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July 2001 untill 11
Exhibition Room of the Austrian Mint
Wien 3, Am Heumarkt 1
Mon - Fri 9.00 - 16.00, Wed bis 18.00
An Exhibition of the Austrian Mint
In co-operation with:
Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien
Museen des Bundesmobiliendepots
Hofsilber- und Tafelkammer
Museen des Bundesmobiliendepots
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde
Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten Sammlung Hafner
Heeresgeschichtliches Museum Wien
Stift Klosterneuburg Wiener Bestattungsmuseum
Exhibition Room of the
in the Middle Ages
February untill 28
The exhibitons for the year 2002 will be published later this year.
This Exhibition attends the 50 Euro Austrian commemorative coin in gold
”Orders and the World“ from the series ”2000 Years Christianity“ issued
in March 2002
Maria Theresa was born on 13
May 1717 in the Vienna
Hofburg as the eldest daughter of Emperor Charles VI
and his wife, Elizabeth Christine. Four years previ-
ously her father had promulgated the Pragmatic Sanc-
tion, which confrmed the indivisibility oI the heredi-
tary lands of the House of Habsburg and the right of
inheritance through the male line. For the frst time,
however, provision was made for inheritance through
the female line, should the male lineage in the House of
After almost eight years without children, Elizabeth
Christine fnally gave birth to a son, Leopold Johann,
in 1716, but the prince died as baby that same year. In
1717 Maria Theresa was then born, followed by Maria
Anna in 1718 and Maria Amalia in 1724. The latter
died in 1730, when Maria Theresa was 13 years old.
Emperor Charles VI set all his efforts (and money) on
securing recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction by the
European powers, although he never gave up all hope of fathering yet a healthy son and
Maria Theresa spent much of her childhood in the garden
palace called “Favorita” which she turned into the “Ther-
esianum” (Theresian Knightly Academy) in 1749. Her
education was not arranged with a view to a possible
future accession to the throne, but was entrusted to the Jes-
uits nonetheless. She learned languages: German, Latin,
Italian, French and Spanish. She studied religion and his-
tory and learned music, dancing and singing. Reputedly,
she had a sweet voice. The young Archduchess was a
In 1723 Francis Stephen, heir to the Dukedom oI Lor-
raine, arrived at the Imperial Court. Still a girl, Maria
Theresa appears to have fallen in love with the young
prince, who was some eight years her senior. She was to
maintain later: ”Since my hfth year, my heart ana soul
have been hllea by this man.¨ Although the Emperor himselI occasionally fxed on Francis
Stephen as a possible consort for his daughter, it was the determination of Maria Theresa
that brought about the marriage to him in 1736. As a condition for the marriage, however,
he had to renounce his rights to Lorraine. That was the price oI France Ior recognising the
By way of compensation Charles VI made his son-in-law Grand Duke of Tuscany. Francis
Stephen and his wife travelled in 1738/39 to Florence, where to this day a triumphal arch
commemorates their ceremonial entrance in the city. After three months they returned to
Vienna. Neither would ever visit Florence again.
October, 1740, the Emperor Charles VI died suddenly after returning from a day’s
hunting. Maria Theresa entered into the Habsburg inheritance.
The Pragmatic Sanction quickly revealed itself to be inadequate. Charles Albert of Bavaria,
who was married to a daughter of the late Emperor Joseph I (a cousin of Maria Theresa’s),
lodged a formal protest. In Britain the king, George II, showed himself supportive, but inac-
tive. (His greatest concern were his German territories of Hanover.) France declared itself
prepared to respect the Pragmatic Sanction, so long as the rights of third parties were in no
way thereby diminished. Meanwhile Frederick II, the young King of Prussia, marched into
the province of Silesia without any formal declaration of war. A less promising accession
is hard to imagine! Maria Theresa was just 23. She had to demonstrate to her new subjects
that she was capable oI taking a frm hold oI the reins oI government, while fghting a war
of survival against external enemies, all without money or even adequate troops.
Not for a moment,however, did she doubt her mission to rule the peoples of the Habsburg
hereditary lands. She quickly gained a realistic appraisal of the quality of her military lead-
ers and of her father’s counsellors. She resolutely refused the repeated advice to compro-
mise with Frederick II. To her the Prussian King was a thief, the “monster”. And anyway,
she could never give up Silesia.
The War of the Austrian Succession
France concluded an alliance with Prussia. England, France’s arch-enemy, sided with Aus-
tria. Frederick’s war in Silesia turned into the War of the Austrian Succession.
Maria Theresa gathered all her forces. After tough negotiations with the Hungarians, she
and Francis Stephen went to Pressburg (today’s Bratislava) where she was crowned King
of Hungary on 25
June, 1741. Later on 11
September Maria Theresa made a personal
appeal to the Hungarian Diet: “It is a matter of the Kingaom of Hungary, of Our Person, of
Our chilaren, of the Crown. Desertea by all, we ßee solely to the loyalty of Hungary ana
your well-known courage....” It was an emotional appeal, nicely calculated to strike a chord
in the gallant hearts of the Hungarians. “Jitam nostram et sanguinem consecramus” (We
consecrate our lives and our blood) came their response.
Charles Albert marched into Upper Austria, and on 14
September, 1741, he captured
the city oI Linz without resistance. Vienna itselI seemed threatened. The Bavarian elector
received the homage oI the Upper Austrian Estates in Linz and then marched on St. Pölten,
but he did not risk the attack on Vienna. Encouraged by the French, he turned aside to the
north, where he took the city of Prague and on 19
December received their homage to him
as King of Bohemia.
In January, 1742, Field Marshal Count Khevenhüller
laid siege to the city oI Linz and received its capitu-
lation on 24
January on condition of allowing the
enemy garrison to withdraw unhindered. On that same
day Charles Albert was elected as the new Holy
Roman Emperor in Frankfurt. His coronation took
place there on 12
February. Two days later the vic-
torious Khevenhüller captured the city of Munich.
Charles VII became an Emperor without a home. Fre-
derick II distrusted the intentions of both France and
Bavaria. On 24
July, 1742, he concluded a peace
with Austria, whereby Maria Theresa reluctantly had
to relinquish Silesia to him.
Mid-August the Austrian troops under the command
of Francis Stephen surrounded Prague. On the 26
December they fnally compelled the capitulation,
again on condition the French and Bavarian soldiers be allowed to withdraw unhindered.
The following year, on 12
May, Maria Theresa allowed herself to be crown Queen of
Bohemia St. Vitus’s Cathedral in Prague.
Meanwhile England, Hanover and Holland joined Maria Theresa in alliance. In 1743 France
suffered defeat by the “Pragmatic Army” at the Battle of Dettingen. (The last time an Eng-
lish King led troops in the feld.) In August, 1744, the Prussians invaded Bohemia once
more and took Prague on 15
September. The Austrians had to give up Munich and much of
Bavaria to re-deploy their troops, but they did recapture Prague on 26
January,1745, Emperor Charles VII died. His succes-
sor in Bavaria made peace with Austria and recognised the
Pragmatic Sanction. On 25
September Maria Theresa had the
pleasure of watching her husband be crowned in Frankfurt as
Emperor Francis I Stephen. At Christmas, much at the behest of
England, she concluded peace with Frederick in Dresden. The
war in the west and the south against the French and the Span-
ish continued until 1748, when the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle
(Aachen) fnally brought the War oI the Austrian Succession to
An Age of Reform
As the consort of Francis I Stephen, Maria Theresa was now “Empress”, a title she would
bear until her death. She soon embarked on a course of reform and renewal which would
lay the foundations of a modern state and enabled the Habsburg Monarchy to weather the
storms of the French Revolutionary Wars, of Napoleon and the rise of nationalism in the 19
century down to the First World War. Her reforms stemmed
rather from her common sense and her talents as a conscien-
tious ruler than from any philosophical conviction or “enlight-
Most pressing, of course, were the military reforms. Here the
later Field Marshal, Count Daun, played a leading role. He
was anxious to expand recruitment and to modernise the army,
to introduce a standardised discipline and drill right down to
the question of standardised uniforms among the various regi-
ments (of obvious importance for recognition in battle). Prince
Liechtenstein reIormed the artillery. The education and train-
ing oI oIfcers was improved. In 1751 the Empress Iounded
the second military academy in Wiener Neustadt.
Supported at frst by Count Haugwitz and later by her chancellor, Count Kauntiz, the
Empress began the reform of the machinery of state. They tried to bind the different lands
tighter together in a centralised unitary state. As early as 1742 a Ioreign oIfce (Secret Court
and State Chancellery), a Court War Council as well as the central House, Court and State
Archives (1749) had all been founded. To these were added the “Directorium publicis et
cameralibus” (later the United Bohemian and Austrian Court Chancelleries) as a combined
home oIfce and treasury. The aristocracy and the clergy
lost their exemption Irom taxation. In 1762 Austria`s frst
paper money, the “Banco-Zettel”, was introduced.
Other areas of reform included justice, higher education
(including medicine) and the school system. Here the
Empress was supported by her personal physician, Gerard
van Swieten, and by Joseph von Sonnenfels. In 1766 work
began on the legal code “Codex Theresianus” which was
not completed beIore 1811. In 1768 the Empress confrmed
the new form of the Judiciary and in 1776 she abolished the
use of torture. In 1774 the “Standard Regulation of Schools
in Austria” was issued, the curriculum for higher education
and universities was modernised. ProIessional schools Ior civil servants, career oIfcers,
diplomats and even for veterinarians were established.
The Reversal of the Alliances
Count Kaunitz (himself a Francophile) succeeded in 1756 with the help of Madame Pom-
padour in Versailles to reach a reconciliation with France. That led to the famous “reversal
of the alliances”: Austria and France against Prussia and England. Frederick II attacked
Austria’s ally Saxony. Russia and Sweden joined Austria. This war is known to history as
the Seven Years` War, in which England and France Iought chiefy over their territories in
India and North America.
The military reIorms now showed their eIIect. Under the generals Daun, Lacy and Laudon,
Frederick II encountered a very different Austrian army. Although they were never able to
deIeat Frederick conclusively, they nevertheless inficted some very costly deIeats on the
Prussians. (In 1757 General Hadik actually managed a lightening attack on Berlin itself!)
June, 1757, Daun won a resounding victory over Frederick at Kolin close to Prague.
Maria Theresa declared that day to be “the birthday of the Monarchy” and she instituted
the military Maria Theresa Order for bravery. Daun went
on to win at Hochkirch in Saxony in 1758, while Laudon
inficted the greatest deIeat on the Prussians at KunersdorI
in Brandenburg in 1759.
