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This module aims to give exposure to students on several topics related to culture and ethnic groups in Malaysia. This includes an understanding of the concept of culture and ethnic groups. In addition, this module also discusses the characteristics of ethnic groups and demography. Knowledge about this topic is important to teachers because they have a great role in the realization of the national agenda to achieve social integration. Besides, an understanding of this topic also enables the teacher to foster positive values to increase students awareness of the different cultures and diverse ethnic groups which will further enhance the spirit of cooperation amongst students. Therefore teachers need to e!uip themselves with "nowledge on how to create a conducive teaching and learning environment for students from diverse ethnic groups. Learning Out o!es #t the end of this unit, learners should be able to$ %.%. %.' &xplain concepts of culture and ethnic groups in Malaysia &laborate and present the characteristics of ethnic groups and demography in Malaysia.

Topi 1"1

De#inition an$ Con epts o# Cu%ture

Before we start this topic, let us reflect on the relevance of this topic with our role as a teacher in a classroom consisting of students from diverse ethnic groups and cultures. This is a common scenario in Malaysia. (ow would "nowledge about culture and diverse ethnic groups help teachers create a conducive teaching and learning environment) May be we already have the answers to these !uestions based on our experience and perception respectively. (owever, we need to understand some basic concepts related to this topic that may help to improve our understanding.


De#inition an$ Con ept o# Cu%ture De#initions an$ Con epts o# Cu%ture

In general, culture means the way of life. *rom the sociological viewpoint, the word culture is derived from the +ans"rit word Buddhaya which is a combination of the word Budhi (+ans"rit, meaning active mind and Daya -Malay, which means force, power and influence. The &nglish term of culture, however, has it.s root from the /atin word, 0colere1 which means designing or doing. Besides, let us loo" at other definitions of culture. 23ulture or civilization, ta"en in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes "nowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits ac!uired by man as a member of society2. -&dward B. Tylor, %45%, 23ulture may be defined as the totality of the mental and physical reactions and activities that characterize the behavior of individuals composing a social group collectively and individually in relations to their natural environment, to other groups, to members of the group itself and of each individual to himself. It also rates includes the products of These activities and their role in the life of the groups 2. -*ranz Boas, %6%%, 23ulture is a set of intellectual and material e!uipment that can meet their biological and social needs in "eeping with the surrounding2. -Mohd Taib 7sman,%644, 03ulture is a set of human8made ob9ective and sub9ective elements that in the past have increased the probability of survival and resulted in satisfaction of the participants in an ecological niche and thus become shared among those who could communicate with each other1. : 7b9ective 8 something that has a tangible form, such as agricultural tools, art wor"s, houses, means of transportation, communication tools and so on. : +ub9ective8something abstract such as norms, morals and values. -Triandis, %66;, 2The way of life of people, including their attitudes, values, beliefs, arts, sciences, modes of perception and habits of thoughts and activity2. -<ictionary of =hilosophy,%66>,

Based on the given definitions of the meaning of culture, we can conclude that there are distinct similarities in the various thoughts from different bac"grounds in different epochs. In short, culture is a way of life in any society which includes belief systems, values, beliefs, art, tradition and civilization. ?ext, let s loo" at several other aspects of the concept of culture. Based on some thoughts on universal cultural elements, Kluc"hohn in his boo" 0@niversal 3ategories of 3ulture1 -%6AB, discuss the cultural framewor". Based on that, Koent9araningrat -'CC'$ 'CB8'C;, highlights seven cultural elements, namely$ %. /anguage '. Knowledge system B. +ocial organization ;. Technology systems and e!uipment A. /ivelihood and economic system >. Deligious system 5. #rt In other words, all the seven elements form the basis of the culture in any society. These elements are all inter8related. (owever, not all of these elements stand out. <ifferent societies have certain elements that stand out and this varies from one society to another. 1"1"&" C'ara teristi s o# Cu%ture (owever, there are several characteristics of culture which are similar in all societies. The characteristics are as follows$8 i, /earned E 3ulture is not herited but can be learned. *or example

