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Socratic Ignorance Socratic Ignorance Socratic Ignorance Socratic Ignorance
"I know that I know nothing"
PITHAGORAS (600 BC)
ZENO (500 BC)
EUDOXUS (400 BC)
EUCLID (300 BC)
ARCHIMIDES (200 BC)*V
KEPLER (1500 AC)
NEWTON (1700 AC)*V
LIEBNIZ (1700 AC)
BERNOULLI’S (1700 AC)
EULER (1700 AC)
LAGRANGE (1800 AC)
LAPLACE (1800 AC) KEPLER (1500 AC)
GALILEO (1500 AC)
FERMAT (1600 AC)
CAVALIERI (1600 AC)
DESCARTES (1600 AC)
ISAAC BARROW (1600
AC)
LAPLACE (1800 AC)
FOURIER (1830 AC)
CAUCHY (1857 AC)
RIEMANN (1866 AC)
WEIERSTRAUSS (1897 AC)
Was born and worked in Syracuse (Greek city in
Sicily) 287 BCE and died in 212 BCE
Friend of King Hieron II
“Eureka!” (discovery of hydrostatic law)
Invented many mechanisms, some of which were used for the defence
of Syracuse
Other achievements in mechanics usually attributed to Archimedes
(the law of the lever, center of mass, equilibrium, hydrostatic pressure)
Used the method of exhaustions to show that the volume of sphere
is 2/3 that of the enveloping cylinder
According to a legend, his last words were “Stay away from my
diagram!”, address to a soldier who was about to kill him
was designed to find areas and volumes of
complicated objects (circles, pyramids,
spheres) using
◦ approximations by simple objects
(rectangles, triangles, prisms) (rectangles, triangles, prisms)
having known areas (or volumes)
Approximating the circle
Approximating the pyramid
1) Inner polygons P
1
< P
2
< P
3
<…
2) Outer polygons Q
1
> Q
2
> Q
3
>…
3) Q
i
– P
i
can be made arbitrary small
4) Hence P
i
approximate C(R) arbitrarily closely
5) Elementary geometry shows that P
i
is
P
1
P
2
Let C(R) denote area of the circle of radius R
We show that C(R) is proportional to R
2
5) Elementary geometry shows that P
i
is
proportional to R
2
. Therefore, for two circles
with radii R and R' we get:
P
i
(R) : R
i
(R’) = R
2
:R’
2
6) Suppose that C(R):C(R’) < R
2
:R’
2
7) Then (since P
i
approximates C(R)) we can find i
such that P
i
(R) : P
i
(R’) < R
2
:R’
2
which
contradicts 5)
Q
1
Q
2
Thus P
i
(R) : R
i
(R’) = R
2
:R’
2
Triangles
∆
1
, ∆
2
, ∆
3
, ∆
4
,…
Note that
∆
2
+∆
3
= 1/4 ∆
1
1
Y
R
S Z
∆
2
+∆
3
= 1/4 ∆
1
Similarly
∆
4
+∆
5
+∆
6
+∆
7
= 1/16 ∆
1
and so on
3
4
7
6
2
5
O
Q
R
X
P
Thus A = ∆
1
(1+1/4 + (1/4)
2
+) = 4/3 ∆
1
Calculus appeared in 17
th
century as a system of
shortcuts to results obtained by the method of
exhaustion
Calculus derives rules for calculations
Problems, solved by calculus include finding areas,
volumes (integral calculus), tangents, normals and
curvatures (differential calculus) and summing of
infinite series infinite series
This makes calculus applicable in a wide variety of
areas inside and outside mathematics
In traditional approach (method of exhaustions) areas
and volumes were computed using subtle geometric
arguments
In calculus this was replaced by the set of rules for
calculations
Cylon, a Crotoniate and leading citizen by birth,
fame and riches, but otherwise a difficult, violent,
disturbing and tyrannically disposed man,
eagerly desired to participate in the Pythagorean
way of life. He approached Pythagoras, then an
old man, but was rejected because of the
character defects just described. When this character defects just described. When this
happened Cylon and his friends vowed to make a
strong attack on Pythagoras and his followers.
Thus a powerfully aggressive zeal activated Cylon
and his followers to persecute the Pythagoreans
to the very last man. Because of this Pythagoras
left for Metapontium and there is said to have
ended his days.
Los cylons son
una civilización
cibernética que
está en guerra con
las Doce Colonias las Doce Colonias
de la humanidad
en la película y
series de
Battlestar
Galactica ... ... ... ...
"Imagination is more important than knowledge."
ALBERT EINSTEIN WROTE THIS
RIDDLE EARLY DURING THE 19th
CENTURY. HE SAID THAT 98% OF
THE WORLD POPULATION WOULD THE WORLD POPULATION WOULD
NOT BE ABLE TO SOLVE IT.
ARE YOU IN THE TOP 2% OF
INTELLIGENT PEOPLE IN THE
WORLD?
SOLVE THE RIDDLE AND FIND
OUT.
There are no tricks, just pure logic,
so good luck and don't give up.
1. In a street there are five houses,
painted five different colours.