In 1763 Austria and Prussia concluded peace in the castle
oI Hubertusburg near Leipzig. Maria Theresa had to accept
the irreversible loss of Silesia. A year later her son Joseph
was elected King of the Romans and crowned in Frank-
furt. The imperial succession was assured.
August, 1765, Francis I Stephen died suddenly of
a stroke while visiting Innsbruck. The Empress, who was
still deeply in love with her husband, was inconsolable.
From that day forward she would wear nothing but the black dress of a mourning widow.
The Final Years
Joseph II followed his father as Emperor and Maria Theresa made him her co-regent in
the Austrian hereditary lands. (Her second son, Peter Leopold, became the Grand Duke
of Tuscany.) It was an uneasy situation, since mother and son were so very different in
their views. Maria Theresa was profoundly religious, Joseph was not. She had a heart for
her people, Joseph acted out of reason and philosophical conviction. Joseph’s admiration
for Frederick II was a constant thorn in her side. She regarded Joseph as heartless and radi-
cal. On the other hand, despite his imperial title Joseph felt himself always in his mother’s
shadow, pre-empted by her in all decisions. He nonetheless loved and respected her, just as
Maria Theresa loved him with all a mother’s heart.
The reIorm oI the state continued, with Joseph exercising now an oIten decisive infuence.
Trade and industry, which Francis I Stephen had so encouraged, continued to fourish. In
1770 the youngest daughter of the Empress, Marie Antoinette, married the Dauphin (later
King Louis XVI oI France).
The great political question that split mother and son, was the partition of Poland between
Russia, Prussia and Austria in 1772. Maria Theresa saw this as morally wrong, as a crime
against the rights of the Polish people. Joseph was anxious to score a success in foreign
policy If he could not be a great general like Frederick, then at least a great statesman who
increased the territory of the Monarchy by other means than war. In this matter Kaunitz
sided with Joseph. Finally they wore the opposition of Maria Theresa down. She accepted it
as a reality, but reIused to pretend that it was justifed.
In 1780 the Empress turned 63 years old and was worn
out. At the beginning of November she fell ill with a cold.
Her condition worsened and she was administered Extreme
Unction (the last rites) on 28
November. She was now very
corpulent and had problems with her lungs. She suffered
attacks of suffocation. Since she could not breathe lying
down, she spent her fnal hours sitting in a chair. On 29
November shortly before nine in the evening, she struggled
out of her chair and made towards a window. Suddenly she
collapsed and had to be helped to a sofa. Joseph kneeled
beside her: “Your Majesty is lying very ill” His mother
replied: “Yes, but well enough to die.” Shortly thereafter
Maria Theresa, the great Empress and mother of her coun-
try, passed away.
1) Bust of Charles VI (1711-1740)
Charles was the younger son of Leopold I and intended as the successor to the
Spanish throne. In the War of the Spanish Succession, however, he failed to dis-
lodge his Bourbon rivals. After the death of his brother, Joseph I, in 1711 Char-
les was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He was the last of the direct male line
in the House of Habsburg, and although he never gave up hope of fathering a
healthy son, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction in 1713 securing the inheritance
in the female line, should the male line die out.
Plaster cast of original by Raphael Donner. 18
2) Great Seal of Charles VI
The Emperor is seated on a throne. Above is the double-headed eagle of the
Holy Roman Empire, on the left are the shields of Hungary and Dalmatia, right
those of Bohemia and Croatia, and below the combined arms of Austria and
3) Announcement of the birth of Maria Theresa 1717
The Emperor’s only son, Leopold Johann, died in the year of his birth 1716.
Maria Theresa was born at 7.30 am on 13
May, 1717 in the Hofburg. She was
baptised that same day in the Rittersaal with the names: Maria Theresa Wal-
burga Amalia Christina. Empress Eleonore Magdalena (widow of Leopold I)
and Empress Amilia Wilhelmine (widow of Joseph I) together with the Nuncio
Spinola as proxy for Pope Clement XI were the godparents.
Printed “advertisement” 1717.
HHStA, ÄZA, Kt. 27, fol. 13-14
4) Medal celebrating Maria Theresa’s birth
A woman sits holding the baby under her right arm. RENASCENS SPES
ORBIS (Birth of the hope of the world.)
Silver, 44 mm
KHM,MK. Inv. Nr. 1888bß
5) The young Archduchess Maria Theresa
A charming youthful portrait of the daughter of Charles VI, painted by Andreas
KHM-GG, Inv. Nr. 215
6) The Imperial couple with their three daughters
After the death of his only son, Leopold Johann, Charles Vi had three daughters:
Maria Theresa in 1717, Maria Anna on 14
September, 1718, and Maria Amalia
April, 1724. The youngest girl died still a child in 1730. Maria Anna fell
in love with Charles, Duke of Lorraine, younger brother of Francis Stephen,
the future husband of Maria Theresa. She could not marry him before 1744.
Unfortunately, she was delivered of a stillborn child and died shortly thereafter
in Brussels on 16
Pastel by Martin van Meytens 1730.
MMD, Inv. Nr. 123
7) The Empress Elizabeth Christine
Charles was married to Elizabeth Christine von Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on 23
April, 1708, in the parish church of Wien-Hietzing. The Emperor Joseph I stood
proxy for his brother, who was away ﬁghting for his Spanish crown as King
Charles III. Elizabeth Christine came from a Protestant family and had to con-
vert to the Catholic faith before the marriage could take place.
Plaster cast of original by Raphael Donner.
8) Letter of Maria Theresa’s to her ﬁancé 1736
After ofﬁcially requesting Maria Theresa’s hand in marriage, Francis Stephen
withdrew from Vienna to Pressburg (Bratislava) to await the wedding. Here
Maria Theresa wrote to him several times. This letter is four days before their
February). She wrote again on 10
February wishing him a safe
journey to Vienna for the wedding.
HHStA, Familien-Korrespondenz A, Kt. 37
9) “Il Palladio Conservato L’Anno., 1735”
Sung by the Archduchess Maria Theresa and her sister, with the Countess Fuchs,
before the imperial Court. Composed by Johann Georg Reutter. Countess Fuchs
was the Aja to both princesses. She became the conﬁdante and Mistress of the
Household to Maria Theresa. Even Francis Stephen sought her advice occasio-
nally. She was accorded the privilege of being the only non-Habsburg to be
buried in the Imperial Crypt.
Manuscript score from the Music Collection of Archduke Rudolph.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. IV 13737 (Q 1862)
10) Marriage Contract between Francis Stephen and Maria Theresa
Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, was very popular with the Emperor, and the
Archduchess Maria Theresa had fallen in love with him from the beginning.
There were, however, counsellors who advised again a marriage with a rela-
tively powerless Duke of Lorraine. (France had occupied the Duchy.) Prince
Eugene of Savoy preferred a match with the Bavarians. In December, 1735,
Charles VI formally announced the engagement of Maria Theresa with Francis
Stephen. A papal dispensation was requested, since Francis Stephen’s grandmo-
ther had been a sister of Leopold I, grandfather to Maria Theresa.
This Marriage Contract of 30
January, 1736, contained the conditions of the
marriage. Among other things, Maria Theresa had to promise to step aside in
the line of inheritance, should a male heir be born later.The next day Francis
Stephen made his formal request of the Emperor and Empress for the hand of
HHStA, Familienurkunden Nr. 1892
11) Medal celebrating the Wedding 1736
Double portrait of the bridal couple. TERESA ET FRANSICUS SPONSI
Silver, 44 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 4742bß
12) The Wedding Banquet
The Court artist, Martin van Meytens, painted the scene at the wedding banquet.
For artistic reasons in fact he painted it back-to-front with the bridal couple on
the right instead of left-hand side. He has the widowed Empress Amalie Wil-
helmine standing in black behind the two Archduchesses, otherwise she would
have been hidden by the lady-in-waiting at the table.
Painting by Martin van Meytens 1736.
13) The seating order at the banquet
At 6 pm on 12
February the wedding procession left the Hofburg for the Augu-
stinian church, where the papal nuncio Domenico Passionei performed the cere-
mony. The wedding banquet followed in the Hofburg. The high table was under
a canopy embroidered in gold. The Emperor sat in the middle of the long side
with his wife Elizabeth Christine on his right (our left) and his sister-in-law, the
Dowager Empress Amalie Wilhelmine to his left. Maria Theresa and Francis
Stephen sat at the end, also on the Emperor’s right. His second daughter, Maria
Anna, and his own sister, Maria Magdalena, sat at the opposite end to his left.
A sketch of these arrangements appears clearly in the document.
HHStA, ÄZA Karton 37
14) The young Queen of Hungary and of Bohemia 1742
Engraving by Pieter Balthazar Bouttats, Antwerp, 1742.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf. 132 (0)
15) Young portrait
Oval portrait by Philipp Christoph Becker, undated,
Silver, 48x42 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1690bß
16) The “Pragmatic Sanction” 1713
April, 1713, the still childless Charles VI declared before his assembled
privy counsellors and ministers all his lands to be indivisible. In the case where
the male Habsburg line should fail, this inheritance would fall to his own female
line, and only thereafter to that of his brother, Joseph I. This so-called Pragma-
tic Sanction enabled Maria Theresa to enter on her father’s legacy. Charles VI
had invested a lot of money and time into the negotiations to gain international
recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. Prince Eugene of Savoy was of the opi-
nion that he had done better to have left his daughter a strong army and a full
On display is the ratiﬁcation by the Estates of Lower Austria, 25
HHStA, Urkundereihe 1720 IV 25
17) Stamp for the seal of the Coat-of-Arms 1740
Stamp for the seal with Maria Theresa’s coat-of arms in 1740 after her accession
as Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia and Archduchess of Austria.
Brass with wooden handle, Dm. 5 cm, Wax impression.
HHStA, Typar Nr. 44
18) Charles Albert of Bavaria
Elector of Bavaria, here as Emperor Charles VII (1742-1745), “the Emperor
without a home”. He received this nickname when Khevenhüller captured his
capital of Munich two days after his coronation in Frankfurt.
Painting by Georges Desmarées 1742, Schloss Nymphenburg.
19) Note of Protest by the Elector of Bavaria 1740
Upon the sudden death of Charles VI on 20
October, 1740, Maria Theresa
under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction assumed the government of the Habs-
burg lands. The position was extremely precarious. The acceptance of the Prag-
matic Sanction was neither certain nor complete, and many of her subjects
themselves doubted a young woman’s ability to rule. Who would protect the
Austrian lands from their enemies?