parents need to teach their children manners and dress codes, table manners and communication with the elderly. ii, +hared 8 There are certain elements in a culture that is not confined to any one ethnic group, but also practiced by other ethnic groups. *or example, we see in terms of clothing. #lthough ba9u "urung and "ebaya are the traditional attire of the Malay community, it is also worn by other ethnic groups. +imilarly, in terms of food, we find that in the context of Malaysia which is blessed with a great variety of food because of the various ethnic groups, the traditional food of a certain ethnic group, for example thosai and apom which belongs to the Indians, is also a favorite of other ethnic groups. iii, (as been universal 8 universal features exist in all human groups. *or example, animal loving culture and the environment. (owever, these cultural practices may differ from one ethnic group to other ethnic groups due to the system of beliefs, local customs and values of a society. iv, Inherited 8 This means that culture can be passed down from one generation to another generation. *or example, the Malay culture in marriage customs practiced today is a legacy of the previous generation. +imilarly, there are certain cultural practises adopted by other races in Malaysia li"e the 3hinese. They have a certain tradition of prohibited colour for clothings that they need to observe during 3hinese ?ew Fear and this is a tradition that has been practiced for generations. v, <ynamic 8 3ulture is something that is dynamic over time, context and place. #s an example, we see changes in the male +i"h community in ancient times adhere to wearing turban. But with the passage of time and modernization, there have been men among the modern generation +i"h whereby wearing of turban is no longer observed. vi, (ave a symbolic elements 8 These elements exist in all societies based on the level of importance of the tool selected as the image or symbol. *or example, symbols such as flags, logos and symbols have specific meanings to the members of the community.

vii, The existence of worldview

?ext, based on these features, culture can be categorized into two types, namely$ 8 i, ii, material culture 8 e!uipment and supplies life and economic systems. non8material culture 8 religion and belief systems, "nowledge and language. #s a conclusion, in terms of human psychology, culture is part of human life. 3iting Matsumoto -'CC', culture played as basic and important a role in understanding and contributing to human behavior as did any other influences on our lives, and to gradually understand its pervasive and profound influence on psychological processes in al areas of functioning. *rom a different viewpoint, we also can say that culture is the production of a community in various forms, whether tangible or intangible -?oriati #.Dashid et al, 'C%%,. 3ulture also refers to a way of life practiced by many people involving thought, values, beliefs, opinions, habits and way of thin"ing that can be inherited. Important cultural concept to compare and contrast the different societies. Thus it seems that man himself create a culture and cultural development will follow the progress of society. -#ziz <eraman, %66;, In the context of current education, teachers have a responsibility to educate students to be cultured as re!uired by not only society but conform to the explicit and implicit elements in the ?ational =hilosophy of &ducation. Thus, the teacher is responsible for understanding the diversity of cultures and groups among the students in the classroom. To realize their role, teachers need to improve their understanding of the cultural and ethnic diversity. In this regard, two ma9or cultural roles that need to be recognized by the teachers are to build the country s image to create character and identity and to foster national consciousness and nationhood based on characteristics of spirituality, humanity and mentality -?asrudin Funos, 3entre for General +tudies, @KM,.

+top and Deflect

0Hhat culture is to humans is what water is to fish1- +hinobu Kitayama,. To what

extent do you agree with the viewpoint) Based on your experience, discuss the concept of cultural diversity in the context of Malaysian society. 1"1"( Su!!ary This topic has discussed important aspects such as$ <efinitions of culture from various perspectives. In general, culture means the way of life. *rom the point of language, the word culture is derived from the +ans"rit word Buddhaya which is a combination of the word Budhi -+ans"rit, meaning active mind and <aya1 -Malay, which means force, power and influence. The &nglish term of culture, however, has its root from the /atin word, Icolere. which means designing or doing. In short, culture is a way of life in any society which includes belief systems, values, art, tradition and civilization. *urther discussion featuring seven cultural elements, namely$ /anguage, "nowledge systems, social organization, technological systems and e!uipment, livelihood and economic systems, religious systems and the arts. 3haracteristics of culture discussed in this module are as follows$ 8 o /earned o +hared o Being universal o Inherited o <ynamic o (ave a symbolic element o The existence of worldview

