Creep Crack G r o w t h in Controlled Microstructure Cr-Mo-V Heat-Affected Zones
Creep crack growth is faster in 2ACr2AMoV3V than in VIOVIMOVAV, and for both steels growth is faster in coarse-grain structures than refined material, with cracks generally maintaining a straight line ~ _L to maximum tensile stress
BY D. ). G O O C H A N D B. L. KING
SUMMARY. Creep crack growth tests at 565°C (1049°F) using compact tension specimens have been performed on controlled microstructure weld heat-affected zones (HAZ's) in a %Cr%MoYiV forging steel and in a %Cr%Mo1AV diaphragm plate steel. It was found that overall growth rates were faster and accompanying displacements lower for all the HAZ structures in the 2/3Cr%Moy3V steel, the difference being substantially greater for coarse grained structures than for refined material. Welds manufactured using a high angle of attack technique, to produce predominantly coarse grained microstructures, had highly cusped interfaces. Cracks were generally observed to maintain a straight path approximately perpendicular to the maximum tensile stress, irrespective of HAZ microstructure. This resulted in crack propagation across the HAZ into either weld metal or base material and, in some cases, this resulted in substantial changes in crack growth rates. In the %Cr%Mo!^V steel, growth rates in coarse grained structures were approximately ten times greater than in refined material. However, in the ViCr&MoVW steel growth rates were faster in the refined HAZ, than in the high angle weld containing a larger proportion of coarsened material. This was attributed primarily to " b u r n t h r o u g h " effects associated with the second layer of weld metal, which resulted in intercritical austenite decomposition products being formed on coarse grained prior austenite boundaries in the '/^Cr'/iMolW steel of the high angle weld.
Introduction The formation and growth of intergranular cracks in the heat-affected zones (HAZ's) of welded joints in CrMoV steels and in the 2V4Cr1Mo weld metals used to join these materials have resulted in a number of serious and potentially dangerous plant failures, often after comparatively short periods of service. Although transverse weld metal cracks are the most common cause of repairs to welded joints in HP and IP steam pipework, there have been few instances of steam leakage resulting from their in-service propagation. In contrast, the growth of circumferential cracks in the HAZ's of a butt weld presents the obvious danger of c o m plete severance of the joint; an explosive failure and a large number of steam leakages have resulted from this mode of cracking in U.K. power plants. Detailed studies of HAZ cracking have identified t w o important metallurgical variables: 1. The presence of grain coarsened bainitic microstructures in the HAZ; these are particularly susceptible to the initiation and growth of cracks during postweld heat treatment or in service.1 2. The presence of residual impurity elements such as P, As, Sn, Sb, Al which further embrittle the grain coarsened microstructures. 2 D. /. GOOCH and B. L KING are with the Central Electricity Research Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board, Leatherhead, Surrey, England.
Both of these factors are amenable to control in practice—the former by control of the degree of overlap between successive weld beads and their HAZ's so as to maximize the degree of refinement, l : 1 the latter by control of residual element levels2 by control of steelmaking procedures. 4 "' The objective of the work described in this paper was to compare the crack initiation and growth characteristics of HAZ's differing in the degree of grain refinement, achieved by the application of the techniques described by King, Middleton and Townsend, 1 in steels of differing composition and crack susceptibility. Experimental Procedures Fabrication of Experimental Welds Two CrMoV steels were used for the production of the experimental welds. One was a rolled diaphragm plate material of nominal VzCrViMoVW c o m position, low in residual element level and consequently thought likely to show good resistance to crack propagation. The other was from a closed die forging of ^ C r ^ M o l W composition which is known to be highly susceptible to creep crack propagation in the coarse grained bainitic condition. 6 Detailed compositions are given in Table 1. Two welds were produced in each material using 6 swg (5 mm diameter) flux coated 2'/4Cr1Mo manual metal arc electrodes. W e l d geometries are shown in Fig. 1. Following King, M i d dleton and Townsend (Fig. 2), 1 the weld procedures were designed to give:
10-sl J A N U A R Y 1980