2. In each house lives a person of
different nationality
3. These five homeowners each 3. These five homeowners each
drink a different kind of beverage,
smoke different brand of cigar and
keep a different pet.
THE QUESTION:
WHO OWNS THE FISH?
1. The Brit lives in a red house.
2. The Swede keeps dogs as pets.
3. The Dane drinks tea.
4. The Green house is next to, and on the left of
the White house.
5. The owner of the Green house drinks coffee.
6. The person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds.
7. The owner of the Yellow house smokes Dunhill.
8. The man living in the centre house drinks milk.
9. The Norwegian lives in the first house.
10. The man who smokes Blends lives next to the one who 10. The man who smokes Blends lives next to the one who
keeps
cats.
11. The man who keeps horses lives next to the man who
smokes
Dunhill.
12. The man who smokes Blue Master drinks beer.
13. The German smokes Prince.
14. The Norwegian lives next to the blue house.
15. The man who smokes Blends has a neighbour who drinks
water.
Einstein's Riddle Einstein's Riddle Einstein's Riddle Einstein's Riddle    ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER
The German owns the fish.
"Do not worry about your difficulties in
Mathematics.
I can assure you mine are still greater."
CALCULUS: CALCULAE: STONES
TWO FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS OF CALCULUS
DERIVATIVEINTEGRAL
CALCULUS APPLICATIONS CALCULUS APPLICATIONS
BOOK
RESOURCES
TI 84 PLUS
Calculus is deeply integrated in every branch of the
physical sciences, such as physics and biology. It is
found in computer science, statistics, and
engineering; in economics, business, and medicine.
Modern developments such as architecture, aviation,
and other technologies all make use of what
calculus can offer. calculus can offer.
Finding the Slope of a Curve
Calculating the Area of Any Shape
Visualizing Graphs
Finding the Average of a Function
Calculating Optimal Values
HOW TO FIND:
INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE
D
R
∆
=
D ∆
AREA UNDER A CURVE
T
D
R
∆
∆
=
T ∆
D ∆
A B
R= D / T
RATE = CHANGE IN DISTANCE/ CHANGE IN
TIME
DISTANCE
THE AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE
BETWEEN TWO POINTS =
THE SLOPE OF THE SECANT LINE
TIME
THE SLOPE OF THE SECANT LINE
CONNECTING THE TWO POINTS
THE INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF
CHANGE =
THE SLOPE OF THE TANGENT LINE
R = CHANGE IN D / CHANGE IN T
R = O / O = UNDEFINED
“BIG PROBLEM”
BLACKBOARD EXAMPLE:
From home to school.
SKETCHPAD
Rate of change Rate of change
DISTANCE
THE INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE
THE DEFINITION OF THEDERIVATIVE
f(x)
T
D
R
∆
∆
=
TIME
T ∆
0
) ( ) (
lim '
→ ∆
∆
− ∆ +
=
x
x
x f x x f
f
x
THE DERIVATIVE OF f(x) AT x REPRESENTS
THE SLOPE OF THE TANGENT LINE AT A POINT x
0
) ( ) (
lim '
→ ∆
∆
− ∆ +
=
x
x
x f x x f
f
THE DERIVATIVE OF f(x) AT x REPRESENTS
THE SLOPE OF THE TANGENT LINE AT A POINT x
THE INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE
T
D
R
∆
∆
=
Given the graph of below, evaluate the following limits.
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→
4
lim ( )
x
f x
−
→−
3
lim ( )
x
f x
→
4
lim ( )
x
f x
+
→−
2
lim ( )
x
f x
+
→−
lim ( )
x
f x
→∞
4
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
2
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
1
st
Direct Substitution
◦ If it fails…
2
nd
Factoring
◦ If it fails… ◦ If it fails…
3
rd
The Conjugate Method
Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits:
(a) (b) (c)
2
2
4
lim
2
x
x
x x
→
−
+ +
2
2
3
9
lim
6
x
x
x x
→
−
− −
2
3
lim
2
x
x
x
→
+
−
(d) (e) (f)
( )
2
2
3
lim
2
x
x
x
→
+
−
3 5
lim
2 4
x
x
x
→∞
−
+
2
4 7
lim
3 5
x
x
x x
→∞
+
− +
Workout the MAGIC (Algebra)
Review:
◦ ALGEBRA ◦ ALGEBRA
◦ ECUATIONS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS
◦ TRIGONOMETRY
Let f be a function with f(1) = 4 such that for all
points (x, y) on the graph of f . The slope is given
by
(a)Find the slope of the graph of f at the point
2
3 1
2
x
y
+
(a)Find the slope of the graph of f at the point
where x = 1.
(b)Write an equation for the line tangent to the
graph of f at x = 1 and use it to approximate
f(1.2)
The graph of the velocity v(t), in ft/sec, of a car traveling on a
straight road, for is shown above.
A table of values for v(t), at 5 second intervals of time t, is shown
to the right of the graph.
0 50, t ≤ ≤
A table of values for v(t), at 5 second intervals of time t, is shown
to the right of the graph.
