid species, a simple arithmetic aver-

aging of their mono-component speciﬁc-volumes can be applied

to obtain the speciﬁc-volume of the mixed bed. The term speciﬁc-

volume implies the volume occupied by the unit volume of the

solids in the bed environment that includes the volume occupied

by the solid and the associated void spaces. The speciﬁc-volume

additivity can be mathematically represented as:

V = X

1

V

1

+(1 −X

1

)V

2

, (1)

where V=(1−ε)

−1

is the speciﬁc volume of the mixed bed of

binary-solid whereas V

1

and V

2

are the speciﬁc volumes of mono-

component beds of species 1 and species 2, respectively. And, X

1

is the ﬂuid-free volume fraction of component 1, which is chosen

here to represent the larger solid species. Commonly known as the

serial-model in the ﬂuidization literature, Eq. (1) is often written in

terms of the bedvoidfractionas follows (Epstein, LeClair, &Pruden,

1981; Lewis & Bowerman, 1952):

1

(1 −ε)

=

X

1

(1 −ε

1

)

+

1 −X

1

(1 −ε

2

)

, (1a)

which essentially implies that the total bed height is equal to

the sum of the heights of two completely segregated individ-

ual mono-component beds ﬂuidized at the same velocity. Thus,

mixing-effects of constituent species are ignored in this approach.

As a result, no volume-contraction will be observed. It is never-

theless important to note that the volume-contraction of the bed

containing two solid species can be evaluated from the difference

between the actual height and the height computed using Eq. (1).

The greater the difference between the actual experimental values

and predictions of Eq. (1), the higher is the degree of the volume-

contraction.

Towards a more realistic prediction of the bed void fraction

however (Asif, 2001), the equation proposed by Westman (1936)

can be used:

_

V −V

1

X

1

V

2

_

2

+2G

_

V −V

1

X

1

V

2

__

V −X

1

−V

2

X

2

V

1

−1

_

+

_

V −X

1

−V

2

X

2

V

1

−1

_

2

= 1. (2)

The parameter Gdepends uponthe size ratio of the two constituent

species comprising the bed structure. It is easy to see that setting

G=1 in the above equation yields Eq. (1). Using a large base of

data, Yu, Standish, and McLean (1993) have proposed the following

functional form of the parameter G in the Westman equation:

1

G

=

_

1.355r

1.566

, (r ≤ 0.824)

1, (r > 0.824)

(3)

where r is the size ratio (smaller to larger) of the two solid species.

Since models mentioned above require information about

the mono-component bed void fraction, i.e. V

1

and V

2

, mono-

component bed void fractions at incipient ﬂuidization are used for

the purpose. These are evaluated as:

V

1

= (1 −ε

1mf

)

−1

, V

2

= (1 −ε

2mf

)

−1

, (4)

where ε

1mf

and ε

2mf

are experimentally obtained values of the bed

void fraction at incipient conditions, respectively for species 1 and

species 2.

2.1.1. Prediction of minimum ﬂuidization velocity

For the prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity of

binary-solid mixtures, the correlation meant for determining the

minimum ﬂuidization velocity of single solid species can be

extended to the case of the binary-solid using mean solid prop-

erties in conjunction with an appropriate description of the bed

void fraction. This consists of equating the effective bed weight

withthe pressure drop at incipient conditions. For the predictionof

the pressure drop, any standard empirical correlation can be used.

Most notable among such correlations is the Ergun equation. Sub-

stituting the averaged values of particle properties, i.e. the mean

diameter and the mean density instead of the mono-component

properties lead to the minimum ﬂuidization velocity of the solid

particle mixtures. This can be written as:

1.75ε

−3

mf

Re

2

mf

+ 150ε

−3

mf

(1 −ε

mf

)Re

mf

−Ga = 0, (5)

where the Reynolds number and the Galileo number are deﬁned as

follows:

Re

mf

=

_

f

U

mf

d

_

, (6)

Ga =

_

d

3

f

(

s

−

f

)g

2

_

. (7)

Note that the over-bar represents the mean, and the subscript ‘mf’

represents the incipient or minimum ﬂuidization condition. Sym-

bols

f

and

s

are ﬂuid and solid densities, respectively while other

symbols have their usual signiﬁcance. The following expressions

for the mean density and the mean diameter can be used in the

above equation:

s

=

n

i=1

X

i

si

, (8)

M. Asif / Particuology 9 (2011) 101–106 103

Table 1

Binary-solid mixture data from the literature used in the present comparison.

