Sergeants Distance Education Program

8016A

WARFIGHTING TECHNIQUES (8016A) Course Introduction

Scope

This course will focus on battlefield techniques. It will teach you how to do some of the skills that are required of a small unit leader. Unlike MCI Course 8014A, Introduction to Warfighting and MCI Course 8015A, Warfighting Tactics which focused on the art and tactical decision making involved in combat leadership, this course will focus on some of the actual tasks a successful small unit leader needs to perform in combat. This course is built around techniques, not tactics. Techniques are the skills you learn through drill and repetition. Unlike tactics, which involve situation decision making, techniques are skills that are easy to quantify and measure. This course will teach you some of the techniques a noncommissioned officer (NCO) must perform on the battlefield. It will cover basic radio operation procedures for the Single-Channel Ground Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) radio, calling and adjusting indirect fire, and how to handle enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) and medical evacuations (MEDEVACs). Unlike MCI Courses 8014 and 8015, this course will teach you exactly what you should do in combat. This course will help you prepare for combat by teaching you the basic skills that will be required of an NCO in a combat environment. These skills are not military occupational specialty (MOS) specific, but must be known by all Marines. You must also remember that these skills are perishable. To maintain sufficiency in these tasks, keep this course for your professional library and refer to it on a regular basis.
Continued on next page

Techniques Defined

Course Layout

How to Study This Course

MCI Course 8016A

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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

References

The following references were used in the writing of this course: · · · · · · · TM 11-5820-890-30-6, SINGARS Manual. MCWP 3-16.6, Supporting Arms Observer, Spotter, and Controller. FMFM 6-21, Tactical Fundamentals of Helicopterborne Operations. FM 8-10-6, Medical Evacuation in a Theater of Operations. FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers. NAVAIR 00-80T-113, Helicopter Handling Signals. NAVEDTRA 14295, Standard First Aid Course, Chapter 4 Emergency Medical Procedures, Virtual Naval Hospital .com · TBS STUDENT HANDOUTS · B7551 Assault Support and Helicopterborne operations · B7557 Helicopter Operations · B8601 Basic Life Support · B8603 Combat Related Injuries · B8604 Casualty Evaluation and Evacuation

Table of Contents

The following is the table of contents for this course. Study Unit -1 2 3 -Title Course Introduction Single-Channel Ground Airborne Radio System Indirect Fire Support Combat Skills Review Exercise Page i 1-1 2-1 3-1 R-1

Estimated Study Time

You will need about 7 hours and 20 minutes to complete this course. This includes time to study the text, complete the exercises, and take the final exam.
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MCI Course 8016A

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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

Reserve Retirement Credits

You earn two retirement credits for completing this course. You earn reserve retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study time. Note: Reserve retirement credits are not awarded for the MCI study you do during drill periods if awarded credits for drill attendance.

Summary

The table below summarizes all-important “gateways” needed to successfully complete this course. Step 1 2 3 When you Enroll in the program Complete the self-paced text Pass the final examination Then you will Receive your program material Arrange to take the final examination Receive a course completion certificate For more information Refer to the Program Introduction Refer to the Program Introduction Refer to the Program Introduction

Additional References

The following table lists publications that can be used as additional sources of information about the content of this course Publication Number FMFM 6-5 FMFM 6-8 -Title Marine Rifle Squad Supporting Arms Observer Marine Battle Skills Training Handbook 3

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Course Introduction

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Course Introduction

STUDY UNIT 1 SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM Overview

Estimated Study Time

45 minutes

Scope

This study unit is designed to familiarize you with the Single-Channel Ground Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) radio and its capabilities. As an incidental operator, the AN/PRC-119B configuration is the most commonly used radio in the Marine Corps. More detailed use of the SINCGARS radio will be taught in the resident Sergeants Course. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · Identify the N/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio. Identify the operation steps of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio.

Learning Objectives

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons.

Topic Overview Description Assembly and Operation of the AN/PRC-119B

See Page 1-1 1-3 1-11

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Study Unit 1

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Study Unit 1

LESSON 1 DESCRIPTION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Scope

This lesson will enable you to identify the characteristics, capabilities, and components of the AN/PRC-119B (SINCGARS) radio. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · Describe the characteristics of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio. Identify the capabilities of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio. Identify the components of the AN/PRC-119B by function.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics. Topic Introduction Characteristics of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS Radio Components of the AN/PRC-119B Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 1-3 1-4 1-7 1-8

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Characteristics of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS RADIO

AN/PRC-119B Radio

The illustration below shows the AN/PRC-119B radio.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Characteristics of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS RADIO,
Continued

Capabilities

The table below describes the capabilities and applicability of the SINCGARS controls (knob, switches, etc.) by basic radio characteristics. Characteristic Type of Modulation Frequency Range Channel Spacing Channels of Operation Frequency Offset Ability Number of Preset Channels Emissions Capabilities Frequency Modulated (FM) 30,000 megahertz (MHz) to 87,975 MHz 25 kilohertz (kHz) 2,320 ± 5 (or 10) 10 kHz · Eight in single-channel mode · Six in frequency-hopping mode · Voice · Secure voice · Digital data · Low (LO): 500 microwatts · Medium (M): 160 milliwatts · High (HI): 4 watts · Power Amp (PA) used only in vehicular configuration: 50 watts · Manpack: 13.5 VDC 1. BA-5590 2. BB-590 · Vehicular: 27.5 VDC · HUB 6.75 VDC 1. BA 1372 2. BA 5372 Power, Distance · LO - 500 microwatts, 330 yards · M - 160 milliwatts; 2.5 miles · HI - 4 watts; 5 miles · PA - 50 watts; 22 miles
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Radio Frequency (RF) Power Output

Power Requirement

Rated Range

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Characteristics of the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS RADIO,
Continued

Capabilities, continued

Characteristic Modes of Operation

· · · ·

· ·

Tuning

· ·

Electronic CounterCounter Measure (ECCM) Capable

· · ·

Capabilities Single-channel - (SC) Frequency-hopping (FH) Frequency-hopping Master - (FH-M) Retransmission 1. SC to SC 2. SC to FH 3. FH to FH Electronic Remote Fill (ERF) relay Remote 1. Plain text 2. Cipher text 3. With AN/GRA-39, control-monitor, or Control Receiver-Transmitter (RT) C-11561 (C)/U Electronic frequency entered manually by using the keyboard Up to eight single-channels and six FH channels can be loaded and later selected using CHAN (channel) switch ECCM capable. Capable to overcome or avoid jamming. Capable of frequency-hopping (randomly changing frequencies while maintaining communication). These systems will frequency hop at a rate of 6,000 frequencies per minute.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Components of the AN/PRC-119B

Manpack Version

The illustration below shows the manpack configuration, the most widely used configuration.

Functions

The table below lists the parts for the AN/PRC-119B and their functions. Part Receiver· Transmitter (RT) · Manpack Antenna Handset Battery Box Function VHF-FM Combat Net Radio Provides primary means of command and control voice, secure voice, and digital data · Radiates/receives radio frequency (RF) signals for the RT Used for voice communications · Connects to the RT and protects the battery · Houses and provides interconnection with the remote control unit (RCU) via the line binding post mounted on the bottom · Located in the battery box · Connected to RT for power · Supply the 13.5 VDC needed to operate the manpack · Supply the primary energy source for operation Note: The batteries are not components of the AN/PRC-119B but are required for use. · Used to transport the AN/PRC-119B · May differ in design

Batteries

Field Pack

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. What is the power output for low radio frequency on the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio? a. b. c. d. 4 watts 50 watts 160 milliwatts 500 microwatts

Item 1

Item 2

An electronic frequency entered manually using the keyboard is a. b. c. d. an electronic counter-counter measure. referred to as tuning. an emission. a type of modulation.

Item 3

Which component provides the primary means of command and control voice, secure voice, and digital data? a. b. c. d. Manpack antenna Receiver-transmitter Handset Battery box

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer d b b Reference Page 1-5 1-6 1-7

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 ASSEMBLY AND OPERATION OF THE AN/PRC-119B Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Scope

This lesson teaches the procedures used to assemble the AN/PRC-119B and the steps to prepare the SINCGARS for single-channel (SC) operations. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify the steps to assemble the AN/PRC-119B. Identify the steps to perform a self-test on the AN/PRC-119B. Identify the steps to load single-channel frequencies on the AN/PRC-119B. Identify the steps to correctly store information into the permanent memory on the AN/PRC-119B.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics. Topic Introduction Assembling the AN/PRC-119B Self-Testing the AN/PRC-119B Loading Single-Channel Frequencies Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 1-11 1-12 1-16 1-18 1-19

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Assembling the AN/PRC-119B

Procedure

The table below lists the steps to assemble the AN/PRC-119B. Step 1 2 Action Place the function (FCTN) switch on the receiver transmitter (RT) in the OFF position. Stand the RT on its front panel guards to make the battery and battery box easier to install.

3

Visually inspect the battery box for dirt and check the connecting pins for damage.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Assembling the AN/PRC-119B, Continued

Procedure, continued

Step 4

Action Place the battery (BA-5590/BB-590) on its side; then insert the battery in the battery box. Be sure to match the connectors on the battery with those inside the battery box.

5

Secure the battery box cover by latching the butterfly clips located on each side of the battery box.

6

Attach the battery box to the RT using the hold down latches.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Assembling the AN/PRC-119B, Continued

Procedure, continued

Step 7

Action Remove the HUB cover by loosening and removing the two screws. Lift the cover off the panel.

8

Position the battery (BA-1372/BA-5372) with the flat end positioned.

9

Reposition the HUB cover and secure it using the two screws you loosened in step 7. Secure the screws snug enough to keep out moisture. CAUTION: Do not cross thread the screws or you will damage the equipment.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Assembling the AN/PRC-119B, Continued

Procedure, continued

Step 10

Action Handtighten the manpack antenna (AS-3683) to the antenna (ANT) connector. Carefully align the ANT to the connector (RT-1523) to avoid damage.

11

Do not cross thread the ANT or you will damage the antenna and radio. Connect the handset (H-189/H-250) to the AUD/DATA connector on front of the RT as seen in the picture below.

CAUTION:

Note: A handset or other audio accessories may be connected to the AUD/FILL connector only after the radio has been filled with correct data.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Self-Testing the AN/PRC-119B

Performance Test

After assembling the AN/PRC-119B, you, as an incidental operator, must self-test the radio to be sure the radio is working and capable of performing the required tasks to accomplish the mission. The table below lists the steps to self-test the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio. Step 1 Action Set the FCTN switch to Z-FH. This will reset the system.

Procedure

2 3

Set COMSEC switch to CT. Set the FCTN switch to the TST position and observe the following: · ECCM (E) and COMSEC module (C) check. If either module is not in the RT, a dash is shown in place of the letter. Short bursts of rushing noise should be heard. If “E” is displayed, a beep should be heard after the rushing noise. Signal strength display check. Signal strength indicator should light at all positions from LO to HI. Display check. All LED’s should light up in the display window.

· ·

At the end of a successful self-test, “GOOD” will appear in the display. If the display shows any FAIL codes, check all switch positions and connections then reinitiate the self-test. If FAIL CODE appears again, follow appropriate troubleshooting techniques.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Self-Testing the AN/PRC-119B, Continued

Procedure, continued

Step 4

Action Put the CHAN control knob in the MAN position. Be sure the data function is OFF.

5 6

Note: The radio is still functional in the SC and FH modes, but not with data communication. Position the FCTN switch in the TST position. If test is successful, display will show word "OK".

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Loading Single-Channel Frequencies

Importance

After you have successfully performed the self-test, be ready to load singlechannel frequencies for single-channel operations. Single-channel operation is the most frequent operation you will perform as the incidental operator. The table below lists the steps to load single-channel frequencies into the RT1523. Step 1 Action Set up the RT-1523 for loading single-channel frequencies by placing the · FCTN switch in the LD position · MODE control knob in the SC position · CHAN control knob in the MAN position Load single-channel frequencies by · Pressing the FREQ key on the RT-1523 keyboard · Pressing the CLR key on the RT-1523 keyboard · Entering the frequency number Press the STO key to store the information into permanent memory.

Procedure

2

3

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise
Estimated Study Time Directions

10 minutes

Complete the following items. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. When assembling the AN/PRC-119B, what component is connected to the AUD/DATA connector? a. b. c. d. Handset Antenna Battery Transmitter

Item 1

Item 2

When assembling the AN/PRC-119B, align the _____ to the connector RT1523. a. b. c. d. AUD/DATA RXMT ANT AUD/FILL

Item 3

When performing a self-test on the AN/PRC-119B, in which modes is the radio still functional? a. b. c. d. FH and FH-M SC and FH-M SC and PA SC and FH
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued
Item 4

Which position is the MODE control knob in when loading a single-channel frequency on the AN/PRC-119B? a. b. c. d. FH-M SQ ON SC PA

Item 5

Which key on the keyboard of the AN/PRC-119B do you press to store the SC frequency into permanent memory? a. b. c. d. LOUT/9 STO SYNC/3 FCTN

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer a c d c b Reference Page 1-15 1-15 1-17 1-18 1-18

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 2 INDIRECT FIRE SUPPORT Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour

Unit Scope

You are in a combat zone, and responsible for calling in fire support for your unit. The problem is you have no formal training on calling in fire support. Your unit was called to provide perimeter support, and you were given a quick course on call-for-fire. You are now considered the duty expert. Like any other person, you are not very comfortable with the basic instruction received. Some questions you might ask are · How can I incorporate artillery fire to support my unit? · What kinds of rounds are available? · What are they used for? These questions and more will be answered in this study unit.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · · · · Identify the various parts of the indirect fire team. Identify target location. Identify how to construct and transmit a complete call-for-fire. Identify various artillery ammunition. Identify how to adjust rounds onto target. Identify how to construct and transmit damage assessment and target intelligence.
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Study Unit 2

Overview, Continued

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Overview Call-for-Fire Adjusting Indirect Fire See Page 2-1 2-3 2-27

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Study Unit 2

LESSON 1 CALL-FOR-FIRE Introduction

Estimated Study time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

In combat, one of the assets used to accomplish your mission is indirect fire. You must function as a forward observer (FO) for artillery. Your rifle squad, when linked to a fire direction center (FDC) through wire or radio, becomes a powerful instrument of destruction. Indirect fire can engage and destroy the enemy forces while minimizing risk to your squad. Using indirect fire is essential to conducting successful combat operations. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · Identify the three components of the indirect fire team by function. · Identify the four essential tools of a forward observer (FO) by function. · Identify the two types of adjustments for binoculars. · Describe the two methods for locating targets. · Identify the four types of fire missions. · Identify the six elements of a call-for-fire. · Identify the three transmissions of a call-for-fire. · Identify the contents of a message to observer. · Identify various artillery shells.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics. Topic Introduction Functions of an Indirect Fire Team Functions of Forward Observer Tools and Equipment Locating Targets Types of Fire Missions Six Elements of a Call-for-Fire Transmitting a Call-for-Fire FDC Response to a Call-for-Fire Artillery Ammunition Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 2-3 2-5 2-7 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-21

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Functions of an Indirect Fire Team

Indirect Fire Team Components

The three components of an indirect fire team are · · · FO FDC Guns

FO Functions

The FO's functions are to · · · · · · Maintain and operate the tools and equipment necessary to call for and adjust indirect fire. Locate suitable targets. Call-for-fire. Adjust fire on target. Communicate with the FDC. Plan indirect fires to support the mission.

FDC Functions

FDC's functions are to · · · Plot the call-for-fire. Determine the firing data required for the guns to fire the mission. Send the data to the guns.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Functions of Indirect Fire Team, Continued

Guns Functions

The guns functions are to · Apply firing data received from the FDC to the howitzer within the proscribed time. · Fire the mission as requested (when ready, at my command, etc.)

Process

After observing an appropriate target, the FO puts together a call-for-fire. This is then sent to the FDC who then translates it into firing data, which is then sent to the gun line. The guns then fire the mission according to the firing data received.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Functions of Forward Observer Tools and Equipment

Four Essential Tools

The four essential tools a FO needs to call for and adjust indirect fire are · · · · A map A compass Binoculars Communication equipment

Map

The FO’s primary use of a map is to locate targets and plan indirect fires within the area of operations. The FO can also use maps to determine the grid azimuth to a target. Use a compass to determine magnetic azimuths. You must tell the FDC if you use magnetic azimuths in your call-for-fire; for example, “4700 magnetic.” The FDC uses grid azimuths when plotting the target, but FDC personnel can convert your magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth before plotting it. Azimuths determined using a compass are either in degree or mils. FDCs prefer mils but will accept degrees. You must tell the FDC if you use degrees; for example, “190 degrees magnetic.”