A formal Note of Protest dated 3
November, 1740, was lodged by the Elector
Charles Albert of Bavaria, who was married to a cousin of Maria Theresa, Maria
Amalia, a daughter of Joseph I. Neither Charles Albert nor his wife were incli-
ned to waive their claims to the Habsburg inheritance. (The following year with
the support of France, Charles Albert invaded Upper Austria.)
HHStA, FU 1904
20) Great Seal of Maria Theresa prior to 1745
Seal and wax impression of the Great Seal of Maria Theresa before the elec-
tion of Francis Stephen as Emperor in 1745. Thereafter she bore the title of
“Roman Empress” in her capacity as the Emperor’s consort and later as his
widow (Empress Dowager). Her title was honoriﬁc, but nonetheless real for all
that. Her power came from her position as Queen of Hungary and Bohemia,
Archduchess of Austria, etc.
(Dm. 12.2 cm)
HHStA, Typar Nr. 39
21) The celebration of the “Te Deum” in the Court chapel 1740
After the Act of Homage in Vienna (see cat. No. 29), Maria theresa returned
to the Hofburg where a Te Deum laudamus was sung in the Court chapel. The
young ruler is sitting in the front on the left.
22) Medal with Maria Theresa’s motto and heraldic symbols
This medal shows the lion of Bohemia holding the double cross of Hungary and
the red-white-red shield of Austria. Her Motto: IUSTITIA ET CLEMENTIA
(Justice and Clemency). Such medals were used as gifts, as remembrances, and
as awards of recognition.
Silver, 47 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1833bß
23) The young ruler ca. 1745
A majestic Maria Theresa after having overcome the initial dangers to her
throne. The left hand rests on the Austrian archducal crown next to the Crown
of St. Stephen and the Crown of St. Wenceslas (Wenzel).
Painting by Martin van Meytens, ca 1745.
24) The Hungarian coronation in St. Martin’s Church,
Pressburg (Bratislava) 1741
From the very beginning Hungary did not question Maria Theresa’s right of suc-
cession. Nevertheless her coronation was preceded by some tough negotiations
with the Hungarian Diet. Maria Theresa was annoyed that Francis Stephen was
not accorded the rights of co-regency and was excluded from the ceremonies.
On Sunday, 25
June, 1741, she left the castle of Pressburg for St. Martin’s
Church where the Primate Archbishop and the Palatine placed St. Stephen’s
Crown upon her head. Interestingly, Maria Theresa was crowned King of Hun-
gary and hailed as Rex, although she bore the style of Queen in her titles.
25) Medal for the coronation in Pressburg
Portrait “Maria Theresa Augusta”
Bronze, 44 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 995/1914B
26) The Queen in coronation robes mounted on her horse 1741
After the coronation Maria Theresa was required to ride in full regalia up an arti-
ﬁcial hill formed from soil from every part of Hungary. Swinging a sword in all
four points of the compass, she then swore to defend the borders of the Kingdom
of Hungary. This engraving shows her on horseback in full regalia with Press-
burg in the background. A hand from heaven places the crown of justice around
her raised sword. A Hungarian kneels before her with Hungary’s response to her
dramatic appeal on 11
September, 1741, engraved on his sword blade: Vitam
nostram et sanguinem consecramus (We consecrate our lives and blood).
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf 132: (62)
27) Coronation medal 1741
Reverse of cat. No. 25. The Queen riding up the Royal Hill to swear to protect
the borders of the kingdom.
Silver, 44 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1893bß
28) Allegory of the Queen of Hungary
Maria Theresa as Queen of Hungary with a Hungarian magnate at her feet. He
has drawn his sword to defend her against her enemies. HUNGARIA DEVO-
TISSIMA – most loyal Hungary. Maria Theresa was always conscious of her
debt of gratitude to the Hungarians and would never allow any criticism of
Engraving by Gottfried Bernhard Göz, ca. 1745.
29) Homage of the Estates in Vienna 1740
In Vienna there was no coronation. At her accession the Estates of the heredi-
tary lands paid a formal act of homage. On 22
November, 1740, the Estates
of Lower Austria swore their allegiance to her in Vienna. The Archduke’s Hat
(archducal crown) was brought from Klosterneuburg for the occasion in a coach
of its own. This engraving shows Maria Theresa in a sedan chair in procession
through the Graben to St. Stephen’s cathedral accompanied by the representati-
ves of the Estates. The empty coach behind her was for the return journey.
30) Emperor Francis I
Francis Stephen in the imperial regalia of a Holy Roman Emperor for his coro-
Painting by Wenzel Pohl, 1755.
31) Imperial Election 1745
The reverse shows the imperial double-headed eagle perched on the globe (sym-
bolising universal rule). The crown is that of the Holy Roman Empire.
Bronze, 45 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 5951/1914B
32) Coronation in Frankfurt 1745
The reverse shows an altar with the crown and regalia on it. Above is the triangle
of the Holy Trinity. DEO ET IMPERIO (For God and the Empire).
Silver, 50 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1630bß
33) Election in Frankfurt
After the death of Charles VII, Francis Stephen was elected Roman Emperor. On
September, 1745, he was crowned King of the Romans in St. Bartholomew’s
Cathedral in Frankfurt on Main. (The imperial coronation as Emperor was a
prerogative of the Pope.) Maria Theresa attended her husband’s coronation, but
refused to allow herself to be crowned with him as Empress. It is probable that
she wanted her beloved husband to be the centre of attention without her for
once. Frankfurt, of course, was en fete for this great event. The houses on the
Römerberg on the way to the cathedral were especially illuminated and decora-
ted for the occasion. This engraving shows such a house. As usual, the ground
ﬂoor was a shop, in this case a book-seller.
34) Allegory of the Empress
Maria Theresa as Romanorum Imperatrix (Roman Empress. In contrast to her
other titles, she was not a reigning Empress, but as the consort of the Emperor
Francis I Stephen she was entitled to bear the style of Empress. Frederick II
alone refused to refer to her as “Empress”. To him she remained the Queen of
Hungary. It is not a coincidence that the table bearing her different crowns is
supported by the ﬁgure of an Hungarian magnate.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf 132: (41E2)
35) Decorative bit for the imperial horses 1749
This horse’s bit was part of some sumptuous bridle equipment belonging to
the Empress. On each side is a portrait of the Emperor or herself underneath a
crown. Below them is an eagle. The leather bridle and reins were covered with
burgundy coloured velvet richly embroidered in silver.
Anton Schey, Vienna, 1749.
KHM-WBG, Inv. Nr. G 92
36) Emperor Francis I Stephen
The Emperor on horseback as head of his armies.
Viennese porcelain c. 1755. Model by Johann Josef Niedermayer (1710-84).
MMD, Inv. Nr. 067356
37) Golden cutlery from the imperial table
Knife, fork and spoon engraved with the imperial eagle and the combined shield
of Lorraine-Austria. (Property of the imperial couple.)
MMD, Inv. Nr. 180541
38) Maria Theresa 1743
Portrait of the young Queen.
Silver, 86 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 146.841
39) The Queen of Bohemia
Maria Theresa in coronation regalia. The Crown of St. Wenceslas had to be
brought to Prague from Vienna for the occasion. Bohemia was in the forefront of
the wars between Austria and Prussia. The city of Prague was lost to the enemy
three times, and three times it was recovered. Maria Theresa was fully aware of
the importance of her position as Queen of Bohemia, even if she did conﬁde to
her Bohemian Chancellor, Count Kinsky, that the crown was not only heavy, but
resembled a jester’s cap (Narrenkappe).
Painting by Martin van Meytens (?)
40) The coronation procession into Prague 1743
At the end of April, 1743, Maria Theresa travelled to Prague for her coronation
as Queen of Bohemia, which was set for 12
May. Maria Theresa entered
Prague in a coach and proceeded in procession up to St. Vitus’s Cathedral,
where she was crowned by the Archbishop of Olmütz, Count Jakob Liechten-
41) Medal commemorating the coronation in Prague
Portrait “Maria Theresa Augusta”.
Pewter, 40 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 6515/1914B
Queen of Bohemia 1743
Maria Theresa in Bohemian coronation regalia.
FELICITATIS PUBL. REPARATIO
Silver, 40 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1937bß
42) The help of England 1743
Although England was no so anxious to go to war against Prussia, she did give
Maria Theresa money for the war against France. This is an allegorical represen-
tation of Neptune with Austria and Britannia etc. SECURITAS AUGUSTAE
Bronze, 80 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 52bß
43) „The Queen of Hungary stripped“
A Dutch version of an English cartoon in which Maria Theresa is the victim of
her robber neighbours. ”What? Will you leave me nothing?” cries the Queen,
while the King of France and Cardinal Fleury (his prime minister) grab at her
clothing. Left is Spain with stocking (symbolising Italy?). George II of England
sits there passively in his role as a neutral. Frederick II leaves with his booty
through the door at the rear. “Do as you will now,” he says cynically.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf 132: (90)
44) The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) 1748
England had urged Maria Theresa to conclude peace with Frederick II on 25
December, 1745, in the Peace of Dresden. The war in the west and in Northern
Italy against France, however, continued. In 1748 a general peace was nego-
tiated at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). Although the Pragmatic Sanction and the
imperial election of Francis Stephen were both recognised, Austria had to give
up Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla in Italy, while the loss of Silesia to Prussia
was conﬁrmed. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed on 18
Austria signed it on 23
Here the negotiator’s instrument of 23
October, 1748, is displayed. Left is the
signature of Kaunitz and to the right are those of the Earl of Sandwich and the
British ambassador, Sir Thomas Robinson. This treaty concluded the War of the
HHStA, AUR zu 1748 X 18
45) The Peace of Dresden 1745
England ﬁnally drove Maria Theresa to make peace with Prussia in the Peace of
Dresden. (Saxony was Austria’s ally.)
Obverse: three miniature portraits of Maria Theresa, August III of Saxony and
Poland, and Frederick II of Brandenburg (Prussia).
Silver, 44 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1906bß
Reverse: three allegorical ﬁgures (peace, justice and bliss) join hands in peace.
Silver, 44 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1908bß
46) Ernst Gideon Baron von Laudon (1716-1790)
Laudon (Loudon) was descended from a Scottish family. He came to the
Viennese Court in 1742, ironically enough after having his services rejected by
Frederick II. He distinguished himself in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763),
especially in the relief of the besieged city of Olmütz in 1758. Other victories
followed: Hochkirch, Kunersdorf, Landshut, Glatz and Schweidnitz. He was
awarded the grand cross of the Maria Theresa Order. In 1766 he succeeded Daun
as President of the Imperial (Court) War Council. He was appointed Field Mar-
shal in 1778. His career continued under Joseph II, and Laudon died in 1790 just
before his appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian army.