(a)During what intervals of time is the acceleration of the car
positive? Give a reason for your answer
(b)Find the average acceleration of the car, in ft/sec
2
, over the
interval
(c)Find one approximation for the acceleration of the car, in ft/sec
2
,
at t = 40. Show the computations you used to arrive
at your answer.
0 50, t ≤ ≤
An equation for the line tangent to the graph
of at is:
(a) (b)
cos(2 ) y x = 4 x π =
1
4
y x
π
 
− = − −

\ ¹
1 2
4
y x
π
 
− = − −

\ ¹
(c) (d)
(e)
2
4
y x
π
 
= −

\ ¹
4
y x
π
 
= − −

\ ¹
2
4
y x
π
 
= − −

\ ¹
At what point on the graph of
is the tangent line parallel to the line ?
a (0.5, 0.5) b (0.5, 0.125) c (1, 0.25)
d (1, 0.5) e (2, 2)
2
1
2
y x =
2 4 3 x y − =
The following table gives US populations at time t:
Estimate and interpret P’(1996).
t P (t)
1992 255,002,000
1994 260,292,000
1996 265,253,000
1998 270,002,000
2000 274,634,000
ken s. . . It also helps you to practice and develop your
logic/reasoning skills. Calculus throws you challenging
problems your way which make you think.
Life after school and college will likewise undoubtedly throw
you problems which you will have to learn to solve. you problems which you will have to learn to solve.
Although you may never use calculus ever again in your
lifetime or career, you will definitely hold on to the lessons
that calculus taught you.
Things like time management, how to be organized and
neat, how to hand in things on time, how to perform under
pressure when tested, how to be responsible for your future
boss, how to be amongst people in your class (who are
analogous to your future clients and coworkers).
Calculus on facevalue may not seem important to you and
may seem useless, but the lessons and skills you are
learning will be with you your whole lifetime.
Olivia J: learning advanced math helps you
strengthen your mind overall. Think of your
mind as a muscle. When you lift heavy
things for a while, the lighter things seem
really easy. really easy.
whats my name again: If you want to be a
math teacher you can use it to torture a
whole other generation of kids.
KillerLi...You may not use Calculus, but much of
our society relies on it.
The financial operation of our economy relies on
forecastings and predictions that only Calculus
can provide. Electrical Engineers use Calculus to
optimize the processing power of the CPU that
runs your computer. City planners and surveyors runs your computer. City planners and surveyors
use Calculus to find the exact areas of irregular
regions of land. So calculus is very important in
life.
As for the meaning of life, Calculus gives no
answers, as it is strictly analytical, and not
interpretational.
If you multiply two terms with the same base
(here it’s x), add the powers and keep the base.
If you divide two terms with the same base,
ILS AP CALCULUS AB
If you divide two terms with the same base,
subtract the powers and keep the base.
A negative exponent indicates that a variable is in
the wrong spot, and belongs in the opposite part of
the fraction, but it only affects the variable it’s
touching. Note that the exponent becomes positive
when it moves to the right place.
If an exponential expression is raised to a
power, you should multiply the exponents and
keep the base.
ILS AP CALCULUS AB
The numerator of the fractional power remains
the exponent. The denominator of the power
tells you what sort of radical (square root, cube
root, etc.).
Example 4:
Simplify
Solution:
ILS AP CALCULUS AB
First raise to the third power.
Then
Multiply the x’s and y’s together
Problem 4:
Simplify the expression
using exponential rules.
ILS AP CALCULUS AB
ss ss ss ss worksheet worksheet worksheet worksheet 3 33 3
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form 10 10 10 10
3 33 3
= 1,000 = 1,000 = 1,000 = 1,000 3 33 3
3 33 3
= 27 = 27 = 27 = 27 7 77 7
0 00 0
= 1 = 1 = 1 = 1
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
10
1,000 = 3 log
4
16 = 2 log
5
5 = 1
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form 4 44 4
  2 22 2
= 1/16 = 1/16 = 1/16 = 1/16 10 10 10 10
2 22 2
= 100 = 100 = 100 = 100 3 33 3
  2 22 2
= 1/9 = 1/9 = 1/9 = 1/9
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
25
5 = 1/2 log
3
1 =0
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
2
8+= Log
4
1= log
10
10,000= log
10
1/100= Log
3
27=
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form 10 10 10 10
3 33 3
= 1,000 = 1,000 = 1,000 = 1,000 4 44 4
2 22 2
= 16 = 16 = 16 = 16 3 33 3
3 33 3
= 27 = 27 = 27 = 27 5 55 5
1 11 1
= 5 = 5 = 5 = 5 7 77 7
0 00 0
= 1 = 1 = 1 = 1
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
10
1,000 = 3 log
4
16 = 2 log
3
27 = 3 log
5
5 = 1 log
7
1 = 0
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form 25 25 25 25
1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2
= 5 = 5 = 5 = 5 4 44 4
  2 22 2
= 1/16 = 1/16 = 1/16 = 1/16 10 10 10 10
2 22 2
= 100 = 100 = 100 = 100 3 33 3
  2 22 2
= 1/9 = 1/9 = 1/9 = 1/9 3 33 3
0 = 0 = 0 = 0 =
1 11 1
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
25
5 = 1/2 log
4
(1/16) =2
log
10
100 = 2 Log
3
1/9 = 2
log
3
1 =0
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Form Form Form Form
2 22 2
3 33 3
= 8 = 8 = 8 = 8 4 44 4
0 00 0
= 1 = 1 = 1 = 1
10 10 10 10
4 44 4
= 10000 = 10000 = 10000 = 10000 10 10 10 10
  2 22 2
= 1/100 = 1/100 = 1/100 = 1/100
3 33 3
3 33 3
= 27 = 27 = 27 = 27
Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Logarithmic Form Form Form Form log
2
8+= 3 Log
4
1= 0 log
10
10,000 = 4 log
10
1/100= 2 Log
3
27= 3
Greatest Common Factors Greatest Common Factors Greatest Common Factors Greatest Common Factors
Factoring using the greatest common factor is the easiest
method of factoring and is used whenever you see terms that
have pieces in common.