70 <0.55 0.54 0.01 0. and it may be seen that the welding procedures used were generally successful in producing the desired microstructures.1. Displacements were measured using a capacitive transducer attached to the loading pins via a stainless steel rod and tube assembly. However.23 Forging <0. In this material the majority of the coarse grains adjacent to the fusion boundary were outlined w i t h carbon-enriched austenite decomposition products (Fig.01 0. the current being applied via mild steel strips welded to the loading arms of the specimens. In addition.01 0. The last ~ 5 mm (0. Details of heat treatments. Typical structures are illustrated in Figs. when measured linearly along the fusion boundary.027 <0.001 0.9 However. it is sufficient to consider the relative proportions of grain coarsened structure in each HAZ. A predominantly refined HAZ. and the latter was produced using an angle of attack of 10-15 deg w i t h a resultant high degree of overlap (Fig. the prior austenite grain boundaries in the coarsened regions of the forging steel were predominantly planar and free from intercritical transformation products—Fig. 4 and 5. 1—Schematic representation of weld geometries
90 LOW ANGLE OF ATTACK (a = 10° .) of each notch was spark eroded after the final tempering treatment giving a root radius of ~ 0 . this was not the case for the plate steel. 1A). 6A.006 in. 1 5 mm (0.
probes were stainless steel wires discharge welded on either side of the spark eroded notch. linear intercept figures of ~ 110 Jim against ~ 80 jim being typical.13 0. initial notch lengths and applied loads are given in Table 2.54 0. Specimen blanks were cut from the weld block before tempering at either 650 or 700°C (1202 or1292°F) for 3 hours (h). The notch was positioned so that the root was in the Cr-Mo-V HAZ immediately adjacent to the fusion boundary.40 <0.017 0.003 0. 1 B).01 0.009 0. .21 0.016 <0. O n high angle welds it was further arranged that the root was in coarse grained material near the point of maximum melt back. It was noted that the maximum grain size in the forging steel high angle HAZ was generally larger than for the plate steel.010 <0. The potential drop
Table 1-Chemica Compositions . The former was achieved by using an angle of attack of as 90 deg with little overlap between adjacent weld beads (Fig. The plastic c o m p o nents of the loading line displacements were calculated by subtracting the elastic component as calculated by Roberts.15 0.011 0. In the low angle weldments there was between 10 and 20% grain coarsened material. .).01 <0.02 0.20 in.01 0.01 0. and . and Ac3 by a second-layer weld pass.7 These were then converted into crack tip opening displacements (COD) using the hinge points of Ewing and Richards. Crack extensions were monitored using the dc potential drop technique. Crack Growth Tests Compact Tension (CT) test pieces were machined to the dimensions shown in Fig.19 <0.01 <0. for the high angle welds the proportion increased to between 65% and 75%.13 0. Specimens were oriented w i t h respect to the test welds so that the specimen plane was perpendicular to the welding direction.001 0.08 <0.71 0. 6B) formed by heating to a temperature between Ac.15°
70 mm HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK (a = 90°) Fig.28 0. A predominantly coarse grained bainitic HAZ. wt-% Plate Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Boron Carbon Chromium Cobalt Copper Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Niobium Phosphorus Silicon Sulphur Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium <0.35
Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Microstructures A detailed characterization of the microstructural contituents of m u l t i pass manual metal arc butt welds and their HAZ's has previously been given by Middleton and Cane.019 <0.15°)
W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 11-s
ELECTRODE POSITION ELECTRODE POSITION
10° . for the purposes of this paper. and the notch plane was parallel to the fusion boundary. In each case a preheat of 200-250°C (392-402°F) was used and the maximum interpass temperature was 300°C (572°F). 3.01 0.01 <0.11 0." Tests were conducted under constant load in air at 565 ± 2°C (1049 ± 4°F).
crack growth was substantially faster in the low angle welds than in the high angle. The plane strain reference stress levels in Table 2 " applied to ISO stress rupture data for normalized and tempered VzCrViMo'/iV steel 12 predict rupture lives in excess of 150. H. H. 2—A schematic representation of base metal HAZ microstructure in a multipass weld: effect of weld bead overlap on i of refinement (after King. This is one of the techniques currently used by the CEGB as a means of avoiding HAZ's of high crack susceptibility. in the case of low angle weld specimen PL2. H v 20 (averag e) 240 245 235 240 260 250 235 230
Base material hardness.138 in.35 0.25 mm (0.) diameter electrodes.
