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FINAL REVISION
DEFINATIONS:
Measurement: It is comparing a physical quantity with another quantity of its kind
to find out how many times the first includes the second.
The Absolute Error: It is the difference between the actual value and the measured
value.
The Relative Error: is the ratio between the absolute error to the real value of the
measured physical quantity.
Scalar quantity: a physical quantity that can be fully defined by its magnitude
only.  Such as distance, time, and temperature.
Vector quantity: a physical quantity that can be fully defined by its magnitude
and direction.  Such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force.
Motion: the change in the position of an object relative to another object with time.
Velocity: the displacement of the object in one second.
Uniform velocity: the object velocity when it is displaced through equal
displacements in equal times.
Non uniform velocity: the object velocity when it is displaced through unequal
displacements in equal times.
Instantaneous Velocity (V): It is the velocity of the object at a given instant.
Average Velocity (v): It is given by dividing the total displacement of the object
from the starting point to the end point by the total time of motion.
Acceleration: the change in the object velocity in one second.
Free fall acceleration: the uniform acceleration by which objects fall freely towards
Earths surface.
Force: is an external influence that affects the object to change its state or direction
of motion.
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Newtons First Law of motion: A static object keeps its state of rest, and a
moving object keeps its state of motion at uniform velocity in a straight line unless
acted upon by a resultant force.
Inertia: the tendency of an object to keep either its state of rest or state of motion
at its original velocity uniformly in a straight line. Or the objects resist changing its
static or dynamic state.
Newtons Second Law of motion: when a resultant force affects an object, the
object acquires an acceleration which is directly proportional to the resultant force
and inversely proportional to the object mass.
Newtons Third Law of motion: when an object acts on another object by a
force, the second object reacts with an equal force on the first object in a direction
opposite to that of action. Or For every action there is a reaction equal in magnitude
and opposite in direction.
Weight: It is the force of gravity acting on the body.
Mass: It is the resistance of the body to change its velocity.
Uniform circular motion: Is the motion of a body in a circular path at a velocity,
which is constant in magnitude but changeable in direction.
Centripetal force: Is the force acting, continuously, in a direction normal to the
motion of the body, changing its straight path into a circular path.
Centripetal acceleration: Is the acceleration acquired by the body during its
circular motion due to the change in its direction of velocity.
Tension force (F
T
): It is originated in the string. When this force acts normal to the
direction of motion at constant speed and acts as a centripetal force.
Gravitational force (F
G
): It is normal between two bodies which one of them
moves in a circular path around another and acts as a centripetal force.
Friction force (F
f
): It is a force between the road and the body is originated in
normal to the direction of the body motion toward the centre of the circle. So, body
moves in the curved path.
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Reaction force (F
N
): It is the reaction force always acts normally on the body when
the circular path of the body is inclined at an angle to the horizontal.
Lifting farce (F
L
): It is force always acts normally to the body of an airplane when
it inclines.
Periodic Time: It is the time taken by a body to complete one revaluation.
Intensity of gravitation field at a point: It is the force of attraction acting on a
body of mass 1kg at that point.
Newton's general gravitational law: The attraction force is directly proportional
to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to square the distance
between their canters.
Gravitational field: It is the space in which the gravitational forces appear.
The gravitational constant: the gravitational force between two bodies each one
1kg and the distance between their centers 1m.
Work: the dot product of the force and displacement of an object in the direction of
the force.
J oule: the work done by a force of one Newton to move an object through a
displacement of one meter in the direction of the force.
Energy: the capacity to do work.
Kinetic energy: the energy possessed by an object due to its motion.
Potential energy: the energy stored in an object due to its position.
Mechanical energy: The sum of potential energy and kinetic energy of an object.
Law of conservation of energy: Energy is neither created nor destroyed but it is
converted from one form into another.
Law of conservation of mechanical energy: The sum of potential energy and
kinetic energy of an object at any point on its path under the effect of gravity only is
constant.
Temperature: is a measure for the average kinetic energy of molecules. Or it is the
physical quantity indicating the state of the body in terms of its hotness and coldness.
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Heat energy: the flowing energy from the hot body to the cold body.
Internal Energy: It is the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the
substance molecules.
Thermal Equilibrium: It is the state when two bodied in physical contact have the
same temperature.
Thermometer: It is an accurate tool used to measure temperature.
Thermometric substance: It is a substance with a physical property that changes
regularly with the change of temperature.
Specific heat of a substance: the quantity of heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1kg of the substance by one Kelvin.
