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Form 4 : CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL

The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Objective : Studying the effect of temperature on the rate of salivary amylase reaction Problem Statement: What are the effects of different temperature on the rate of salivary amylase reaction? Hypothesis: As the temperature increase, the rate of amylase reaction increase until it reaches the optimum temperature. Variables : manipulated responding controlled Apparatus : Beakers, test tube, thermometer, syringe, droppers, glass rods, white tiles with grooves, water bath, stop watch Materials : 1% of starch suspension, saliva suspension, iodine solution, ice cubes and distilled water. Technique : Record the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed using stop watch. : temperature of the medium : the rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase : volume of saliva // volume of starch suspension // concentration of starch suspension // pH

Procedure : 1. Mouth is rinsed with warm water and saliva is collected. Saliva with an equal volume of distilled water is diluted. 2. 5 ml of 1% starch suspension is put into each of the test tubes labelled A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1 respectively using a syringe. 3. 2 ml of saliva is added into each of another set of test tubes labelled A2, B2, C2, D2 and E2 using a second syringe. 4. Test tubes A1 and A2, B1 and B2, C1 and C2, D1 and D2, E1 and E2 is immersed respectively into 5 different water baths with temperatuters kept constant at 00C, 280C, 370C, 450C and 600C. 5. The test tubes are left for five minutes 6. Meanwhile, a dry piece white tile with grooves is prepared and a drop of iodine solution is placed into each groove. 7. After five minutes of immersion, the starch suspension in test tube A1 is poured into the saliva in test tube A2. The mixture is stirred using a glass rod. The stopwatch is started immediately. 8. A drop of mixture is removed from test tube A2 using a dropper and is placed in into the iodine solution in the first groove on the tile. The first groove is considered as zero minute. 9. The iodine test is repeated every minute for ten minute. The dropper in a beaker of water is rinsed after each sampling. The time taken for the completion of the hydrolysis of starch is recorded (that is when the mixture gives a negative iodine test. 10. The test tube with the mixture in their respective water bath is kept throughout the experiment. Steps 7 to 10 for test tubes B1, C1, D1 and E1 is repeated. 11. Thermometer is used to ensure that the temperatures remain contant throughout the experiment. 12. The result is recorded and a graph showing the rate of reaction against is plotted.

13. The activities of amylase reaction is optimum at 37oC.

Results
Test tube Temper ature ( 0C) 0 28 37 45 60
Time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed (minutes)

Rate of reaction (1/t) 10

1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1

Conclusion : As the the temperature increase, the rate of amylase reaction increase until it reaches the optimum temperature. The hpyothesis is accepted.

The rate of amylase activities agains temperature. Note :

Optimal temperature

Rater of reaction

Temperature (0C)

The results shows that as the temperature increase, the rate of amylase reaction increase until it reaches the optimum temperature. Enzyme does not active at the temperature 0 0C .Enzyme activities is the most active between the range of optimum temperature(-37oC - 0oC). After the optimum temperature, enzyme start to denature-changing the active site structure. This is because when the temperature increase enzyme will get more heat more chemical bonds in the enzyme break/modified change the three dimension structure of the active site. So, enzyme cannot combine with the substrate again.