12-s| J A N U A R Y 1980
Material /2Cry2Moy4V plate
Welding angle Low High Low High Low High Low High
Tempering"" 3h 650°C A. Crack extension vs.20 (adjacent to fusion line) 285-315 275-310 280-305 270-300 300-360 305-335 260-305 265-305
Specimen reference PL1 PH1 PL2 PH2 DL1 DH1 DL2 DH2
" " "
3h 700°C A.33 0. Initiation was followed by accelerating growth throughout the test durations.36 0.C—Air-cooled. time curves for the plate steel at initial stress intensities of 20 M N r r r 3 ' 2 and 14 M N m " 3 " are shown in Figs.118 in.20 150 150 150 150 200 200 200 200
Initial a/W 0.C. However. the rupture strength of
Table 2—Summary of Test Conditions HAZ hardness.128 in. w i t h i n a few hours of loading. perpendicular to the interface) of weld beads was ~ 2. 10 Examination of the weld metal in the high angle welds showed that the vertical stacking separation (i.) for the forging steel.10% OVERLAP 10% REFINEMENT 90°
25% OVERLAP 25% REFINEMENT
COARSE GRAINED BAINITE(CGB) (ASTM 2-3)
o= ANGLE OF ATTACK 50% OVERLAP
50# REFINEMENT 75% OVERLAP 00% REFINEMENT
(RS) (ASTM 8-9)
REFINED STRUCTURE (FORMERLY CGB)
Fig.42 0.5 mm (0. at the lower stress level a factor of 6 existed between the times taken for 3 mm (0.35
Nominal stress intensity.36 0.) diameter electrodes against the interface followed by a second layer of weld metal deposited from 4 mm (%2 in.e. At these low overall stress levels. MNm-"! 20 20 14 14 14 14 14 14
Plane strain reference stress. At the higher stress level this difference was reduced to a factor of 2. respectively. MNm-2 76 73 48 45 45 44 46 45
" " "
3h 650°C A.34 0. Middleton and Townsend') It is unusual to observe a high proportion of this structure in production welds.000 h at 45 M N r r r 2 .C.) extension to occur.) for the plate steel and ~ 3. Crack Propagation Rates ViCrViMo'AV Plate Steel. it is more frequently seen in welds made using 3.1 in.5 mm (0. this being consistent with the higher incidence of intercritical coarse grained structure in the plate steel. For example.. 7 and 8. Crack initiation was generally detected within the first 25% of life and.
W e l d m etal hardness. At both stress levels.5.
It is clear.
':% • :
. and low angle (B) weld HAZ's in ViGViMoVtV diaphragm plate steel
Fig.. However.-.^.-* / S * • f:s -. 3—Test piece dimensions and orientation quenched-and-tempered bainitic ViCrteMolW w o u l d be expected to be comparable. 6—Grain coarsened HAZ structures: A-2ACr2AMoViV. 9. 5—High angle (A) and low angle (B) weld HAZ's in 2/iCr%MoViV forging steel
Fig. B-ViCrViMo<AV W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T 113-s
50 mm (W)
x POTENTIAL DROP PROBES a CRACK LENGTH
• : • . For the high angle weld the plots for
the two stress levels suggest that a single curve could be drawn to cover results from both specimens.-. & • • '
. 4—High angle (A).
F/g. this is shown in Fig.
teg m .. this is certainly not the case for the
ft. . that application of a reference stress tech-
nique to predict failure of these specimens is not appropriate. The other extreme analytical approach is to plot crack growth rates against the instantaneous nominal stress intensity.