KA, Bildsammlung, Sammlung Weihs-Starkenfels, Unv. Nr. 7656
47) The appointment of General Browne to the rank of Field Marshal 1754
Count Maximilian Ulysses Browne was descended from those Irish soldiers
who preferred to place their swords in the service of the Catholic Habsburgs.
Browne had already distinguished himself in service under Prince Eugene of
Savoy. When the Prussians invaded Silesia in 1741, Browne and a small army
of 3,000 soldiers were their only opponents until Vienna launched a counter-
campaign under Count Neipperg. Browne was to remain one of Maria Theresa’s
most talented and reliable generals. In 1754 she promoted him via this commis-
sion to the rank of Field Marshal. Browne died on 27
June, 1757, in Prague.
Signature of the Empress.
KA, Bestallung 8901/1754
48) Maria Theresa as Minerva
The goddess Minerva (Athena to the Greeks) was the female counterpart to the
war god Mars. It was to be expected that Maria Theresa would be depicted as
Minerva, protectress of her peoples and her lands.
Silver, 45 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1747bß
49) Founding of the Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt 1752
Mars is seen on a plinth in the middle. In the background is the building of the
Silver, 50 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1722bß
50) The Battle of Prague 1757
At the end of August, 1756, some 60,000 Prussians marched into Saxony.
Browne underestimated the threat of a Prussian invasion of Bohemia. In the
second half of April, 1757, however, Frederick II set four armies marching in
the direction of Bohemia. Maria Theresa sent her beloved brother-in-law, Karl
of Lorraine, to take command of her troops opposing Prussia in bohemia. It
came to a major battle on 6
May outside Prague. During the ﬁghting Browne
was seriously injured. His left leg was smashed by a cannon ball and later had
to be amputated. Despite bitter resistance, the Prussians managed to split the
Austrian forces and drive them into retreat. Browne barely escaped capture and
was taken to refuge within the city of Prague. Maria Theresa urged her brother-
in-law on no account to lose Prague to the enemy. (The city had been captured
and re-captured three times.) From his sickbed Browne organised the defence
of the Bohemian capital. Field Marshal Daun had already arrived in Bohemia
and was raising a second army. Frederick gradually began with the investiture
and bombardment of Prague. The Empress gave Daun a free hand, although she
hoped Prague could be relieved without a pitched battle, which she feared they
would lose. It came, however, to a battle at Kolin (east of Prague), from which
the Austrians emerged as the victors,
English engraving, FM Browne on horseback is in the left foreground.
51) An Austrian cuirass
A black cuirass for the foot soldiers, 2
half of 18
HGM, Inv. Nr. 156
52) Austrian sword for a junior ofﬁcer in the heavy cavalry
Sword and leather sheath for a junior ofﬁcers in the heavy cavalry, c. 1769.
HGM, Inv. Nr. NI 1062
53) Austrian ﬂintlock with bayonet
A smooth bore front-loader with a tri-ribbed bayonet, c. 1745.
HGM, Inv. Nr. W 1679
54) Soldiers of the reformed army
From upper left:
“Obrist -- Obrist Lieutenant -- Obrist Wachmeister
Haubt Mann -- Lieutenant -- Fähnrich`
Infantry from the new drill manual.
KA, Mem. 4/200
55) Battle plan of the Battle of Kolin, 18
In 1756 Frederick II invaded Austria’s ally, Saxony. In Spring of 1757 he inva-
ded Bohemia where he defeated Karl of Lorraine and Field Marshal Browne
near Prague on 6
May. But on 18
June the Austrians under Field Marshal
Daun bested Frederick in the bloody battle of Kolin not far from the capital. Fre-
derick lost 13,000 men, and the Austrians lost 9,000. Frederick had to evacuate
Bohemia. He was so depressed by his defeat that even contemplated suicide for
a short time. In Vienna, by contrast, Maria Theresa rejoiced. “Le Monstre” had
ﬁnally been beaten. Her reforms and her own unﬂinching courage had ﬁnally
paid off. She called the day of victory “the birthday of the Monarchy” and she
founded Maria Theresa Order to reward her brave soldiers.
KA, Karten H IIIc 1430
56) Medal commemorating the victory at Kolin
The reverse shows Genius with the Austrian shield on a victory pile of Prussian
ﬂags and weapons, 18
December, 1757. MDCCLVII IVN. /D. XVIII.
Anton Franz Wiedemann, bronze, 50 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 41.272/1914B
57) Letter of Maria Theresa to Count Daun 1758
Maria Theresa was brought the news of this magniﬁcent victory over the Prus-
sians on 20
June by Lieutenant von Vettes. She wrote to Count Daun, her vic-
torious general: “This blessea aay has clearly aemonstratea that the King of
Prussia ana his army are not invincible, ana that he cannot only be beaten, but
be put to ßight in aisoraer....”
On the ﬁrst anniversary of this great victory (18
June, probably 1758) Maria
Theresa wrote to Daun the letter here displayed, describing the day as “the birth-
day of the Monarchy”:
Birthaay of the Monarchy.
Dear Count Daun, I coula not possibly allow this great aay toaay pass without
expressing to you my most certainly heartfelt ana appreciative gooa wishes.
The Monarchy owes you its preservation as I ao my existence, my beautiful ana
belovea army ana my especially belovea brother-in-law. It is certain that this
will remain in my heart ana memory as long as I shall live....”
The remark “Birthday of the Monarchy” (upper right) seems to have been added
after the letter had been completed.
KA, AFA 1757/HA 6/333
58) Field Marshal Leopold Joseph Count Daun (1705-1766)
Daun served successful in the armies of Charles VI. and in 1739 he was made
Lieutenant Field Marshal. In 1745 he married the daughter of Countess Fuchs,
Mistress of the Household and conﬁdante of Maria Theresa. It was a connection
which certainly did not harm his career. Daun was the leading inﬂuence in the
military reforms. As the celebrated victor of Kolin, he was awarded together
with Karl of Lorraine the ﬁrst Grand Cross of the new Maria Theresa Order.
Daun also won the Battle of Maxen in 1759.
KA, Bildsammlung, Sammlung Weihs-Starkenfels, Inv. Nr. 7897
59) Austrian grenadier’s sabre
Grenadier’s sabre and leather sheath, c. 1765.
HGM, without Inv. Nr.
60) The ﬁrst investiture of the Maria Theresa Order 1757
Francis Stephen invests his brother Karl of Lorraine with the Grand Cross of the
Maria Theresa Order. The Empress sits in the background as a proud spectator.
Painting by Carl von Blaas, 1866.
61) The Statutes of the military Maria Theresa Order 1758
As a direct consequence of her joy over the victory at Kolin (18
Maria Theresa decided to institute an order of military distinction. The new
order was to bear her name and the Grand Master would be her husband, the
Emperor Francis I Stephen, and afterwards the current Head of the House of
Austria. The Chancellor of the Order’s Chapter was her State Chancellor, Count
(later Prince) Wenzel von Kaunitz-Rietberg.
Already on 22
June, 1757, Duke Karl of Lorraine and Count Leopold Daun
were awarded the ﬁrst Grand Crosses per cabinet order. Further awards of the
Grand Cross and Knight’s Cross followed on 7
March, 1758. The ﬁrst investi-
ture ceremony took place in Field Marshal Daun’s camp near Skalitz on 23
December, 1758, the Emperor ofﬁcially published the Statutes of the
order in Vienna.
HHStA, FU 1976/1,2
62) The Grand Cross
Sash and decoration of enamelled gold.
End of 19
century, belonging to the Emperor Franz Joseph I himself
(1848-1916) as Grand Master of the Order.
HGM, IN 1921/26/NI9310
The case here is not an original case for the Grand Cross, but a special case
belonging to the Emperor Franz Joseph. The case is numbered on the front
to enable the ﬁrst valet of the Emperor, Edward Ketterl, to locate each decora-
tion according to a list. The Emperor was the regimental commander of many
Austrian and foreign regiments, as well as bearer of many orders and decorati-
ons. Court etiquette required him to dress correctly according to whom he was
receiving (or visiting). Inside each case was a sketch (to be seen to the left on the
inside of the lid) indicating the correct mode of wearing, so that Ketterl could
always easily and correctly dress his master.
63) The Star of the Grand Cross
Silver, gold and enamel, mid-19
Also belonging to the Emperor Franz Joseph I.
HGM, IN 1921/26/NI9129
64) The Knight’s Cross
Decoration and ribbon in a case.
Gold and enamel, end of 19
century. Belonging to k.u.k. Generalmajor d.R.Ing.
Baron Josef von Janecka (1867-1937).
Major General von Janecka received the Knight’s Cross as Colonel of the Artil-
lery Staff for his action as Artillery Group Commander and Artillery Chief of
Staff in various army bodies during the May offensive against Italy in 1916. He
was invested at the 180
investiture on 17
65) Embroidered Star of the Grand Cross
Beginning of 19
HGM, IN 1996/26/309
66) The endowment of the Maria Theresa Order 1764
January, 1764, Maria Theresa signed this decree endowing the Order
with a capital of 2,255,000 Gulden to ensure the payment of pensions to mem-
bers of the Order. Even after the death of a member, his widow or any unprovi-
ded orphans could still draw half the pension.
Parchment with the signatures of the Empress and the State Chancellor, Count
(Prince) Kaunitz-Rietberg, and seal.
HHStA, FU 1998/1,2
67) Medal for the institution of the Maria Theresa Order 1757
The reverse shows an angel with a branch of victory and the Cross of the Order
between trophies of war.
Silver, 50 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 6482/1914B
68) Commander’s Cross
Decoration on a ribbon to hang at the collar in its case.
Gold and enamel. F. Rothe & Neffe, end of 19
HGM, IN 1996/26/305
69) The Statutes of the Order of St. Stephen 1764
April Joseph was crowned King of the Romans in Frankfurt. Maria The-
resa chose this occasion to found on the 5
May, 1764, a counterpart to the mili-
tary Maria Theresa Order which would recognise services in the civil sphere:
The Royal Hungarian Knightly Oraer of St. Stephen, the Apostolic King. The
statutes of the Order were written in Latin (Hungary’s language of state) and
were published in Vienna on 6
May, 1764: Constitutiones insignis orainis equi-
tum S. Stephani Regis Apostolici.
They envisaged 100 knights of the Order – 20 Grand Crosses, 30 Commander’s
Crosses and 50 small Crosses.
HHStA, Stephans-Orden Band 3
70) The Queen of Hungary 1743
A portrait that underlines the strength and imperial dignity of Maria Theresa.
French engraving by Gilles Edmé Petit after Martin van Meytens, Paris 1743.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf 132: (29b) Abs.Bubl.