Take, for example, the expression 4x + 8. Notice that both
terms can be divided by 4, making 4 a common factor.
Therefore, you can write the expression in the factored form of
4(x + 2). 4(x + 2).
In effect, I have “pulled out” the common factor of 4, and what’s
left behind are the terms once 4 has been divided out of each.
In these type of problems, you should ask yourself, “What do
each of the terms have in common?” and then pull that greatest
common factor out of each to write your answer in factored
form.
Problem 5: Factor the expression
You should feel comfortable factoring
trinomials such as x² + 5x + 4 = 0
using whatever method suits you.
Most people play with binomial pairs binomial pairs binomial pairs binomial pairs until Most people play with binomial pairs binomial pairs binomial pairs binomial pairs until
they stumble across something that works,
in this case
(x + 4)(x + 1)
There are some patterns that you should have memorized:
◆ Difference of perfect squares: a² – b² = (a + b)(a – b)
Explanation: A perfect square is a number like 16, which
can be created by multiplying something times itself. In
the case of 16, that something is 4, since 4 times itself is
16. If you see one perfect square being subtracted from
another, you can automatically factor it using the pattern
16. If you see one perfect square being subtracted from
another, you can automatically factor it using the pattern
above.
For example, x² – 25 is a difference of x² and 25, and both
are perfect squares. Thus, it can be factored as
(x + 5)(x – 5).
You cannot factor the sum of perfect squares
so whereas x² – 4 is factorable, x² + 4 is not!
◆ Sum of perfect cubes:
a³ + b³ = (a + b)(a² – ab + b²)
Explanation: Perfect cubes are similar to
perfect squares. The number 125 is a perfect perfect squares. The number 125 is a perfect
cube because
5 · 5 · 5 = 125. This formula can be altered
just slightly to factor the difference of perfect
cubes, as illustrated in the next bullet. Other
than a couple of sign changes, the process is
the same.
◆ Difference of perfect cubes:
a³ – b³ = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)
Example 5: Factor x³ – 27 using the difference of
perfect cubes factoring pattern. Solution: Note that x
is a perfect cube since x · x · x = x³, and 27 is also,
since 3 · 3 · 3 = 27. Therefore, x³ – 27 corresponds
to a³ – b³ in the formula, making a = x and b = 3. to a³ – b³ in the formula, making a = x and b = 3.
Now, all that’s left to do is plug a and b into the
formula:
You cannot factor (x² + 3x + 9) any further,
so you are finished.
Problem 6:
Factor the expression 8x³ + 343
Method Method Method Method One One One One: : : : Factoring Factoring Factoring Factoring
Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square Method Two: Completing the Square
Method Three: The Quadratic Formula Method Three: The Quadratic Formula Method Three: The Quadratic Formula Method Three: The Quadratic Formula
To begin, set your quadratic equation equal to 0;
If the resulting equation is factorable, factor it and set each
individual term equal to 0. These equations will give you the
solutions to the equation. That’s all there is to it.
Example 6: Solve the equation 3x² + 4x = –1 by factoring
Solution: Always start the factoring method by setting the
equation equal to 0.
3x² + 4x + 1 = 0.
equation equal to 0.
3x² + 4x + 1 = 0.
Now, factor the equation and set each factor equal to 0.
(3x + 1)(x + 1) = 0
3x + 1 = 0 x + 1 = 0
x =  1/3 x =  1
This equation has two solutions: x = 1/3 or x = –1
You can check them by plugging each separately into the
original equation, and you’ll find that the result is true.
Factoring: 3x² + 4x +1
Solution 3x 1 = x (3x + 1)
x 1 = 3x (x + 1)
4x
(3x + 1)( x + 1) = 0
(3x + 1) = 0 , (x + 1) =0
x =  1/3 , x = 1
Example 7: Solve the equation 2x² + 12x – 18 = 0
by completing the square.
Solution:
Move the constant to the right side of the equation:
2x² + 12x = 18
This is important: For completing the square to work, the
coefficient of x2 must be 1. Divide every term in the equation by
This is important: For completing the square to work, the
coefficient of x2 must be 1. Divide every term in the equation by
2:
x² + 6x = 9
Here’s the key to completing the square: Take half of the
coefficient of the x term, square it, and add it to both sides.