Binary Size (m) Density (kg/m

3

) Size ratio Remark Source

D

p1

D

p2

s1

s2

D

p2

/D

p1

1 335 240 2530 2530 0.716 Formisani (1991)

2 499 271 2480 2480 0.543 Formisani et al. (2008)

3 483 240 2530 2530 0.497 Formisani (1991)

4 335 153 2530 2530 0.457 Formisani (1991)

5 385 163 2520 2520 0.423 Fast Chiba et al. (1979)

6 385 163 2520 2520 0.423 Slow Chiba et al. (1979)

7 483 173 2530 2530 0.358 Formisani (1991)

8 612 154 2480 2480 0.252 Formisani et al. (2008)

9 775 163 1080 2520 0.210 Fast Chiba et al. (1980)

10 775 163 1080 2520 0.210 Slow Chiba et al. (1980)

1

d

=

n

i=1

X

i

D

pi

, (9)

where X

i

is the volume fraction of the ith solid species. Eq. (8) rep-

resents the volume-averaged density. On the other hand, Eq. (9)

represents the surface-volume mean (Sauter mean) diameter. It is

worthwhile to mention here that Eq. (8) is the only correct averag-

ing procedure for the evaluation of the mean particle density (Asif,

1998) while several averaging procedures for the mean particle

diameter can be suggested (Allen, 1981). Eq. (9) is nevertheless the

most commonly used in the ﬂuidization literature.

3. Experimental data

Data reported in the literature are utilized here. The bed void

fraction data at the incipient ﬂuidization of binary-solid mixtures

is rather scarce in spite of a signiﬁcant literature mostly report-

ing only the minimum ﬂuidization velocity of such systems. It is

nonetheless sufﬁcient in the present to show clearly that incor-

porating the volume-contraction effects signiﬁcantly improves the

predictions of theminimumﬂuidizationvelocity. Thedataavailable

in the literature for different systems, involving 10 binaries, and

their sources are summarized in Table 1. The constituent species

in the ﬁrst eight binaries differ only in their sizes such that the

size ratio varies from 0.25 to 0.72. Here, Binary 5 and Binary 6 of

Chiba et al. (1979) are size-different binaries withsame constituent

species, albeit with different deﬂuidization behavior as mentioned

in the remark. Note that the slow deﬂuidization process promotes

segregation of the constituent species. The obvious consequence

of the segregation is the lack of the mixing leading thereby to a

smaller degree of volume-contraction. The Binary 9 and Binary 10

of Chiba et al. (1980) are different from the rest as the constituent

solid species in this case differ in their sizes as well as densities.

Binary 9 data is based on fast deﬂuidization while that of Binary 10

involves slow deﬂuidization process.

4. Results and discussion

As a ﬁrst step, predictions of both Eqs. (1) and (2) are presented

along with the experimental data in Figs. 1–3 for selected bina-

ries. The overall trend of other binaries is same. The abscissa here

is the fraction of the larger species (X

1

) of the binary. Although

often termed as jetsam in the literature, the larger species, when

lighter than its smaller counterpart, could constitute the upper

layer under certainﬂuidizationconditions (Chibaet al., 1980). Thus,

X

1

=0 implies a bed consisting only of smaller species, and likewise

X

1

=1 represents a mono-component bed of larger species. Predic-

tions of Eq. (1) are presented with solid lines in all ﬁgures, which

vary linearly with the binary composition. Noting that Eq. (1) is

based on the assumption of perfect segregation of the two com-

ponents of the binary system, any deviation from its predictions

can therefore be interpreted as the volume-change of mixing. If

the value of the bed void fraction is smaller than the one predicted

by Eq. (1), this will indicate a contraction of the volume, meaning

that the height of the mixed bed will thus be shorter than the cor-

responding height of the two segregated mono-component layers

of individual species. It is seen here that the key feature underlying

all the binaries here is the occurrence of the phenomenon of the

volume-contraction.