Heat capacity of a body: the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of
the whole body by one Kelvin.
Latent heat of vaporization: the quantity of heat needed to convert 1kg of the
substance from the liquid state into the vapor state without a change in its
temperature.
Latent heat of fusion of a substance: the quantity of heat needed to convert
1kg of the substance from the solid state into the liquid state without a change in its
temperature.
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Proofs:
1 Equation of (Velocity Time):
2 Equation of (Displacement time):
Graphically:
3 Equation of (Displacement Velocity):
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4 The centripetal force (F):
5 The orbital velocity of the satellite:
F = m
V
2
r
= G
Mm
r
2
So, V = _C
M
r
6 The intensity of Earth's gravitational field:
F = mg = G
Mm
r
2
So, g = G
M
r
2
7 Kinetic Energy (K.E):
8 Potential Energy (P.E):
P.E = F
g
. h = (mg) (h)
P.E = mgh
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9 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
10 Specific heat capacity of a substance:
T !
1
m
T
T !
Q
m
Q !
Q= constant. m.T
Q =c.m.T c =
LAWS:
1 The Absolute Error ("
2 The Relative Error (r):
3 F
x
= F cos #
4 F
y
= F sin #
5 Scalar (Dot) product:
6 Vector (Cross) product:
7 The right hand rule: A^ B
8 Velocity: V =
Ax
At
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P.E
1
+ K.E
1
= P.E
2
ion of Mechanical Energy:
Specific heat capacity of a substance:
! Q
m.T
c =
Q
m AT
"x): "x =  x
0
 x 
The Relative Error (r): r =
Ax
x
A.B=A B cos #
Vector (Cross) product: A B= AB sin # n
A^ B =  B^ A
2
+ K.E
2
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9 Avarage Velocity: V =
TotaI (X)
TotaI (t)
=
F
1
+F
2
+F
3
+
nu.uxueuctex
So, V
av.
=
F
t
+ F
u
2
10 Acceleration: a =
AF
At
=
F
t
 F
t
11 1
st
Equation of Motion: V
f
= V
i
+ at
12 2
nd
Equation of Motion: d = V
i
t
+
1
2
at
2
13 3
rd
Equation of Motion: V
f
2
= V
i
2
+ 2 ad
14 Free Fall Acceleration (g): (g) =
2d
t
2
15 V
ix
= V
i
cos #
16 V
iy
= V
i
sin #
17 V
f
= _
!
"
+ #
$%
&
18 Time of maximum height: t =
'(
)*
+
19 Flight time: T= 2t =
,.
/0
1
20 The maximum height: h =
23
45
6
78
21 The range (Horizontal distance): R = V
ix
T = V
ix
2t.
22 Newtons First Law of motion: $F = 0
23 Newton's second law: F =ma
24 Newton's third law: F
1
=  F
2
9:
;
<
=
=
>
?
@
A
25 Centripetal acceleration (a): a =
B
C
D
26 The centripetal force (F): F = m
E
F
G
27 The tangential (linear) velocity (v): V =
HIJKLMNO
PQRS
=
TUV
W
28 Newton's general gravitational law: F = G
XY
Z
[
29 The intensity of Earth's gravitational field: g = G
\
]
^
When: r = R +h
30 The orbital velocity of the satellite: V = _`
a
b
31 Work: W = F d cos i
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32 Kinetic Energy (K.E): K.E =
c
d
mv
2
33 Potential Energy (P.E): P.E = mgh
34 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy: P.E
1
+K.E
1
= P.E
2
+K.E
2
35 T
o
K= 273 +T
o
C.
36 T
o
F= 32 +
e
f
T
o
C.
37 T
o
C =
g
h
(T
o
F 32).
38 Quantity of heat: Q =c.m.T
39 Specific heat capacity of a substance: c =
i
j kl
=
m
n
40 Heat Capacity of body (q): q = m.c =
o
pq
41 Q

(quantity of heat lost) = Q
+
(quantity of heat gained).
42 Latent Heat: L
v
=
r
s
and L
f
=
t
u
43 Latent heat of fusion of ice:
mL
f
+mc
2
(T
2
 0) = m
1
c
1
(T
1
 T
2
) +m
2
c
2
(T
1
 T
2
)
44 Latent heat of vaporization:
mL
V
+mc
2
(100  T
2
) = m
1
c
1
(T
2
 T
1
) +m
2
c
2
(T
2
 T
1
)
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