In this problem, the x coefficient is 6, so take half of it (3) and
square that (3² = 9). Add the result (9) to both sides of the
equation:
x² + 6x + 9 = 9 + 9
x² + 6x + 9 = 18
At this point, if you’ve done everything correctly, the
left side of the equation will be factorable. In fact, it
will be a perfect square!
(x + 3)(x + 3) = 18
(x + 3)² = 18
To solve the equation, take the square root of both
sides. That will cancel out the exponent. Whenever sides. That will cancel out the exponent. Whenever
you do this, you have to add a ± sign in front of the
right side of the equation. This is always done when
square rooting both sides of any equation:
√(x + 3) ² = ± √18
x + 3 = ± √18
Solve for x, and that’s it. It would also be good form
to simplify into : x = 3 ± √18
x = 3 ± 3 √2
x =  3 + 3 √2 x =  3  3 √2
The quadratic formula
Set the equation equal to 0, and you’re halfway
there. Your equation will then look like this:
ax² + bx + c = 0
where a, b, and c are the coefficients as where a, b, and c are the coefficients as
indicated.
Take those numbers and plug them straight into
this formula :
You’ll get the same answer you would achieve by
completing the square.
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
− ± −
=
Solve the equation 2x² + 12x – 18 = 0
using the quadratic formula.
Solution: The equation is already set equal to 0,
in form
ax² + bx + c = 0, and a = 2, b = 12, and c = –18
Plug these values into Plug these values into
the quadratic formula
and simplify:
Problem 7: Solve the equation
3x² + 12x = 0
three times, using all the methods you have
learned for solving quadratic equations.
◆ Basic equation solving is an important skill in
calculus.
◆ Reviewing the five exponential rules will
prevent arithmetic mistakes in the long run.
◆ You can create the equation of a line with just
a little information using pointslope form.
◆ There are three major ways to solve quadratic
equations, each important for different reasons.
WHEN IS AN ECUATION A FUNCTION?
IMPORTANT FUNCTION PROPERTIES
FUNCTION SKILLS
THE BASIC PARAMETRIC ECUATIONS
GO TO THE TEXTBOOK GO TO THE TEXTBOOK GO TO THE TEXTBOOK GO TO THE TEXTBOOK
The Rule of four:
Tables, Graphs, Formulas, and Words.
Cricket Cricket Cricket Cricket Chirp Chirp Chirp Chirp Rate Rate Rate Rate versus versus versus versus Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
Temperature °F 40 75 100 136
Chirps per minute 0 140 240 384 Chirps per minute 0 140 240 384
C=4T  160
The Chirp Rate is a Function
of Temperature C(T)=4T160
0
100
200
300
400
500
40 75 100 136
C (Chirps per minute)
T (°F)
◦ Domain (inputs)
◦ =All T values between 40°F and 136°F
◦ =All T values with 40≤x≥136
0
100
200
300
400
500
40 75 100 136
C (Chirps per minute)
T (°F)
Cricket Cricket Cricket Cricket Chirp Chirp Chirp Chirp Rate Rate Rate Rate versus versus versus versus Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
Temperature °F 40 75 100 136
Chirps per
minute
0 140 240 384
C=4T  160
◦ =All T values between 40°F and 136°F
◦ =All T values with 40≤x≥136
◦ =[40,136]
◦ Range (outputs)
◦ =All C values from 0 to 384
◦ =All C value with 0≤C≥384
◦ =[0,384]
This function, called g, accepts any real
number input. To find out the output g gives,
you plug the input into the x slot.
Real life examples…
◦ A person’s height is a function of time
◦ Other examples (by ss)…
Sometimes you’ll plug more than a number into a
function—you can also plug a function into
another function. This is called composition of
functions.
Example 1: If f(x) = and g(x) = x + 6,
evaluate g( f (25)). evaluate g( f (25)).
Solution: In this case, 25 is plugged into f, and
that output is in turn plugged into g.
Evaluate f(25).
Now, plug this result into g: g(5) = 5 + 6 = 11
Therefore, g(f (25)) = 11.
Piecewisedefined function
Evaluate Evaluate
◦ f(1)=
◦ f(2)=
◦ f(3)=
◦ f(10)=
◦ f(0)=
The last important thing you should know
about functions is the vertical line test vertical line test vertical line test vertical line test.
This test is a way to tell whether or not a
given graph is the graph of a function or not.
Linear functions
y=f(x)=b +mx
yy₁=m(xx₁)
Número de habitantes
◦ En el II Conteo de Población y Vivienda 2005,
realizado por el INEGI, se contaron 103 263 388 103 263 388 103 263 388 103 263 388
habitantes en México.
◦ Por ello, México está entre los once países más
poblados del mundo, después de:
China, India, Estados Unidos de América, Indonesia,
Brasil, Pakistán, Rusia, Bangladesh, Nigeria y Japón.
THE GENERAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
P PP P is an exponential funtion of t t t t with base a aa a if
◦ Where P₀ is the initial quantity (when t=0) and a is
the factor by which P changes when t increases by 1.
t
a P P
0
=
the factor by which P changes when t increases by 1.