Experimental data as well as model predictions are shown in

Fig. 1 for Binary 2 and Binary 8, which differ in their size ratios.

Higher degree of contraction is visible for smaller size ratio, i.e.

0.252 for Binary 8 as compared to 0.543 of Binary 2. The predictions

of Eq. (2) show a good agreement in both cases.

Fig. 1. Comparison of experimental data with model predictions for Binary 2 and

Binary 8.

Fig. 2. Comparison of experimental data with model predictions for Binary 5 and

Binary 6.

104 M. Asif / Particuology 9 (2011) 101–106

Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental data with model predictions for Binary 9 and

Binary 10.

Fig. 2 presents the case of binaries of Chiba et al. (1979) with

the same constituent species but different deﬂuidization process.

It is clear fromthe experimental data that the lower degree of con-

traction is observed with slowdeﬂuidization process. This is due to

the fact that as the velocity is slowly decreased, the segregation of

the mono-component layers progressively increases owing to the

difference of their bulk densities. This reﬂects the lack of a uniform

mixing of the two constituent species, and results in a lesser degree

of the volume-contraction. On the other hand, fast deﬂuidization

promotes mixing, leading to an enhanced degree of contraction.

At high fraction of larger component (X

1

), the degree of contrac-

tion is however comparable. This is due to the fact that a small

amount of smaller species is easily accommodated in the inter-

stices of larger species even during the slowdeﬂuidization process.

As far as the comparison with predictions is concerned, agreement

is understandably superior for Binary 5 since Eq. (2) is based on the

mixing of constituent species.

Fig. 3 highlights the case of Binary 9 and Binary 10. Constituent

species here differ in the size as well as the density. Note that the

actual reporteddata, whichwas basedonthe fractionof the heavier

component, was converted in terms of X

1

taking into account the

densities of constituent species. As far as the difference inthe deﬂu-

idization process is concerned, the behavior is similar to the case of

Binaries 5 and 6. The degree of contraction in the slow deﬂuidiza-

tion is mostly lower due to segregation tendencies, yet far more

prominent than the case of Binary 6 as the size ratio is smaller

here. At higher X

1

, the bed void fraction is seen to be comparable

for Binary 9 and Binary 10 due to the ﬁlling of smaller species in

the interstices of its larger counterpart.

The difference between predictions of Eq. (2) and the experi-

mental data is quite pronounced in Fig. 3 as compared to other

binaries. Higher contraction is seen at lower X

1

. Note that size ratio

of Binaries 9 and 10 is comparable to Binary 8. But, in the case of

Binary 8, like any other binary, the highest degree of contraction

occurs around X

1

=0.6. On the other hand, the highest degree of

contraction is seen to occur around 0.25 in the case of Binaries 9

and 10. This is due to the fact that the difference in the bulk densi-

ties of the two mono-component layers during the deﬂuidization

is not signiﬁcant since the larger solid species of the binary sys-

tem is lighter than its smaller counterpart. This could even lead to

the layer-inversion phenomenon as the ﬂuid velocity is progres-

sively decreased. Thus, the magnitude of the liquid velocity ﬁxed

just before the ﬂuidization can generate different mixing patterns,

and therefore the bed void fraction after deﬂuidization can change.

It is therefore obvious that the model is not capable of describing

bed void fraction in the event of the mixing controlled by hydro-

Fig. 4. Difference betweenexperimental andpredictedvalues as a functionof diam-

eter ratio.

dynamics.

