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07-Nov-13

H23 P01 : PAVEMENT ENGINEERING

Mineral Properties
An aggregates mineral composition largely determines its physical characteristics & how it behaves as a pavement material. Therefore, when selecting an aggregate source, knowledge of the quarry rocks mineral properties can provide an excellent clue as to the suitability of the resulting aggregate. The following slide shows some general guidelines for aggregate used in HMA. In general, relationships between mineral & physical properties are quite complex, making it difficult to accurately predict how a particular aggregate source will behave based on mineral properties alone.

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering

Goh Boon Hoe


Senior University Teaching Fellow Boon-Hoe.Goh@nottingham.edu.my Tel. (office) : 6(03) 8924 8182 Room B1C20
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Aggregate

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Contents
Aggregate Sources o Mineral Properties o Chemical Properties Stripping o Physical Properties Gradation & Size Toughness & Abrasion Resistance Durability & Soundness Particle Shape & Surface Texture Specific Gravity Cleanliness & Deleterious Materials

Mineral Properties (continued)


Desirable Properties of Rocks for HMA

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Introduction
Aggregate is a collective term for the mineral materials such as sand, gravel & crushed stone that are used with a binding medium (such as water, bitumen, portland cement, lime, etc.) to form compound materials (such as Asphalt Concrete & Portland cement concrete). By volume, aggregate generally accounts for 92 96% of hot mix asphalt (HMA) & about 70 80 % of Portland cement concrete (PCC). Aggregate is also used for base & subbase courses for both flexible & rigid pavements. Aggregates can either be natural or manufactured. Natural aggregates are generally extracted from larger rock formations through an open excavation (quarry). Extracted rock is typically reduced to usable sizes by mechanical crushing. Manufactured aggregate is often the byproduct of other manufacturing industries.
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Chemical Properties
In HMA, aggregate surface chemistry can determine how well an asphalt cement binder will adhere to an aggregate surface. Poor adherence, commonly referred to as stripping, can cause premature structural failure. In PCC, aggregates containing reactive forms of silica can react expansively with the alkalis contained in the cement paste. This expansion can cause cracking, surface popouts & spalling. Note that some aggregate chemical properties can change over time, especially after the aggregate is crushed. A newly crushed aggregate may display a different affinity for water than the same aggregate that has been crushed & left in a stockpile for a year.
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Stripping (for HMA)


Although the displacement of asphalt on the aggregate particle surface by water (stripping) is a complex phenomena & is not yet fully understood, mineralogy & chemical composition of the aggregate have been established as important contributing factors. In general, some aggregates have an affinity for water over asphalt (hydrophilic). These aggregates tend to be acidic & suffer from stripping after exposure to water. On the other hand, some aggregates have an affinity for asphalt over water (hydrophobic). These aggregates tend to be basic & do not suffer from stripping problems. Additionally, an aggregates surface change when in contact with water will affect its adhesion to asphalt cement & its susceptibility to moisture damage. In sum, aggregate surface chemistry seems to be an important factor in stripping. However, specific cause-effect relationships are still being established.
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Gradation and Size


The particle size distribution (also named as gradation), of an aggregate is one of the most influential aggregate characteristics in determining how it will perform as a pavement material. In HMA, gradation helps determine almost every important property including stiffness, stability, durability, permeability, workability, fatigue resistance, frictional resistance & resistance to moisture damage.

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Physical Properties
Aggregate physical properties are the most readily apparent aggregate properties & they also have the most direct effect on how an aggregate performs as either a pavement material constituent or by itself as a base or subbase material. Commonly measured physical aggregate properties are: 1) Gradation & size 2) Toughness & abrasion resistance 3) Durability & soundness 4) Particle shape & surface texture 5) Specific gravity (particle density) 6) Cleanliness & deleterious materials

Gradation and Size (continued)


Standard Sieve Number and Opening (ASTM standard)
ASTM Sieve 2 Inches 1 Inches 1 Inch Inch Inch 3/8 Inch No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No. 30 No. 50 No. 100 No. 200 Opening (mm) 50.80 37.5 25.40 19.00 12.50 9.50 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.60 0.30 0.15 0.075
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Physical Properties (continued)


These are not the only physical properties of aggregates but rather the most commonly measured. Tests used to quantify these properties are largely empirical. The physical properties of an aggregate can change over time. For instance, a newly crushed aggregate may contain more dust & thus be less receptive to binding with an asphalt binder than one that has been crushed & stored in a stockpile for a year.