◦ If a>1, we have exponential growth
◦ If 0<a<1, we have exponential decay
Examples
◦ Population in Mexico
◦ Elimination of a drug from the body
Population Population Population Population of of of of Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico ( (( (estimated estimated estimated estimated) 1980 ) 1980 ) 1980 ) 1980  1986 1986 1986 1986
YEAR POPULATION
(MILLIONS)
CHANGE IN
POPULATION
(MILLIONS)
1980 67.38
1981 69.13 1.75
1982 70.93 1.80
1983 72.77 1.84
1984 74.66 1.89
1985 76.60 1.94
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
0
5
0
1
0
0
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Growth Growth Growth Growth
P (Population in millions)
1986 78.59 1.99
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
0
5
0
1
0
0
Calculate the Exponential Function:
t
a P P
0
=
t (years since 1980)
What is the initial quantity?
What is the Growth Rate?
Evaluate and Interpret P(2005):
P(2009):
For what year was the Population
estimated in 100 million people?
Elimination Elimination Elimination Elimination of a of a of a of a Drug Drug Drug Drug from from from from the the the the
Body Body Body Body
t (hours) Q (mg)
0 250
1 150
2 90
3 54
4 32.4
5 19.4
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 1 2 3 4 5
Q (mg)
t (hours)
Exponential Exponential Exponential Exponential Decay Decay Decay Decay
0 1 2 3 4 5
Calculate the Exponential Function:
t
a Q Q
0
=
What is the initial quantity?
What is the Growth Rate?
Evaluate and Interpret Q(10):
How many hours does it take
for the drug to decrease to 0.001mg?
Example 1
Suppose that Q=f(t) is an exponential function of t.
If f(20)=88.2 and f(23)=91.4
a. Find the base b. Find the growth rate c. Evaluate f(25)
Any exponential Growth function can be written, for some
a>1 and k>0, in the form
◦ or
And any exponential Decay function can be written, for
some 0<a<1 and k>0, as
t
a P P
0
=
kt
e P P
0
=
◦ or
◦ We say that P and Q are growing or decaying at a continous rate of
k. (k=0.02 corresponds to a Continous rate of 2%)
Example. Convert the functions and
Into the form
◦ and
t
a Q Q
0
=
kt
e Q Q
−
=
0
t
e P
05 . 0
=
t
e Q
2 . 0
5
−
=
t
a P P
0
=
t
a Q Q
0
=
The graph of a function is concave concave concave concave up up up up if it bends
upward as we move from left to right;
It is concave concave concave concave down down down down if it bends downward.
Exercises pg. 14: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
12,17,23,24,25,26,27,37,39
Shifts and Stretches
Multiplying a function by a constant, c, stretches the graph vertically
(if c>1). Or shrinks the graph vertically (if 0<c<1).
A negative sign (if c<0) reflects the graph about the xaxis, in addition
to shinking or stretching.
Replacing y by (y  k) moves a graph up by k, or down if k is negative.
Replacing x by (x h) moves the graph to the right by h, or to the left if
h is negative.
y=f(x)
y=2f(x)
y=3f(x)
y=x²
y=x²+4 y=x² y=(x2)²
Composite Functions “A Function of a Function”
◦ Example 1. If f(x)=x² and g(x)=x+1, find:
◦ a. f(g(2))
◦ b. g(f(2))
◦ c. f(g(x))
◦ d. g(f(x))
◦ Exmp 2. Express the following function as a composition.
h(t)=(1+t³)²⁷
Odd and Even Functions: Symmetry
◦ The graph of any polynomial involving only even powers
of x has symmetry about the xaxis.
(Even functions. E.g. f(x)=x²)
◦ Polynomials with only odd powers of x are symmetric
about the origin.
(Odd functions. E.g. g(x)=x³)
f(x)=x² g(x)=x³
For any function f,
f is an Even function if f(x)=f(x) for all x.
f is an Odd function if f(x)=f(x) for all x.
Even function Odd function
Inverse Functions
f¯¹(y)=x means y=f(x)
A function has an inverse if (and only if)
its graph intersects any horizontal line at most once.
In other words,
each yvalue correspond to a unique xvalue
y=f(x) f¯¹(y)=x y=f(x)
2
1
.
[
1
,
8
]
,
1
4
,
2
2
,
2
5
,
2
6
,
5
2
y=f(x) f¯¹(y)=x y=f(x)
Find the Inverse function. C=f(T)=4T160 y=x³
f¯¹(C)
E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
.
P
g
2
1
.
[
1
,
8
]
,
1
4
,
2
2
,
2
5
,
2
6
,
5
2
The logarithm logarithm logarithm logarithm to base 10 of x, written log₁₀ x,
is the power of 10 we need to get x.
log₁₀ x = c means 10^c = x
The natural natural natural natural logarithm logarithm logarithm logarithm of x, written ln x,
is the power of e needed to get x.
ln x = c means e^c = x
Properties of Logarithms
1. Log (AB)=log A + log B
2. Log (A/B)=log A – log B
3. Log A^p= p log A
4. Log 10^x= x
5. 10 ^ log x= x
1. Ln (AB)=log A + log B
2. Ln (A/B)=log A – log B
3. Ln A^p= p log A
4. Ln e^x= x
5. e ^ ln x= x
Log x and Ln x are not defined when x is negative or 0.