71) The ﬁrst investiture of the Order of St. Stephen 1764
As the Grand Master of the Order, Maria Theresa awards the ﬁrst Knight’s Cross
and ﬁve Grand Crosses: Joseph II (newly crowned King), the Hungarian Pri-
mate Count Barkoczy de Szala, the Palatine Count Batthyány, Court Chancellor
Count Esterházy and Count Hatzfeld. In 1765 Joseph II himself became Grand
Master of the Order.
Painting by Martin van Meytens and his school.
72) Grand Cross
Sash and decoration in case.
Gold and enamel, c. 1900.
HGM, IN 1969/26/NI71239/d, bzw. 2000/26/341
Belonging to k.u.k. Generaloberst Baron Karl von Pﬂanzer-Baltin (1855-1925),
who received the last Grand Cross of the St. Stephen’s Order on 25
73) Embroidered Star of the Grand Cross, c. 1800
HGM, IN 1921/26/NI9132
74) Star of the Grand Cross
Silver, gold and enamel. Beginning of 20
HGM, IN 1995/26/70
75) Commander’s Cross
Decoration on collar-ribbon.
Gold and enamel. Beginning of 19
HGM, IN 1997/26/179
76) Small Cross
Decoration on triangular ribbon.
Gold and enamel. F. Rothe & Neffe, end of 19
HGM, IN 1997/26/181
77) Collar of the Order
The chain bears the initials “MT” for Maria Theresa and “SS” for St. Stephen
with the Hungarian crown.
Gold, bzw. gold and enamel. Second third of the 18
with the founding of the Order?)
HGM. IN 1978/26/3
Belonging to k.u.k. Field Marshal (and last Commander in Chief of the k.u.k.
Army) Baron Hermann Kövess von Kövesshaza (1854-1924). He was awarded
the Grand Cross of the Order on 14
78) Wenzel Anton Count Kaunitz-Rietburg (1711-1794)
Kaunitz was born in Vienna in 1711. Like his father before him, he chose a
career in the service of the Court. He studies abroad and at the age of 30 began
his diplomatic career under Maria Theresa. He led the Austrian delegation to
the peace conference at aix-la-Chapelle. In 1753 the Empress appointed him
Court and State Chancellor in the Austrian lands. He kept this exalted ofﬁce
over a period of 39 years until 1792. He became the most important inﬂuence
on Austrian foreign policy after the Empress herself. He was closely involved in
the administrative reforms of the reign. Kaunitz today still overshadows Maria
Theresa’s earlier ministers like Bartenstein and Haugwitz.
Personally Kaunitz was not well liked, but he never misused his power to pay
back an adversary. The Englishman Swinburne maintained: “He is cola ana wit-
hout feelings.” Kaunitz was unapproachable, vulnerable and proud. He was a
hypochondriac. (When she was expecting him, the Empress herself would rush
through the rooms to ensure that there were no open windows to cause a drau-
ght.) He was a Francophile. In 1765 he was raise to the rank of a Prince of the
Empire. Kaunitz exercised great inﬂuence on Maria Theresa and enjoyed her
full conﬁdence. Joseph II also placed great trust in him, and sometimes Kau-
nitz found himself in a difﬁcult position between the two monarchs, mother and
Painting of Kaunitz in the robes of the Order of the Golden Fleece with the star
of the St. Stephen’s Order on his breast. Johann Baptist Lampi d.Ä.
79) Diploma of Nobility
Niklas Elder von Paccassi, who was an architect in the imperial service (and was
employed on Schönbrunn), was raised to the rank of a hereditary baron in 1769.
The hand-painted page with his baronial coat-of-arms is decorated with those of
Austria and the imperial eagle (above), Hungary (left) and Bohemia (right).
AVA, Urkundenreihe, Inv. Nr. 315
80) Great Seal, post 1765
Maria Theresa is enthroned under a canopy on two pillars. Among her titles
around the edge we ﬁnd: ROM.IMPERATRIX.VIDVA (Roman Empress Dowa-
Typar, Dm. 13 cm, and wax impression.
HHStA, Typar Nr. 51
81) Founding of the House, Court and State Archives 1749
In the course of the administrative reforms after the War of the Austrian Succes-
sion it was
decided to create a new organisation and central depot for the most important
documents pertaining to the dynasty and to the government. That was the foun-
ding of the present House, Court and State Archives which are one of the most
important and generous supporters of the exhibitions in the Austrian Mint.
Here we have the request for direction by the ﬁrst Privy House Archivist, Taulow
von Rosenthal, on 13
September, 1749, concerning the establishment of the
k.k. Private House Archive.
HHStA, Kurrentakten Zl. 1 ex 1749
82) Maria Theresa as a widow 1770
Following the unexpected death of her husband in Innsbruck in 1765, which
left her bereft und deeply shaken, Maria Theresa continued to wear only black
widow weeds until her own death in 1780. This oil painting is based on a portrait
by Joseph Ducreux, who originally came to Vienna to paint a portrait of Maria
Antonia (Marie Antoinette) for the Court at Versailles.
83) Medal commemorating the death of Francis I Stephen 1765
The Emperor’s portrait was the work of Matthäus Donner.
Silver, 48 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 16668
The second medal shows a portrait of the bereaved Empress.
By I. Würth. F., silver, 48 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 133.179
84) Founding of the Family Welfare Fund 1765
Francis Stephen managed his money very ably. He made good investments and
participated in successful trading ventures. Consequently he left Maria Theresa
and Joseph a considerable fortune. A major part went to off-set the state debts.
It was decided to employ the remainder to establish a fund at the monarch’s dis-
posal to aid and support members of the imperial family who might need such
support. (Of Maria Theresa’s eleven surviving children, seven were still younger
than 20 years of age.) This family fund existed until the end of the Monarchy.
After the First World War it was conﬁscated by the Republic.
Signatures of Joseph II and Maria Theresa. Black wax was used for the seals
in mourning for the late Emperor. Maria Theresa continued to wear black and
use paper with black mourning edges and seals for her personal correspondence
until her death in 1780.
HHStA, FU 2016/1
85) New organisation of the Imperial War Council 1762
In 1762 Count Daun was appointed President of the Imperial (Court) War Coun-
cil. On 25
January he submitted a proposal for the re-organisation of the Impe-
rial War Council into three main areas: military advice, military justice and mili-
tary economy. In this letter to Count Daun on 30
January, 1762, the Empress
approved his new organisation plans.
KA, HKR 1762, Jänner 698, fol. 4-11
86) Founding of the War Invalids’ Home in Vienna 1750
Maria Theresa valued the services of all the soldiers who fought to defend her
and her lands. For the invalids of the army she had a hospital and a home built
in the area of today’s Landstraße.
Reverse: A wounded soldier lies at the foot of some war trophies. In the back-
ground the new home can be seen. PROVIDENTIA AUGUSTAE.
Obverse: The imperial double-headed eagle with the full coat-of-arms.
Silver, 60 mm
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1697bß
87)Plan of a new school with an apartment for the teacher
Sketch of a plan for a village school with a teacher’s living quarters (Trivial-
AVA, Inv. Nr. 89
88) Tobacco case, a gift to van Swieten from Maria Theresa.
The personal physician of the Empress received this valuable tobacco case from
his grateful mistress. Gerard van Swieten not only looked after Maria Theresa’s
health, but was her trusted advisor in the reform of the studies of medicine and
Ebony with gold decoration. 84 x 63 x 34 cm.
Stiftsmuseum Klosterneuburg, Inv. Nr. KG 483
89) Baron Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772)
Gerard van Swieten was born in 1700 in Leiden. In 1744 he came to Maria
Theresa’s attention as the doctor attending her sister, Maria Anna (wife of Karl
of Lorraine) in Brussels. She gave birth to a stillborn child and a few months
later Maria Anna herself passed away. Despite that van Swieten was summoned
to Vienna to become Maria Theresa’s personal physician. Although he was not
himself a brilliant practicioner, he became the driving force in the reform and
development of medicine in Vienna and of the universities and schools of higher
learning throughout Austria. In fact he became a sort of unofﬁcial “Minister of
Education”. He enjoyed the complete trust and loyal support of the Empress.
90) The new school regulations of 6
What van Swieten was for higher education, Baron Joseph von Sonnenfels
was in the area of lower schooling. (He also advised the empress in matters
of reform in the judiciary.) Sonnenfels wanted every small village to have its
school. The “General School Regulations for German Normal, Principal ana
Trivial Schools in the Entire Imperial-Royal Hereaitary Lanas” of 1774 regula-
ted school organisation, compulsory schooling and teacher training. Three types
of school were established: Trivial with two classes for small towns and mar-
kets, Principal with three classes for larger towns and convents, and Normal
with four classes for the main towns in each province. The curriculum consisted
of several subjects, their number varying with the size of school. Compulsory
schooling was not formally introduced as such, but a general teaching obliga-
91) Theresian road construction map
Road construction and the improvement of the lines of communication within
the Monarchy were important prerequisites for an efﬁcient, centralised state.
Extensive road construction was one of Maria Theresa’s projects. The signi-
ﬁcance for trade, for government and for the defence of the realm needs no
AVA, Inv. Nr. 1957
92) A hawker of maps c. 1750
An old Viennese ﬁgure of c. 1750. (Modern reproduction)
93) Map of the harbour town of Trieste 1750
Trieste placed itself voluntarily under Austria’s protection in 1382. Emperor
Charles VI tried to start an infant naval force, but could not ﬁnance it. Maria
Theresa was too preoccupied with the reform of the army and the state and the
wars against Prussia to give any attention (or money) to a navy. It fell then to
Joseph II to be the actual founder of the Austrian Navy. Despite everything,
Trieste continued to grow in importance as a trade harbour for the Monarchy
and northern Europe.
AVA, Inv. Nr. 1218
94) Maria Theresa with her four surviving sons
The Empress Dowager with (l. to r.) Peter Leopold (Grand Duke of Tuscany,
later Emperor), Ferdinand Karl Anton (Duke of Modena), Joseph II (Emperor)
and Maximilian Franz (Archbishop of Cologne and Imperial Elector).
By J.L. Maurice.
95) A water glass for the personal use of the Empress
A Venetian water glass used regularly by Maria Theresa. It was later given by
van swieten to the Augustinian Canon, Perger.
Fine Venetian glass, 8.5 cm x 6.5 cm.
Stiftsmuseum Klosterneuburg, Inv. Nr. KG 387b
96) St. Nicholas’s Day in the Imperial Family 1763
This charming scene of family life was painted by the daughter, Archduchess
Marie Christine. The boy crying because he got a birch rod instead of sweets,
is Archduke Ferdinand. The sister giving him the birch rod in his shoe is Marie
Christine herself. The girl with the doll is Marie Antoinette and the little boy is
Archduke Maximilian. The Emperor Franz Stephen sits reading a letter in his
dressing gown attended by his wife, Maria Theresa.