Compass

Binoculars

Use binoculars to · · · · · · · Maintain surveillance of the area of operation Help you adjust indirect fire on target Identify troops, equipment, weapons, or vehicles, etc Observe enemy movement or positions Locate targets Study terrain Improve vision at night or during periods of reduced visibility

Note: Prolonged use of the binoculars will produce eye fatigue. Use should be limited to 30 minutes followed by 15 minutes of rest.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Functions of Forward Observer Tools and Equipment, Continued

Binocular Adjustments

Listed below are two adjustments you must make to use your binoculars. · Interpupillary adjustment. The interpupillary distance is the distance between your eyes. The monocles are hinged together so they can be adjusted to meet this distance. The hinge is adjusted until the field of vision ceases to be two overlapping circles and appears as a single, sharply defined circle. The setting on the hinge scale should be recorded for future reference. Focal adjustment. Each individual and eye of that individual requires a focus setting.

·

Adjusting the Focus for Each Eye

The table below lists the steps to adjust the focus for each eye using the binoculars. Step 1 2 3 4 5 Action With both eyes open, look through the binoculars at a distant object. Place one hand over the objective lens over the right monocle and turn the focusing ring of the left monocle until the object is sharply defined. Repeat step 2, focusing the opposite monocle. Uncover both monocles. The object should be clear in both eyes. If not, repeat steps 1, 2, and 3. Read and record the diopter scale on each focusing ring for future reference.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Functions of Forward Observer Tools and Equipment,
Continued

Mil Reticle Pattern

Inside the left eyepiece of the M-22 Binoculars is the mil reticle pattern. There are scales both vertical and horizontal. Each number on the horizontal scale indicates 10 mils, for a total of 100 mils of measurement. This reticle pattern will be used later for adjusting subsequent rounds.

Example of Mil Reticle Pattern

Communication Equipment

You must communicate with the FDC to call-for-fire. Usually, you use radio communications, but you can use field telephones when time is available to lay the wire.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Locating Targets

Two Methods

When transmitting call-for-fire, the FO must tell the FDC the location of the target. Listed below are two methods you can use to locate targets for the FDC. · · Grid coordinate method Polar plot method

Grid Coordinate Method

The grid coordinate method is the most common method for locating targets. It involves simple map reading. You pinpoint the target on your map and transmit a six-digit grid coordinate for its location. For example, “Grid 769731, over.” The FDC does not need to know your location. To use the polar plot method, the FDC must already know your location. The polar plot method is usually used in static situations in which the FDC has your position plotted on their map. This method consists of transmitting the direction from your location to the target, observer to target (OT) direction, and the distance from your location to the target. Observer to target (OT) direction is the direction from the observer to the target, determined with either a compass or a map and protractor. Remember that all readings from the compass are magnetic and must be announced as such. For example, “3220 magnetic.” When using the map and protractor, “magnetic” is not announced. To determine the distance to the target, you can · · · Use your map Estimate by eye If available, use a laser range finder (distance is given in meters)

Polar Plot Method

Observer to Target Direction

Determining the Distance to the Target

An example of complete direction and distance transmission is “Direction 3220 magnetic. Distance 1500, over.”
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Locating Targets, Continued

Preplanned Targets

The grid and polar methods are used if a target’s position is unknown. Targets can also be “preplanned targets.” Targets that are preplanned often have intelligence indicating where the enemy is known or likely to be. To set up a preplanned target, you must turn in a list to the FDC, which contains a target. Number Description Location Any remarks (i.e. Ammo mix or specific number of rounds)

Example of Known Points and Locations

The table below is a sample list of known target points and their locations. Target AH1001 AH1002 AH1003 AH1004 Kn Pt 1 Description Church Bridge Mortar Section Fuel Dump Hilltop Location 453 671 453 863 463 661 471 694 482 541 Remarks Smoke HE/VT HE/WP mix

Using a Preplanned Target

The commands to fire on a preplanned target is simple: “Fire , Target Number AH1002.”

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Types of Fire Missions

Types of Fire Missions

Listed below are four types of fire missions. · · · · Adjust fire Fire for effect (FFE) Suppression Immediate Suppression/Smoke

Fire Mission Situation

The following table lists the types of fire missions and the situation where they might occur. Fire Mission Adjust fire Situation You need spotting rounds to adjust on the target before calling for fire for effect.

Fire for effect (FFE) Your target location is accurate enough for your first rounds to have an effect on the target. You will not receive spotting rounds. Suppression You need to fire on a planned target that is not currently active. Include duration and rate of fire. You need to fire on or obscure a planned target or target of opportunity that has taken friendly maneuver or aerial units under fire.

Immediate Suppression/Smoke

Note: Suppression missions have a higher priority than adjust fire and fire for effect missions. Immediate suppression missions have the highest priority of all.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Six Elements of a Call-for-Fire

Call-for-fire Format

The following table is the entire transmission sequence in the call-for-fire format including the sub-elements. 1 2 Warning Order Element Observer Identification Sub-Elements Remarks Example “Saipan, this is Lima” “Adjust fire”

· Type of fire mission All but fire · Size of element to fire mission may be omitted for effect · Method of target location

3 4

Target Location Target Description

“Grid 372589” “Plt T-72 dug in” or “Inf AA in the open” “DPICM in effect” “Request splash”

5 6

Method of Engagement Method of Fire and Control

See below See below

May be omitted May be omitted

Observer Identification

Tells the FDC who is calling for fire and clears the net.

Warning Order

Tells the FDC the type of mission and the method of target location. Gives the FDC target location data based off the method used by the FO.
Continued on next page

Target Location

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Six Elements of a Call-for-Fire, Continued

Target Description

The FO needs to give some essential target information to the FDC. · · · · · What is the target? (Infantry, tanks, artillery, fuel depot, etc) What is the target doing? How many are there? (Platoon, 2 tanks, etc) Degree of protection (in open, dug in, etc) Size and shape if significant

Method of Engagement

Method of engagement is used to describe the attack of the target. Common sub-elements include: · Danger Close. Predicted impact of shells is with 600m of friendly troops. · Trajectory. Two types, low and high. High is mainly used for attacking positions on reverse slopes or if an intervening crest is between the gun position and target. High angle fire must be specified for. · Ammunition. Standard ammo is HE/Q for adjustment and fire-for-effect. FO must request another type if desired, and is indicated by stating shell/fuze combination followed by saying, “in effect.” · Volume of fire. FO may request the number of rounds to be fired in effect. Each “round” requested equals a volley from the firing unit. “Two rounds in effect” equates to 12 rounds total. If omitted, FDC will determine and announce in the message to observer. · Distribution. FO can control the type of sheaf or pattern of bursts. There are four types: Circular, rounds landing with a 100m radius of the target (standard). Converged, all rounds land on a specified point. Open sheaf separates the bursts by max effective burst width. Parallel places the bursts of all the pieces parallel.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Six Elements of a Call-for-Fire, Continued

Methods of Fire Method of fire and control allows the FO to indicate the desired manner of and Control attacking the target and how the fire is to be controlled, if at all. Methods

include: · At my command. If you desire to control the time that the guns fire, announce “At my command.” When the guns are ready to fire, the FDC will announce “ready.” The FO then says “fire” when he is ready for the guns to fire. This only applies to adjustment rounds and the first volley of a fire-for-effect. This method can be used to engage moving targets or to achieve surprise. · Do Not Load. Allows gun line to prepare ammunition and lay on the target without loading the howitzer. When the command, “Cancel do not load” is given, section will load and fire the round (unless it is an At my command mission). Recommended for long wait or uncertain missions. · Cannot observe. If you cannot observe to adjust onto the target, but you know a target that you need to engage is at that location, announce, “Cannot observe.” This alerts the FDC that no adjustments or battle damage assessment will follow. · Time on Target (TOT). If you want the rounds to impact at a specified time, announce “Time on Target,” and the time that you want the rounds to impact. For example, “TOT, 0610.” · Continuous Illumination. Illumination rounds will be fired at a specified time to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or area. · Cease Loading. Used to stop the loading of rounds during a multi-round mission. Guns will still fire any rounds previously loaded. · Check Firing. Used for an immediate halt in firing. Once given, the command “cancel check firing” must be given to resume firing. · Splash. FO requests the FDC to announce 5 seconds before the round impacts. Aids in making sure the spotting round is yours. · Repeat. While adjusting, “repeat” will tell the FDC to fire another round with the same data used to fire the previous round. During FFE, the FDC will fire the same number of rounds using the same method of fire for effect. Any changes may also be requested.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Transmitting a Call-for-Fire

Three Transmissions

The call-for-fire is sent to the FDC in three transmissions. Transmission 1 2 3 Elements Observer Identification Warning Order Target Location Target Description Method of Engagement Method of Fire and Control

· · · · · ·

Note: Often, elements are omitted. Your call-for-fire will not always have all six elements. If the target location is given in the warning order, as in the fourth and fifth examples below, then call-for-fire will only have two transmissions.
Sample Calls for Fire

The table below contains four examples of calls-for-fire in three-segment transmissions. Transmission “Nightmare this is Runner, adjust fire, over.” “Pelham this is Sumo, FFE, polar, over.” “Workhorse this is Bronco, suppress tgt number AB1005, over.” “Hammer this is Palehorse, immediate suppression, grid 552783, over.” Second “Grid 548739, over.” “Direction 3220 magnetic, distance, 1500, over.” Not required Not required Third “Platoon advancing in tree line, over.” “12 tanks, stationary, DPICM, at my command, over.” Not required Not required

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

FDC Response to a Call-for-Fire

Accuracy in Read Back

After each transmission, the FDC will read the transmission back to you. This is called a short phase read back. If there is an error, announce “Correction” and repeat your entire transmission. When the read back is correct, continue with the call-for-fire. For example: FO: “Pelham this is Sumo, adjust fire polar, over” FDC: “Sumo this is Pelham, adjust fire polar, out” FO: “Direction 4600, distance 2300, over” FDC: “Direction 4800, distance 2300, out” FO: “Correction, direction 4600, distance 2300, over” FDC: “Correction, direction 4600, distance 2300, out” FO then continues with call-for-fire.

Example of FDC Read Back

The following table shows an example of a call-for-fire with FDC’s read back. Call-for-Fire Transmission “Roadie this is Nickel, adjust fire, over.” “Grid 382735, over.” “Platoon dug in with overhead cover, HE/Quick in effect, over.” FDC Read Back “Nickel, this is Roadie, adjust fire, out.” “Grid 382735, out.” “Platoon dug in with overhead cover, HE/Quick in effect, out.”

FDC Determines Method of Engagement

After receiving a call-for-fire, the FDC determines how the target will be attacked. You can request certain types of rounds, fuses, special sheaf, etc., in your call-for-fire (method of engagement). But the FDC will make the final determination. They are the experts. They know which rounds and how many guns are available.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

FDC Response to a Call-for-Fire, Continued

FDC Message to Observer (MTO)

The FDC will announce mission critical information to you in a message to observer (MTO). The MTO will consist of · · · · The unit of fire The number of rounds per gun in effect Any change to your request in your call-for-fire Target number

After receiving the MTO, read it back to the FDC. The FDC can then be sure you were passed the correct information. Additionally, if you are using the grid method of target location, you can pass the observer to target (OT) direction. This direction will be necessary later on to make subsequent corrections.
Example of a Message to Observer

FDC: “Yankee this Cadillac, message to observer, Cadillac (unit to fire), 3 rounds, HE/VT in effect, target number AH 1001, over” FO: “Message to observer, Cadillac (unit to fire), 3 rounds, HE/VT in effect, target number AH 1001, break…direction 2300, over” FDC: “Direction 2300, out”

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Artillery Ammunition

Ammunition Considerations

To have the greatest effect on the enemy, the right shell needs to be used. Certain shells are more effective on certain targets or in certain circumstances. While an FO can request a particular shell, the Fire Direction Officer will have the final say. He bases this determination off of commander’s guidance and ammunition availability. While there are a variety of shells available for use, this course will only focus on the most common type used on the battlefield: · · · · · High Explosive (HE) White Phosphorus (WP) Smoke Illumination Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM)

Shell Types

High Explosive

High Explosive (HE) is the most common and versatile artillery shell used. It is the standard shell used for adjusting rounds. It has a casualty radius of 50 meters. HE can be used with numerous fuzes causing a variety of effects from airbursts or penetration against bunkers. It is best used against · Personnel standing or prone · Unarmored vehicles · Light materiel

White Phosphorus

White phosphorus (WP) shells are filled with WP impregnated felt wedges that start burning when combined with oxygen. WP has four uses: incendiary, marking, obscuring, and screening. It is best used against · · · · Vehicles Petroleum, oils and lubricants (POL) sites Ammunition storage areas Enemy observers
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Artillery Ammunition, Continued

Smoke

In addition to WP, smoke can be used to obscure or screen. It is more effective than WP, as it last longer and has fewer tendencies to pillar. This shell is basically a flare attached to a parachute that functions at a computed height. It can be used to adjust artillery at night or illuminate areas of known or suspected enemy activity. The shell can illuminate an area up to 1,000 meters in diameter for up to 2 minutes. Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM) shell contains a number of shape-charged grenades that are highly effective against armor and personnel. The DPICM sub-munitions have a small dud rate when used. DPICM should not be used in forests or mountainous/uneven terrain, as it increases the dud rate. Effectiveness also decreases when used on terrain that is marshy, covered with deep snow or water.

Illumination

Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Name the three components of the indirect fire team. a. b. c. d. FO, FDC, and Guns Guns, MT, and Supply Armor, Infantry, and Cavalry FO, FDC, and MTO

Item 1

Item 2

Which of the following lists four functions of a FO? a. Communicate with the firing unit, engage targets with indirect fire, screen friendly units with smoke, and illuminate the battlefield at night. b. Maintain and operate the tools and equipment necessary to call for and adjust indirect fire; locate, call for, and adjust fire on suitable targets; communicate with the FDC; and plan indirect fires. c. Establish final protective fires, mark targets for close air support, call for and adjust fire, and report battle damage assessments. d. Plan no fire zones, report observations to the FDC, coordinate indirect fire and close air support, and identify known points.

Item 3

Which answer best describes a function of FDC? a. b. c. d. Determine the firing data required for the guns to fire the mission. Load the weapons with ammo. Call in air support. Provide security for the FO.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

What are the functions of the Guns? a. b. c. d. Observe the impacts and call corrections. Send a message to observer and determine OT distance. Apply firing data and fire the mission. Determine firing data and apply firing data to howitzer.

Item 5

What are the four essential tools a FO needs to call for and adjust indirect fire? a. b. c. d. Map, binoculars, rifle, and ammo Compass, communication equipment, radar, and water Map, compass, binoculars, and communication equipment Chow, map, pencils, and communication equipment

Item 6

What are the two types of adjustments you must make to use binoculars properly? a. b. c. d. Long and short ranges Near and far Interpupillary and focal adjustments Quick and long-term ranges

Item 7

What equipment is usually used to transmit vital information to the FDC? a. b. c. d. Binoculars Radar FDC Radios

Item 8

What are the two methods to locate targets? a. b. c. d. Polar plot, and sun spot methods Radar, and sun spot methods Hand estimation and grid coordinate methods Grid coordinate, polar plot methods
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

Which is the most common method for locating a target? a. b. c. d. Shift from known point method Grid coordinate method Sun spot method Radar method

Item 10

Which of the following lists the four types of fire missions? a. b. c. d. Artillery, mortar, naval gunfire, and CAS Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps Adjust fire, fire for effect, suppression, and immediate suppression/smoke Local, integrated, coordinated, and exfoliated

Items 11 Through 14

Matching: For items 11 through 14, place the letter of the description in column 2 that best matches the type of fire mission in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Type of Fire Mission ___ 11. ___ 12. ___ 13. ___ 14. Adjust fire Fire for effect Suppression Immediate suppression Column 2 Description a. Rapidly brings fire on a preplanned target. b. If your target location is accurate enough, your first rounds have an effect on target. c. Receive spotting rounds. d. Rapidly brings fire on a target that is engaging friendly forces.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 15

Which of the following lists the six elements of a call-for-fire? a. Observer identification, warning order, target location, target description, method of fire, and method of control b. Observer identification, type of fire mission, target location, target description, type of ammunition, and method of control c. Begin planning, arrange recon, make recon, complete the plan, issue, and supervise d. Higher unit, supported unit, type of fire mission, target location, number of rounds, and time on target

Items 16 Through 18

Matching: For items 16 through 18, place the letter of the element of a callfor-fire transmission in column 2 that occurs in the segment identified in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Segment of Call-for-fire Transmission ___ 16. First transmission ___ 17. Second transmission ___ 18. Third transmission Column 2 Element of Call-for-fire Transmission a. b. c. d. Target location Target description Warning order EOM

Item 19

Which of the following lists the contents of a message to observer? a. Unit to fire, number of rounds in effect, changes to your call-for-fire, and target number b. Record as target, refinements, end of mission, battle damage c. Adjust fire, fire for effect, suppression, immediate suppression/smoke d. Observer ID, target number, method of engagement, number of rounds in effect
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 20

High explosive shell is best used against a. b. c. d. personnel standing. tanks. POL sites. battlefield illumination.