7-Crack extension rates in 'ACrViMo'AV plate steel HAZ. The data in Fig. Tempering the high angle weld at
the higher temperature of 700°C (1292°F) resulted in extension rates consistently less (approximately half) than those of the weld tempered at 650°C (1202°F). 8. However. It is shown under Metallography that the initial high growth rates corresponded to propagation through coarse grained material. 565°C (1049°F). In contrast to the plate steel. the crack paths pass through the weld metal). no analytical significance should be attached to these plots of average instantaneous growth rates other than an empirical method of data presentation. the stress intensity dependence of the crack growth rate appearing significantly lower for the lower stressed specimen. 565°C (1049°F). For the welds tempered at 650°C (1202°F) overall crack extension was
TEMPERED 3h 650°C '• 3h650°C
Fig. initial K = 14MNm-:w14-s I J A N U A R Y 1980
.) growth. 10 for the high angle
'ACr /2M0 l4V PLATE
PL2 TEMPERED 3h 650°C 3h 650°C DLI DHI DL2 DH2 " " " " 3h650°C 3h650° 3h 700° 3h 700c
/3Cr 2 /3Mo ' / 3 V FORGING
Si u < u
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Fig. initial K = 20MNm-3.236 in. in some instances. in the case of specimen D H 1 . 10. crack extension rates in the high angle welds were initially substantially faster than in the low angle case—Fig. For the low angle welds the difference in crack growth rates showed no clear advantage for the more heavily tempered material-Fig. crack arrest occurred after ~ 6 mm (0. this rapid growth soon gave way to a rate comparable w i t h that for the corresponding low angle weld and. In view of the fact that the crack path in a given specimen traverses regions of greatly varying microstructure (and even c o m position since.low angle w e l d . It is also shown that the subsequent slowing d o w n and arrest coincided w i t h growth into retransformed structures and the base metal. 8-Crack extension rates. It is estimated that in grain coarsened structures growth rates were approximately twenty times higher for the forging steel but that in retransformed material this factor was reduced to approximately t w o .l
faster for both geometries than either of similarly tempered welds in the '/^CrViMolW plate steel. 2 /3Cr2/3Mo1/3V Closed Die Forging Steel. Specimens in this material were tested at an initial stress intensity of 14 M N r r r 3 ' 2 .
6 Displacement Rates Figure 11 shows the variation of the plastic component of the loading line displacement w i t h crack extension for all specimens tested. whereas for the forging steel this trend is reversed.g.j\
5 6 7 CRACK EXTENSION. This is consistent w i t h the crack propagation data in that the higher displacements are associated w i t h the slower crack growth rates. However. 9—Nominal stress intensity dependence of crack growth rates for V2OV2M0VW plate steel HAZ. 11—Variation of plastic component of loading line displacement with crack extension. in some cases (e." The reason for this behavior is not clear but must be associated w i t h the shorter time avail-
W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 15-s
. 565°C (1049°F)
NOMINAL STRESS I N T E N S I T Y . The data for the 650°C (1202°F) tempered samples fall
Fig. DL1 and DL2) an approximately constant value is reached. This is opposite to the effect which w o u l d be expected from specimen geometry considerations which predict that the amount of constraint decreases as a / W increases in this range for compact tension specimens. In previous work on the same material crack growth rates in simulated coarse
grained material were 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than in simulated refined structures.15
25 m'*1 15 20
NOMINAL STRESS I N T E N S I T Y . This implies that. It is noticeable that. MN
Fig. the elastic proportion of the displacement increases with a / W . 10—Nominal stress intensity dependence of crack growth rates for 2ACr2AMoViV forging steel HAZ. the displacements for the closed die forging steel being typically between 50% and 70% of those for the plate steel. for the range of a/VV investigated. 565°C (1049°F)
into t w o distinct bands corresponding to the t w o CrMoV steels. For the plate steel there is a tendency for the low angle welds to crack with the lower displacements. This illustrates the difficulty of correlating instantaneous growth rates w i t h any stress based parameter in such inhomogeneous structures. 565°C (1049°F)
welds show an apparent anomalous decrease in crack growth rate with increasing stress intensity. as the crack extension increases.. The effect of tempering the forging steel at 700°C (1292°F) instead of 650°C (1202°F) was to raise the displacements of the low angle weld by an average of approximately 90% but those of the high angle weld only marginally. the data are consistent with the propagation of the cracks from coarse grained to fine grained regions of the HAZ.. the rate of increase of plastic loading line displacement decreases.