The discussion in the foregoing was mainly limited to a qual-

itative comparison between the experimental data and model

predictions. For a quantitative evaluation, the percent difference

was computed for each individual binary using the following equa-

tion:

Difference (%) =

1

N −2

N−1

i=2

¸

¸

¸

ε

i

(experimental) −ε

i

(predicted)

ε

i

(experimental)

¸

¸

¸

×100. (10)

The end points, i.e. X

1

=0 and X

1

=1 corresponding to i =1 and i =N

were excluded in the calculation of the average error as experi-

mental values were used for V

1

and V

2

as mentioned in Eq. (4).

The results of all binaries are summarized in Fig. 4. Eq. (1) repre-

sents the difference between experimental values and predictions

of Eq. (1), and therefore an indication of the degree of volume-

contraction. It is clear that the bed volume-contraction depends

upon the size difference of the two constituent species. As the dif-

ferenceinthesizeof twospecies decreases, thevolume-contraction

also decreases. The same is true for two cases involving slowdeﬂu-

idization that are shown with open circles. The curve represented

by Eq. (2) shows the difference between the model predictions and

experimental data. It is clear here that the agreement is good as

the difference in most cases is less than 3% except for the cases

of Binary 9 and Binary 10 due to reasons explained earlier. It is

worthwhile to mention here that the mean error of all binaries is

8.5% for Eq. (1) and 2.4% for Eq. (2) when Binaries 9 and 10 are

excluded. It can therefore be concluded at this stage that Eq. (2)

is capable of describing the volume-contraction behavior at the

incipient ﬂuidization conditions.

It is important to integrate the predictive capability of the

proposed model in order to improve the prediction of the min-

imum ﬂuidization velocity of the binary-solid mixtures. In this

connection, the ﬁrst difﬁculty was faced with respect to the mini-

mum ﬂuidization velocity of the mono-component species. Using

the reported diameter in conjunction with experimental bed void

fraction yielded a substantial difference in the prediction of the

minimum ﬂuidization velocity. In some cases, it was found to be

over 40%, e.g. 0.163mm and 0.335mm glass bead of Formisani

(1991) and 0.775 hollow char of Chiba et al. (1980). In order to

address this issue, the effective diameter was computed using the

experimentally reported minimum ﬂuidization velocity with the

helpof Eq. (5) for eachindividual species. These values are reported

in Table 2. Note that the difference between the reported and effec-

tive diameter is seen to be as high as 20% (species 1 of Binaries 9

M. Asif / Particuology 9 (2011) 101–106 105

Table 2

Effective diameters of binary-solid systems of Table 1.

Binary D

e1

D

e2

1 279 210

2 482 235

3 443 210

4 279 136

5 352 142

6 352 142

7 443 157

8 612 144

9 617 135

10 617 135

and10) while being negligible only inthe case of species 1 of Binary

8.

Using the data of Binary 1 as an illustrative example, results

obtainedusing boththese two diameters are showninFig. 5, where

the bed void fractions are computed using Eq. (2). Asubstantial dif-

ference is seen here. The reported diameter clearly fails to describe

the U

mf

behavior of the mono-component species as well as the

mixtures thereof. On the other hand, the effective diameter signiﬁ-

cantly improves the predictions as seen in the ﬁgure. It is therefore

important to use the effective diameter instead of the reported

diameter. Note that the reported diameter always over-predicted

the minimum ﬂuidization velocities. The most plausible expla-

nation of this behavior relates to the particle size distribution of

the solid sample used. Owing to their higher surface area, smaller

particles often control the hydrodynamics in a given particle size

distribution. In the present case of the prediction of the minimum

ﬂuidization velocity, this aspect is evident fromthe Ergun equation

where the viscous contributiontermcontains the square of the par-

ticle diameter in the denominator. Population of smaller particles

of any given size distribution therefore contributes more to the

pressure drop, leading to a lowering of the minimum ﬂuidization

velocity.

In the light of the foregoing, effective diameters were used

in all comparisons presented in the following. This included the

evaluation of all size-based parameters of Eq. (5) as well as G for

computing the bed void fraction at incipient conditions. The results

for two binaries with small size ratios are presented inFigs. 6 and 7.