Gouache on paper, 1763.
97) Medal for the birth of the Archduke Joseph 1741
Portraits of Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen facing one another. The baby
head of Joseph appears between them.
Pewter, 43 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 6473/1914B
98) Rock crystal cruet from a set belonging to the Empress
A cruet from the rock crystal service which Maria Theresa’s grandson, Arch-
duke francis (later Francis II/I) received as a memento under the terms of the
Cut rock crystal with gold mounting, c. 1710.
MMD, Inv. Nr. 180516
99) Submission by Minister Bartenstein on the history studies of
Baron Johann Christoph von Bartenstein (portrait hanging on the wall of the
exhibition) was a minister whom Maria Theresa inherited from her father. After
an initial lack of sympathy, he became one of her most trusted (and able) coun-
sellors. Before the advent of Kaunitz, he was probably the most important advi-
sor on foreign affairs.
Here we have Bartenstein’s submission to the Emperor Francis I Stephen on
the content and organisation of Archduke Joseph’s history studies. History was
regarded as an important subject for a future ruler.
July, 1753, with the Emperor’s “placet” (approval) in his own hand.
HHStA, Familienakten Karton 54
100)Archduchess Marie Christine
The Archduchess Marie Christine was born in 1742 and was reputedly the favo-
urite daughter of the Empress. She was a gifted painter and painted the family
scene cat. No. 96 above. She later married Duke Albert-Kasimir von Sachsen-
Teschen and died in 1798.
101) Waitress with a chess board c. 1750
Old Vienese ﬁgure c. 1750. (Modern reproduction)
102) Archduchess Maria Carolina
Born in 1752, she was the third daughter of Maria Theresa to bear this name.
Both other sisters before her died in the year of their birth, 1740 and 1748
respectively. Maria Carolina was gifted at drawing and painting like her sister,
Marie Christine. In 1768 she married Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies. She
died in 1814.
103) Gardening scissors belonging to Maria Theresa
The Empress was not disinclined to a bit of gardening. There are even pictures
of her in the gardens. These are a pair of scissors for cutting ﬂowers which
belonged to Maria Theresa and were in her personal use. A gift from van Swie-
ten to canon Perger.
Stiftsmuseum Klosterneuburg, Inv. Nr. KG 387c
104) The Dowager Empress
This French engraving is based on the portrait by Joseph Ducreux, who origi-
nally came to Vienna (1769) paint a portrait of the Archduchess Maria Antonia
(Marie Antoinette) for the French Court.
Engraving by Louis Jacques Cathelin.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Ptf 132: (66a)
105) The “Du Paquier” Tea Service c. 1740
A small cup and saucer with a painted ﬂower design from the imperial tea ser-
Porcelain – “Du Paquier”, c. 1740.
MMD, Inv. Nr. 180709
106) Archduchess Maria Antonia
Better known as Marie Antoinette, she was the youngest daughter and the
second youngest child. Although she was chosen as the future bride of the Dau-
phin (later King Louis XVI), her education left much to be desired.. Maria The-
resa was all too well aware of her daughter’s deﬁciencies. In 1770 at the age of
14 she was married per proxy in Vienna and then sent as Marie Antoinette to
the French Court, for which she was ill prepared. Four years later she was the
Queen of France. She died tragically in 1793 during the French Revolution.
107) Medal for the recovery of the Empress from small pox 1767
Maria Theresa was not spared an almost fatal dose of small pox. She became
infected while comforting her pox-stricken daughter-in-law, Josepha (second
wife of Joseph II).
It was greatly feared for her life. The epidemic spread throughout Vienna.
The Archduchess Josepha died. As Maria Theresa recovered from the terrible
disease, there was general rejoicing throughout the Monarchy.
Reverse: A nun with incense kneeling before an altar.
DEO CONSERVATORI AUGUSTAE
Silver, 46 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1771bß
108) Porcelain vase from France
Probably a gift from Madame de Pompadour, mistress of King Louis XVI, who
help inﬂuence him to an alliance with Austria in 1756 prior to the outbreak
of the Seven Years’ War. By this Reversal of the Alliances Austria allied with
France while England joined Prussia. Madame de Pompadour was pro-Austrian
and she certainly inﬂuenced the King behind the scenes. Maria Theresa avoided
direct contact with the royal mistress, but allowed a valuable portrait of herself
to be sent to the Pompadour. This vase appears to have been part of the return
gift from Madame de Pompadour to the Empress.
Porcelain with gilded bronze mountings, France 1740-1750.
MMD, Inv. Nr. 038355
109) “L’Ipermestra” by J.A. Rhasse 1744
An opera by Johann Adolf Hasse commissioned by Maria Theresa on the occa-
sion of marriage of her sister Maria Anna to Karl of Lorraine in 1744.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. 9017/Tb
110) Cantata for the Empress’s birthday
A cantata by Georg Christoph Wagenseil for Maria Theresa’s birthday, perfor-
med by her daughters, Maria Carolina and Maria Antonia (Marie Antoinette).
All the children in the imperial family were taught to sing and to play two
musical instruments. Performances before the Court were a frequent feature of
Autograph score from the Music Collection of Archduke Rudolph.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. VI 15380 (A 440)
As of 23
October: (replacing the above cantata for reasons of conservation)
Ten Cantatas by Antonio Caldara
Commissioned by the Empress Elizabeth Christine (Maria Theresa’s mother), in
which the (then) Archduchess Maria Theresa played the part of Clarice.
Autograph score from the Music Collection of Archduke Rudolph.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. VI 16570 (A 404)
111) Maria Theresa and her family in 1776
Marie Christine and her husband, Duke Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, show the
Empress and the other children works of art from the Italian trip. (f.l.t.r.) Marie
Christine, Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, Archduke Maximilian Franz, Archdu-
chess Maria Anna, Archduchess Maria Elizabeth, the Empress in her black
widows garb, and Joseph II.
Painting by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1776.
112) Medal of the children 1759
Archduke Joseph is in the centre, surrounded by a circle of his brothers and
sisters. Joseph was not popular with his brothers and sister, and he had no parti-
cular fondness for them. Interestingly, despite their differences and mutual exas-
peration with each other, very real bonds of love existed between the Empress
and her eldest son. Maria Theresa could always separate her disapproval for cer-
tain views or actions from the love she held for the person in question.
Bronze, 90 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 17499/1914B
113) “Alceste. Tragedia per Musica.” by C.W. Gluck
Libretto of an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck (originally one of Maria
Theresa’s music teachers) with a dedication to the Empress, 1767.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. 2486/Tb/1 bzw. Tb/4
114) Three Cantatas by Antonio Caldara
A cantata by Antonio Caldara “For the glorious name aay of the Archauchess
Autograph score from the Music Collection of Archduke Rudolph.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. III 16138 (A 394)
As of 23
October: (replacing the above cantata for reasons of conservation)
“Le Lodi d’Augusto. Festa di Camera..., 1734”
Maria Theresa (still a princess) sang the part of Urania before her parents and
From the Music Collection of Archduke Rudolph.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. III 16137 (A 399)
115) The Palace of Schönbrunn by Canaletto
Nothing is associated so much today with the great Empress more than her
Palace of Schönbrunn. It was her decision that the imperial hunting lodge of
Schönbrunn (designed by Fischer von Erlach) should be rebuilt and extended
into a Summer palace for the imperial family and her Court. She commissio-
ned the architect Nicolaus Pacassi (Paccassi) with the work. (See cat. No. 79,
his aiploma of nobility.) The palace was painted 1758/61 by Bernardo Bellotto
(1721-1780), better known as Canaletto.
116) Portrait of the Empress, medal of 1888
Obverse of the medal struck to celebrate the unveiling of the Maria Theresa
Monument an the Ringstrasse ao 13
May, 1888. (See cat. No. 147)
Bronze, Anton Scharff, 1888.
117) Maria Theresa as patroness of the arts
Contemporary allogorical depiction of Maria Theresa as the great patroness. A
kneeling ﬁgure of Austria (?) presents her with a scroll.
118) Schönbrunn by Canaletto
Maria Theresa loved Schönbrunn and it became her favourite residence. Here
Canaletto has painted the view from the garden side. (1758/61)
119) The coronation procession of Archduke Joseph as
King of the Romans 1764
As was customary in the House of Habsburg, Francis I Stephen saw to the elec-
tion of his son and heir as King of the Romans before his own death. Accordin-
gly, Joseph would succeed him as Emperor without the risk of a new election.
April, 1764, father and son proceeded in a splendid procession through
the Römerberg in Frankfurt to Joseph’s coronation in St. Batholomew’s Church.
Out picture is an extract from a much larger work. The Emperor Francis I Ste-
phen rides ahead wearing the Austrian house crown of Rudolph II (later the
crown of the Austrian Empire). Joseph follows wearing the Archduke’s Hat that
was made specially for him. He was crowned, of course, with the crown of the
Holy Roman Empire.
Painting from the school of Martin van Meytens.
120) Proﬁle portrait of Joseph II
Artist unknown, brass. 19
121) The Document of Co-Regency for Joseph II 1765
The election and coronation of Joseph as King of the Romans in 1764 had
ensured the succession. As his father, Francis I Stephen, then unexpectedly
died in Innsbruck on 18
August, 1765, Joseph automatically succeeded him as
Emperor. The bereft Maria Theresa at ﬁrst thought of withdrawing from govern-
ment herself, but Kaunitz quickly talked her out of that. The new Emperor was
totally without any power base, so it was decided to grant Joseph the co-regency
in the Austrian hereditary lands. In fact Maria Theresa retained the upper hand,
through her own strong personality and experience, and through the fact that
most of the ministers and counsellors were her men. She did occasionally give
way (as in the division of Poland), but normally it was Joseph who was resentful
at being held in tutelage by his mother.
The title page shows the shield of Austria, the imperial eagle, the Bohemian
lion and the double (patriarchal) cross of Hungary in a beautifully drawn frame-
Parchment book, 17
HHStA, FU 2013/1
122) The co-regents 1765
A double portrait of Joseph II and Maria Theresa on the occasion of the accor-
ding the co-regency to the new Emperor.
Silver, 60 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 1867bß
123) The coffee service “Maria Theresa” by Augarten Porcelain
This pattern of ﬂowers in green was originally designed for a service that was a
gift to Maria Theresa for a hunting lodge. Since then the pattern has borne her
name and it is still produced today by Augarten Porcelain. In 1744 Maria The-
resa placed the insolvent Vienna Porcelain Manufacture under state supervision.