Item 21

Illuminations shells will illuminate an area for up to a. b. c. d. 30 seconds. 1 minute. 2 minutes. 3 minutes.

Item 22

Which of the following artillery shells is most effective against POL sites? a. b. c. d. HE DPICM Smoke WP
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers for the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Answer a b a c c c d d b c c b a d a c a b a a c d Reference Page 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-13 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-19

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 ADJUSTING INDIRECT FIRE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

Adjusting indirect fire is the process of moving the impact of rounds to within 50 meters of the target. The process involves spotting the impact of a round, determining the corrections required, and transmitting the corrections to the FDC. This is repeated until you have effects on target. The goal is to use the minimum number of rounds as possible to adjust. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · Describe the steps to spot the impact of artillery rounds. · Identify the two elements to adjust rounds onto targets. · Describe the procedure for making lateral adjustments. · Identify the two methods for making range adjustments. · Describe the steps for bracketing to adjust rounds onto targets. · Describe the steps for creeping to adjust rounds onto targets. · Describe the various subsequent corrections. · Identify the content of an end of fire mission statement.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following lessons: Topic Introduction Spotting Adjusting Rounds Lateral Correction Range Correction Subsequent Corrections End of Mission (EOM) Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 2-27 2-29 2-30 2-31 2-33 2-36 2-38 2-39

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Spotting

Defined

Spotting is the mental determination of where a round impacted in relation to the target. There are two types of spottings · Left or right · Long or short

When Conducted

Spotting is conducted immediately after the round impacts.

How to Conduct

The table below lists the steps to conduct spotting. Step 1 2 3 4 Action To spot, hold your binoculars just below eye level. Observe the target area with the naked eye until you sight the burst. Raise the binoculars to eye level and make your spotting. Spot for range then for lateral deviation.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Adjusting Rounds

Types of Corrections

Spottings must be converted into corrections. The two different elements of round corrections are · lateral adjustment (left or right of target) · range adjustment (add or drop of target)

Observer to Target Direction

Before making any adjustments, the FDC must have the OT direction. If you have used the polar method of target location, the FDC already has the OT direction. If you used the grid method of target location, there are two times when you can send OT direction. As discussed in the lesson one, it can be sent immediately after receiving the MTO. If you did not, you must transmit the OT direction before to making any subsequent corrections.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Lateral Correction

Determine Lateral Corrections

To determine the lateral corrections, you must convert the deviation in mils into distance in meters. Use the binoculars to determine how many mils you are off from the target. Remember, each number indicates 10 mils.

Mil Reticle Pattern With Target

WERM Formula

The WERM formula is used to convert mils deviation into the meters difference. Multiply the range (R) by the deviation (M) in mils. This gives you the correction in meters.

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Lateral Correction, Continued

Example Using the WERM Formula

The table below shows the steps to determine lateral corrections using the WERM formula. Step Action Example 1 Determine the range to the target 1,800 meters (estimate or measure on your map). 2 Convert the range from step 1 to an 1,800/1,000 = 1.8 OT factor by 1.8 rounded to nearest whole number = 2 · Dividing the range to the target by 1,000 R=2 · Rounding off to the nearest whole number OT factor = 2 3 Use the reticle pattern in your Example mil deviation angle = binoculars to measure the mil 45 deviation angle between the burst and the target. 4 Complete the formula (W = R x M) W = 2 x 45 by multiplying the OT factor by the mil deviation angle. W = 90 meters Round off to the nearest 10 meters. The result is the lateral deviation in meters. Note: Ranges of less than 1,000 meters use an OT factor of 1. Deviation adjustments are made in multiples of 10 meters with a minimum adjustment of 30 meters. Note: The OT factor can and will change based on your corrections for range. For example, you initially believe the target is 2,600m away. Your first round was spotted over. The initial OT factor is 3. You decide to drop 800. The new OT factor would now be 2 (1,800/1,000=1.8 rounded to 2). The OT factor can continue to change until you are range correct.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Range Correction

Determine Range Corrections

The two methods you can use to correct for range are · Bracketing · Creeping When using the bracketing method, your intent is to bracket the target by having rounds land long and short of the target. After your initial spotting round, add or drop enough range to place the next round on the opposite side of the target to create the bracket. Use an even amount of meters (i.e. 800m, 400m, etc.) in your adjustment. Assuming you used enough range to create a bracket, continue to place successive rounds either over or short of the target, each time cutting the range in half. Once you split the 100 meter bracket (i.e. 50 meter correction) fire for effect. Use the minimum bracket guide to help you estimate how much to add or drop. Following this guide, make your first range correction large enough to ensure that the next round lands on the opposite side of the target. For example, if your first round impacts short of the target and the OT range is 1,800 meters, then your minimum first range correction is add 200 meters. If the next round does not land on the other side of the target, continue to add range until it does. The table below is the minimum bracket guide. OT Range Less than 1,000 meters 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters Greater than 2,000 meters Minimum Correction 100 meters 200 meters 400 meters

Bracketing Method

Minimum Bracket Guide

Splitting the Bracket

Once you create your bracket, successively split the bracket in half until a round impacts on the target or get down to a 50-meter adjustment. Then, fire for effect.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Range Correction, Continued

Example of Bracketing Method to Adjust Rounds

Your first round is over. In your first range adjustment, drop 400. The next round impacts short. You have bracketed the target. Split the bracket in half for your next adjustment by adding 200. The next round impacts long. Split the bracket in half again by dropping 100. The next round impacts long. Add 50 and fire for effect. This example is depicted in the following illustration.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Range Correction, Continued

Creeping

Use the creeping method of adjustment when the rounds will land “danger close.” Rounds are considered danger close when they are within 600 meters of the target when calling for artillery. The creeping method usually requires more spotting rounds and more time than bracketing but ensures the safety of the friendly troops. When you’re creeping announce, “danger close” in the method of engagement of your callfor-fire. The table below lists the steps to adjust using the creeping method shown in the illustration below. Step 1 2 3 4 5 Action Determine target location. Announce “danger close” in Method of Engagement portion of CFF. When sending subsequent corrections, use increments of 100m or less. Repeat step 3, “walking” the rounds to the target until you are within 50 meters of the target. Then FFE.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Subsequent Corrections

Various Corrections

After determining the necessary corrections to move the round onto the target, these are sent to the FDC in one transmission. This transmission can include other items that the FO wishes to change in the mission. The following are subsequent corrections used to change the mission. These are listed in the order they are to be transmitted. · · · · · · · · · · Direction Danger Close Trajectory Shell Fuze Deviation Range Change in type of mission/control Splash Repeat

Direction

Key element in adjustment of rounds. The FDC will not be able to accurately adjust subsequent corrections if the direction is wrong. Announce a new direction if it changes by 100 mil/5 degrees. When sending corrections, if the round will burst within 600 meters, announce “danger close.” For example, “Drop 100, danger close, over.” To switch between low and high angle or vice versa. Switch the shell/fuze combination if you determine the current ammunition is ineffective. Lateral corrections are sent as left or right and the distance in meters. Range corrections are sent as add or drop and the distance in meters.
Continued on next page

Danger Close

Trajectory

Shell/Fuze

Deviation

Range

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Subsequent Corrections, Continued
Change in Type of Mission/ Control

These include changes like switching from firing “when ready” to “at my command.”

Splash

Request “splash” if you want the FDC to alert you 5 seconds before the round hits. To have the FDC fire another spotting round or FFE with the same data, simply transmit, “repeat.” The table below is an example of a subsequent correction transmission and the FDC’s read back transmission to be sure they copied it correctly. FO “Left 50, add 400. Over.” “Direction 5820, Right 30, Add 200, request splash, over.” FDC “Left 50, add 400. Out.” “Direction, Right 30, Add 200, request splash, out.”

Repeat

Example of Adjustment Transmission

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

End of Mission (EOM)

FFE Impact

When the FFE impacts, it should have an effect on target. If the FFE did not have the desired effect, you can have it shot again by transmitting “Repeat, Over.” The guns will shoot on the same data. You can also send minor adjustments. For example, “Left 50, repeat, Over.” Upon achieving the desired effect on the target, an End of Mission (EOM) statement needs to be sent to the FDC. The EOM statement consists of four items, some of which are required: · Refinements. Target data can now be refined under the normal minimum corrections of 30m deviation and 50m range. Refine the data if needed and if you intend to save the target data. Record as target. Record it as a target if you think you will use artillery at the same spot in the future. This can speed future fire missions since adjustments are not required. End of mission. This tells the FDC that the mission is over and they can clear that firing data. If you want the target saved, you must let the FDC know before saying “End of Mission.” Once EOM is announced, that data is cleared and is irretrievable. Required item. Surveillance. In surveillance, inform the FDC of the effect the FFE had on the target. Use the terms no effect, destroyed, neutralized, or suppressed to describe the effect on target and include a casualty estimate. Required item.

End of Mission Statement

·

·

·

EOM Example

“End of mission, 2 T-72’s destroyed, enemy fleeing north, over” “Right 10, Drop 25, record as target, end of mission, ZSU-23-4 neutralized, over.”

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Which of the following defines spotting relative to indirect fire? a. b. c. d. Locating targets The mental determination of where a round impacts relative to the target Locating known points Plotting the forward observer’s and the target’s location on your map

Item 1

Item 2

Which of the following are the two elements of an adjustment? a. b. c. d. Bracketing and creeping OT direction and range Lateral adjustment and range adjustment Over and short

Item 3

Which formula is used to determine lateral deviation? a. b. c. d. BAMCIS LARS METT-T WERM

Item 4

Which of the following are the two methods used to adjust for range? a. b. c. d. OT direction and shift Over and short Bracketing and creeping Add and drop
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

What are the steps to adjust rounds onto targets using bracketing? a. b. c. d. Spot round, connect rounds in 100m increments, FFE Spot round, add/drop successive rounds in thirds, split 50m bracket, FFE Spot round, add/drop necessary range, split bracket in half, estimate Spot round, add/drop successive rounds in half, split 100m bracket, FFE

Item 6

What are the steps to adjust rounds onto targets using creeping? a. Add, subtract, locate, and repeat b. Determine target location, announce “danger close,” correct rounds in 100 meter or less increments, walk rounds in, FFE c. Repeat, bracket, adjust, and WERM d. Look, listen, learn, and launch

Item 7

When do you announce a new target direction? a. b. c. d. When you face a new direction When converting degrees magnetic to grid If the targets changes direction of travel If direction changes by 100 mils

Item 8

What are the contents of an EOM statement? a. b. c. d. Battle damage assessment and record as target Refinement, record as target, end of mission, surveillance Quit shooting and return to rear Do not load and FFE
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued
Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer b c d c d b d b Reference Page 2-29 2-30 2-31 2-33 2-34 2-35 2-36 2-38

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 3 COMBAT SKILLS Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours, 15 minutes

Scope

Regardless of what MOS skill you have in the Marine Corps, you may be called on to carry out a mission unfamiliar to you. This study unit will teach you the basic tools for handling medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) and treatment of enemy prisoners of war (EPWs). The skills learned will be beneficial to you in and out of a combat environment. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · · · Identify the procedures for evaluating a casualty. Identify the steps to administering first aid. Identify the procedures for requesting a medical evacuation. Identify the procedures for preparing a casualty for transport. Identify the procedures for handling enemy prisoners of war.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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3-1

Study Unit 3

Overview, Continued

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Overview Evaluating a Casualty Administering First Aid Requesting a Medical Evacuation Preparing a Casualty for Transport Handling Enemy Prisoners of War See Page 3-1 3-3 3-21 3-69 3-79 3-121

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Study Unit 3

LESSON 1 EVALUATING A CASUALTY Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

There may be situations when Marines depend on your ability and knowledge to perform first aid. Numerous casualties could be involved. It is important that you are able to assess each casualty rapidly and accurately to determine the extent of their injuries and what actions are needed to provide care. After completing of this lesson, you should be able to · · · Identify the steps for evaluating a casualty. Identify the vital functions of the body. Identify the adverse conditions that can affect the vital functions of the body.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty Vital Functions of the Body Adverse Conditions of the Body Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 3-3 3-4 3-13 3-16 3-17

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty

Introduction

If you are in a combat environment use extreme caution when assessing a casualty. Marines will have to depend upon their first aid knowledge and skills to save themselves and other Marines. They may be able to save a life, prevent permanent disability, and reduce long periods of hospitalization by knowing what to do, what not to do and when to seek medical assistance. Most Marines are able to return to their units primarily because they are given appropriate and timely first aid followed by the best medical care possible. Listed below are the eight steps for evaluating a casualty. Check for: · · · · · · · · Response Breathing Pulse Bleeding Shock Fractures Burns Possible head injury

Eight Steps to Evaluate a Casualty

Check for Response

The first step in evaluating a casualty is to check for responsiveness. Gently shake or tap the casualty while calmly asking, “Are you okay?” as shown in illustration (A). Watch for a response as in illustration (B). If the casualty does not respond, proceed to step two (check for breathing). If the casualty responds continue with the evaluation. Gently roll the casualty onto his back as shown in illustration (C). · If the casualty is conscious, choking and cannot talk, stop the evaluation and begin treatment for clearing an object from the throat. These topics will be discussed in lesson two. If the casualty is conscious, ask where they feel different than usual or where it hurts. Ask them to identify the locations of pain if they can, or to identify the area where there is no feeling.
Continued on next page

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Response, continued

WARNING: If a broken neck or back is suspected do not move the casualty unless to save his life. Movement may cause permanent paralysis or death. The illustration below shows how to check for response.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Breathing

The second step in evaluating a casualty is to check for breathing. To check for breathing, place your ear over the casualty’s mouth and nose, and look toward his chest. Look for rise and fall of the casualty’s chest, and listen for sounds of breathing. Feel for breath on the side of your face. If the chest does not rise and fall and no air is exhaled, then the casualty is not breathing. If the casualty is breathing, proceed to step four. If the casualty is not breathing, stop the evaluation and begin treatment such as attempting to ventilate by performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Below is and example of how to check for breathing:

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Pulse

Step three for evaluating a casualty is checking for a pulse. If a pulse is present, and the casualty is breathing, you may proceed to the next step of the evaluation. The table below demonstrates how to check for a pulse and the pulse sites used: Pulse Site Neck (Carotid) Action Feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty’s neck closest to you by placing the tips of your first two fingers (not the thumb) beside his Adam’s apple.

Groin (femoral)

Press the tips of first two fingers into the middle of the groin.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Pulse, continued

Pulse Site Wrist (Radial)

Action Place your first two fingers on the thumb side of the casualty’s wrist.

Ankle (Posterial Tibial)

Place your first two fingers on the inside of the ankle.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Bleeding

The fourth step in evaluating a casualty is to check for bleeding. Look for spurts of blood or blood-soaked clothes. Check for both entry and exit wounds. If the casualty is bleeding from an open wound, stop the evaluation and begin first aid treatment in accordance with the following tasks listed in the table below: Wound Arm or leg wound Partial or complete amputation Open head wound Open abdominal wound Open chest wound WARNING: Treatment Apply a field or pressure dressing Apply a tourniquet Apply a field dressing Apply a field dressing Apply a field dressing

In a chemically contaminated area, do not expose the wounds. Procedures to check for bleeding and applying field dressings to wounds will be discussed in lesson two.