Log 1=0 Ln 1=0
EX 1. Find t such that
7 2 =
t
EX 2. Find when the population of Mexico
reaches 200 million by solving
t
P ) 026 . 1 ( 38 . 67 =
EX 3. What is the half life of ozone?
(Decaying exponentially at a continuous rate of 0.25% per year)
kt
e Q Q
−
=
0
EX 4. The population of Kenya was 19.5 million in
1984, and 21.2 million in 1986. Assuming it
increases exponentially, find a formula for the
population of Kenya as a function of time.
kt
e P P
0
=
Give a formula for the inverse of the following
function. (Solve for t in terms of P )
t
t f P ) 026 . 1 ( 38 . 67 ) ( = =
Exercises pg 27: 1,7,8,9,11,17,25,28,29,41
= 1 Radian
An angle of 1 radian radian radian radian is defined to be the angle
at the center of a unit circle which cuts off an
arc of length 1. (measured counterclockwise)
Arc length= 1
180° = π radians 1 radian = 180° / π
Equation of the unit circle: x² + y² =1
The Unit Circle The Unit Circle The Unit Circle The Unit Circle
Equation of the unit circle: x² + y² =1
Fundamental Identity: cos² t + sin² t = 1
Amplitude, Period, and Phase
For any Periodic function of time
Amplitude Amplitude Amplitude Amplitude is half the distance between the maximum and the minimum
values. (if it exists)
Period Period Period Period is the smallest time needed for the function to execute one complete
cycle.
Phase Phase Phase Phase is the difference a periodic function is shifted with respect to other.
Amplitude =1
Period = 2π
Sine and Cosine graphs
are shifted horizontally π/2
cos t = sin(t+ π/2)
sin t = cos(t – π/2)
The phase difference or
phase shift between
sin t and cos t is π/2
Phase = π/2
To describe arbitrary amplitudes and periods of Sinusoidal functions:
f(t)=A sin( B t ) and g(t)=A cos( B t )
Where A is the amplitude and 2π/B is the period
The graph of a sinusoidal function is shifted horizontally by a distance h
when t is replaced by th or t+h.
Functions of the form f(t)=A sin (Bt) + C and g(t)=A cos( Bt) + C
have graphs which are shifted vertically and oscillate about the value C.
Ex 1. Find and show on the graph the Amplitude and Period of the functions. Ex 1. Find and show on the graph the Amplitude and Period of the functions.
a) y=5 sin(2t) b) y=5 sin(t/2) c) y=1 + 2sin t
EX 2. Find possible formulas for the following sinusoidal functions
6π 6π
t
g(t)
3
3
1 3
t
f(t)
2
2
5π 7π
t
h(t)
3
3
π
3
2
3
EX 3. The High tide was 9.9 feet at midnight. Later at Low tide, it was 0.1 feet.
the next High tide is at exactly 12 noon and the height of the water is
given by a sine or cosine curve.
Find a formula for the water level as a function of time.
Ex 4. The interval between high tides actually averages 12 hours 24 minutes.
Give a more accurate formula.
Ex 5. Using the info from Ex 4.
Write a formula for the water level, when the high tide is at 2 pm.
Exercises pg 35. 13,14,15,16,17,19,20,24,25,38
The tangent function The tangent function The tangent function The tangent function
tan t=sin t / cos t
The inverse trigonometric functions The inverse trigonometric functions The inverse trigonometric functions The inverse trigonometric functions
arcsine y=x means sin x=y with π/2 ≤x≤ π/2
(sin¯¹)
arctan y=x means tan x=y with π/2 <x< π/2
(tan¯¹)
arccos y=x means cos x=y with π/2 ≤x≤ π/2
(cos¯¹)
A power function power function power function power function has the form
Where k and p are constant.
p
kx x f = ) (
Ex: the volume, V, of a sphere of radius r is given by
V= g(r)=4/3 πr³
Ex2: Newton’s Law of Gravitation
F=k/r² or F=kr¯²
Polynomials Polynomials Polynomials Polynomials
are the sums of power functions with nonnegative integer exponents
n is a nonnegative integer called the degree of the polynomial.
degree of the function=_____
The shape of the graph of a polynomial depends on its degree.
0 1
1
1
... ) ( a x a x a x a x p y
n
n
n
n
+ + + + = =
−
−
7 5 2 ) (
2 3
− − − = = x x x x p y
The shape of the graph of a polynomial depends on its degree.
A leading negative coefficient turns the graph upside down.
The quadratic (n=2) turns around once.
The cubic (n=3) turns around twice.
The quartic (n=4) turns around three times.
An degree polynomial turns around at most n1 times.
**There may be fewer turns**
th
n
n=2 n=3
n=4
n=5
2 2
x
f(x)
4
3 2
x
g(x)
1 3 2
x
h(x)
EX1: Find possible formulas for the polynomials.
