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Hybrid Rice Breeding & Seed Production

FANGMING XIE International Rice Research Institute AP! B!X """" Metro Manila# Phili$$ines %&'ie(cgiar&org

)hat is Hybrid Rice*

The first generation offspring of a rice cross between two genetically diverse parents

Ho+ Hybrid Rice*

Nor,al Rice S$i-elet


.sel% $ollinated cro$/

Sterile Rice S$i-elet


.Male Sterility/

Hybrid Seed Production


.Male Sterile ' Nor,al Rice/

)hy Hybrid Rice*


Heterosis (Hybrid vigor) Application to Increase:
Productivity (yield/unit/time, 15- !" o# yield advantage), and $conomic returns

Heterosis
A universal p%enomenon t%at &1 generation s%o's superiority to bot% parents in agronomic traits or yield It presents in all biological systems and %as been e(ploited commercially in many agricultural crops)

Ho+ to Measure heterosis*


Mid0Parent .MP/ heterosis (F1 performs better than mean of two parents):
F1-MP X100 MP

Better Parent .BP/ heterosis (F1 performs better than better parent):

F1-BP X100 BP

Standard heterosis1 (F1 performs better than the check variety):

F1-C C

X100

* Standard heterosis is the most useful term in commercial crop production

Male Sterility Syste,s in Rice


Ma!e steri!ity: a con"ition in which the po!!en #rain is $nviab!e or cannot #erminate an" ferti!i%e norma!!y to set see"s& Ma!e 'teri!ity 'ystems (#enetic an" non-#enetic):
Cytop!asmic #enetic ma!e steri!ity (CM') Ma!e steri!ity is contro!!e" by the interaction of a #enetic factor (') present in the cytop!asm an" n$c!ear #ene (s)& (nvironment-sensitive #enic ma!e steri!ity (()M') Ma!e steri!ity system is contro!!e" by n$c!ear #ene e*pression+ which is inf!$ence" by environmenta! factors s$ch as temperat$re (,)M')+ "ay!en#th (P)M')+ or both (,P)M')& Chemica!!y in"$ce" ma!e steri!ity Ma!e steri!ity is in"$ce" by some chemica!s (#ametoci"es)

Brie% history o% hybrid rice


1-./ - 0eterosis in rice reporte" 1-/1 - China starte" hybri" rice research 1-20 - China "iscovere" a commercia!!y $sab!e #enetic too! for hybri" rice (ma!e steri!ity in a wi!" rice 3 4i"e 5bortive ) 1-26 - P,)M' rice was fo$n" in China 1-21 - First commercia! three-!ine rice hybri" re!ease" in China 1-2/ - 7ar#e sca!e hybri" rice commercia!i%ation be#an in China 1-2- - 8998 revive" research on hybri" rice 1-:1 - P,)M' rice #enetics an" app!ication was confirme" 1-:. - ;ie!" s$periority of rice hybri"s in the tropics confirme" (8998) 1--0s - 8n"ia an" <ietnam starte" hybri" rice pro#rams with 8998 1--1 - More than =0> of China?s rice!an" p!ante" to hybri"s 1--1 - First commercia! two-!ine rice hybri" re!ease" in China 1--1 - 1--: - Commercia! rice hybri"s re!ease" in 8n"ia+ Phi!ippines <ietnam

Rice and Hybrid Rice Production in =hina


72 63 62 :7 3: 79 72 65 57 4: 9 2 1-2/ 1-2: 1-:0 1-:. 1-:1 1-:/ 1-:: 1--0 1--. 1--1 1--/ 1--: .000 .00.

53 52 43 42 3 2

8ear
<otal R ice Area Hybrid Rice Area ; o% Hybrid rice Area

; o% hybrid rice area

Area .,illion ha/

Rice Grain 8ield in =hina


Rice Grain 8ield in =hina 2=00 2000 /=00
Grain yield .-g>ha/

/000 ==00 =000 1=00 1000 6=00 6000 1-2/ 1-2: 1-:0 1-:. 1-:1 1-:/ 1--0 1--. 1--/ 1--: .000 .00. 1-:: 1--1

8ear Hybrid rice Inbred rice

Hybrid Rice Area in other Asia Countries


=ountry
4??" Bangladesh India Indonesia Myan,ar Phili$$ines @ietna, <otal 499 599 5 46 792 "42 422