Maximum Aggregate Size


Maximum aggregate size can affect HMA, PCC & base/subbase courses in several ways. In HMA, instability may result from excessively small maximum sizes; & poor workability and/or segregation may result from excessively large maximum sizes. ASTM C 125 defines the maximum aggregate size in one of two ways: o Maximum size. The smallest sieve through which 100 % of the aggregate sample particles pass. o Nominal maximum size. The largest sieve that retains some of the aggregate particles but generally not more than 10 % by weight (Size indicated in specification). Thus, it is important to specify whether "maximum size" or "nominal maximum size" is being referenced.
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Maximum Aggregate Size (continued)


ASTM Sieve (19 mm) (12.5 mm) 3/8 (9.5 mm) No. 4 (4.75 mm) No. 8 (2.36 mm) No. 16 (1.18 mm) No. 30 (0.6 mm) No. 50 (0.3 mm) No. 100 (0.15 mm) No. 200 (0.075 mm) Pan
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Gradation Test (continued)


% Passing 100 % 100 % 95.7 % 88 % 75.4 % 62 % 44.9 % 26 % 9.9 % 2% 0% FHWA 0.45 Power Graph (for HMA)
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% Retained 0%
Maximum Size Nominal Maximum Size

0% 4.3 % 7.7 % 12.6 % 13.4 % 17.1 % 18.9 % 16.1 % 7.9 % 2%

TOTAL = 100%

Gradation Test
The gradation of a particular aggregate is most often determined by a sieve analysis. In a sieve analysis, a sample of dry aggregate of known weight is separated through a series of sieves with progressively smaller openings. Once separated, the weight of particles retained on each sieve is measured & compared to the total sample weight. Particle size distribution is then expressed as a percent retained by weight on each sieve size. Results are usually expressed in tabular or graphical format. PCC gradation graphs are traditionally semilogarithmic (BS standard), while HMA graphs often employ the standard 0.45 power gradation graph (ASTM Standard).

Gradation Test (continued)


The previous slides show the typical gradation graphs, note that sieve sizes are presented from smallest to largest, left to right. The number & size of the sieves used in a sieve analysis depend upon specification requirements. For PCC, aggregate is typically classified as either "coarse" or "fine". Coarse aggregate is generally the fraction retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve while fine aggregate is the fraction passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve.

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Gradation Test (continued)

Desired Gradation
Gradation has a profound effect on material performance. But what is the best gradation? o This is a complicated question, the answer to which will vary depending upon the material (HMA or PCC), its desired characteristics, loading, environmental, material, structural & mix property inputs. Therefore, gradation requirements for specific HMA & PCC mixes are discussed in their respective pavement type sections. This section presents some basic guidelines applicable to common dense-graded mixes. It might be reasonable to believe that the best gradation is one that produces the maximum density. This would involve a particle arrangement where smaller particles are packed between the larger particles, which reduces the void space between particles.

Logarithmic Graph (for PCC)


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Desired Gradation (continued)


This creates more particle-to-particle contact, which in HMA would increase stability & reduce water infiltration. In PCC, this reduced void space reduces the amount of cement paste required. However, some minimum amount of void space is necessary to: o Provide adequate volume for the binder (asphalt binder or portland cement) to occupy. o Promote rapid drainage & resistance to frost action for base & subbase courses. Therefore, although it may not be the "best" aggregate gradation, a maximum density gradation does provide a common reference.
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The 0.45 Power Maximum Density Curve (continued)

Maximum Density Curves for 0.45 Power Gradation Graph (each curve is for a different maximum aggregate size)
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Desired Gradation (continued)


A widely used equation to describe a maximum density gradation was developed by Fuller & Thompson (1907). Their basic equation is:

The 0.45 Power Maximum Density Curve (continued)


Calculations for a 0.45 Power Gradation Curve Using 19.0-mm (0.75-inch) Maximum Aggregate Size

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The 0.45 Power Maximum Density Curve


In the early 1960s, the FHWA introduced the standard gradation graph used in the HMA industry today. This graph uses n = 0.45 & is convenient for determining the maximum density line & adjusting gradation. This graph is slightly different than other gradation graphs because it uses the sieve size raised to the nth power (usually 0.45) as the x-axis units. Thus, n = 0.45 appears as a straight diagonal line. The maximum density line appears as a straight line from zero to the maximum aggregate size for the mixture being considered. To illustrate how the maximum density curves are determined, see the following slide for the associated calculations for a maximum aggregate size of 19.0 mm.