12
Rational functions Rational functions Rational functions Rational functions
are ratios of polynomials, p and q:
) (
) (
) (
x q
x p
x f =
x
y
y=0 is a Horizontal Asymptote Horizontal Asymptote Horizontal Asymptote Horizontal Asymptote
or
y→0 as x→∞ and y→0 as x→∞
4
1
2
+
=
x
y
x=K is a Vertical Asymptote Vertical Asymptote Vertical Asymptote Vertical Asymptote
if
E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
p
g
4
2
:
5
,
7
,
8
,
9
,
1
0
,
1
2
,
1
3
if
y→∞ or y→∞ as x →K
x
y
K
The graphs in Rational functions
may have vertical asymptotes
where the denominator is zero.
Rational functions
have horizontal asymptotes
if f(x) approaches a finite number
as x→∞ or x→∞.
E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
p
g
4
2
:
5
,
7
,
8
,
9
,
1
0
,
1
2
,
1
3
A function is said to be continuous continuous continuous continuous on an interval
if its graph has no breaks, jumps or holes in that interval
To be certain that a function has a zero in an interval
on which it changes sign, we need to know that the function
is defined and continuous continuous continuous continuous in that interval.
f(x)=3x²x²+2x1 f(x)=1/x
A continuous continuous continuous continuous function has a graph which can be drawn
without lifting the pencil from the paper.
1 1
x
f(x)=3x²x²+2x1
5
5
1
1
x
f(x)=1/x
No zero for 1≤x≤1
although f(1) and f(1)
have opposite signs
Zero for 0≤x≤1
F(0)=1 and f(1) =3
have opposite signs
A continuous function cannot skip values
The function f(x)=cos x 2x² must have a zero
because its graph cannot skip over the xaxis.
f(x) has at least one zero in the interval 0.6≤x≤0.8
since f(x) changes from positive to negative on that
interval.
x
f(x)=cos x 2x²
1
0.4 0.6 0.8 1
interval.
1
0.4 0.6 0.8 1
The Intermediate Value Theorem The Intermediate Value Theorem The Intermediate Value Theorem The Intermediate Value Theorem
Suppose f is a continuous function on a closed interval [a, b].
If k is any number between f(a) and f(b), then there is at least
One number c in [a, b] such that f(c)=k.
x 1.9 1.99 1.999 2.001 2.01 2.1
x² 3.61 3.96 3.996 4.004 4.04 4.41
EX: Investigate the continuity of f(x)=x² at x=2
The values of f(x)=x² approach f(2)=4 as x approaches 2.
Thus f appears to be continuous at x=2
Continuity Continuity Continuity Continuity
The function f is continuous at x=c if f is defined at x=c and if
) (
) ( lim
c f
c x
x f
=
→
Exercises pg 47: 15, 17,
15. An electrical circuit switches instantaneously from a 6 volt battery
to a 12 volt battery 7 seconds after being turned on. Graph the battery
voltage against time. Give formulas for the function represented by
your graph. What can you say about the continuity of this function?
t
f(t)
17. Find k so that the following function is continuous on any interval:
x
x
x
kx
x f
≤
< ≤
¹
´
¦
=
2
2 0
, 3
,
) (
2
Notation:
if the values of f(x) approach L as x approaches c.
c x
L x f
→
= ) ( lim
) ( lim x f
) ( lim x f
) ( lim x f
E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
p
g
5
5
:
1
,
2
general limit righthand limit lefthand limit
+
→ 2 x
−
→ 2 x
2 → x
When Limits Do Not Exist
Whenever there is no number L such that
≠ ≠≠ ≠
c x
L x f
→
= ) ( lim
+
→ 2
) ( lim
x
x f
−
→ 2
) ( lim
x
x f
E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
p
g
5
5
:
1
,
2
∞
∞
0
0
Given the graph of below, evaluate the following limits.
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→
4
lim ( )
x
f x
−
→−
3
lim ( )
x
f x
→
4
lim ( )
x
f x
+
→−
2
lim ( )
x
f x
+
→−
lim ( )
x
f x
→∞
4
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
2
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
1
st
Direct Substitution
◦ If it fails… (0/0 Indeterminate form)
2
nd
Factoring
◦ If it fails… ◦ If it fails…
3
rd
The Conjugate Method
Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits: Algebraic Limits:
(a) (b) (c)
2
2
4
lim
2
x
x
x x
→
−
+ +
2
2
3
9
lim
6
x
x
x x
→
−
− −
2
3
lim
2
x
x
x
→
+
−
(d) (e) (f)
(g)
( )
2
2
3
lim
2
x
x
x
→
+
−
3 5
lim
2 4
x
x
x
→∞
−
+
2
4 7
lim
3 5
x
x
x x
→∞
+
− +
4
2
lim
4
x
x
x
→
−
−
Concepts are key to AP Exams
Functions
◦ Linear functions
slope of the tangent line
limit of slopes of secant lines
instantaneous rate of change
limit of average rates of change
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¹
•A derivative is
•Continuity lim f(x)=f(x)
◦ Linear functions
◦ Exponential functions
◦ New from old functions
◦ Logarithmic functions
◦ Trigonometric functions
◦ Powers, Polynomials, and Rational functions
◦ Continuity
◦ Limits