From this time onwards they were permitted to use the Austrian shield and the
crown as a trademark.
124) The so-called “Coffee Memorandum”
The Empress often worked on her papers and memoranda at the breakfast table.
One day she had an unfortunate accident and knocked over the coffee pot, spil-
ling coffee over the document she was working on. Someone else would have
contented themselves with having a servant mop up the spilt liquid and have
turned to other matters. (After all she was the Empress!) But Maria Theresa
would allow no-one to bear the blame of her own carelessness. She wrote a
spontaneous apology on the paper:
“Am ashamea that a pot of coffee was spilt over this...'”
For conservation reasons the “Kaffee Akt” will only be displayed in the
original until 30
September, 2001. As of 1
October a facsimile will be on
125) The chocolate maid c. 1750
Old Viennese ﬁgure, c. 1750.
126) The ﬁrst letter from Marie Antoinette to her mother from
At the age of 14 Marie Antoinette was married to the Dauphin, the later King
Louis XVI of France. She travelled from Vienna to Versailles in April/May,
1770. On 9
July, 1770, she wrote her ﬁrst letter home to her mother. She descri-
bed the life at Court and the attempts of the King’s mistress, Madame Dubarry,
to get some sign of recognition and acceptance from her. (Marie Antoinette’s
persistent refusal to speak to Dubarry caused a diplomatic storm between Ver-
sailles and Vienna.)
Maria Theresa knew of the unsatisfactory preparation of her youngest daughter
for the throne, and she appears to have had a guilty conscience over it. She knew
that Marie Antoinette tended to be ﬂighty and superﬁcial. This hand-written
letter with its sloppy penmanship testiﬁes to this fact. Later letters were written
by a secretary.
HHStA, Sammelbände Kt 3/12
127) Bust of Marie Antoinette
A bronze copy of the bust made by F. Lecomte in 1783. The Queen wears a
medallion with the likeness of Louis XVI.
128) Medal for the marriage of Marie Antoinette to the Dauphin Louis 1770
The marriage took place via proxy (Joseph stood in for Louis) in Vienna on 19
April, 1770, and was repeated ceremoniously in Versailles on 16
medal was fashioned by Anton Franz Wiedemann on the occasion of the mar-
riage in Vienna.
The obverse has a portrait of the young Archduchess Maria Antonia, from now
on the Dauphine Marie Antoinette. Silver.
The reverse depicts the ﬁgure of an angel with two laurel crowns and Fortuna
before an altar.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 7944bß and 17975/1914B
129) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette 1781
The two royal portraits facing one another.
Silver, 60 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 7883bß
130) La Reine de France by Madame Vigée-Lebrun
Marie Antoinette as Queen. A portrait by Madame Vigée-Lebrun.
131) Queen of France and Navarre
A medal with a portrait of Marie Antoinette by Du Vivier in 1781 on the one
side, and Louis XVI on the other. Her elaborate hair style in the mode of the
Court at that time is particularly noticeable.
Bronze, 70 mm. 19
132) Table Service with the “green bands”
A plate, a salt dish and a double dish for seasoning from a service which Louis
XVI gave to his brother-in-law Joseph II in 1777. The Emperor had travelled
incognito to Paris as “Count Falkenstein” to visit his sister and his brother-in-
law, King Louis XVI. After seven years of marriage the royal union was still
childless, and Joseph had undertaken the delicate task of persuading the French
King to undergo a small “operation” (in which he indeed succeeded). This pre-
sent from Louis had to be made through the Austrian ambassador, since the
incognito Emperor was not ofﬁcially there. (The French Court muttered that the
Emperor hadn’t brought any comparable gift in exchange.)
Manufacture Vincennes and Sèvres, 1756-1757, ﬁne painted porcelain.
MMD, Inv. Nr. 180529
133) Archduke Maximilian visiting Versailles
This picture shows Maximilian visiting the Court of his sister in Versailles.
Louis is standing in the middle next to his wife. Shortly afterwards he was follo-
wed the elder brother, Joseph II, incognito as “Count Falkenstein”. His mission
was to get his sister and brother-in-law to ﬁnally produce an heir to the French
134) Triumphal wagon of Maria Theresa and Joseph II 1773/75
A giant triumphal wagon in the Baroque style. Beneath the great imperial crown
Maria Theresa and Joseph II are seated. In the lower areas are nine of the child-
ren accompanied by antique gods. Probably produced on the occasion of the
millennium celebrations for St. Romuald in 1775.
Engraving by Johann Baptiste Klauber, c. 1773/75.
KHM-WGB, Inv. Nr. Z 120
135) The vegetable seller ca. 1750
Roast chicken salesman ca. 1750
136) The Peace of Teschen 1779
The Elector Max Joseph of Bavaria (son of Charles Albert) died childless. His
heirs were the Elector Charles Theodore of the Palatinate (also childless) and
after him, Duke Charles of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, a protege of France. In return
for his imperial agreement to this arrangement, Joseph II demanded compensa-
tion from Bavaria, and had his troops occupy Landshut and Straubing in Lower
Bavaria. This crisis is known as the War of the Bavarian Succession. In July,
1778, Prussian troops again invaded Bohemia
and Joseph had to withdraw his forces from Bavaria. Maria Theresa gratefully
accepted the offers of France and Russia to mediate. In the winter of 1779 a
diplomatic congress met at Teschen. Austria received the Innviertel from Bava-
ria. The succession of the Elector Palatine and the Duke of Zweibrücken was
assured. With the exception of Joseph II, everyone was satisﬁed.
On exhibition here is the memorandum of 6
May,1779, by Kaunitz on the
peace agreement with the Empress’s handwritten “placet” and her praise and
thanks to Kaunitz.
HHStA, Staatskanzlei Vorträge Kt 129
Ofücer of the Infantry Regiment 1ung Colloredo-Waldsee (in large display
The ﬁgure of an infantry ofﬁcer in the Regiment Jung Colloredo-Waldsee in
white uniform with red facing and a three-cornered hat. (One goal of Daun’s
army reforms was the standardisation of uniforms and drills between the regi-
ments, which were often privately raised and equipped.) The ofﬁcers holds a
Partisane in his hand, originally a defence against a mounted attacker.
137) Quill pen belonging to Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa wrote many of her letters in her own hand (virtually all personal
or private correspondence). She wrote her comments on all the memoranda and
papers submitted to her. Here is one of the goose quills she used. It was a gift
from van Swieten to Canon Perger.
Goose Quill, 16.5 cm long.
Stiftsmuseum Klosterneuburg, Inv. Nr. KG 387d
138) The Empress’s last letter 1780
A couple of days prior to her death on 29
November, Maria Theresa wrote
a last letter to her son, Peter Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany (later Emperor
Leopold II). The letter is in French and clearly shows that the Empress was
expecting her death imminently.
'My more than tenaerly belovea ana loyal chilaren' I am aisconsolate about the
courier which was sent to you yesteraay (with news of her impending death),
for I can sense the impression which his mission will have had on you, since
I know the greatness of your devotion to me; judge then my concern. You are
of Christian convictions and virtuous; that comforts me just as the fact that you
always ﬁnd your happiness in yourselves. May God look after you. Myself, I
give you both and your ten lovely children my blessing.
HHStA, Familien-Korrespondenz A, Kt. 37
139) Maria Theresa’s last day, 29
Mortally ill, hardly able to breathe, the Empress sits surrounded by some of her
children and Court ofﬁcials. Joseph II kneels beside her. The Archduchess Maria
Anna described the end of the great monarch and mother as follows:
„3 hours before her death Störck brought a mixture. She smiled and said: I thank
you, this is intended merely to keep me going, I shall not take it.....Five
minutes before her death she struggled from her chair and took a few
steps as far as her chaise longue, where she collapsed. They laid her on
it as well as they could. She was still able to help herself. The Emperor
said: Your Majesty is lying very ill ( uncomfortably). Yes, she said, but well
enough to die. She took another three or four breaths and departed.”
Johann Hieronymus Löschenkohl, Vienna, 1780.
ÖNB-BA, 185 177/2, Pft 132: (88)
140) Her last will and testament (15
Exhibited here is a codicil in the Empress’s hand and signed on 1
1778, in which the Empress instructs the members of her family not to attend
the public ceremonies of her funeral. (A wish that could not be followed by
all.) Maria Theresa was anxious to spare them the strain and sorrow of a public
Two remarks on the envelop: “My last will” (handwriting of Maria Theresa) and
“Openea ana reaa by me. Joseph” (handwriting of Joseph II)
HHStA, FU 2095
141) Notice of Court Mourning 1780
This printed bill “Court Mourning for Her late Roman Imperial ana Royal Apo-
stolic Mafesty” lays down the regulations for the six months period of mourning
at the Vienna Court.
HHStA, ÄZA Karton 90
142) Order of prayer in the Court chapel during the Empress’s last illness
During her last days the 40 hours prayer was held for Maria Theresa in the Court
chapel. This document sets out the schedule of who should attend the chapel at
HHStA, ÄZA Karton 90
143) Design for a memorial of mourning in St. Stephen’s cathedral
Draft of the wooden memorial which was erected in St. Stephen’s to the perpe-
tual memory of the Empress on 28
144) The order of procession for the funeral
Maria Theresa was buried on 2
December after lying-in-state in the Court
chapel. The funeral procession proceeded from the Hofburg through the then
“Augustiner Gang” to the imperial crypt in the Capuchin Church.
HHStA, ÄZA Karton 90
145) A lock of the Empress’s hair
This lock of Maria Theresa’s hair was presented to Canon Perger by Gerard van
In the original case.
Stiftsmuseum Klosterneuburg, Inv. Nr. KG 387 a
146) The baroque double sarcophagus in the Imperial Crypt
After the death of Francis Stephen, which hit the Empress very hard, she com-
missioned a magniﬁcent double sarcophagus in the Rococo style from Balthasar
Moll. The Empress visited the imperial crypt regularly to pray at her husband’s
tomb. In her later years she found the steps too difﬁcult and the Capuchins
rigged up a kind of chair-lift for her. The last visit was on All-Souls’ Day, 2
November, 1780. As they tried to raise the Empress, the lift stuck. “The crypt
aoesnt want to give me up,” joked the Empress. Her bearers were summoned to
carry up via the stairs. “I see, my aears, that I shall soon have to stay aown there
for gooa!” Maria Theresa continued to joke, but with perhaps a premonition of
her pending death.
The tomb shows the imperial couple awakening on the last day and turning to
each other. An angel with a trumpet holds a crown of stars above their heads.