The teacher has to be responsible for understanding the diversity of cultures and groups among the students in the classroom. Two "ey roles of the teacher are to build the country s image to create character and identity, fostering national consciousness and nationhood based on characteristics of spirituality, humanity and mentality -?asrudin Funos -3entre for General +tudies, @KM,.

Topi &

De#inition an$ Con ept o# Di)erse Groups

#s a teacher, have you ever thought about the importance of the concept of diverse group) (ow can this "nowledge allow a teacher to create a harmonious environment among school children consisting of diverse groups and culture) Many !uestions of this "ind can be as"ed. &vidently, all these !uestions show that the concept of group diversity is very much related to the responsibility of a teacher. Thus, as teachers we need to understand the meaning and concept of diverse groups in order to play effective roles in creating a harmonious and friendly teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom. In the context of our discussion as regards to 2diverse group2 we need to clarify a few concepts as follows$ 1"&"1 Et'ni

De#inition o# Et'ni
The word ethnic comes from the Gree" word 0ethnos1 meaning people. #ccording to +hamsul -'CC5,, in his boo" &thnic Delations Module ethnicity can be defined as a group of people who practise the culture that almost uniformly cover the customs, dress, language and economic activities. #ccording to him, the concept of ethnicity has a relationship with the concept of race. &thnic is classified through different cultures characterized by customs, family patterns, clothing, aesthetics, political orientation, economic activity and entertainment. Based on his views it can be summarised that ethnicity is a concept which categorizes groups of people based on their living system.1 -Marzudi Md Funus, 'CC6,. Based on the Islamic view, the existence of multi8ethnic, ethnicity, race, language, color, customs, culture and so on is common. The goal is to enable man to "now each other, wor" together, helping each other and having mutual respect towards peace, security,

prosperity and unity of man"ind on this earth and this coincide with the verse of #llah in the (oly #l Jur an interpreted as the follows$ 27 man"ind, indeed He have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may "now one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of #llah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, #llah is Knowing and #c!uainted. -#l8(u9urat $ %B, This shows that the social system of Islam have stated that there was a difference of race, color, language and nationality, and is seen as something that has existed in the development of human civilization. Islam has never intended to eliminate such differences, let alone put it aside. This is because there are advantages in all these differences either in giving them the opportunity to get to "now each other, doing good to each other and understanding the importance of peace and harmony. #s such Islam calls man towards peace and order to do good to each other as described in the interpretation of the Hord of God$ 2?o good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who en9oin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. #nd whoever does that see"ing means to the approval of #llah 8 then He are going to give him a great reward2 -#n8?isa $ %%;,

(ere it is clear that we have a great responsibility in bridging the gap between various ethnic groups and performing these responsibilities would mean that we have accomplished part of our social and religious duties. ?ext, the discussion of ethnicity re!uires us to understand some of the concepts such as ethnicity, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, pre9udice and discrimination. Et'ni ity refers to the sense of belonging of an ethnic group. Et'no entris! is the feeling that arises in an ethnic group where elements such as culture, values, attitudes and practice are better than the elements found in other ethnic groups. This is because members of an ethnic group use their own culture and practices as a benchmar" assessment.