Check for Shock

Step five for evaluating a casualty is to check for shock. Shock means that there is inadequate blood flow to the vital tissues and organs. The following are nine signs and symptoms of shock: · · · · · · · · · Sweaty but cool skin (clammy skin) Paleness of skin Restlessness or nervousness Thirst Loss of blood (bleeding) Confusion (does not seem aware of surroundings) Faster than normal breathing rate Blotchy or bluish skin, especially around the mouth Nausea and/or vomiting

Causes and treatment for shock will be discussed in lesson two.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Fractures

Step six in the evaluating a casualty is to check for fractures. Check for the following signs/symptoms of a back or neck injury and treat as necessary. · · · · · · Pain or tenderness of the neck or back area Cuts or bruises in the neck or back area Inability of a casualty to move (paralysis or numbness) Ask about ability to move (paralysis) Touch the casualty’s arms and legs and ask whether he can feel your hand (numbness) Unusual body or limb position Unless there is immediate life-threatening danger, do not move a casualty who has a suspected back or neck injury. Movement may cause permanent paralysis or death.

WARNING:

Neck and Back Injury

Immobilize any casualty suspected of having a neck or back injury by doing the following: · · Tell the casualty not to move. If a back injury is suspected, place padding (rolled or folded to conform to the shape of the arch) under the natural arch of the casualty’s back. For example, a blanket may be used as padding.

If a neck injury is suspected, place a roll of cloth under the casualty’s neck and put weighted boots (filled with sand, dirt or rocks) on both sides of the head.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Open/Closed Fractures

Check the casualty’s arms and legs for closed fractures (figure A) or open fractures (figure B). · · · · · · Look for bleeding Look for bone sticking through the skin Look for swelling Look for discoloration Look for deformity Look for unusual body position

Check for signs/symptoms of fractures of other body areas (for example, shoulder or hip).

Check for Burns

Step seven for evaluating a casualty is to check for burns. Look carefully for reddened blistered or charred skin also check for singed clothing.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Eight Steps for Evaluating a Casualty, Continued

Check for Possible Head Injury

The eighth step for evaluating a casualty is to check for possible head injury. Look for the following signs and symptoms: Unequal pupils Fluid from the ear(s), nose, mouth or injury site Slurred speech Confusion Sleepiness Loss of memory or consciousness Staggering while walking Headache Dizziness Vomiting and/or nausea Paralysis Convulsions or twitches

Medical Assistance

When a nonmedically trained Marine comes upon an unconscious and/or injured Marine, he must accurately evaluate the casualty to determine the first aid measures needed to prevent further injury or death. He should seek medical assistance as soon as possible, because once he begins first aid, it must not be interrupted. To interrupt treatment may cause more harm than good to the casualty. A second person may be sent to find medical help. If during any part of the evaluation the casualty exhibits any of the conditions discussed in the eight evaluation steps, the Marine must stop the evaluation and immediately administer first aid. Remember, in a chemical environment, the Marine should not evaluate the casualty until the casualty has been masked and given the antidote. After administering first aid, the Marine must proceed with the evaluation and continue to monitor the casualty for development of conditions that may require the performance of the basic life saving measures. He should continue to monitor the casualty until relieved by trained medical personnel.

If Treatment is Interrupted

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Vital Functions of the Body

Respiration and Respiration (inhalation and exhalation) and blood circulation are vital body Blood functions. Interruption of either of these two functions need not be fatal if Circulation appropriate first aid measures are correctly applied.

Respiration

Respiration is when a person inhales oxygen into the body and exhales, carbon dioxide is expelled from the body. Respiration involves the: · · · Airway, is the canal through which air passes to and from the lungs. The nose, mouth, throat, voice box, windpipe, and bronchial tree are airways. Lungs are two elastic organs made up of thousands of tiny air spaces and covered by an airtight membrane. Chest cage is formed by the muscle-connected ribs that join the spine in back and the breastbone in front. The top part of the chest cage is closed by the structure of the neck, and the bottom part is separated from the abdominal cavity by a large dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm.

When the chest cage increases and decreases, the air pressure in the lungs is less and then more than the atmospheric pressure, thus causing the air to rush in and out of the lungs to equalize the pressure. This cycle of inhaling and exhaling is repeated about 12 to 18 times per minute.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Vital Functions of the Body, Continued

Blood Circulation

The heart and the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) circulate blood through the body tissues. The heart is divided into two separate halves, each acting as a pump. The left side pumps oxygenated blood (bright red) through the arteries into the capillaries; nutrients and oxygen pass from the blood through the walls of the capillaries into the cells. At the same time waste products and carbon dioxide enter the capillaries. From the capillaries the oxygen poor blood is carried through the veins to the right side of the heart and then into the lungs where it expels carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. Below is and example of blood circulation through the heart:

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Vital Functions of the Body, Continued

Heartbeat

The heart functions as a pump to circulate the blood continuously through the blood vessels to all parts of the body. It contracts, forcing the blood from its chambers; then it relaxes permitting its chambers to refill with blood. The rhythmical cycle of contraction and relaxation is called the heartbeat. The normal heartbeat is from 60 to 80 beats per minute.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Adverse Conditions of the Body

Lack of Oxygen

Human life cannot exist without a continuous intake of oxygen. Lack of oxygen can rapidly lead to death. First aid involves knowing how to open the airway and restore breathing and heartbeat. Human life cannot continue without an adequate volume of blood to carry oxygen to the tissues. An important first aid measure is to stop the bleeding to prevent any loss of blood. Shock means there is inadequate blood flow to the vital tissues and organs. Shock that remains untreated may result in death even though the injury or condition causing the shock would not otherwise be fatal. Shock can occur from causes, such as loss of blood, loss of fluid from deep burns, pain, and reaction to the sight of a wound or blood. First aid includes preventing shock, since the casualty’s chances of survival are much greater if he does not develop shock. Recovery from a severe injury or a wound depends largely upon how well the injury or wound was initially protected. Infections result from the multiplication and growth of germs and bacteria. Since harmful bacteria are in the air and on the skin and clothing, some of these organisms will immediately contaminate a break in the skin or an open wound. The objective is to keep germs out of the wound.

Bleeding

Shock

Infection

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 6 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. What is the first step for evaluating a casualty is to check for a. b. c. d. pulse. wounds. bleeding. response.

Item 1

Item 2

Which of the following is a sign to look for when evaluating a casualty for shock? a. b. c. d. Hot/dry skin Loss of blood Flushed cheeks Dilated pupils

Item 3

Which of the following is a vital function of the body? a. b. c. d. Ingestion Exhalation Respiration Perspiration

Item 4

What vital body function causes a rhythmical cycle of contraction and relaxation? a. b. c. d. Respiration Circulation Digestion Heartbeat
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Which adverse condition results from the growth of germs and bacteria? a. b. c. d. Indigestion Diarrhea Infection Dyslexia

Item 6

Which adverse condition to the vital function of the body leads rapidly to death? a. b. c. d. Mild infection Lack of oxygen Minor bleeding Mild shock
Continue on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer d b c d c b Reference Page 3-4 3-9 3-13 3-15 3-16 3-16

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 ADMINISTERING FIRST AID Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

In this lesson the NCO will learn the steps and procedures to administer first aide. Several conditions require immediate medical attention: an inadequate airway, lack of breathing or lack of heartbeat, and excessive loss of blood. These are the vital body functions. This lesson will reacquaint you with the basic measures for restoring and maintaining these functions. After completion of this lesson you should be able to · · · · · Identify the basic life saving measures. Identify the procedure to restore breathing. Identify the process to control the bleeding. Identify how to protect the wound. Identify how to treat a casualty for shock.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

In this lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction The Four Life Saving Measures Restore the Breathing Rescue Breathing CPR Breathing Obstructions Abdominal Thrusts Chest Thrust Finger Sweep Stop the Bleeding Pressure Points Field Dressing Manual Pressure Improvised Field Dressing Tourniquet Protect the Wound Treat for Shock Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 3-21 3-23 3-24 3-28 3-33 3-35 3-36 3-38 3-41 3-43 3-44 3-45 3-48 3-51 3-52 3-58 3-63 3-66

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

The Four Life Saving Measures

Introduction

There are four basic life saving measures used to restore and maintain the body’s vital functions. · Restore the breathing: A lack of oxygen intake (through a compromised airway or inadequate breathing) can lead to brain damage or death within a few minutes. Stop the bleeding: Life cannot continue without an adequate volume of blood to carry oxygen to the tissues. Protect the wound: Contamination from harmful germs and bacterial can cause infection in an open wound. Treat for shock: Unless shock is prevented or treated, death may result even though the injury would not otherwise be fatal.

· · ·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Restore the Breathing

Breathing Process

All living things must have oxygen to survive. Through the breathing process, the lungs draw oxygen from the air, and distributes it into the blood. The heart pumps the blood through the body to be used by the living cells that require a constant supply of oxygen.

Blocked Airway Restoring the breathing process can be hindered by a blocked airway.

therefore the airway must be opened. Below is an example of a blocked airway.

Opening the Airway

The tongue is the single most common cause of an airway obstruction. In most cases the airway can be cleared by simply using the head-tilt/chin-lift technique or the jaw-thrust technique. These actions pull the tongue away from the air passage in the throat.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Restore the Breathing, Continued

Head-Tilt /Chin-Lift Technique

This technique is an important procedure in opening the airway; however use caution because excess force in performing this maneuver may cause spinal injury to a casualty with a suspected neck injury or severe head trauma. The first illustration is an example of a blocked airway. Using the headtilt/chin-lift technique, place one hand on the casualty’s forehead and apply firm, backward pressure with the palm to tilt the head back. In the second illustration place the fingertips of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw and lift, bringing the chin forward away from the chest. The thumb should not be used to lift the chin.

Blocked airway

Airway opened

The fingers should not press deeply into the soft tissue under the chin because the airway may be obstructed.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Restore the Breathing, Continued

Jaw-thrust Technique

This technique is the safest to use for opening the airway of a casualty with a suspected neck injury or severe head trauma because it can be accomplished without extending the neck. The jaw-thrust technique may be accomplished by grasping the angles of the casualty’s lower jaw and lifting with both hands, one on each side displacing the jaw forward and up. The elbows should rest on the surface where the casualty is laying. If the lips close, the lower lip can be retracted with the thumb. The head should be carefully supported without tilting it backwards or turning it from side to side.

Maintaining the Once the airway is opened it must be maintained. Check for breathing after Airway establishing an open airway. Often the act of just opening and maintaining

the airway will allow the casualty to breath properly. The rescuer should maintain the head position to keep the airway open.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Restore the Breathing, Continued

Check for Breathing

Failure to maintain an open airway will prevent the casualty from receiving an adequate supply of oxygen; therefore the rescuer should check for breathing by observing the casualty’s chest and performing the following actions within 3 to 5 seconds. · · · · Look for the chest to rise and fall. Listen for air escaping during exhalation by placing your ear near the casualty’s mouth. Feel for the flow of air on your cheek. If the casualty does not resume breathing, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

If the casualty resumes breathing, monitor and maintain the open airway. If he continues to breathe he should be transported to a medical treatment facility.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Rescue Breathing

Two Common Methods

Rescue breathing (artificial respiration) must start if the casualty does not resume adequate spontaneous breathing after the airway is opened. The sooner you begin rescue breathing, the more likely you are to restore the casualty’s breathing. If you are unsure of whether the casualty is breathing, give artificial respiration; it can do no harm to a casualty who is breathing. There are several methods of administering rescue breathing mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose are two of the most common.

Mouth-toMouth

The mouth-to-mouth method is preferred. This method inflates the casualty’s lungs with air from your lungs. This can be accomplished by blowing air into the person’s mouth. The mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing method is performed as follows: Step 1 Action Place your hand on the casualty’s forehead and pinch the nostrils together with the thumb and index finger of the same hand. With the same hand exert pressure on the forehead to maintain the backward head-tilt and maintain an open airway. With your other hand, keep your fingertips on the bony part of the lower jaw near the chin and lift.

NOTE:

If you suspect the casualty has a neck injury and you are using the jaw-thrust technique, close the nostrils by placing your cheek tightly against them.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Rescue Breathing, Continued

Mouth-to- Mouth, continued

Step 2

Action Take a deep breath and place your mouth (in an airtight seal) around the casualty’s mouth. If the injured person is small, cover both the nose and mouth with your mouth, sealing your lips against the skin of his face.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Rescue Breathing, Continued

Mouth-to- Mouth, continued

Step 3

Action Blow two full breaths into the casualty’s mouth (1 to 1 ½ seconds per breath), taking a breath of fresh air each time before you blow. Watch out of the corner of your eye for the casualty’s chest to rise. If the chest rises, sufficient air is getting into the casualty’s lungs.

4

After giving two breaths that cause the chest to rise, attempt to locate a pulse on the casualty. Maintain the airway by keeping your other hand on the casualty’s forehead. The mouth-to-mouth method is performed at the rate of about one breath every 5 seconds (12 breaths per minute) with rechecks for pulse and breathing. Allow 5 to 10 seconds to determine if there is a pulse.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Rescue Breathing, Continued

Mouth-to-Nose

If the casualty has a severe jaw fracture, mouth wound, or his jaws are tightly closed by spasms, you must use the mouth-to-nose method. The mouth-tonose method is performed in the same way as the mouth-to-mouth method except that you blow into the nose while you hold the lips closed with one hand at the chin. Remove your mouth to allow the casualty to exhale passively. It may be necessary to separate the casualty’s lips to allow the air to escape during exhalation.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Rescue Breathing, Continued

Potential Problems

If the chest does not rise, do the following and then attempt to ventilate again: · Take corrective action immediately by restoring the airway. Make sure that air is not leaking from around your mouth or out of the casualty’s nose. Reattempt to mouth to mouth/nose resuscitation. If the chest still does not rise check for blockage (tongue, food or foreign objects). If a pulse is found and the casualty is breathing stop and allow the casualty to breathe on his own. If possible, keep him warm and comfortable. If a pulse is found and the casualty is not breathing, continue rescue breathing. If a pulse is not found, begin CPR or seek medically trained personnel for help.

· · ·

· ·

If the initial attempt to resuscitate the casualty is unsuccessful, reposition the casualty’s head and repeat rescue breathing. Improper chin and head positioning is the most common cause of difficulty with resuscitation.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

CPR

Administer Correctly

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is needed if during your evaluation, you discover that the casualty does not have a pulse and is not breathing. CPR must be performed correctly to provide the brain with oxygen and avoid further injury to the casualty. Artificial compression can be achieved because the heart is located between the solid surfaces of the sternum (breastbone) and the spine. To compress the heart between these surfaces you must be aware of the location of other vital organs (lungs) lying under the sternum and ribs. By locating the proper compression point you will be able to perform this procedure correctly and effectively.

Compression Point

Run your fingertips up the inside edge of the rib cage until your middle finger fits into the notch in the center of the chest and your index finger is lying beside it across the lower end of the sternum (in line with the chin). Step 1 2 3 4 Action Keep the middle finger in this notch and the index finger on the sternum. Place the heel of the hand closest to the head on the sternum next to but not covering the index finger. Place the second hand on top of the first. Fingers may be interlaced or extended. Do not rest your fingers on the casualty’s ribs.

When performing external cardiac (chest) compressions apply only enough pressure to compress the heart between the sternum and spine without causing injury to the organs lying in the same area.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

CPR, Continued

Artificial Compressions

To execute artificial compressions you must do the following: Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Action Bend from your hips with your arms straight and compress the chest with your upper body weight falling straight down from your shoulders. Keep your shoulders over your hands and your elbows straight and locked. While keeping your hands in place on the chest position your shoulders directly over the victim’s sternum again without bending your arms. Depress the sternum 1.5 to 2 inches for an adult. Between compressions release the pressure completely. Do not lift your hands off the chest, bounce against the chest, or change your position in any way. Count aloud to establish a rhythm (one and two and three and four and etc). Give 15 compressions at the rate of 80 – 100 per minute, then two rescue breaths Check for pulse and breathing after one minute (every fourth cycle) and then every two minutes thereafter. If the pulse returns, but breathing does not, continue with rescues breathing at a rate of 12 breaths per minute. Continue rescue breathing and CPR until until the casualty recover, help arrives, you become two tired to continue, or the mission does not permit further efforts.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Breathing Obstructions

Airway

Airway obstructions often occur because · The casualty’s tongue falls back into his throat, while he is unconscious as a result of injury.

Foreign objects become lodged in the throat. These usually occur while eating or drinking.
Choking

Choking on food is associated with · · · · Attempting to swallow large pieces of poorly chewed food. Laughing or talking while chewing and swallowing. Drinking alcohol. Blood clots may form as a result of head or facial injuries.

Clearing a Choking Casualty

Clearing a casualty who is choking can be performed by the following procedures: · Ask the casualty if he can speak or if he is choking. Look for the universal choking sign.

· ·

If the casualty can speak, encourage him to attempt to cough and expel the obstruction. Listen for high pitched sounds when the casualty breaths or coughs. If there is poor air exchange or no breathing, call for help and immediately deliver manual thrusts (either abdominal or chest thrusts).