On the sides are scenes from their lives: the entrance into Florence in 1739 and
Francis Stephen’s coronation in Frankfurt in 1745, or Maria Theresa’s ride up
the Royal Hill in Pressburg in 1741 and her coronation in Prague in 1743. Four
mourning women sit at the corners with the crowns and arms of the Empire,
Hungary, Bohemia and Jerusalem.
Maria Theresa was placed in the tomb beside her beloved husband in the eve-
ning of 2
Contemporary drawings. Reproductions.
147) The medal for the unveiling of the Maria Theresa Monument 1888
The Emperor Franz Joseph had a monument to the Empress erected between the
twin museums (Art History and Natural History) on the Ringstrasse in 1888.
Reverse: Maria Theresa on a throne surrounded by her ministers and generals.
Bronze, 64 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 134.609
148) The urn for the Empress’s heart
After death the hearts of the Habsburgs were placed in St. Augustine’s Church,
their intestines in St. Stephen’s and their bodies in the imperial crypt in the
This is a photo of the urn for the Empress’s heart in the Augustinian crypt.
Photo. WBM, Inv. Nr. 23
149) “Denis Klage auf den Todt Marien Theresiens”
A lament on her death. Music by Leopold Kozeluch.
GMFW, Inv. Nr. VI 12544 (Q6318)
150) “Erste Vorlesung welche Herr Hofrath von Sonnenfels nach dem Tode
Marien Theresien hielt, 1781”
Public reading by Sonnenfels after her death.
WBM, Inv. Nr. 9
151) Money at the time of Maria Theresa
Always left to right:
row - Silver coins:
Convention Taler 1766
½ Taler 1767
Crowns Taler 1768
½ Crowns Taler 1768
Madonna Taler 1780 (Hungary)
row - Gold coins:
¼ ducat 1752 (silver)
Souverain d’or 1755 (Antwerp)
2 ducats 1776 (Transylvania)
1 ducat 1778
row - Silver coins:
30 Kreuzer Obvs. 1769 Rvs. 1765
20 Kreuzer Obvs. and Rvs, 1768
15 Kreuzer (Hungary) 1745
6 Kreuzer 1743
3 Kreuzer (Groschen) 1776
row - Copper coins:
Poltura Obvs. 1765 Rvs. (Madoona) 1763
Kreuzer 1762 Obvs. Vienna Rvs. Prague
row - Copper coins.
½ Kreuzer Obvs. and Rvs. without date
Pfennig (penny) Obvs. 1765 Rvs. 1764
152) Circular introducing the ﬁrst banknotes, so-called Banco-Zettel, 1762
Samples of the ﬁrst Austrian banknotes: 5 Gulden, 10 Gulden, 25 Gulden. (Later
samples were crossed through in order to prevent people from cutting them out
and passing them off as originals.)
153) Sample Banco-Zettel for 1,000 Gulden 1771
This sample bears the above mentioned cancellation lines.
154) The Vienna Mint 1753
In 1753 Maria Theresa purchased the Winter Palais of Prince Eugene of Savoy
(today’s Ministry of Finance). The mint was accommodated there until 1837.
(See too the arms hanging above the entrance. They, too, come from the old
155) Imperial visit to the Vienna Mint 1754
This medal was struck on the occasion of Maria Theresa’s ofﬁcial visit to the
Reverse: A youth with coin scales between a melting oven and a screw press.
Silver, 45 mm.
KHM-MK, Inv. Nr. 6477/1914B
156) Blank production and milling the metal strip at the mint.
The strip is rolled to the right thickness and the blanks are punched out.
The Maria Theresa Taler (Levantine Taler)
September, 1753, Austria concluded a Coin Convention with Bavaria, which laid
down that ten Talers (or 20 Gulden) were to be struck Irom a Cologne Mark oI fne silver.
This gave the Taler a fne weight oI 833 1/3 grams.
Coins were struck throughout the realm during Maria Theresa’s reign, for example in
Vienna, Kremnitz, Prague, Graz, Karlsburg, Hall, Nagybanya Günzburg, Antwerp and
Schmöllnitz. Her silver coins were very popular in the Orient trade because oI their reliable
standards, and because the raised edge lettering prevented people from shaving silver from a
coin unnoticed. After her death, Joseph II gave permission to continue minting the last Taler
(1780) from the Günzburg mint (today in Bavaria). This coin became the most widespread
trade coin in the Levant, Arabia and North AIrica. It continued to be used as an unoIfcial
currency in some countries until well into the 1950s and 1960s. It may still be found in
the bazaars of the Middle East today, frequently made into necklaces and other pieces of
The Austrian Mint in Vienna still strikes and sells this coin today. It is probably the world’s
most famous silver coin.
Mint in Günzburg:
157) Taler 1765 (without the widow’s veil). S.C. (Schöbl/Clotz)
158) Taler 1770 (with widow’s veil) S.C.
159) Taler 1780 (prototype for the famous restrike) S.F. (Schöbl/Faby)
160) 1780 restrike, 1783-95
161) 1780 restrike, 1789-92
162) 1780 restrike, 1792-1805 (Günzburg closed production in 1805)
Mint in Vienna:
163) Taler 1767 (with veil) I.C. S.K. (Johann Cronberg/ Sigismund Klemmer)
164) Restrike of the Günzburg Taler, 1780-1790. I.C. F.A. (Johann Cronberg/
Franz von Aycherau)
165) Restrike 1795-1853. I.C. F.A.
166) Restrike ca. 1920. “ARGHID” instead of “ARCHID”
167) Milan 1790-1802
168) Milan 1815-28 (the Bohemian crown and the tail feathers differ to
cat. No. 167)
169) Milan 1828-40
170) Venice 1817-33
171) Venice 1840-66 (small cross after 1780)
172) London 1930-61 (2 instead of 3 middle tail feathers.)
173) Bombay 1940-41
174) Bombay gold version (unique)
175) Paris 1937-42
176) Rome 1935-39 (Dolfuß licensed Mussolini to mint in Rome for the
177) China ca. 1920
178) Ethiopia ca. 1900 (sun)
179) Quaiti 1889-1900
180) Madeira ca. 1880 (royal arms of Portugal)
181) Hejaz and Turkey 1876 (tax stamp)
182) Hejaz and Nejd ca. 1926
183) Yemen ca. 1906-20
184) Yemen 1948-62
185) Austrian Numismatic Society 1995
186) Arabian pendant
187) Maria Theresa Taler rolled through a press
188) Double-headed eagle sawn out by hand
The pictures around the walls:
1. Shield of the old mint 1753
2. Maria Theresa Taler in the world
Mints and areas of circulation.
3. Maria Theresa ca 1750
In blue gown with the crowns of Hungary and Bohemia
Unknown Austrian artist.
HGM, Öl/Lw., EB 1975-67, S 15112
4. Francis I Stephen ca. 1750
In Spanish Court dress.
HGM, Öl/Lw., EB 1975-68
5. Coronation in St Vitus‘s Cathedral
(Above the display case left)
Maria Theresa kneels before the high altar of St. Vitus‘s Cathedral .
Engraving after Joannes Joseph Dietzler.
6. Baron von Bartenstein
One of the ﬁrst and most trusted Ministers.
7. Wenzel Anton Prince Kaunitz-Rietberg
The great statesman. Chancellor for 39 years.
8. Empress and Queen Maria Theresa
Portrait by Martin van Meytens.
Gemäldegalerie der Akadamie der Bildenden Künste.
9. Francis I Stephen lying-in-state 1765
Unknown Austrian artist.
KHM-GG, Inv. Nr. 2188
10. The Imperial Family ca. 1754
From the school of Martin van Meytens.
11. The Dowager Empress
Unknown artist (after Joseph Decreux?)
12. Joseph and his brother Peter Leopold
Rome in the background. A painting by Pompeo Batoni, commissioned by the
Empress during the meeting of the two brothers in Italy.
The Star of the Grand Cross
of the Maria Theresa Order
(description cat No. 63)
Maria Theresia, von Gottes Gnaden römische Kaiserin, Wittib, Königinn zu
Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien etc., Erzherzoginn zu Österreich,
Herzoginn zu Burgund, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Krain, Großfürstinn zu
Siebenbürgen, Markgräfin zu Mähren, Herzoginn zu Braband, zu Limburg, zu
Luxenburg und zu Geldern, zu Würtenberg, zu Ober- und Niederschlesien, zu Mayland,
zu Mantua, zu Parma, zu Placenz und Quastalla, Fürstinn zu Schwaben, gefürstete
Gräfinn zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, zu Hennegau, zu Kiburg, zu Görz und
Gradisca, Markgräfinn des Heiligen Römischen Reichs zu Burgau, zu Ober- und
Nieder Lausitz, Gräfinn zu Namur, Frau auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mecheln
etc. verwittibte Herzoginn zu Lotharingen und Baar, Großherzoginn zu Toskana etc.
Abbreviations for the contributing museums
Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wien
HGM......................Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Wien
MMD .....................Museen des Mobiliendepots
Hofsilber- und Tafelkammer, Wien
KHM-WBG ...........Kunsthistorisches Museum
WGMF...................Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien
WPMA...................Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten
and management: Kerry R. J. Tattersall
Exhibition Manager: Karl Machulka
Technical Production: Franz J. Artmüller
Catalogue: © Münze Österreich, Marketing
The texts printed in this catalogue are the intellectual property of the
specifed authors. Printing or copying, in part or in whole, only with
the expressed consent of the author.
Catalogue text: © Austrian Mint. Printing or copying, in part or in
whole, only with the expressed consent of the publisher.
Cover picture: © Gemäldegalerie der Akademie der Bildenden Künste,
Wien, Layout: Austrian Mint
The exhibition room of the Austrian Mint is intended for collectors and
all those interested in the background story to the various themes on
Austrian coins. The exhibition room is a frst step towards a seperate
mint museum in the years to come.
Our special thanks for their generous and active support
to the exhibition ,Maria Theresia~ goes to the:
• Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien
• Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum, Wien
• Kunsthistorischen Museum
• Kunsthistorischen Museum
• Kunsthistorischen Museum
• Museen des Bundesmobiliendepots
• Museen des Bundesmobiliendepots
Hofsilber- und Tafelkammer, Wien
• Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek
• Österreichischen Staatsarchiv
Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wien
• Österreichischen Staatsarchiv
• Österreichischen Staatsarchiv
• Sammlung Hafner
• Stift Klosterneuburg
• Wiener Bestattungsmuseum
• Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten
Maria Theresia at ca. 1762
Jean-Etienne Liotard (1702-1789)
Lemberg/Lviv, Gemäldegalerie, Inv. Nr. G-P 131
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