Stereotype is the general statements purporting negative impression of extravagance of the pros and cons of the nature of a particular ethnic group by another ethnic group. *or example, the Malays love entertainment. This stereotype picture has negative implications and can lead to undesirable impact on unity in a plural society in Malaysia. Pre*u$i e is an implicit feelings in the hearts of the members of a particular ethnic group against another ethnic group. @sually these feelings are not based on any accurate or clear information or evidence. These feelings give rise to unreasonable disli"e of an ethnic group towards other ethnic groups. Dis ri!ination is the views, thoughts and negative beliefs by one ethnic group against the other ethnic groups that influence the behavior of the negative view. <iscrimination is pre9udice that exists in the ethnic group. <iscrimination is li"ely to occur when there is pre9udice. 1"&"&" I!portan e o# Un$erstan$ing Et'ni Re%ations #s a teacher, you need to understand the importance of ethnic relations. This is to create an effective teaching and learning environment in your classroom and in the long term is to create a 2%Malaysia2. Hhat is the importance of understanding ethnic relations) /et s examine the importance of understanding ethnic relations in the country. : : Malaysia is a multiracial country and understanding ethnic relations is important in order to avoid ethnic conflict. &thnic relations is closely related to the whole social structure of society. @nderstanding ethnic relations provides an understanding of the degree of social and cultural pluralism. : : : : : &thnic relations describe the historical development and socio8economic capacity of our country. &thnic relationship reflects the degree of ethnicity and source of social tensions. Through ethnic relations, we are able to understand the issues of pre9udice and discrimination. &thnic relations also helps in understanding the impact of industrialization and social change. &thnic relations influence social policy and social planning of the country.

It is necessary for us to understand that the harmonious ethnic relations in our country does not depend entirely on the circumstances of goodwill between people but also between different social class groups. &thnic relations nowadays have shaped the social system in Malaysia. (owever, the degree of national unity in the country is still difficult to measure. Fet, other countries see that there is harmony in ethnic relations in Malaysia. This has an impact on the sectors of tourism, industry, trade and others. 7utside communities can see the political and economic stability here. These are some of the potential impacts as a result of ethnic balance and stablility. 1"&"(" Le)e%s o# Et'ni Re%ations i, +egregation ii, #ccommodations iii, #cculturation iv, #ssimilation v, #malgamation Table % below summarizes the levels of ethnic relations. Ta+%e 1, T'e %e)e%s o# t'e Et'ni Re%ations -Sour e, Nasru$in Yunos, Centre #or Genera% Stu$ies. U/M0 SEGREGATION ACCOMODATION =ractice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups, 3onscious of cultural difference but live harmoniously


The minority accepts the culture of the dominant group ma"ing necessary ad9ustments to social situations to prevent or reduce conflict. The process of reducing the boundary whereby the minority incooperate elements of the dominant group.s culture K traits, but at the same time maintain their own distinctive ethnic K cultural identities *orming a new cluster through mixed marriages




Based on insights related to ethnic groups that we have discussed, it can be concluded that ethnicity is a group of peopleLindividuals based on mutual respect and a common activity with a view to develop their ethnic group. Indeed, "nowledge about ethnic is very useful for teachers and it should not stop as a superficial understanding of the explicit aspects as the more significant aspect is the implicit elements such as values and spirituality. In addition, elements such as pre9udice, discrimination and pre9udice should be avoided in order to achieve unity among the various ethnic groups.

A ti)ity %. Based on your experience, reflect on the levels of ethnic relations in the context of the plural society in Malaysia. '. Delate your reflection with the existence of ethnicity, ethnocentricim, stereotype, pre9udice dan discrimination.