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Abdominal Thrusts

Procedure

The manual thrust with the hands centered between the waist, and the rib cage is called an abdominal thrust or the Hemlich maneuver. To apply manual thrusts follow the procedures listed below: Step 1 2 Action Stand behind the casualty and wrap your arms around his waist. Make a fist with one hand and grasp it with the other. The thumb side of your fist should be against the casualty’s abdomen, in the midline, slightly above the casualty’s navel, but below the tip of the breastbone.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Abdominal Thrusts, Continued
Manual Thrusts, continued

· · ·

Press the fist into the abdomen with a quick backward and upward thrust. Each thrust should be a separate and distinct movement. Continue performing abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is expelled.

Abdominal Thrusts, (Unconscious Casualty)

To perform the abdominal thrust on an unconscious casualty use the following steps, listed below:

· · · · · ·

Kneel astride the casualty’s thighs. Place the heel of one hand against the casualty’s abdomen. Place your other hand on top of the first one. Point your fingers toward the casualty’s head. Press into the casualty’s abdomen with a quick, forward and upward thrust. You can use your body weight to perform the maneuver, delivering each thrust slowly and distinctly. Repeat the sequence of abdominal thrusts as long as necessary to remove the object from the obstructed airway.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Chest Thrust

When to Use

Chest thrusts is an alternate technique to the abdominal thrust. This technique is useful when the casualty · · · Has an abdominal wound Is pregnant Is so large you can not wrap your arms around the abdomen

Application

The steps to apply chest thrusts are listed in the table below: Step 1 2 3 4 5 · · Action Stand behind the casualty and wrap your arms around his chest with your arms under his armpits. Make a fist with one hand and place the thumb side of the fist in the middle of the breastbone. Grasp the fist with the other hand and exert thrust. Each thrust should be delivered slowly, distinctly, and with the intent of relieving the obstruction. Perform chest thrust until the obstruction is expelled.

Each thrust should be delivered slowly, distinctly, and with the intent of relieving the obstruction. Perform chest thrusts until the obstruction is expelled.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Chest Thrust, Continued

Chest Thrusts, (Unconscious Casualty)

Chest thrusts is an alternate method to using abdominal thrusts. To perform chest thrusts on an unconscious casualty use the following steps listed below:

Step A B C

D E

Action Place the unconscious casualty on his or her back and kneel close to the casualty’s body. Locate the lower edge of the casualty’s ribs with your fingers and trace the rib cage up to the notch (graphic A). Place the middle finger on the notch and the index finger next to the middle finger on the lower edge of the breastbone and place the heel of the other hand on the lower half of the breastbone next to the two fingers (graphic B). Remove the fingers from the notch and place that hand on top of the positioned hand on the breastbone, extending and interlocking the fingers (graphic C). Straighten and lock your elbows with your shoulders directly above your hands without bending the elbows, rocking, or allowing the shoulders to sag (graphic D).
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Chest Thrust, Continued

Chest Thrusts, (Unconscious Casualty), continued

Apply enough pressure to depress the breastbone 1 ½ to 2 inches, then release the pressure completely (Fig D). This is done 6 to 10 times, each thrust should be delivered slowly and distinctly as illustrated in the graphic below.

Breastbone depressed 1 ½ to 2 inches

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Finger Sweep

Procedure

The finger sweep is used when rescue breathing is prevented due to an airway obstruction. Use the following steps and illustrations below to administer the finger sweep: Step 1 2 Action Place the casualties on their back. Open the casualty’s mouth by grasping both the tongue and lower jaw between your thumb and fingers and lifting (tongue-jaw lift). As illustrated in the graphic below.

Procedure Tongue-Jaw Lift

Crossed-Finger Method

If you are unable to open the mouth, cross your fingers and thumb (cross finger method) and push the casualty’s teeth apart by pressing your thumb against the upper teeth and pressing your fingers against the lower teeth.

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Finger Sweep, Continued

Procedure

To dislodge foreign bodies on an unconscious casualty use the following steps listed below. Step 1 2 3 Action Insert the index finger of the other hand down along the inside of the cheek to the base of the tongue. Use a hooking motion from the side of the mouth towards the center to dislodge the foreign body. Take care not to force the object deeper into the airway by pushing it with the finger.

Choking Casualty, (Unconscious)

If a casualty who is choking becomes unconscious, call for help, position the casualty on his back, and attempt to open the airway by performing a finger sweep and attempt rescue breathing. If you are unable to ventilate the casualty perform 6 to 10 manual (abdominal or chest) thrusts.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Stop the Bleeding

Introduction

This topic discusses the different types of bleeding and the methods used to control external bleeding. The three types of bleeding are: · · Arterial (artery) is characterized by the flow of bright red blood (due to the oxygen content) that pumps out of an artery in distinct spurts. Venous (veins) is characterized by a steady flow of dark red or maroon colored blood. Venial bleeding may be profuse, but it is easier to control than arterial bleeding. Capillary (capillaries) is characterized by the oozing of blood, usually from minor wounds.

Types of Bleeding

·

Controlling External Bleeding

Mild bleeding may be controlled by elevating the wound or by applying direct pressure or a field dressing. Serious bleeding can be controlled by a combination of the following techniques: · · · · · · Pressure Points Field Dressing Manual Pressure Pressure Dressing Improvised Field Dressing Tourniquet

Direct Pressure

This is the single most effective method for stopping serious bleeding. If a bandage is not immediately available, the hand or fingers can be used (inside the wound if necessary) to bring direct pressure to bear.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Pressure Points

Definition

A pressure point is a location where the main artery to the injury site lies near the surface of the skin and directly over a bone. There are twenty-two pressure points throughout the body. The three most effective pressure points are: · · · The brachial arteries (arm) The femoral arteries (upper thigh) The carotid arteries (neck)

Place the heel of your hand over the pressure point and exert pressure downwards towards the bone until it is obvious that the bleeding has been controlled. If the casualty is very muscular or obese, you may have to exert considerable pressure to compress the artery.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Field Dressing

Applying Dressing

To apply a field dressing, remove it from the wrapper and grasp the tails of the dressing with both hands. Do not touch the white (sterile) side of the dressing, and do not allow the white side of the dressing to come in contact with any surface other than the wound. Listed below are the steps to apply a field dressing:

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Field Dressing, Continued

Procedures

Listed below are the steps to apply a field dressing. Step 1 Action Hold the dressing directly over the wound with the white side down. Pull open the dressing and place it directly over the wound.

2

Hold the dressing in place with one hand. Use the other hand to wrap one of the tails around the injured part, covering about onehalf of the dressing. Leave enough of the tail for a knot.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Field Dressing, Continued

Procedures, continued

Step 3

Action Wrap the other tail in the opposite direction until the remainder of the dressing is covered. The tails should seal the sides of the dressing to keep foreign materials from getting under it.

4

Tie the tails into a nonslip knot over the outer edge of the dressing. Do not tie the knot over the wound. In order to allow blood to flow to the rest of an injured limb, tie the dressing firmly enough to prevent it from slipping but without causing a tourniquet-like effect (the skin becomes cool, blue, or numb).

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Manual Pressure

Definition

Manual pressure is the single most effective method to stop serious bleeding. If a bandage is not immediately available, the hand or fingers can be used (inside the wound if necessary) to bring direct pressure to bear. If bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help control bleeding. Apply such pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes. The casualty may be asked to do this if conscious and can follow instructions. Listed below is the procedure on how to apply manual pressure:

Application

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Manual Pressure, Continued

Application

Listed below are the procedures on how to apply manual pressure: Do not elevate a suspected fractured limb unless it has been properly splinted. Step 1 Action Elevate the injured area slightly above the level of the heart to reduce the bleeding. As shown in the illustration below:

2 3

If the bleeding stops,.check and treat for shock. If the bleeding continues, apply a pressure dressing.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Manual Dressing, Continued

Application

Pressure dressings aid in blood clotting and compress the open blood vessel. Step 1 Action If bleeding continues after the application of a field dressing, manual pressure, and elevation, then a pressure dressing must be applied as illustrated below:

2

Place additional padding on top of the field dressing, directly over the wound keeping the injured extremity elevated.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Improvised Field Dressing

Application

Place an improvised dressing over the additional padding. Improvised bandages may be strips of cloth made from T-shirts, socks or other garments. Wrap the ends tightly around the injured limb, covering the previously placed field dressing as illustrated below:

Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. Do not tie so tight that it has a tourniquet like effect. If bleeding continues and all other measures have failed, or if the limb is severed, then apply a tourniquet. When the bleeding stops, check and treat for shock. Wounded extremities should be checked periodically for adequate circulation. The dressing (unless it is a tourniquet) must be loosened if the extremity becomes cool, blue, gray or numb. If bleeding continues and all other measures have failed then apply direct pressure.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet

Definition

A tourniquet is a constricting band placed around an arm or leg to control bleeding. A Marine whose arm or leg has been completely amputated may not be bleeding when first discovered, but a tourniquet should be applied anyway. The absence of bleeding is due to the body’s normal defenses (contraction of blood vessels) as a result of the amputation, but after a period of time the bleeding will start as the blood vessels relax. Bleeding from a major artery of the thigh, lower leg, or arm and bleeding from multiple arteries may prove to be beyond control by manual pressure. If the pressure dressing becomes soaked with blood and the wound continues to bleed, apply a tourniquet. The tourniquet should be applied only after all other measures have failed to control or stop the bleeding. On occasion tourniquets have injured blood vessels and nerves. If left in place too long, it can cause the loss of an arm or leg. Once applied it must stay in place, and the casualty must be taken to the nearest medical treatment facility as soon as possible. Do not loosen or release a tourniquet after it has been applied and the bleeding stops. In the absence of a specially designed tourniquet, an improvised tourniquet may be used. A tourniquet may be made from strong pliable material, such as gauze, muslin bandages, clothing, or handkerchiefs. Use a ridged stick-like object to tighten the tourniquet around the injured limb. Ensure that the improvised tourniquet is at least 2 inches wide. Below are some things to do and not to do when applying a tourniquet. · · · The tourniquet must be easily identified or easily seen. Do not use wire or shoestring for a tourniquet band. A tourniquet is only used on the arms or legs where there is danger or loss of life.
Continued on next page

Application

Improvision

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet, Continued

Placement

Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (between the wound and the heart). Place the tourniquet 2 to 4 inches from the edge of the wound site. Never place it directly over a wound, fracture or directly on a joint. For wounds just below a joint, place the tourniquet just above and as close to the joint as possible. The tourniquet should have padding underneath. If possible, place the tourniquet over the smoothed sleeve or trouser leg to prevent the skin from being pinched or twisted. If the tourniquet is long enough, wrap it around the limb several times, keeping the material as flat as possible as illustrated below:

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet, Continued

Apply a Tourniquet

After placing the tourniquet you must properly apply the tourniquet in order for it to work effectively. This process is listed in the table below: Step 1 2 Action Tie a half-knot (just as you tie the first part of a shoelace.) Place a stick (or similar rigid object) on top of the half-knot.

3

Tie a full knot over the stick.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet, Continued

Procedures, continued

Step 4

Action Twist the stick until the tourniquet is tight around the limb and or the bleeding has stopped. In the case of amputation, dark oozing blood may continue for a short time. This is the blood trapped in the area between the wound and the tourniquet.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet, Continued

Apply a Tourniquet, continued

Step 5

Action Fasten the tourniquet to the limb by looping the free ends of the tourniquet over the ends of the stick (graphic A). Then bring the ends around the limb to prevent the stick from loosening. Tie them together under the limb (graphic B).

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Tourniquet, Continued

Remember!

· ·

Do not cover the tourniquet it should be left in full view. Mark the casualty’s forehead, if possible with a “T” to indicate a tourniquet has been applied. If necessary use the casualty’s blood to make this mark. Check and treat for shock. Seek medical aid.

· ·

Do not loosen or release the tourniquet once it has been applied because it could enhance the probability of shock. If possible, save and transport any severed (amputated) limbs or body parts with (but out of sight of) the casualty.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Protect the Wound

Introduction

The most common injuries encountered in a first aid setting are soft tissue injuries with the accompanying hemorrhage (bleeding), shock and danger of infection. An injury that causes a break in the skin, underlying soft tissues structures or body membranes.

Definition of a Wound

Classification of Wounds may be classified according to the following criteria: Wounds

· · · · ·
General Conditions of the Wound

General condition Size Location Type (manner in which the skin or tissue is broken) Causes of the wound

If the wound is fresh, first aid treatment consists mainly of stopping the bleeding, treating for shock and reducing the risk of infection. If the wound is already infected, first aid consists of keeping the casualty quiet, elevating the injured part, and applying a warm wet dressing. Infection is defined as the presence and growth of a foreign organism (fungal, bacterial, or viral) in an area where it should not be. There are two types of bacteria that commonly cause infection in wounds: · · Aerobic - live and multiply in the presence of air or free oxygen. Anaerobic - live and multiply only in the absence of air.

Definition of Infection

Common infectioncausing Bacteria

Aerobic Bacteria

The principle aerobic bacteria that cause infection, inflammation, and septicemia (blood poisoning) are streptococci and staphylococci, some varieties of which are hemolytic (destroy red blood cells). The staphylococci and streptococci can occur at the time of injury of later during treatment if non-sterile instruments or dressings are used.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Protect the Wound, Continued

Anaerobic Bacteria

Anaerobic bacteria are widespread in soil (especially manure soil). While not invasive, anaerobic bacteria contributes to disease by producing toxins and destructive enzymes, often leading to necrosis and/or gangrene of the infected area. To evaluate a casualty for the location, type, and size of the wound, cut or tear the clothing and carefully exposing the entire area of the wound. If clothing is stuck to the wound it should be left in place to avoid further injury. Avoid touching the wound and keep it as clean as possible. Do not remove protective clothing in a chemical environment. Apply a field dressing over the protective clothing.

Clothing

Lodged and Protruding Objects

If an object is lodged in the wound, do not attempt to remove or probe for it. Apply a field dressing, if an object is extending from (impaled in) the wound, do not remove the object. Apply a dressing around the object and use additional improvised bulky materials/dressings to build up the area around the object. Apply a supporting bandage over the bulky materials to hold them in place. In general, since large wounds are more serious than small ones, they usually involve more severe bleeding, more damage to the underlying organs or tissues, and a greater degree of shock. Smaller wounds are sometimes more dangerous than larger ones since they may become infected more readily due to neglect. The depth of the wound is also important because it may lead to a complete perforation of an organ or the body, with the additional complication of entrance and exit wounds.
Continued on next page

Size of the Wound

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Protect the Wound, Continued

Entrance and Exit Wounds

Before applying the field dressing, carefully examine the casualty to determine if there is more than one wound. An object may have entered at one point and exited at another point. The exit wound is usually larger than the entrance wound. The casualty should be continually monitored for development of conditions that may require the performance of the basic life saving measures. A wound may involve serious damage to the deeper structures, as well as to skin and the tissue immediately below it, the location of the wound is important. For example, a knife wound to the chest may puncture a lung and cause interference with breathing. The same type of wound in the abdomen may result in a dangerous infection in the abdominal cavity, or it might puncture the intestines, liver, kidneys, or other vital organs. A knife wound to the head may cause brain damage, but the same wound in a less vital spot (such as an arm or leg) might be less important. Knowing what has caused the wound may give some idea of the probable size of the wound, its general nature, the extent to which it is likely to become contaminated with foreign matter, and what special dangers must be guarded against. Of special concern in a wartime setting is the velocity of woundcausing missiles (bullets or shrapnel). A low-velocity missile damages only the tissues it comes into contact with. On the other hand, a high-velocity missile can do enormous damage by forcing the tissues and body parts away from the track of the missile with a velocity only slightly less than that of the missile itself. These tissues; especially bone, may become damage-causing missiles themselves, thus accentuating the destructive effects of the missile. Wounds are categorized by the manner in which the skin or tissue is broken, there are six general kinds of wounds: · · · · · · Abrasions Incisions Lacerations Punctures Avulsions Amputations
Continued on next page

Location of the Wound

Causes of Wounds

Types of Wounds

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Protect the Wound, Continued