These are best described by reference to Figs. The decrease in calculated C O D at the higher a / W values is a consequence of the approach to constant value of the plastic loading line displacement combined w i t h movement of the hinge point with increasing crack length. 565°C (1049°F)
able for stress redistribution ahead of the crack tip at faster growth rates.). 13. 14 (diaphragm plate steel. 15A and 15B (forging steel. 14-Crack path in high angle HAZ in VIOVIMOVAV plate steel. As the fusion boundary departs further from the plane of maximum tensile stress. PH1) the starter notch root lies in a coarse grained region at the point of maximum melt-back. By contrast the crack paths in the high angle welds were strongly influenced by the highly cusped nature
of the fusion boundary. itself. is that the plate steel specimens loaded to an initial nominal stress intensity of 20 M N r r r 3 ' 2 have significantly lower COD's than those loaded to 14 M N r r r 3 / 2 . K. K. however. 12 and exhibits similar trends to the loading line displacement. 650°C (1202°F): A—propagation through HAZ. The variation of crack tip opening displacement with crack extension is shown in Fig. through a band of retransformed material and
Fig. • 20 MN m " 3 ' 2 TEMPERED 3h 650°C. Initially. parallel to the fusion boundary and the maximum tensile stress.—•
RE-INITIATION I < ^ ON FUSION I — "ELD " BOUNDARY METAL WELD METAL
RE-INITIATION ON FUSION BOUNDARY
HAZ PARENT BOUNDARY ° • • a 9 i. any such changes w o u l d have been masked by acceleration in crack growth rates due to increasing crack length. tempered 3 h. Discontinuities were occasionally observed but could not conclusively be associated with microstructural variations. the crack had halted when in a position up to 1 mm from the fusion boundary and re-initiated practically upon the boundary. specimen PL2. B-macrograph showing continuation into weld metal (reverse orientation)
16-s j J A N U A R Y 1980
. DHI) the starter notch root lies above
Fig. Metallography In the low angle welds of both materials the crack paths ran straight d o w n the HAZ. the crack maintains a straight path irrespective of the microstructure ahead of it. tempered 3 h 650°C(1202°F)
into the weld metal. T p[j| j
TEMPERED 3h 650°C. In Figs.16 in.:l4MNr
CRACK EXTENSION. This may be a consequence either of the higher stress or of the starting value of a / W since this was greater for the more highly stressed specimens—Table 2. particularly where melt back had produced a larger than average cusp which interrupted the crack path. In Fig. This behavior did not result in any discontinuities in propagation rate due to the different microstructural regimes. it is of interest that where discontinuities were present. In specimen PL2 this resulted in the crack tip at the termination of the test being in the weld metal—Fig. However. However. specimen PHI.
K. 13-Crack path in low angle HAZ in ViCrViMoViVplate steel. mm
Fig. It thus propagates from the initial coarse grained region. In the plate steel there were occasional incursions into the weld metal. 14 and 15. the crack runs tangentially to the fusion boundary remaining in the coarsened structure for ~ 4 mm (0. 12-Variation of COD with crack extension. One significant difference.
PL2 PH2 DLI DHI J DL2 1 DH2 /
TEMPERED !h 700°C.