Hybrid Rice Area .4#222 ha/


5224 43 522 5227 32 3:2 42 75 49? :32 4#773 5223 ?2 NA NA NA 6:" NA 622. S/ 522: 432 .E'$/

Hybrid Rice Production in @ietna,


"22 :22 "&7 :&9 :&5 3&: 3&2 7&7 6&9 6&5 4??" 4??9 4??? 5222 5224 5225 4??5 4??6 4??7 4??3 4??: 5226

Area .4#222 ha/

322 722 622 522 422 2

8ear
Are a .4222 ha / Hybrid Rice 8ie ld .t>ha / Na tiona l a Ae ra ge rice yirld .t>ha /

8ield .t>ha/

<+o =o,,ercial Syste,s %or Hybrid Rice

ReBuire,ents %or 6 Cines in =MS Syste,


A0line Stable Sterility )ell deAelo$ed %loral traits %or outcrossing Easily# +ide0s$ectu,# & strongly to be restored B0line )ell deAelo$ed %loral traits +ith large $ollen load Good co,bining ability R0line Strong restore ability Good co,bining ability <aller than A0line Carge $ollen load# nor,al %lo+ering traits and ti,ing

<GMS and t+o0line hybrid


,emperat$re

hi#h

Re$roductiAe D$$er Ci,it


Sterile F1 'ee" Pro"$ction

Based on the discoAery o% P.</GMS ,utant Male sterility controlled by 4 or 5 $airs o% recessiAe gene.s/
!ow

=ritical Sterility Point


Partia! 'teri!ity

=ritical Fertility Point


Fertile '-!ine M$!tip!ication

Re$roductiAe Co+er Ci,it

Mo"e! of 'teri!ity @ Ferti!ity (*pression for ,)M' 9ice

Flo+ chart o% 60Cine H ybrid R ice E Aaluation and S eed P roduction


Elite = M S line S! DR = E ND RS ER8 , o eva!$ate parents an" m ake testcross Elite lines %ro, di%%erent sources B & R line B reeding Progra, P line Breeding Proga, =M S B A= E=R ! SS N DR SER8 BC.- BC1+ C M' (va!$ation <ES<=R! S S NDR SER8 , o i"entify B+ 9 A P !ines Backcross C M ' pairs (BC 1) Prem ari!y heterosis eva!$ation+ . rows w@ parent A'B Paircross B ree"er 'ee"s RE<E S<=R ! SS N D RSE R8 .! 8</ 9e-eva!$ate F1 hybri"s ' ta#e 1+ 1 rep+ 6 rows A'B Increase Core 'ee"s A'B Seed Production Fo$n"ation 'ee"s A'B Seed Production Certifie" 'ee"s A & B Cine Release Preli, inary 8ield <rial .P8 </ 'ta#e .+ 1 rep+ p!ot Hybrid S eed Production %or A8< & N 8 < AdAanced 8 ield <rial .A8</ 'ta#e 6+ 6 reps+ p!ot N ational 8ield <rial 'ta#e 1+ 6-1 reps+ m $ti-!ocation+ .-years ! n0Far, <rial .S tri$ <rial/ H ybrid P ilot Seed Production 8so!ation B !ock Hybrid and R line R elease 8so!ation B !ock Hybrid Seed Production %or P8 < 8s!oate" Bet or ba#s H ybrid Seed Production %or ! 8< 8so!ation B a#s or han"-crossin# R & P Cine

F lo + c ha rt o % 5 0C in e H yb rid R ice E Aa lu a tio n an d S eed P ro d u ctio n


S! DR=E NDRSER8 <G M S C in e B reed in g , o e va!$a te paren ts an" m ak e testcross E lite lines %ro, d i%%erent source s B & R lin e B reed ing P rog ra, P ollinato r lin e B ree ding P rog a, B re eder S ee ds = o re S e eds F ound ation S ee d = erti%ied S eed s <G M S Cin e R elease <E S <= R ! S S N D R S E R 8 , o i"entify , ) M ' A P !ines P re m ari!y heterosis eva!$ation + . row s w @ parent R E <E S <= R ! S S N D R S E R 8 .! 8 </ 9 e-eva!$ate F1 hybri"s ' ta# e 1+ 1 rep+ 6 row s P reli, ina ry 8 ield <rial .P 8 </ ' ta# e . + 1 rep+ p!ot AdAan ced 8 ield <rial .A8 </ ' ta # e 6+ 6 reps+ p!o t H ybrid P ilot S eed P ro d uc tion N atio nal 8 ield <ria l ' ta# e 1+ 6-1 re ps+ m $ti-!ocation+ .-years H yb rid an d R lin e R eleas e ! n 0Far, <ria l .S tri$ <rial/ 8so!ation B !ock H yb rid S eed P ro duction %or A8 < & N 8 < 8so!ation B !ock H ybrid S eed P rod uction %o r P 8 < 8s!oate" B et or ba# s H yb rid S eed P rodu ctio n %or ! 8 < 8so!atio n B a# s o r han "-cro ssin#