Abrasions

Abrasions are made when skin is rubbed or scraped off. For example, rope burns, floor burns, and skinned knees or elbows. This kind of wound can become infected quite easily because dirt and germs are usually embedded in the tissues. Incisions, commonly called cuts, are wounds made by sharp cutting instruments such as knives, razors, and broken glass. Incisions tend to bleed freely because the blood vessels are cut cleanly and without ragged edges. There is little damage to the surrounding tissues. Incisions are less likely to become infected, since the free flow of blood washes out many of the germs that cause infection. These wounds are torn, rather than cut. They are ragged, irregular edges and masses of torn tissue underneath. These wounds are usually made by blunt objects. For example a dull knife, bomb fragments or accidents with machinery. Lacerations are likely to become infected due to contamination from dirt, grease or other material that is ground into the tissue. Punctures are caused by objects that penetrate into the tissues while leaving a small surface opening. Wounds made by nails, needles, wire and bullets are usually punctures. As a rule, small puncture wounds do not bleed freely; however large puncture wounds may cause severe internal bleeding. The possibility of infection is great in all puncture wounds; especially if the penetrating object has tetanus bacteria on it. An avulsion is the tearing away of tissue from a body part. Bleeding is usually heavy. A traumatic amputation is the nonsurgical removal of the limb from the body. Bleeding is heavy and requires a tourniquet to stop the flow. Shock is certain to develop in these cases.
Continued on next page

Incisions

Lacerations

Punctures

Avulsions

Amputations

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Protect the Wound, Continued

Minor Wound Cleaning and Dressing

Wash minor wounds immediately with soap and clean water; then dry and apply a mild, nonirritating antiseptic. Apply a dressing if necessary. In the first aid environment, do not attempt to wash or clean a large wound, and do not apply as antiseptic to it since it must be cleaned thoroughly at a medical treatment facility. Simply protect it with a large compress or dressing, and transport the casualty to a medical treatment facility.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Treat for Shock

Causes and Effects

Shock stuns and weakens the body. Early identification and proper treatment may save the casualty’s life. Shock may be caused by severe or minor trauma to the body and usually is the result of the following: · · · · · · · Significant loss of blood Heart failure Dehydration Severe and painful blows to the body Severe burns of the body Severe wound infections Severe allergic reactions to drugs, foods, insect stings, and snakebites

Treatment and Prevention

In the field, the procedures to treat for shock are identical to the procedures that would be performed to prevent shock. When treating a casualty, assume that shock is present or will occur shortly. By waiting until actual signs or symptoms of shock are noticeable, the rescuer may jeopardize the casualty’s life. Listed below are tasks you must do to treat and prevent shock: · Move the casualty to cover, if cover is available and the situation permits. (Do not move the casualty or his limbs if suspected fractures have not been splinted.) Lay the casualty on his back. Elevate the casualty’s feet higher than the level of his heart. Use a stable object (a box or field pack) so that his feet will not slip off. As illustrated below:

· ·

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Treat for Shock, Continued

Treatment and Prevention, continued

· · · ·

Do not elevate the legs if the casualty has an unsplinted broken leg, head injury or abdominal injury. Loosen clothing at the neck, waist, or wherever it may be binding. Prevent chilling or overheating. The key is to maintain body temperature. In cold weather, place a blanket or other like item over and under the casualty. This will keep the casualty warm as illustrated below.

· ·

In hot weather, place the casualty in the shade and avoid excessive cover. Calm the casualty. Throughout the entire procedure of treating and caring for a casualty, the rescuer should reassure the casualty and keep the casualty calm. Seek medical assistance.

·

A casualty in shock after suffering a heart attack, chest wound, or breathing difficulty may breathe easier in a sitting position. If this is the case, allow the casualty to sit upright but monitor carefully in case his condition worsens. Do not elevate legs if the casualty has an unsplinted broken leg, head injury or abdominal injury.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Treat for Shock, Continued

Food and Drink During treatment or prevention of shock, do not give the casualty any food or

drink. If you must leave the casualty or he is unconscious, turn his head to the side to prevent him from choking should he vomit. As shown in the illustration below.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 5 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Which of the following is one of the basic life saving measures? a. b. c. d. Elevate the wound Apply a field dressing Treat for shock Protect the casualty

Item 1

Item 2

Which of the following is one of the techniques used for opening a block airway? a. b. c. d. Head-tilt/Chin-lift Neck-stretch/Head-turn Abdominal thrust Jaw grab

Item 3

Which of the following is one of the methods used to control external bleeding? a. b. c. d. Radial pressure Indirect pressure Femoral pressure Direct pressure

Item 4

Which of the following is a step for applying a field dressing? a. b. c. d. Apply the non-sterile/non-white side to the wound Tie the knot firmly over the wound Hold the dressing directly over the wound white side down Tie the tails into a slip knot over the inner edge of the dressing
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Which type of bacteria only lives in the absence of air? a. b. c. d. Anaerobic Aerobic Viral Fungal

Item 6

Which type of wound involves the tearing away of tissue from a body part? a. b. c. d. Lacerations Avulsions Abrasions Amputations

Item 7

Which of the following is an effect that may cause shock? a. b. c. d. Choking Aerobic bacteria Tourniquet Severe and painful blows to the body
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Answer c a d c a b d Reference Page 3-23 3-26 3-43 3-47 3-58 3-61 3-63

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 REQUESTING A MEDICAL EVACUATION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize the student with the procedures for requesting a medical evacuation. Many of the casualties evaluated will require movement from the battle area to the Battalion Aid Station (BAS). You must become familiar with this process to direct the evacuation of casualties without causing additional injury and while ensuring accountability of weapons and personnel. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · Identify the casualty evacuation precedence. Identify the information required to give a medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) request. Identify the information given in a landing zone brief.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Determine Precedence of the Casualty Requesting a MEDEVAC Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 3-69 3-71 3-72 3-77

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Determine Precedence of the Casualty

Casualty Precedence

Each injury must be evaluated to determine whether it is life threatening or not. Once this has been determined, you can start staging your casualties by precedence. Remember, MEDEVAC precedence is not determined by rank, but by severity of the wound and the condition of the casualty. The three levels of precedence are as follows: Precedence Urgent Description Must be moved immediately to save life or limb, or prevent complication of serious illness. For example: · Airway and breathing difficulties · Cardiac arrest · Open chest or abdominal wounds · Severe head injuries Requires prompt medical care. Must be picked up within 48 hours. For example: · Burns without complications · Major or multiple fractures · Back injuries with or without spinal damage Minor injury, killed in action (KIA). Must be picked up within 72 hours. For example: · · · Minor fractures or other injuries of a minor nature Obviously mortal wounds where death appears reasonably certain Obviously dead

Priority

Routine

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Request a MEDEVAC

Required Information

To request a MEDEVAC, the requestor must provide specific information that will allow the supporting element to provide accurate equipment and personnel for the pick-up and delivery of the casualties. The following information should be provided as completely and accurately as possible: · · · · · · MEDEVAC Precedence Number of MEDEVACS Airborne medical assistance required/not required Pickup coordinates Landing Zone (LZ) frequencies/call sign LZ secure/unsecure
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Request a MEDEVAC, Continued

Landing Zone Brief

More often than not you will need to request a MEDEVAC by air (helicopter). This will require additional information for the flight crew enroute to your position. Once contact is made with the aircraft, a landing zone brief will be given with the following information: · Mission Number: usually a two part hyphenated number assigned by the air tasking order (ATO) for example 01-2 where 01 is the day of the month and 2 is the second mission assigned. Location Coordinate: this information is typically supplied to the aircrew prior to launch or enroute in case of a divert mission. It may only be general information the crew will expect a location update upon contact with the supported unit. Unit Call Sign: information provided to the aircrew prior to them attempting to contact the supported unit. Frequency: this information is provided by an air agency. If the supported unit has alternate or different working frequencies this must be passed upon contact. LZ Marking: describes the methods used to mark the LZ (panel markers, NATO “Y”, GAIL lights, or colored smoke). After contact with the pilot, if you plan to use smoke, just say smoke don’t pass the smoke color. If someone is monitoring the net, it prevents them from luring the helicopter into an ambush. Wind Direction/Velocity: is determined by the direction the wind is blowing from, not the direction it is blowing to. Pass your best guess as to wind velocity for it may be different at your location than the pilot expects due to wind gusts. Elevation/Size/Shape: elevation is passed to the nearest 50 feet, size is passed in meters with length and width of the usable part of the zone being required information. Obstacles: are hazards to aircraft on ingress or egress, or those things that will hamper a normal landing. For example, communication wire, barbed or concertina wire, fence posts, stumps, and flooded areas.
Continued on next page

·

· · . ·

·

·

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Request a MEDEVAC, Continued
Landing Zone Brief, continued

·

Friendly Positions: Direction/Distance this information is passed to help the pilot land near the troop to be picked up. If the troops are all around the zone, tell him where the loading points are. Enemy Positions: Direction/Distance this is an intelligence update for the aircrew allowing them to plan their ingress and egress away from the threat. Directions are passed in semi-cardinal headings, and distance is given in meters. Last Fire Received: Time/Type of the two type is the most critical, it will hard to avoid the threat of indirect fire weapons. A barrage of 122mm howitzer fire is probably less significant than heavy machine gun and rifle fire. Time will give the aircrew some idea of where the enemy might be. Direction of Fire/Distance: The direction is a semi-cardinal heading. Distance is the is the more significant of the two, because it is a guide to the possible effectiveness of the fire. If the rifle fire was received from the hilltop 1000m away, it will be less significant than the fire received from 400m away. Clearance To Fire: Direction/Distance. This allows the helicopter the widest latitude possible to fire, consistent with troop safety. This is generally passed as “cleared to fire to the east side of the zone beyond 50m into the treeline” or ”cleared except for the southern side of the zone.” Approach/Retirement (Recommended): Helicopters prefer to land and take off into the wind, and like to avoid flying over the enemy, give a best guess as to which way the helicopters should ingress and egress. Personnel/Equipment: Pass personnel as number of sticks (heliteams). For example: “ I have 17 sticks of 15.” This method is easier for the pilot to determine the amount of lifts required. The equipment mentioned is that which is not carried by the individual Marine. Each Marine (including personal gear) is figured to weigh 240 lbs, things to mention are pallets of cargo, waterbulls, or vehicles. Anything that does not fit conveniently in another line, use here. For example condition of the landing zone, “mud knee deep”, or two loads of pax (passengers) and seven loads of ammo rigged as externals.”
Continued on next page

·

·

·

·

·

·

Other:

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Request a MEDEVAC, Continued

Landing Zone Brief, continued

Listed below is an example of the format for a landing zone brief:

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Request a MEDEVAC, Continued

Executing a MEDEVAC

Once each task in requesting a MEDEVAC has been accomplished, it is time to commence the MEDEVAC. · Prepare the pick up zone. Be sure the LZ is marked by either an air panel marker or with a specified color of smoke. Be sure all obstructions are cleared out to the best of your unit’s ability. Be sure everyone is staged and ready for evacuation landing and takeoff before the helicopter arrives at your position. Direct the helicopter into your LZ.

· ·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Which casualty evacuation precedence requires prompt medical care and must be picked up within 48 hours? a. b. c. d. Routine Regular Priority Urgent

Item 1

Item 2

What information is required in a MEDEVAC request? a. b. c. d. Terrain and weather Helicopter Serial number LZ frequencies/call sign Drop coordinates

Item 3

What information is given in a landing zone brief? a. b. c. d. Preplanned targets Corpsmen location Pick-up time Obstacles
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer c c d Reference Page 3-71 3-72 3-73

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

LESSON 4 PREPARING A CASUALTY FOR TRANSPORT Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

The medical evacuation process may require the casualty to be moved from or to a specific location for transport. This lesson will discuss preparing a casualty for transport, the types of manual and litter transports. After completion of this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify how to prepare a casualty for transport. Identify the general rules for bearers. Identify the types of manual carries. Identify the types of litters.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Casualty Handling Manual Carries Litter Evacuation Lesson 4 Exercise See Page 3-79 3-80 3-82 3-103 3-118

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Casualty Handling

Introduction

Casualties evacuated by manual means must be carefully handled. Rough or improper handling may cause further injury to the casualty. The evacuation effort should be organized and performed methodically, lifting or moving casualties should be performed deliberately and as gently as possible. Casualties should not be moved before the type and extent of their injuries are evaluated and the required first aid is administered. The exception occurs when the situation dictates immediate movement for safety reasons. For example, if a casualty is near a burning vehicle or impact area. This situation dictates that the urgency of casualty movement outweighs the need to administer first aid.

Preparation for Movement

The life saving and life preserving measures must be carried out before moving a casualty. Except in extreme emergencies the following measures must be taken to evaluate the type and extent of a casualty’s injuries: · · · · · · · Open the airway and restore breathing and heartbeat Stop the bleeding Prevent or control shock Protect the wound from further contamination Fractures must be immobilized to prevent broken ends from cutting through muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and skin If a tourniquet has been applied mark the casualty’s forehead with a capital “T” along with the time and date applied Serious wounds should be reinforced to provide additional protection during movement

General Rules for Bearers

Individuals performing the evacuation are referred to as bearers. Improper handling of a casualty can result in injury to the bearers as well as the casualty. To minimize disabling injuries (muscle strain, sprains) that could hamper the evacuation effort, the following rules should be followed: · · · Use the body’s natural system of levers when lifting and moving a casualty. Know your physical capabilities and limitations. Maintain solid footing when lifting and transporting a casualty.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Casualty Handling, Continued

General Rules for Bearers, continued

· · · · · ·

Use the leg muscles (not the back muscles) when lifting or lowering a casualty. Use the shoulder and leg muscles when carrying or standing with a casualty. Keep the back straight; use arms and shoulders when pulling a casualty. Work in unison with other bearers, using deliberate, gradual movements. Slide or roll, rather than lift heavy objects that must be moved. Rest frequently, or whenever possible, while transporting a casualty.

Normally a casualty’s weapon is not moved with him. Weapons are turned in at the first available Battalion Aid Station (BAS) or clearing station to be returned to the parent unit through supply channels. Individual equipment, including protective clothing and mask, remain with the casualty and is evacuated with him.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Manual Carries

Introduction

Manual evacuation is the process of transporting casualties by manual carries. It is accomplished without the aid of a litter or other forms of transport. It is intended to end at the point where more sophisticated means of evacuation becomes available. Manual carries are tiring for bearers and involve the risk of increasing the severity of the casualty’s injuries. Some situations are essential to save the casualty’s life. When a litter is not available or when terrain or the tactical situation makes other forms of casualty transport impractical, a manual carry may be the only means to transport a casualty to where a corpsman can treat him. The distance a casualty can be transported by a manual carry depends upon many factors, such as: · · · · Strength and endurance of the bearers. Weight of the casualty. Nature of the injuries. Obstacles encountered during transport.
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Limiting Factors

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Casualty Positioning

The first step in any manual carry is to position the casualty to be lifted. If the casualty is conscious, then it should be explained how they are to be positioned and transported. This helps lessen the fear of movement and to gain cooperation. It may be necessary to roll the casualty onto their abdomen, or back, depending upon which position they are in and the particular carry used. Use the following method: · · · · To roll a casualty onto his abdomen, kneel at the casualty’s uninjured side. Place his arms above his head, cross his ankle that is farthest from you over the one that is closer to you. As in illustration (1). Place one of your hands on the shoulder farthest from you, place your other hand in the area of the hip or thigh. As in illustration (2). Roll him gently toward you onto his abdomen.

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Casualty Positioning,

·

continued

To roll a casualty onto his back, follow the same procedure described for rolling onto his abdomen, except gently roll the casualty onto his back as illustrated below:

Categories of Manual Carries

There are two categories of manual carries, one-man carries and two-man carries. Each category of one-man and two-man carries has many different types of carries that can be used to evacuate casualties. These carries are used when only one bearer is available to transport the casualty. The fireman’s carry is one of the easiest way for an individual to carry another.
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One-Man Carries

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Fireman’s Carry

Listed below are the steps for using the fireman’s carry. Step
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Action
After rolling the casualty onto his abdomen, straddle him. Extend your hands under his chest and lock them together. Lift the patient to his knees as you move backward. Continue to move backward, thus straightening the casualty’s legs and locking his knees. Walk forward, bringing the casualty to a standing position, tilt him slightly to prevent his knees from buckling. As you maintain constant support of the casualty with one arm, free your other arm, quickly grasp his wrist, and raise his arm high. Instantly pass your head under his raised arm, releasing it as you pass under it. Move swiftly to face the casualty and secure your arms around his waist. Immediately place your foot between his feet and spread them apart (approximately 6 to 8 inches). Grasp the casualty’s wrist and raise his arm high over your head. Bend down and pull the casualty’s arm over and down on your shoulder, bringing his body across your shoulders. At the same time, pass your arm between his legs. Grasp the casualty’s wrist with one hand, and place your other hand on your knee. Rise with the casualty positioned correctly. Your other hand is free for use.