650°C (1202°F): A-propagation through HAZ.13"13 In the present work this trend has been confirmed in actual weldments in the high residual forging steel by the observation of extremely rapid growth rates in coarse grained regions. it then maintained a straight line.1 . thereby restricting the volume of damaged material in front of the crack tip. however. i ' the crack will be steeper in the case of bend loading. As in the previous case. irreDiscussion spective of microstructure. Thus. through the coarse grained material. approximately perpendicular to the line of maximum tensile stress. The direction of propagation of this secondary crack appears to be away from the fusion boundary and it is considered that.greater than in refined structures and that the associated displacements are lower. However. the sensitivity of growth rates to microstructure is significantly lower in the steel which is inherently more crackresistant. if the test had been continued. Once again the initial crack path is tangential to the fusion boundary.
the point of maximum melt back. This role is grained bainites are substantially accentuated in laboratory tests using CT specimens with mixed bend and tensile loading compared w i t h the predominantly tensile loading experienced in service situations. observed from the potential drop mearather. Contrary to expectation. Fig. It is clear. 15—Crack path in high angle HAZ in 2AGr2AMo'AV forging steel. during this period. and it has been shown previously 17 that this treatment 0-5mm takes quenched VzCrteMoVW steel to 200pm H the peak of the secondary hardening Fig. it maintained a straight path surements. This is *because the stress gradient ahead of r '. Although similar effects of weld geometry were observed in the plate steel welds. specimen DHI. that the geometry of the Previous work on high temperature fusion line and its relationship to the crack propagation in simulated HAZ applied stress play an important part in structures in hCr'AMo'AV steels has determining the precise cracking charshown that growth rates in coarse acteristics of the HAZ. In this respect it is significant that Alberry and Jones16 have found that the formation of intercritical austenite transformation products on prior austenite boundaries of coarse grained bainitic $5Cr%MoV»V steels is more effective in increasing the ductility of untempered specimens during slow strain rate tensile tests at 550°C (1022°F) than grain refinement. J. 6B) almost certainly contributes to the high 2mm resistance of the coarse grained structure to crack propagation—for exam*'<6<\ . The formation of intercritical austenite transformation products on the prior austenite boundaries in the grain coarsened regions (Fig. In creep crack growth tests at 565°C (1049°F) this gives crack exten3 h. B-macrograph showing crack arrested near boundary of HAZ and base metal (reverse orientation). 15C shows that. ple. it was not possible to identify periods of growth through coarse and refined regions from the crack propagation record. the crack path in high angle welds in this steel did not follow the coarse corresponds to the zero growth period grained regions around the fusion line. reinitiation is occurring in the coarsened structure adjacent to the fusion boundary at approximately the same depth as the primary crack tip. by increasing the resistance to prior austenite grain boundary sliding or shear which may be involved in cavity nucleation or growth processes. the cracking sequence w o u l d have been repeated and back linking to the primary crack w o u l d also have occurred. . It then propagated into the refined structure. rather than follow the coarsened structure around the fusion boundary. C — reinitiation in coarse grained sion rates only a factor of 2-3 times region marked "X" in (A) and (B) slower than for untempered material. tempered curve. therefore. finally arresting close to the boundary be-
W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T I 17-s
. In the present work the tempering treatment for the plate steel welds was 3 h at 650°C (1202°F).