1"&"1" C%usters De#inition o# C%usters +mith -%6;A, defines clusters as a unit consisting of a number of organisms having collective perceptions about their union and have the ability to do and behave the same way within their group. +upporting these views is the definition given by +togdill -%6A6, which states that the group is an open interaction system where the interaction pattern is determined by the structure of a particular system. ?ext, a more detailed explanation given by Mills -%6>5, who mentioned that the group is a unit consisting of two or more individuals who wor" or have contact to achieve a certain purpose and that considers cooperation between groups as something meaningful. The definition given by *orsyth -%64B, also meets the definition that was presented earlier. #ccording to *orsyth -%64B, cluster is two or more individuals who influence each other through social interaction. 1"&"2" Category an$ 3un tion o# Groups Based on the ideas that were presented above, the diversity of groups within the scope of our discussion can be interpreted from several perspectives. *irst, the group in a society can be classified into two groups, namely formal and informal. *ormal group


means group established by an organization with a set tas" to achieve organizational goals. Informal group can be categorized based on several aspects as follows$ Table '$ 3ategories and *unctions of 3lusters No %. '. B. Categories o# C%usters Tas" based Interest based *riendship based 3un tions o# C%usters group executing a responsibility based on a certain wor" together for the purpose of completing the tas" group of individuals who wor" together to achieve a specific target L niche. group of individuals with similar characteristics and have life goals, wishes and lifestyles which are mutually agreed

There s probably other categories that can be added besides those that have been categorized in Table % above. 3an you identify other categories of clusters) Four effort to find the information may be much easier if you are aware that cluster formation is influenced by several factors. 3an you list the factors that influence the formation of the group) *or the purpose of our discussion here are some factors that have been identified$ 8 : (armony -security guarantees, : +tatus -tribute, : +elf8esteem -feeling of self8worth, : +trength -building inner greatness, #filiasi Gather information from the nearest library or by surfing the internet for relevant information related to categories of clusters and factors influencing its formation besides those categories mentioned in Table '. Based on your reading, answer the following !uestions$

Based on discussions with partnersLmembers of your group, complete the following table with information related to the diversity of the Malaysian community in Malaysia.


Ta+%e ( , Categories an$ 3un tions o# C%usters

No Categories o# C%usters 3un tions o# C%usters 3a tors In#%uen ing t'e 3or!ation o# C%usters

%. '. B. ;. A. 1"&"4" Types an$ De!ograp'i Groups 2<emography2 was first used by Guillard -%44A,. The term 0<emography1 originates from the word 2demos2 and 2grafein2. 2<emos2 means people or people in an area, while 2grafein2 means describe or write about something. Based on the understanding, demography means 2writing about people or people in a location2. <emographic group can be defined as the statistical analysis of the number and composition of the population in a certain location -+yed Ismail et al, 'C%C,. The scope of demography is as follows$ i. +tructure of the population ii. Total population iii. 3omposition -age, religion, race, gender, iv. =rocess of population v. <eath vi. Migration vii. Marriage viii. 3hanges in social status


<emographic groups in Malaysia consists of many races, nationalities and religions. The indigenous people who are considered to be the original inhabitants of Malaysia are the Malay, <aya", Iban, Kadazan, Kadazan <usun in +abah and +arawa". The ethnic groups in Malaysia are the Malays, 3hinese and Indians. =ercentage distribution of population according to race in Malaysia can be seen in *igure % are !uoted from 3hart 5 as follows$ 8

S ource :Banci Penduduk dan Perumahan(2010) Malaysia 2010 (Banci 2010)

Based on *igure % -3hart 5,, the total population of Malaysia was '4.B million of which 6%.4 percent are citizens and 4.' percent non8citizen. 3itizens of Malaysia consist of Bumiputera ethnic group ->5.;M,, 3hinese -';.>M,, India -5.BM, and others -C.5M,. #mong the citizens of Malaysia, Malay is the main ethnic groups in =eninsular Malaysia, namely >B.% percent. Iban constituted BC.B per cent of the total citizens in +arawa", while the Kadazan L <usun records ';.A per cent in the state.

?ext, we loo" at the distribution of the population in Malaysia according to religion based on population statistics of 'C%C as contained in *igure ' -3hart %', below.


Source :Banci Penduduk dan Perumahan(2010) Mala !ia 2010 (Banci 2010)

*igure ' -3hart %', above shows that Islam is the most widely professed religion in Malaysia, with the proportion of >%.B per cent. (owever, as a multi8racial country, other religions practised are Buddhism -%6.4M,, 3hristians -6.'M, and (induism ->.BM,.