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Fireman’s Carry,

continued

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Supporting Carry

This carry is used when the casualty is able to walk, or hop on one leg using the bearer as a crutch. To use this technique: · · · Raise the casualty from the ground to a standing position by using the fireman’s carry. Grasp the casualty’s wrist and draw his arm around your neck. Place your arm around his waist. The casualty is now able to walk or hop. As shown in the illustration below:

Supporting carry
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Arms Carry

This carry is useful in carrying a casualty for a short distance (up to 50 meters) and for placing a casualty on a litter. To use this technique: · · · · Raise or lift the casualty from the ground to a standing position, as in the fireman’s carry. Place one arm under the casualty’s knees and your other arm around his back. Lift the casualty. Carry the casualty high to lessen fatigue. As shown in the illustration below.

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Saddleback Carry

Only a conscious casualty can be transported this way because, he must be able to hold onto the bearer’s neck. To use this technique: · · · · · Raise the casualty to an upright position, as in the fireman’s carry. Support the casualty by placing an arm around his waist. Move to the casualty’s side. Have the casualty put his arm around your neck and move in front of him with your back to him. Have the casualty encircle his arms around your neck. Stoop, raise him on your back, and clasp your hands together beneath his thighs.

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Pack-Strap Carry

The casualty’s weight rests high on your back. This makes it easier for you to carry the casualty to a moderate distance (50 to 300 meters). To eliminate the possibility of injury to the casualty’s arms, you must hold the casualty’s arms in a palms-down position. To use this technique: · · · · · · Lift the casualty from the ground to a standing position, as in the fireman’s carry. Support the casualty with your arms around him and grasp his wrist closer to you. Place his arm over your head and across your shoulders. Move in front of him while still supporting his weight against your back. Grasp his other wrist and place this arm over your shoulder. As in illustration (1). Bend forward and raise or hoist the casualty as high on your back as possible so that his weight is resting on your back. As in illustration (2).

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Pistol-belt Carry

This is the best one-man carry for a long distance (over 300 meters). The casualty is securely supported upon your shoulders by a belt. Your hands and the casualty’s (if conscious) are free for carrying a weapon or equipment, or for climbing obstacles. With your hands free and the casualty secured in place, you are also able to creep through shrubs and under low hanging branches. The steps for using this technique are listed in the table below. Step 1 2 Action Link two pistol belts (or three, if necessary) together to form a sling. Place the sling under the casualty’s thighs and lower back so that a loop extends from each side.

3

Lie face up between the casualty’s outstretched legs. Thrust your arms through the loops and grasp his hands and trouser leg on his injured side.

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Pistol-belt Carry, continued

Step 4

Action Roll toward the casualty’s injured side onto your abdomen, bringing him onto your back. Adjust the sling, if necessary.

5

Rise to a kneeling position. The belt holds the casualty in place.

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Pistol-belt Carry, continued

Step 6

Action Place one hand on your knee for support and rise to an upright position. (The casualty is supported on your shoulders.)

7

Carry the casualty with your hands free for use in rifle firing, climbing, or surmounting obstacles.

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Pistol-belt Drag

The pistol-belt drag, as well as other drags, is generally used for short distances (up to 50 meters). This drag is useful in combat, because both the bearer and the casualty can remain closer to the ground than with other drags. To use this technique: · · · Extend two pistol belts or similar objects to their full length and connect them together making a continuous loop. Roll the casualty onto his back, as in the fireman’s carry. Pass the loop over the casualty’s head, and position it across his chest and under his armpits. Then twist the remaining portion of the loop forming a figure eight. Lie on your side facing the casualty. Slip the loop over your head and turn onto your abdomen. This enables you to drag the casualty as you crawl.

· ·

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The Neck Drag

This drag also is useful in combat because the bearer can transport the casualty as he creeps behind a low wall or shrubbery, under a vehicle or through a culvert. If the casualty is unconscious, his head must be protected from the ground. The neck drag should not be used if the casualty has a broken arm. To use this technique: · · · · If the casualty is conscious, he may clasp his hands around your neck. If the casualty is unconscious, tie the hands together at the wrists. Straddle the casualty in a kneeling face-to-face position. Loop the casualty’s tied hands over and around your neck. Crawl forward dragging the casualty with you.

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Cradle-drop Drag

The cradle-drop drag is effective in moving a casualty up or down steps. Listed below are the steps to use this technique: Step 1 Action Kneel at the casualty’s head (with him lying on his back). Slide your hands, with palms up, under the casualty’s shoulders and get a firm hold under his armpits.

2

Rise (partially), supporting the casualty’s head on one of your forearms.

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Cradle-drop Drag, continued

Step 3

Action Rise and drag the casualty backward. (The casualty is in a semi sitting position.)

4

Back down the steps, supporting the casualty’s head and body and letting his hips and legs drop from step to step.

If the casualty needs to be moved up the steps, you should back up the steps, using the same procedure.
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Two-man Carries

These carries should be used whenever possible. They provide more comfort for the casualty, are less likely to aggravate injuries, and are less tiring for the bearers. This carry can be used in transporting both conscious and unconscious casualties. To use this technique the bearers: · · · Help the casualty to their feet and support the body with their arms around the waist. Grasp the casualty’s wrists and draw the arms around their necks. If the casualty is taller than the bearers, it may be necessary for the bearers for the bearers to lift the casualty’s legs and let them rest on their forearms.

Two-man Supporting Carry

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Two-man Arms Carry

This carry is useful in carrying a casualty for a moderate distance (50 to 300 meters) and placing him on a litter. To lessen fatigue, the bearers should carry the casualty high and as close to their chests as possible. If possible two additional bearers should be used to keep the casualty’s head and legs in alignment with his body. To use this technique the bearers: · · · · Kneel at one side of the casualty and place their arms beneath the casualty’s back, waist, hips, and knees. Lift the casualty while rising to their knees. Turn the casualty towards their chests, while rising to a standing position. Carry the casualty high to lessen fatigue.

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Two-man Foreand-Aft Carry

This carry is useful for transporting a casualty over a long distance (over 300 meters). To use this technique: · One bearer spreads the casualty’s legs and kneels between them with his back to the casualty. · He positions his hands behind the casualty’s knees. · The other bearer kneels at the casualty’s head, slides his hands under the arms, across the chest, and locks his hands together. · The two bearers rise together, lifting the casualty. · The taller of the two bearers should position himself at the casualty’s head. · Altering this carry so that both bearers face the casualty is useful for placing the casualty on a litter.

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Four-hand Seat Carry

This carry is useful in transporting a casualty with a head or foot injury for a moderate distance (50 to 300 meters). Only a conscious casualty can be transported with this carry, because he must help support himself by placing his arms around the bearers’ shoulders. This carry is also useful in placing a casualty on a litter. To use this technique: · · · Each bearer grasps one of his wrists and one of the other bearer’s wrists forming a packsaddle. The two bearers lower themselves sufficiently for the casualty to sit on the packsaddle. The casualty places his arms around the bearer’s shoulders for support, then the bearers rise to an upright position.

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Two-hand Seat Carry

This carry is used when transporting a casualty for a short distance (up to 50 meters) and in placing a casualty on a litter. To use this technique: · · · A bearer kneels on each side of the casualty (the casualty is lying on his back) at his hips. Each bearer passes his arms under the casualty’s thighs and back, and grasps the other bearer’s wrists. The bearers rise lifting the casualty.

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Litter Evacuation

Introduction

Litter bearers collect casualties from the battle area and move them to casualty collection points (CCPs) for evacuation to the battalion aid station (BAS). A litter is a collapsible stretcher made of canvas and supported by wooden or aluminum poles. A litter may be prefabricated or improvised from available materials. The military uses several types of standard litters. This standardization allows for casualty movement in various vehicles on the same litter, minimizing the possibility of further injury and saving valuable time. In addition to the rules for bearers (addressed in the previous lesson), the following rules apply for litter bearers: · When moving a casualty, the litter bearers must make every movement deliberately and as gently as possible. The command STEADY should be used to prevent any undue haste. The rear bearers should watch the movements of the front bearers and time their movements accordingly to ensure a smooth and steady action. The litter must be kept as level as possible at all times, particularly when crossing obstacles, such as ditches. The casualty should be carried on the litter feet first, except when going uphill or upstairs, his head should be forward. If the casualty has a fracture of a lower extremity, he should be carried uphill or upstairs feet first and downhill or downstairs head first to prevent the body weight from pressing upon the injured part. When the casualty is loaded on a litter, his individual equipment is carried by two of the bearers or placed on the litter with the casualty.
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Definition

Types of Litters

General Rules for Litter Bearers

· · · ·

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Standard Litters

Standard litters are prefabricated and may have accessories that are used with them. The most widely used litter is the standard collapsible litter. It folds along the long axis only. The basic components of the litter are: · · · · · Two straight, rigid, lightweight aluminum poles. A cover (bed) of cotton duck. Four wooden handles attached to the poles. Four stirrups (one bolted near the end of each pole). The stirrups support the litter when it is placed on the ground. Two spreader bars (one near each end of the litter). These bars are extended crosswise at the stirrups to hold the cover taut when the litter is open. Two litter securing straps (one attached to each pole at the stirrup bolts). These straps are used to secure the litter when it is closed.
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Standard Collapsible Litter

Below is an illustration of a standard collapsible litter.

Dimensions

The dimensions of the standard collapsible litters are as follows: · · · · · Overall length is 90 inches. Overall width is 22 7/8 inches. Bed length is 72 inches. Bed width is 22 7/8 inches. Weight is 15 pounds.
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Folding Aluminum Litter

Another standard litter with the same general dimensions as the collapsible litter when open is the folding aluminum litter. It has folding lightweight aluminum poles. The poles can be folded to one half their length when the litter is not in use. As shown in the illustration below.

Patient Securing Strap

The patient securing strap is used to hold the casualty in position on the litter. It is designed to fit the straight and folding aluminum litters as well as other standard litters. There are four straps per litter. This strap can also be used with an improvised litter and as a patient restraint, if required. It is made from a 6-foot length of 2-inch webbing and a buckle with a locking device and spring. As shown in the illustration below.

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Using Patient Securing Straps

The number of straps placed over the body depend upon the type of terrain which the casualty is to be carried. If only two straps are necessary: · · Place one strap across the chest and one across the legs, just below the knees as shown in graphic (A) below. Extend the straps under the litter and buckle them against the litter pole.

If the terrain is rough, apply two additional straps: · · One is placed across the waist and the other across the thighs as shown in graphic (B) below. Extend them under the litter and buckle them against the litter pole.

If the casualty is being carried up or down steep slopes, use two additional straps to secure each thigh to the litter separately. · · Take one strap over one thigh, under the other thigh then under the litter, and buckle it against the litter pole as shown in figure (C) below. Take the remaining strap and secure the opposite thigh in the same manner.

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Poleless Semirigid Litter

This litter is useful for evacuating casualties from ships and from mountainous areas. It holds the casualty securely in position and facilitates the movement of the casualty in a vertical position. The basic components are: · · · · · Semi-rigid cotton duck with wooden supports (A). Four webbing handles (two at each end). These straps can be used when the litter is carried by four bearers (B). Four loops. These loops are used to insert the poles for carrying. Headpiece. This is used to support the casualty’s head (C). Seven patient securing straps. These straps are used to secure the patient to the litter (D).

Basic Components

Dimensions

The dimensions of this litter are as follows: · · · Overall length 83 ¾ inches. Overall width 22 ¾ inches Weight 18 ¾ pounds.
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Stokes Litter

This litter is designed to perform helicopter rescue operations in areas unsuitable for landing and where other evacuation means are not available or practical. The Stokes litter carries one casualty and can be used with a hoist overland or over water. Retaining straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter, this affords maximum security for the casualty when the litter is tilted The basic components are listed below: · · · · · It is composed of a steel or aluminum tubular frame supporting a bed of wire mesh netting. It also has slats to support the casualty’s back (A). The lower half is divided into four compartments to accommodate the casualty’s legs (B). It has four webbed patient securing straps for use in securing the patient (C). It has ropes, cables, or steel rings that can be attached to the litter as required for vertical recoveries. Its dimensions are length, 84 inches, width, 23 inches, and weight, 31 ½ pounds.

Components

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Improvised Litters

There are times when a casualty has to be moved and a standard litter is not available, and the distance may be too far for manual carries, or the casualty has injuries that would be aggravated by manual transportation. In these situations litter can be improvised from materials at hand. Improvised litters must be well constructed to avoid the risk of dropping or further injuring the casualty. Improvised litters are for emergency measures and must be replaced with standard litter at the first opportunity. Listed below are some types of materials that can be used to construct an improvised litter: · · · · · · · · · · · · · Blankets Ponchos Shelter half Tarpaulin Mattress cover Jackets Shirts Bags Sacks Doors Boards Cots Chairs

Types of Materials

Poles

The poles can be improvised from the following items: · · · · Strong tree branches Tent poles Skis Lengths of pipe
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Blanket and Poles

To improvise a litter using a blanket and poles, the following steps should be used: · · · Open the blanket and lay one pole lengthwise across the center, then fold the blanket over the pole graphic (A) below. Place the second pole across the center of the folded blanket graphic (B). Fold the free edges of the blanket over the second pole and across to the first pole graphic (C).

Jackets and Poles

To improvise a litter using shirts or jackets, button the shirt or jacket and turn it inside out, leaving the sleeves inside (A), then pass the poles through the sleeves (B).

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Bed Sacks and Poles

To improvise a litter from bed ticks, bags, sacks, and poles, rip open the corners of the bed ticks, bags, or sacks, then pass the poles through them.

Rolled Blanket Litter

If poles are not available, roll a blanket, shelter half, tarpaulin, or similar item from both sides toward the center. Grip the rolls to carry the casualty.

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Dressed Litter

A litter is dressed with one, two, or three blankets to reduce the danger of shock and to provide the casualty warmth and comfort during transport. In an NBC contaminated area, the litter should be dressed with an impermeable cover (rubber poncho or similar material) to prevent additional exposure. To dress a litter with one blanket: · · Place the blanket diagonally over the litter as shown in graphic (A). After the casualty is placed on the litter, bring the sides of the blanket over the casualty and tuck in the edges at his head and feet as shown in graphic (B).