P I R A X 2 ." Phil Trans.. R. 1977.. "Prevention of HAZ and W e l d Metal Cracking Through Control of M i c r o structure in Cr-Mo-V/2y4CrMo Weldments. 2. per c o p y .. T E D E L (a p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d by Roche. Batte. "The Mechanical Properties of Simulated Multipass hCfAMoW Heat Affected Zones. M. Sci. S u b s e q u e n t heat t r e a t m e n t f o r 3 h at 6 5 0 ° C (1202°F) w i l l r e s u l t in t e m p e r i n g of the original bainitic structure w e l l b e y o n d t h e secondary h a r d e n i n g peak w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n in c r e e p c r a c k e x t e n s i o n rates. "The Yieldpoint Loads of Symmetrically Notched Metal Strips. C .M o . In t h e V2CTV1M0V4W steel g r o w t h rates w e r e faster in t h e l o w a n g l e w e l d w i t h a f i n e g r a i n e d H A Z t h a n in t h e h i g h a n g l e w e l d c o n t a i n i n g a larger p r o p o r t i o n o f coarse m a t e r i a l . 1977. and Cane.t e r m issues. 4./4V d i a p h r a g m p l a t e steel. 9A. G o o c h .. and Pilkington. Sci.25V Steel. W. Cracks g e n e r a l l y m a i n t a i n e d a straight path a p p r o x i m a t e l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e m a x i m u m t e n s i l e stress i r r e s p e c t i v e of H A Z m i c r o s t r u c t u r e .. Vol. B e c a u s e of t h e t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e of t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . J. F. the creep strength and ductility of i n t e r c r i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be s t r o n g l y dependent u p o n the detailed microstructure resulting f r o m the precise thermal cycle e m p l o y e d ." CEGB Report RD/L/R1919." Mater.. Sci. J. to be published 1979. J.. p e a k t e m p e r a t u r e s of t y p i c a l l y 8 5 0 . D. 5.. Alberry. and Reynolds.. had a highly cusped i n t e r f a c e . Vol. Holdsworth. In t h e . C L. 227. 29. " Phil. B.25V Steel.. 1977. " CEGB Report R D / L / N 2 4 / 7 7 ..
Conclusions C r e e p crack g r o w t h tests at 5 6 5 ° C (1049°F) w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n c o n trolled microstructure heat-affected z o n e s in t w o C r . Sci.. W. 3. T h i s r e p o r t deals w i t h n u m e r i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s o n selected p i p i n g a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m s . O r d e r s s h o u l d be s e n t w i t h p a y m e n t to t h e W e l d i n g 8 0 1 . 9. "Some Effects of Composition and Microstructure on the High Temperature Ductility of CrMoV Steels.V steels. 0 0 Research C o u n c i l . "The Influence of Microstructure on Creep Crack Growth in 0. Nevertheless. and Haigh. K. B. 865.. New Y o r k . "Relationship between Engineering and Metallurgical Factors in Creep Crack G r o w t h . Ewing. 20. 360. 0. N e w d e v e l o p m e n t s are b e i n g r e p o r t e d f r e q u e n t l y . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s in g r o w t h rates b e t w e e n t h e t w o steels w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater in coarse g r a i n e d s t r u c t u r e s t h a n in r e f i n e d m a t e r i a l . C J. Vol. G J. 17. Haigh. International Organisation for Standardisation. ISO/TC17/WG 10/ ETP-SG (Secretariat 9). Part II: Review and Re-analysis of Previous W o r k . "Intergranular Embrittlement in CrMoV Steels: An Assessment of the Effects of Residual Impurity Elements on High Temperature Ductility and Crack G r o w t h . Report No.
WRC Bulletin 253 October 1979
A Survey of Simplified Inelastic Analysis Methods
by R. 12. and T o w n send.. p. Alberry. p.1977. "Elevated Temperature Tensile and Stress Rupture Properties of V2% Chromium </z% M o l y b d e n u m 1/4% Vanadium Steel.." Materials Research and Standards." Phil. R.
microstructures. 11.. p. M i d d l e t o n . 23. 0. and Jones. D. Eng. W e l d s m a n u f a c t u r e d u s i n g a h i g h a n g l e of a t t a c k p r o c e d u r e . L. 8. 4. D. 545. 7. P.^ C r ^ M o 1 sV s t e e l ." Mater. Vol. J. C. "Turbine Casing Castings: A User-Producer Collaborative Exercise. 1977. Eng. I. it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t l y a n o m a lous b e h a v i o r of t h e coarse grained m i c r o s t r u c t u r e s in t h e h i g h a n g l e p l a t e w e l d m a y be r a t i o n a l i z e d o n t h i s basis. "Creep Crack G r o w t h in Variously Tempered Bainitic and Martensitic 0. R.9 0 0 ° C (1562-1652°F) are required for the f o r m a t i o n of intercritical transformation products during weld t h e r m a l c y c l i n g . 1975. B.5Cr-0. to be published 1979.