+top and Deflect 5'at $o you t'in6 are t'e e##e ts o# t'e 1(t' May 1747 in i$ent on t'e ra ia% re%ations in Ma%aysia8 Dis uss steps ta6en +y tea 'ers to a)oi$ su ' in i$ent"


Based on the discussion as regard to the ratio of the population according to race and ethnic groups in Malaysia, it is clear that the population of Malaysia consists of many ethnic groups of all faiths and cultures. (ence, Malaysia has a ma9or responsibility to unite the people of various ethnic groups. +uch effort should be underta"en 9ointly by all parties including the teachers. To achieve this effort, teachers need to understand students and implement teaching and learning strategies which are appropriate to student comprising of various cultures and ethnic groups in the class. ?ext, teacher should always thin" of ways, not only to share "nowledge on the sub9ect matter with the students, but also play significant role as a mediator to realize of the national agenda, that is unity and social integration through the creation of culture8friendly teaching and learning environment. #s a member of the Malaysian society comprising of various ethnic groups, we should avoid pre9udice, stereotypes, racism and discrimination in order to promote harmony and national unity. 7n the other hand, the concept of accommodation should serve as a guide in establishing ethnic relations in Malaysia. In addition, teachers also need to be sensitive to the concept of ethnicity which is a very practical way to create unity and cooperation among students. #t the same time we must remember that the concept of unity which has its foundations from one.s thoughts and self8awareness is the best way compared to actions ta"en without self8awareness or thin"ing. It is a long 9ourney but it will not be realized as long as we, as Malaysians thin" as 2A Bangsa Malaysia2 -Marzudi Md Funus, 'CC6,. In this context, the teacher has a great responsibility which could be partly achieved during the teaching and learning process. # more detailed description of the role of the teacher will be discussed in Topic A.

1"&"9 Su!!ary This topic discusses important aspects such as$


&thnicity is a concept of categorizing groups of people based on living system practiced by a group of people -Marzudi Md Funus, 'CC6,. In Islam, the existence of multi8ethnic, ethnicity, race, language, color, customs, culture and so on is common and is a blessing that motivate people to become ac!uainted, cooperating with one another, enhancing mutual assistance and respect towards peace, safety, well8being, prosperity and unity of man"ind on this earth as mentioned in the (oly #l8Juran -+urah #l (u9arat,.

Groups in a society can be classified into two, namely formal and informal. *ormal group means group established by an organization with a tas" set to achieve organizational goals. Informal group can be categorized based on a number of aspects that were discussed.

The formation of clusters is influenced by factors that have been identified as follows$ 8 =eace -security guarantees, +tatus -tribute, +elf8esteem -feeling sellf8worth, +trength -build inner greatness, The term demography originates from the word 2demos2 and 2grafein2. 2<emos2 means people or people in an area, while 2grafein2 means describe or write about something. Based on the definitions given, the term demography means 2writing about people or people in a location2. <emographic group can be defined as the statistical analysis of the number and composition of the population of a certain location -+yed Ismail et al, 'C%C,.

<emographic groups in Malaysia consist of many races, nationalities and religions. Indigenous people who are considered to be the original people of Malaysia are Malay, <aya", Iban, Kadazan, Kadazan <usun in +abah and +arawa". &thnic groups in Hest Malaysia are the Malays, 3hinese and Indians.


Malaysia has a ma9or responsibility to unite the people of various ethnic groups and effort to accomplish this tas" should be underta"en by all parties including the teachers.