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Dressed Litter with Two Blankets

To dress a litter with two blankets: · · Place the first blanket lengthwise across the litter with the blanket edge just beyond the head of the litter as shown in graphic (A). Fold the second blanket in thirds, lengthwise and place over the first blanket. Place the upper edge of the second blanket about 10 inches below the upper edge of the first blanket. Open the folds on the second blanket about 2 feet from the foot end as shown in graphic (B). After the casualty is placed on the litter, bring the bottom of the blanket up and over the patient’s feet. Leave a small fold between his feet, then tuck the folds closely over and around his feet and ankles as shown in graphic (C). Wrap the casualty with one side and then the opposite side of the first blanket as shown in graphic (D).
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Dressed Litter with Two Blankets, continued

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Dressed Litter with Three Blankets

To dress a litter with three blankets: · Place the first blanket on the litter lengthwise so that one edge is even with the litter pole farthest from you and the upper end of the blanket is even with the head of the canvas. Fold the blanket back upon itself once, so that the folded edge is along the litter pole nearer you and the outer edge of the blanket overhangs the other pole as shown in graphic (A) on the next page. Place the second blanket lengthwise over the first one as described above, except start with the opposite litter pole so that the blanket overhang is on the opposite side of the first blanket as shown in graphic (B) on the next page. After the casualty is placed on the litter, fold the third blanket once lengthwise and place it over the casualty with one end under his chin as shown in graphic (C) on the next page. Fold the overhanging edges of the first two blankets over the third blanket and secure them in place with safety pins, if available or patient securing straps as shown in graphic (D) on the next page.
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·

·

·

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Litter Evacuation, Continued

Dressed Litter with Three Blankets, continued

This method of dressing the litter gives four thickness of blanket over and under the casualty. This provides additional warmth and will help in preventing shock.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Lesson 4 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 5 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Which item is a measure in preparing a casualty for movement? a. b. c. d. Protect the wound from further contamination Remove all protective clothing and equipment Check for weapons and classified materials Ensure the casualty is unconscious for ease of movement

Item 1

Item 2

Which is a general rule for bearers is to know a. b. c. d. which foot to step off with which casualty you are moving your physical capabilities and limitations the total weight of the casualty

Item 3

Which factor limits the distance a casualty may be transported by a manual carry? a. b. c. d. Obstacles encountered during transport The amount of fire support available The direction of travel The height and motivation of the bearers

Item 4

Which type of one-man carry is the easiest way for an individual to carry another? a. b. c. d. Pack strap carry Fireman’s carry Pistol belt carry Arms carry
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Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Which type of litter is designed to perform helicopter rescue operations in areas unsuitable for landing? a. b. c. d. Standard litter Improvised litter Stokes litter Aluminum litter
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Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer a c a b c Reference Page 3-80 3-80 3-82 3-84 3-109

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

LESSON 5 HANDLING ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Scope

The Marine must direct a search of enemy prisoners of war (EPWs) that identifies all equipment and documents to be tagged. Prisoners must be segregated by sex and rank. Abuse of EPWs is not tolerated; they are afforded protection from enemy fire. This lesson will teach you the five Ss for handling EPWs: search, segregate, silence, speed, and safeguard. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · Define the five Ss for handling EPWs. Identify the groups for separating EPWs. Identify precautions to take for the movement of EPWs.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics. Topic Introduction Five Ss Lesson 5 Exercise See Page 3-121 3-122 3-125

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Five Ss

Defined

The five Ss are steps for handling EPWs. They are · · · · · Search Segregate Silence Speed Safeguard

Search

The Marine must direct a search that identifies all equipment and documents to be tagged. Ensure the searcher has a cover man or act as a cover man, if possible. Search consists of · · · Going through to find missing or lost gear. Looking carefully to find any concealed weapons or documents. Providing each searcher with a cover man.
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Tagging

Once items have been found, be sure to tag all prisoners, weapons, equipment, and documents. The tag contains the following information: CAPTIVE TAG Instructions (Captive Tag)

TAG 1. Complete upper half of tag for NUMBER_________________ each captive. DATE/TIME OF CAPTURE______ PLACE OF CAPTURE 2. If captive has document, check (Coordinates)____________ yes. Complete and detach lower CIRCUMSTANCES OF CAPTURE half of tag. WEAPONS ___NO___YES (Type) DOCUMENTS___NO ____YES (If yes, complete lower half of tag.) CAPTURING UNIT ____________
DO NOT REMOVE TAG FROM CAPTIVE

3. Securely affix tag to captive.

Additional information ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Signature ________________
Segregate

Prisoners must be segregated. Separate EPWs by sex and rank into the following groups: · · · · · Females Commissioned officers Noncommissioned officers (NCOs) Enlisted personnel Civilian combatants

Isolate EPW groups to reduce talking and the possibility of organizing a threat. Protect EPWs from enemy fire and abuse. Abuse of EPWs is not tolerated.
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Five Ss, Continued

Silence

Maintain silence among the prisoners to cut down on confusion and plotting for an escape. Post guards to enforce silence. According to Rules of Engagement Regulations, direct supervision must be maintained to ensure the EPWs are thoroughly safeguarded. Units are not responsible for keeping EPWs in position for extended periods of time. Areas are designated for drop off EPWs. Move EPWs quickly to drop off areas so you can focus on your mission. Units are responsible for all harm and danger that might occur to the EPWs under their control. All Marines in the unit must understand the laws of war. EPWs keep their field protective masks, helmets, and/or flak jackets. Direct supervision must be maintained to ensure the EPWs are thoroughly safeguarded.

Speed

Safeguard

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

Lesson 5 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following exercise items. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Matching: For items 1 through 5, place the letter of the step in column 2 that is described in the process in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Process ___ 1. Making sure no weapons go unnoticed ___ 2. Making sure EPWs are not planning an escape ___ 3. Grouping EPWs into categories ___ 4. Letting EPWs keep their field protective masks, helmets, and/or flak jackets ___ 5. Processing EPWs so the unit can focus quickly on primary mission Column 2 Steps a. b. c. d. e. Search Segregate Silence Speed Safeguard

Items 1 Through 5

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5 Exercise

Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 6

EPWs should be segregated into the following categories: a. b. c. d. Females, wounded, commissioned officers, NCOs, civilians Commissioned officers, NCOs, enlisted personnel, civilians Wounded, females, commissioned officers, NCOs, enlisted civilians Females, commissioned officers, NCOs, enlisted personnel, civilians

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5 Exercise

Lesson 5 Exercise

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer a c b e d d Reference Page 3-122 3-124 3-123 3-124 3-124 3-123

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5 Exercise

MCI Course 8016A

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5 Exercise

WARFIGHTING TECHNIQUES REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson

Introduction

The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review examination. Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided. What is the power output for low radio frequency on the AN/PRC-119B SINCGARS radio? a. b. c. d. 4 watts 50 watts 160 milliwatts 500 microwatts

Directions

Item 1

Item 2

An electronic frequency entered manually using the keyboard is a. b. c. d. an electronic counter-counter measures. called tuning. an emission. a type of modulation.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-1

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 3

Which component provides the primary means of command and control voice, secure voice, and digital data? a. b. c. d. Manpack antenna Receiver-transmitter (RT) Handset Battery box

Item 4

When assembling the AN/PRC-119B, what component is connected to the RT-1523 AUD/DATA port? a. b. c. d. Handset Antenna Battery Transmitter

Item 5

When assembling the AN/PRC-119B, the manpack antenna is connected to the _____ connector on the RT-1523. a. b. c. d. AUD/DATA RXMT ANT AUD/FILL

Item 6

When performing a self-test on the AN/PRC-119B, in which modes is the radio still functional? a. b. c. d. FH and FH-M SC and FH-M SC and PA SC and FH
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-2

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Item 7

In which position is the MODE control knob when loading a single-channel frequency on the AN/PRC-119B? a. b. c. d. FH-M SQ ON SC PA

Item 8

Which key on the keyboard of the AN/PRC-119B do you press to store the FH net update data? a. b. c. d. LOUT/9 STO SYNC/3 FCTN

Item 9

What are the three components of the indirect fire team? a. b. c. d. FO, FDC, and Guns Guns, MT, and Supply Armor, Infantry, and Cavalry FO, FDC, and MTO

Item 10

Which of the following lists four functions of a FO? a. Communicate with the firing unit, engage targets with indirect fire, screen friendly units with smoke, and illuminate the battlefield at night. b. Maintain and operate the tools and equipment necessary to call for and adjust indirect fire; locate, call for, and adjust fire on suitable targets; communicate with the FDC; and plan indirect fires. c. Establish final protective fires, mark targets for close air support, call for and adjust fire, and report battle damage assessments. d. Plan no fire zones, report observations to the FDC, coordinate indirect fire and close air support, and identify known points.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-3

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 11

Which answer best describes a function of FDC? a. b. c. d. Determine the firing data required for the guns to fire the mission. Load the weapons with ammo. Call in air support. Provide security for the FO.

Item 12

What are the four essential tools a FO needs to call for and adjust indirect fire? a. b. c. d. Map, binoculars, rifle, and ammo Compass, communication equipment, radar, and water Map, compass, binoculars, and communication equipment Chow, map, pencils, and radio

Item 13

Name a purpose for which binoculars are used. a. b. c. d. To align the weapons To see the rounds fly over To get a close look at the firing unit Study terrain

Items 14

What are the two types of adjustments you must make to use binoculars properly? a. b. c. d. Long and short ranges Near and far Interpupillary and focal adjustments Quick and long-term ranges
Continued on next page

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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 15

What are the two methods to locate targets? a. b. c. d. Polar plot and sun spot Radar and polar plot Radar and grid coordinate Grid coordinate and polar plot

Item 16

Which is the most common method for locating a target? a. b. c. d. Shift from known point method Grid coordinate method Sun spot method Radar method

Item 17

Which of the following lists the four types of fire missions? a. b. c. d. Artillery, air support, mortar and naval gunfire Army, Navy, and Air Force Adjust fire, fire for effect, suppression and immediate suppression HE, Smoke, WP and DPICM
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 18

Through 21

Matching: For items 18 through 21, place the letter of the description in column 2 that best matches the type of fire mission in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Type of Fire Mission ___18. ___19. ___20. ___21. Adjust fire Fire for effect Suppression Immediate suppression Column 2 Description a. Fire on a planned target b. If your target location is accurate enough your first rounds have an effect on target c. Require spotting rounds d. Fire on a planned target that is engaging friendly forces

Item 22

Which of the following lists the six elements of a call-for-fire? a. Observer identification, warning order, target location, target description, method of engagement, method of fire and control b. Observer identification, type of fire mission, target location, target description, type of ammunition, and method of control c. Begin planning, arrange recon, make recon, complete the plan, issue, and supervise d. Higher unit, supported unit, type of fire mission, target location, number of rounds, and time on target
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-6

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Items 23 Through 25

Matching: For items 23 through 25, place the letter of the element of a callfor-fire transmission in column 2 that occurs in the segment identified in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Segment of Call-for-fire Transmission ___23. ___24. ___25. First transmission Second transmission Third transmission Column 2 Element of Call-for-fire Transmission a. b. c. d. Target location Target description Warning order EOM

Item 26

What are the contents of a message to observer? a. b. c. d. How targets will be attacked, if time permits Unit of fire Types of weapons available Local weather report

Item 27

Which of the following artillery shells contains shape-charged grenades? a. b. c. d. HE WP DPICM Illumination

Item 28

Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps to conduct spotting? a. Binos eye level, sight burst with naked eye, raise binos, spot range then deviation. b. Sight burst with naked eye, spot range then deviation, check with binos. c. Binos eye level, sight burst with naked eye, raise binos, spot deviation then range. d. Use binos to spot burst, measure mil range, compare against map.
Continued on next page

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R-7

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 29

Which of the following are the two elements of an adjustment? a. b. c. d. Bracketing and creeping OT direction and range Lateral adjustment and range adjustment Over and short

Items 30

To determine lateral corrections you must convert a. b. c. d. mils to yards. meters to mils. mils to meters meters to yards.

Item 31

Which are the two methods for adjusting for range? a. b. c. d. OT direction and shift Over and short Bracketing and creeping Add and drop

Item 32

What are the steps to adjust rounds onto targets using bracketing? a. Determine target location, use 100m or less increments, get rounds within 50 meters, FFE b. After initial round, add/drop enough range to place a round on the opposite side of the target, continue to split bracket in half c. After initial round, move round left/right to place a round on the opposite side of the target, continue to split bracket in half d. After initial round, adjust graze/air to place round at appropriate height, continue to adjust, FFE
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-8

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 33

What are the steps to creep adjust rounds onto a target? a. Determine target location, use 100m or less increments, get rounds within 50 meters, announce danger close, FFE b. Determine target location, announce danger close, use 100m or less increments, get rounds within 50 meters, FFE c. Announce danger close, bracket, get rounds within 50 meters, FFE d. Use 100m or less increments to bracket target, then creep rounds to within 50 meters, announce danger close, FFE

Items 34

Which is a subsequent correction? a. b. c. d. BDA Illumination WERM Danger Close

Item 35

What is the content of an EOM communication? a. b. c. d. OT direction and FO End of mission and battle damage assessment Quit shooting and return to rear Do not load and FFE

Item 36

Which step in evaluating a casualty involves gently shaking or tapping the casualty while asking, “Are you okay”? a. b. c. d. Check for recognition Check for responsiveness Check for breathing Check for bleeding
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-9

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 37

Which step in evaluating a casualty involves checking for cuts or bruises in the neck or back area and unusual body or limb position? a. b. c. d. Check for breathing Check for injuries Check for fractures Check for flexibility

Item 38

Which items are the two vital functions of the body? a. b. c. d. Respiration and circulation Expansion and contraction Inhalation and exhalation Aerobic and anaerobic

Item 39

Which adverse condition of the body involves an inadequate flow of blood to vital tissues and organs and if left untreated can result in death? a. b. c. d. Bleeding Infection Shock Lack of oxygen

Items 40

Which basic life saving measure if not treated can lead to brain damage or death within a few minuets? a. b. c. d. Restore the breathing Protect the wound Stop the bleeding Treat for shock
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-10

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 41

Which technique is best for opening a blocked airway of a casualty with a neck injury or severe head trauma? a. b. c. d. Head-tilt/chin-lift Abdominal thrusts Jaw-thrust Chest compressions

Item 42

Which type of bleeding is characterized by the oozing of blood, usually from minor wounds? a. b. c. d. Capillary Arterial Venous Free flowing

Item 43

Which method of controlling external bleeding must be applied only after all other measures have failed? a. b. c. d. Direct pressure Pressure dressing Field dressing Tourniquet

Items 44

Which is a step for protecting the wound? a. b. c. d. Remove any clothing that is stuck in the wound. Remove any objects lodged or protruding from the wound Wash or clean large wounds with an antiseptic Elevate the injured area and apply a warm wet dressing
Continued on next page

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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 45

Which of the following types of wounds are torn rather than cut, have ragged, irregular edges and masses of torn tissue underneath? a. b. c. d. Avulsions Abrasions Lacerations Punctures

Item 46

Which of the following may cause trauma to the body that results in shock? a. b. c. d. Asphyxiation Poor circulation Dehydration Electric charge

Item 47

Which casualty evacuation precedence must be moved immediately to save life, limb, or prevent complication of serious illness? a. b. c. d. Immediate Express Urgent Priority

Item 48

Which of the following information is required in a MEDEVAC request? a. b. c. d. Rounds per man Pickup coordinates Checkpoints and passwords Key terrain

Item 49

Which information is given in a landing zone brief? a. b. c. d. Wind direction/velocity Left and right lateral limits Rounds per man Aircraft serial number
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-12

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 50

When preparing a casualty for movement, which of the following measures must be used to evaluate the casualty’s injuries? a. b. c. d. Remove excess bandages to allow for circulation Elevate the upper torso to allow blood flow to the wounds Prevent or control shock Replace any objects protruding from the wound

Item 51

Litter bearers must adhere to which of the following rules when transporting a casualty? a. b. c. d. Maintain a safe distance between litter bearers. Work in unison with other bearers, using deliberate, gradual movements. Use hand and arm signals to communicate with other bearers. Travel to the right of any oncoming traffic.

Item 52

Which of the following factors limits the distance a casualty may be carried by manual transport? a. b. c. d. The number of litters available. The nature of the injuries. The amount of experienced corpsman available. The rank of the casualty.

Item 53

Which one-man carry is best for distances over 300 meters? a. b. c. d. Supporting carry Pack-Strap carry Pistol-belt carry Arms carry
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-13

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 54

Which two-man carry is best for transporting a casualty for a short distance (up to 50 meters)? a. b. c. d. Two-hand Seat carry Two-man Fore and Aft carry Four-hand seat carry Two-man Support carry

Item 55

Which type of litter is useful for evacuating casualties from ships and mountainous areas? a. b. c. d. Standard litter Improvised litter Pole-less semi-rigid litter Aluminum litter

Item 56

During which of the five Ss is it important to have a cover man? a. b. c. d. Search Segregate Speed Silence

Item 57

Separating which two groups of EPWs will cut down on confusion of the initial capture of prisoners? a. b. c. d. By MOS Sex and rank By unit Injured and healthy
Continued on next page

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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Item 58

Which of the following lists all the groups for segregation of EPWs? a. b. c. d. Wounded, females, commissioned officers, and civilians Commissioned officers, enlisted, and civilians Officers, NCOs, civilians, and injured Females, commissioned officers, NCOs, enlisted, and civilians

Item 59

Maintaining control of EPWs and restricting their communication to other prisoners is a means to a. b. c. d. secure. speed. scare. silence.

Item 60

Which of the five Ss entails quick processing of EPWs and getting them to the rear? a. b. c. d. Search Speed Segregate Silence

Item 61

During which part of the five Ss is direct supervision in place so that it is done thoroughly? a. b. c. d. Search Segregate Speed Safeguard
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-15

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 62

Which of the following items must be returned to EPWs? a. b. c. d. Classified documents Field protective mask Maps with enemy locations Explosives
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-16

Review Lesson Examination

Review Exercise

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Answer d b b a c d c b a b a c d c d b c c b a d a c a b b c a c c c b b Reference Page 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-15 1-15 1-17 1-18 1-18 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-13 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-18 2-20 2-29 2-30 2-31 2-33 2-33 2-35
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8016A

R-17

Review Lesson Examination

Review Exercise, Continued
Answers, continued

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

d b b c a c a c a d d c c c b a c b b c a c a b d d b d b

2-36 2-38 3-4 3-10 3-13 3-16 3-22 3-27 3-42 3-51 3-57 3-60 3-62 3-71 3-72 3-73 3-80 3-81 3-82 3-91 3-101 3-108 3-122 3-123 3-123 3-124 3-124 3-124 3-124

MCI Course 8016A

R-18

Review Lesson Examination