18-s I J A N U A R Y
. J. H o f f m a n a n d C r i l l o n a t CEN Saclay i n France) a n d M A R C ." Welding and Metal Fabrication... " Mater.. 5. 3 4 5 East 4 7 t h St. 55. P u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s r e p o r t w a s s p o n s o r e d Pressure Vessel Research C o m m i t t e e of t h e T h e price of WRC B u l l e t i n 2 5 3 is $ 1 0 ." to be published. J. Myers. A. 549. T h i s r e s u l t e d in c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n across t h e H A Z a n d i n t o e i t h e r w e l d m e t a l or base m a t e r i a l . "Diagram for the Prediction of Weld Heat Affected Zone Microstructures. t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n here a t t e m p t t o a d d r e s s l o n g . Nickell
T h i s review of s i m p l i f i e d m e t h o d s r e p r e s e n t s a n i n s t a n t a n e o u s g l i m p s e of a r a p i d l y p r o g r e s s i n g d i s c i p l i n e . and Richards. Eng. 2. g r o w t h rates in c o a r s e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n in r e f i n e d m a t e r i a l . L. M i d d l e t o n . C l e a r l y . In h i g h a n g l e w e l d s crack arrest w a s o b s e r v e d in t h e base m a t e r i a l w i t h r e i n i t i a t i o n in c o a r s e g r a i n e d r e g i o n s a h e a d o f t h e crack tip. D." CEGB Report R D / L / R 1945. E. p. 3. L." Met Trans. R o o m by t h e S u b c o m m i t t e e o n Elevated T e m p e r a t u r e Design of t h e Welding Research Council. 27. Vol. E. Trans. Trans. J.5Mo-0. P. Alberry.H o w e v e r . p. Gooch.. 45.5Mo. 11." CEGB Report R D / L/N237/72 1972. R. P. 10. p. and Chew.. Myers. p. O v e r a l l g r o w t h rates w e r e faster and accompanying displacements l o w e r f o r all t h e H A Z s t r u c t u r e s in a %Cr 2 /3Moy3V f o r g i n g steel c o m p a r e d w i t h a 1/2Cr1/2Mo.. K.. "Cavitation Control in Steels of High Residual Element Content.5Cr. E. Jones.. M i d d l e t o n . J. King. King. 1969. P. C . B. D „ Brear.. "Elastic Crack Edge Displacements for the Compact Tension Specimen. 16. J. Vol. R. 225. 6. King. to be pub-
lished 1979. " A n Improved W e l d i n g Technique for Heat Affected Zone Refinement.
Acknowledgment T h e w o r k d e s c r i b e d in t h i s p a p e r w a s p e r f o r m e d at t h e C e n t r a l E l e c t r i c i ty Research L a b o r a t o r i e s a n d is p u b l i s h e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l Electricity Generating Board.. Roberts. D. 14." 13. C E.. NY 1 0 0 1 7 . and Jones.. i n c l u d i n g PACE ( t h e Boyle a n d S p e n c e p r o g r a m based u p o n s u p e r p o s i t i o n of s t a t e s ) .. in o r d e r t o p r o d u c e p r e d o m i n a n t l y coarse grained
References 1." Metals Tech. 15. Gooch. "The Mechanisms of Macroscopic High Temperature Crack Growth. J. 1978. S. "Characterization of the Nature and Distribution of Microstructural Constituents of M u l t i pass M M A Butt W e l d m e n t s . J. It w a s f o u n d that: 1. Vol 4.. 1 6 a n d t h e s e are acc o m p a n i e d by c a r b i d e p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e b a i n i t i c m a t r i x as w e l l as carbon-rich austenite formation on the grain boundaries. J. King.. p. 1975. 1977. B. B. "The Effect of M i c r o structure on Creep Crack G r o w t h in ViCrViMoVW Steel Deformed in Three Point Bending.. T h i s w a s attributed primarily to the formation of intercritical austenite d e c o m p o s i t i o n p r o d u c t s o n t h e coarse g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s in t h e h i g h a n g l e w e l d . " Met. J. 6. 1977. MTRSA Vol 9. L.