Re#eren e, #.#ziz <eraman -%66;,, IMasyarakat dan Kebudayaan Malaysia, Kuala /umpur$ =erpusta"aan ?egara Malaysia. Muhamad Kamarul Kabilan K Naharah (assan.-'CCA,. Readings on ethnic relations in a multicultural society. +erdang$ @niversiti =utra Malaysia. ?oriati #. Dashid, Boon =ong Fing, +harifah *a"hriah +yed #hmad, Nuraidah #. Ma9id Budaya dan Pembelajaran +elangor <arul &hsan $ 7xford *a9ar +dn. Bhd. +iri =endidi"an Guru. Tylor, &.B. %65;. Primitive culture: researches into the develo ment o! mythology" hiloso hy" religion" art" and custom. ?ew For"$ Gordon =ress. *irst published in %45%. I+B? 6548C8456>48C6%8> @?&+37. 'CC'. #niversal Declaration on $ultural Diversity" issued on %nternational Mother &anguage Day,. Detrieved on http$OOOOOOO on *ebruary '%, 'CC''CC>8C>8 'B. Hoolfol",#. -'CC;,. 'ducational sychology. Boston$ #llyn K Bacon (enis dan Demogra!i Kelom ok) Detrieved +eptember ;, 'C%', from http$LLwww.scribd.comLdocLAB>>C>B'LPenis8<emografi8Kelompo" Marzudi Md Funus, 'CC6. 'tnisiti : 'tnisiti *erta $abaran dalam Membentuk Per aduan) Detrieved +eptember %C, 'C%', from http$LLwww.scribd.comLdocL'A%4'B;'L&T?I+ITI8&tnisiti8+erta83abaran8<alam8 Membentu"8=erpaduan De!inisi Kelom ok. Detrieved +eptember 6, 'C%', from http$LL9l8 heng"i.blogspot.comL'C%%LC4Ldefinisi8"elompo".html Mr<, 'CC6. +ujuh Kebudayaan #niversal. Detrieved +eptember 4, 'C%', from http$LLwww.scribd.comLdocL4%CC;C6BL58@nsur8Kebudayaan8@niversal <efinisi Budaya. Detrieved +eptember ', 'C%', from http$LLwww.scribd.comLdocL%65A>;4%LB#B8'8<efinisi8Budaya Pengalaman Malaysia) Detrieved +eptember ;, 'C%', from http$LLhubungan8 etni".blogspot.comL'CC6L%CLpengalaman8malaysia.html ,ubungan 'tnik. Detrieved +eptemper %, 'C%', from http$LLwww.scribd.comLdocL'';54%C>LBab8%8Konsep8#sas8(ub8&tni"


Konse Budaya) Detrieved #ugust BC, 'C%' from http$LLhubungan8 etni".blogspot.comL'CC6L%CL"onsep8budaya.html ,ubungan 'tnik) Detrieved #ugust BC, 'C%', from http$LLwww.docstoc.comLdocsLBBB4B%CCLhubungan8etni" Modul - . Konse Asas ,ubungan 'tnik) Detrieved +eptember ;, 'C%', from http$LLuitmnote.blogspot.comL'C%'LC;Lbab8%8ctu.html *istem *osial dalam %slam) Detrieved +eptember http$LLwww.oocities.orgLfarou!%6>ALT=+ML%h.htm A, 'C%', from

Banci Penduduk dan Perumahan Malaysia 'C%C -Banci 'C%C,. Detrieved #ugust BC, 'C%', from http$ optionQcomOcontentKviewQarticleKidQ%'%AKItemidQ46KlangQbm Damlee Mustapha, ?orzaini #zman, *aridah Karim, #bdul Daza" #hmad K Maimun #!sha /ubis. *ocial %ntegration Among Multi.'thnic *tudents at *elected Malaysian #niversities in Peninsular Malaysia: A *urvey o! $am us *ocial $limate) Detrieved +eptember %, 'C%', from http$LLmyais.fs"'BL'LM#IM@?OM+O%.pdf +halin 3hanchani K =aul Theivanathampillai. +y ologies o! $ulture. Detrieved #ugust BC, 'C%', from http$LLhome.arcor.deLmba'CC>LTypologiesM'CofM'Cculture.pdf