Advantage & Disadvantage of 3-line hybrid rice system


AdAantages Stable ,ale sterility isadAantages Ci,it ger,$las, source .=MS# Restorer/ o,inant =MS cyto$las, in large area .)A/ !ne ,ore ste$ %or $arental seed $roduction <i,e consu,ing o% =MS breeding

Advantage & Disadvantage of -line hybrid rice system


AdAantages Si,$li%ied $rocedure o% hybrid seed $roduction Multi$le and diAerse ger,$las, aAailable as $arents Any line could be bred as %e,ale ?"; .50line/ As 3; .60line/ o% ger,$las, as ,ale Increased chance o% deAelo$ing desirable & heterotic hybrids Multi$le cyto$las, courses as %e,ale $arents isadAantages EnAiron,ental e%%ect on sterility could cause seed $urity $roble,

Two-line hybrid production in China


<+ o Cine Hy brid Rice In =hina
2:00 2/00 2100 1/00 1100 1.00

2000 /:00 //00 /100 /.00 1--1 1--6 1--= 1--2 .00. 1--. 1--1 1--/ 1--: 1--.000 .001 .006

:00 /00 100 .00 0

8ear
.-!ine 0ybri" ;ie!" 5 !! 0ybri" ;ie!" 5rea

Area .4222 ha/

8ield .-g>ha/

2.00

1000

Hybrid Rice Seed Standard


H y b r id R ic e S e e d S ta n d a r d .G B 7 7 2 7 &4 0 4 ? ? : # = h in a /

Seed S t e r ile C in e M a ia n t a ie r R e s to re H y b r id

= la s s = o re

P u r it y = le a n lin e sG s e r , in a t io n M o is tu r e . F ;/ . F ;/ . F ;/ . H ;/ ? ? &? 9 3 &2

4 6 &2 . in d ic a / 4 7 &3 . Ga $ o n ic a /

F o u n d a tio n? ? &2 4st 5nd ? 9 &2 ? : &2

? 9 &2

9 2 &2

4 6 &2

Mission o% IRRI Hybrid Rice Progra,


eAelo$ing ger,$las,# $arents and hybrids as internationally $ublic goods Research ne+ technology %or breeding and seed $roduction =ollaboration +ith NARS and $riAate sectors in hybrid rice research and $roduction Pro,otion o% e'change o% in%or,ation# technology# scientist and ger,$las,

Strategy o% IRRI Hybrid Rice Progra,


Foc$sin# on conventiona! too!s an" inte#rate them with proven non-conventiona! metho"s to "eve!op the techno!o#y Ceve!opin# parenta! !ines+ especia!!y fema!e parents with hi#h o$tcrossin# an" hi#h D$a!ity+ to promote hybri" rice sprea"in# Faci!itatin# "eve!opment of c!ose partnership between p$b!ic an" private sectors in nationa! pro#rams 8ntensifyin# a#ronomic research to #et ma*imi%e" manifestation of heterosis in hybri"s

Release o% IRRI Hybrids in i%%erent =ountries .4??705223/


IRRI Hybrid IR:7:42H IR:7:44H IR:7:4:H IR:379?H IR:9597H IR:?:?2H IR:?:?2H IR:?:?2H IR:?:?2H IR"352"H IR"354"H IR"969:H Released as MGR04 ERH04 Magat RRH04 MestiIo 4 Sahyadri H8<03" BRRI han Hybrid 4 Ro-an MestiIo 5 MestiIo 6 MestiIo " =ountry India India Phili$$ines India Phili$$ines India @ietna, Bangladesh Indonesia Phili$$ines Phili$$ines Phili$$ines 8ear released 4??7 4??7 4??7 4??: 4??" 4??9 4??? 5224 5225 5225 5225 5223