Note that the legend named “No volume-contraction” represents

the predictions of Eq. (1) whereas the legendnamed“Withvolume-

contraction” represents predictions of Eq. (2). It can be seen here

that incorporating the effect of the volume-contraction signiﬁ-

cantly improves the prediction.

Fig. 5. Comparison of prediction of Eq. (2) for Binary 1 using reported diameter and

effective diameter.

Fig. 6. Comparison between experimental data and model predictions for Binary 7.

Fig. 7. Comparison between experimental data and model predictions for Binary 8.

Using the same deﬁnition as Eq. (10), the error involved in the

predictions of all binaries is shown in Table 3. It is seen that the

predictions incorporating the volume-contraction (Eq. (2)) is con-

sistently better as comparedto Eq. (1) except for Binary 6 withslow

deﬂuidization. On the other hand, Binary 5 with same constituents

and fast deﬂuidization yields better agreement. The reason here

is once again related to the degree of mixing as explained ear-

lier. Note that Binaries 9 and 10 are deliberately excluded in

the comparison as mentioned before that Eq. (2) cannot describe

volume-contraction behavior of such systems. From the overall

meanerror, it is obvious that incorporating the volume-contraction

signiﬁcantly improves the prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization

velocity.

Table 3

Error in the prediction of the minimum ﬂuidization velocity for different binaries.

Binary No volume contraction

Eq. (1)

With volume

contraction

Eq. (2)

1 9.0 4.7

2 36.3 8.2

3 16.6 11.4

4 43.8 9.3

5 27.7 8.3

6 5.1 23.1

7 44.4 8.6

8 101.0 17.8

Mean 35.5 11.4

106 M. Asif / Particuology 9 (2011) 101–106

5. Conclusions

It is clear here that the volume-contraction effects prevail dur-

ing the incipient ﬂuidization of binary-solid mixture. This mainly

depends upon the difference in the diameter of the constituent

species. Smaller size ratios yield larger contraction of the bed. The

Westman equation used here can correctly describe the volume-

contraction behavior so long as the hydrodynamics-controlled

segregation tendencies, whether arising from the slow deﬂuidiza-

tion or the difference in the densities of the two species, do

not affect the mixing of two unequal species. Accounting for the

volume-contraction effects in the prediction of the minimum ﬂu-

idization velocity signiﬁcantly improves the prediction.

During the comparison of the minimum ﬂuidization velocities,

it is clear that the effective diameter needs to be used for any

meaningful comparison instead of the reported or the measured

diameter of the solid sample. Such a difference is often attributed

to the sphericity of particles in the literature. In the present case

however, the particle size distributionappears tobe responsible for

the signiﬁcantlyloweredvalues of the effective particle diameter as

smaller particle fraction, owing to their larger surface area, controls

the pressure dropandconsequently the incipient ﬂuidizationof the

mono-component solid samples. In this connection, it is important

to note that the value of the effective diameter could vary as signif-

icantly as those of non-spherical particle depending upon the ﬂow

regime (Asif, 2009). Therefore, such effective diameter should not

be universally be used for specifying other hydrodynamic charac-

teristics of the solid samples.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the SABIC grant (Project ENG-30-

34), King Saud University, Riyadh.

Notations

D

e

effective particle diameter (mm)

D

p

particle diameter (reported) (mm)

G parameter G of Westman equation (Eq. (2))

Ga Galileo number

r size ratio (smaller to larger)

U

mf

minimum ﬂuidization velocity (m/s)

V overall speciﬁc volume

_

=

total bed volume

total solids volume

¸

V

i

mono-component speciﬁc volume of ith species

X

1

ﬂuid-free volume fraction of particle species 1

Greek symbols

ε overall bed void fraction

ε

i

void fraction of mono-component bed of ith particle

species

ﬂuid viscosity (Pa s)

f

ﬂuid density (kg/m

3

)

s

solid density (kg/m

3

)

Subscript

1 larger component

2 smaller component

mf minimum ﬂuidization

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