Release o% Hybrids by using IRRI Ger,$las, in i%%erent =ountries .4??705227/


Hybrids released by !AR" using #RR#bred C$" lines
Hybrid na,e 5P09-1 5P09-. CB90-6 90-. Pant 'ankar Chan-1 5C,90-1 CE90-. Baren"ra 'ankar Chan-. 9okan Maro 0ipa 6 0ipa 1 =ountry 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8n"onesia 8n"onesia 8n"onesia 8n"onesia 8ear released 1--1 1--1 1--= 1--/ 1--2 1--: 1--: 1--: .00. .00. .001 .001 09 1.0 (/111) 8n"ia .001

Hybrids derived from #RR#-bred parental lines and commerciali%ed by private sector
Hybrid na,e Bi#anti 8ntani 1 8ntani . P0B-21 Proa#ro /.01 =ountry Phi!ippines 8n"onesia 8n"onesia 8n"ia 8n"ia 8ear released .001 .001 .001 1--2 .000

Ger,$las, Shared

&"uper high-yielding' hybrid rice breeding in China


P ro g r e s s o % J S u $ e r H ig h 08 ie ld in g J H y b rid R ic e P r o g ra , in = h in a
G o a l .s in g le 0s e a s o n / S ta g e S ta rt Phase I P h a s e II P h a s e III 8 ie ld .t>h a / 8 e a rs 4??" 4??: 0 5222 5222 0 5223 5223 0 5242 F in is h e d F in is h e d S ta r te d C a r g e a r e a e ' te n s io n S ta r te d P r o g r e s s .5 2 2 : / B r e e d in g = o , , e r c ia liI a tio n

9 &5 3 4 2 &3 4 5 &2 4 6 &3

Mor$hological Model o% Su$er High0yielding Hybrid Rice


Plant height K 422 c,# +ith cul, length K "2 c, D$$er,ost three leaAesL Flag lea%# long# 32 c,# higher than the $anicle to$ 52 c,& <he 5nd lea% %ro, the to$L 42; longer than the %lag lea%# and oAer the to$ o% the $anicle& <he 6rd lea% K the ,iddle $osition o% the $anicle ErectL the lea% angles o% the %lag# 5nd and 6rd leaAes are around 3# 42# 52 degrees# till ,ature Narro+# @0sha$e and thic-L narro+ +ith 5 c, +hen %lattened& Plant ty$eL ,oderate co,$act +ith ,oderate tillering ca$acityM droo$ing $anicles a%ter %illed# aboAe ground N :2 c,# erect0leaAed cano$y +ithout a$$earance o% the $anicles Panicle +eight and nu,berL grain +eight $er $anicle K 3 g# 5&" ,illion $anicles $er hectare& Cea% area inde' .CAI/ and ratio o% lea% area to grainsL the CAI is N :&3 based on the u$$er,ost three leaAes# the ratio o% lea% area to grain +eight is 422 L 5&505&6# ,eaning that to $roduce 5&505&6 gra,s o% rice# 422 c,5 o% the u$$er three %unctional leaAes are needed& HarAest inde' F 2&33

Hybrid Heterosis in Rice

Indica ' Ga$onica Indica ' GaAanica Ga$onica ' GaAanica indica ' indica Ga$onica ' Ga$onica

#nter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding


i%%icult in breeding inter0subs$eci%ic hybrid rice Co+ seed set <all $lant height Poor grain0%illing Cate ,aturity Grain Buality ,ar-et Solution %or breeding o% inter0subs$eci%ic hybrid rice +ide co,$atibility .)=/ genes allelic d+ar% gene indica>GaAanica hybrids in indica rice gro+ing region Ga$onica>GaAanica hybrids in Ga$onica rice gro+ing

Future !$$ortunityL Enhance yield heterosis


E'$loiting subs$ecies heterosis A$$lying biotechnology %or $arent selection .heterotic grou$s and>or heterotic gene bloc-s Enhanced yield heterosis in indica > NP< hybrids co,$ared to indica > indica hybrids .retestcross# IRRI# 5227)S/
Hybrid O o% heterotic hybrids <otal O o% hybrids ; o% heterotic hybrids 8ield adAantage .;/ oAer best inbred checRange Mean

indica > indica

67 52

93 72

72 32

4092 :0464

5? 75

Indica > NP<

Future !$$ortunityL
Increase yield o% hybrid seed $roduction
Per%or,ance o% hybrid seed $roduction in tro$ical countries .522605227/

8ield .-g>ha/
=ountry
8n"ia <ietnam Phi!ippines Ban#!a"esh 8n"onesia China

Mean
1+/00 .+000 :10 (01C') :00 =00 .+2=0

Range
1+000 F 1+=00 1+=00 F 6+=00 /00 F .+000 /00 F .+000 600 F 1+/00 1+=00 F /+000

eAelo$ing high outcrossing $arents I,$roAing seed $roduction technology <raining seed gro+ers Selecting adeBuate location > season

Hybrid Rice Seed Production in =hina


Hybrid Rice Seed Production in =hina
6322 6222 632 622

5222 4322 4222 322 2 4?"9 4?92 4?95 4?97 4?99 4??2 4??5 4??7 4??9 5222 4?": 4?9: 4??: 5225

522 432 422 32 2

8ear
8ield Area Cinear .8ield/ Cinear .Area/

Area .4222 ha/

8ield .-g>ha/

5322

532

Hybrid Rice Seed Production


In Asia In Dnited Sates

Future !$$ortunityL
I,$roAe hybrid rice grain Buality
Measure,ents o% Rice Grain PualityL Milling yield <otal ,illing yield )hole ,illing yield =hal A,ylose content Gel <e,$erature .AS@/ Cength# +idth# C>) Protein Aro,a

Future !$$ortunityL
I,$roAe hybrid rice grain Buality
Rice grain Buality o% inbreds and hybrids1

<rait
,ota! Mi!!in# (>) 4ho!e Mi!!in# (>) Cha!k (>) 5my!ose (> ), 7en#th 7@4

Inbred
/-&1 79&" 46&3 1-&: 1&6 /&6&.

Hybrid
/:&. 73&7 52&: .0&/ =&= 2&1 6&6

Data from National Cooperative Testing (NCT), Philippines, 200 !200"

i%%erence o% )hole Milling 8ield and =hal- bet+een Inbreds and Hybrids
)hole Milling 8ield and =hal- in Hybrids and Inbreds .N=<# 522705223# Phili$$ines/
/0

5vera#e 4ho!e Mi!!in# (>) 0ybri" 3 1=&1 8nbre" 3 1:&2 5vera#e Cha!k (>) 0ybri" 3 .0&/ 8nbre" 3 16&=

=0

10

=hal- .;/

60

.0

10

0 .0 .= 60 6= 10 1= =0 == /0 /=

)hole Milling 8ield .;/ 0ybri" 8nbre"

i%%erence o% )hole Milling 8ield and =halbet+een Inbreds and Hybrids


is tr ib u ti o n o % ) h o l e M i ll i n g 8 ie l d
i s tr i b u ti o n o % = h a l -

10 6= 60 .= ; o% Entries
; o% Entries

1= 10 6= 60 .= .0 1= 10 =

.0 1= 10 = 0 G60 60-6=

0 y b r i" ( n 3 1 1 6 ) 0 6= -1 0 10 -1 = 1 = -= 0 8n b r e " ( n 3 1 / ) =0-== H==

G=

0 y b r i" ( n 3 : 0 ) = -1 0 10 -1 = 1=-.0 8n b r e " ( n 3 1 1 ) .0-.= H.=

M illin g 8 ie ld R a n g e

= h a l- R a n g e

Data source# 200 and 200" NCT, Philippines

Future !$$ortunityL
eAelo$ hybrids %or un%aAorable enAiron,ents
Hybrids HaAe Substantially I,$roAed 8ield under SeAere Co+land Stress .ca& 4 t>ha/& .IRRI# G& Atlin# 5223/
IRRI
:000

S 522703
=000

IRRI

S 5223

49&4;

2000 /000 Grain 8ield .-g>ha/

8ield adAantage 42&3;

4&?;

1=00 1000 Grain 8ield .-g>ha/ 6=00 6000 .=00 .000 1=00 1000 Bon-stress EnAiron, e nt 0ybri" (n36) 8nbre" (n32) 'tress

=000 1000

7?&9;

"9&:;
422; 422;
F$!!

6000 .000

96; 9?;
5 !ternate 4ettin# A "ryin# Ir r igation M e thod 0ybri" (n3.) 8nbre" (n3/)

76; 5?;
Cro$#ht

422;

:"; 7:;

1000

422;

Future !$$ortunityL
I,$roAe agrono,ic ,anage,ent and de$loy,ent strategy
Dnhealthy Healthy cano$y

Shan8ou :6 gro+n under di%%erent nitrogen ,anage,ent .S& Peng# IRRI/