Gradation Terminology

FHWA Gradation Graph Showing Representative Gradations


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Gradation Terminology (continued)


1) Dense or well-graded o Refers to a gradation that is near the FHWAs 0.45 power curve for maximum density. Typical gradations are near the 0.45 power curve but not right on it. o Generally, a true maximum density gradation (exactly on the 0.45 power curve) would result in unacceptably low VMA. 2) Gap graded o Refers to a gradation that contains only a small percentage of aggregate particles in the mid-size range. o The curve is flat in the mid-size range. o Some PCC mix designs use gap graded aggregate to provide a more economical mix since less sand can be used for a given workability. o HMA gap graded mixes can be prone to segregation during placement.
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Toughness and Abrasion Resistance


Aggregates undergo substantial wear & tear throughout their life. In general, they should be hard & tough enough to resist crushing, degradation & disintegration from any associated activities including manufacturing, stockpiling, production, placing, compaction (in the case of HMA) & consolidation (in the case of PCC). Furthermore, they must be able to adequately transmit loads from the pavement surface to the underlying layers (& eventually the subgrade). Aggregates not adequately resistant to abrasion & polishing will cause premature structural failure and/or a loss of skid resistance.

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Gradation Terminology (continued)


3) Open graded o Refers to a gradation that contains only a small percentage of aggregate particles in the small range. o This results in more air voids because there are not enough small particles to fill in the voids between the larger particles. o The curve is near vertical in the mid-size range, and flat and near-zero in the small-size range. 4) Uniformly graded o Refers to a gradation that contains most of the particles in a very narrow size range. o In essence, all the particles are the same size. o The curve is steep & only occupies the narrow size range specified.
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Toughness and Abrasion Resistance (continued)


Common tests are ; 1) Los Angeles Abrasion test (ASTM C131) 2) Aggregate Impact Test (BS 812 : Part III) 3) Aggregate Crushing Test (BS 812 : Part III) 4) Ten percent fines (BS 812 : Part III) 5) Aggregate Polishing Test (BS 812 : Part III)

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Gradation Terminology (continued)


5) Fine gradation o A gradation that, when plotted on the 0.45 power gradation graph, falls mostly above the 0.45 power maximum density line. o The term generally applies to dense graded aggregate. 6) Coarse gradation o A gradation that, when plotted on the 0.45 power gradation graph, falls mostly below the 0.45 power maximum density line. o The term generally applies to dense graded aggregate.

Los Angeles Abrasion Test


For the L.A. abrasion test, the portion of an aggregate sample retained on the 1.70 mm (No. 12) sieve is placed in a large rotating drum that contains a shelf plate attached to the outer wall. A specified number of steel spheres are then placed in the machine & the drum is rotated for 500 revolutions at a speed of 30 33 revolutions per minute (RPM).

Los Angles Abrasion Test Apparatus


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Los Angeles Abrasion Test (continued)


The material is then extracted & separated into material passing the 1.70 mm (No. 12) sieve & material retained on the 1.70 mm (No. 12) sieve. The retained material (larger particles) is then weighed & compared to the original sample weight. The difference in weight is reported as a percent of the original weight & called the "percent loss". Aggregate with high L.A. abrasion loss values will tend to create dust during production & handling, which may produce environmental & mixture control problems.

Aggregate Crushing Test


One of the modes in which a pavement material can fail is by crushing under severe stresses. This test consist of subjecting the specimen of aggregate in a standard mould to a compression test under standard loading conditions. Dry aggregates passing through 12.5 mm sieve & retained on 10 mm sieve are filled in a cylindrical measure 11.5 cm diameter & 18 cm high, in 3 layers, each layer being tamped with a standard rod 25 times.
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Aggregate Crushing Test Apparatus

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Aggregate Impact Test


This test is designed to evaluate the resistance of an aggregate to sudden impact. Since vehicle loads cause impact, this test gives an indication of the performance of aggregates to resist crushing under impact. The test consists of subjecting a sample (passing 12.5 mm sieve & retained on 10 mm sieve) filled into a cylindrical mould 7.5 cm internal diameter & 5 cm height. The impact is provided by dropping a hammer of weight 13.5 kg through a height of 38 cm.
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Aggregate Crushing Test (continued)


The sample is then transferred to the cup of the aggregate crushing testing machine & tapped 25 times with the rod. The specimen is subjected a compressive load of 400 kN gradually applied in 10 times. The material passing through 2.36 mm sieve is separated. The weight of this material (fines) is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the total sample gives the Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV). A value of less than 10 signifies an exceptionally strong aggregate, while above 30 would normally be regarded as of weak aggregate.

Aggregate Impact Test Equipment


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Aggregate Impact Test (continued)


Aggregates passing fully through 12.5 mm sieve & retained on 10 mm sieve are filled in the cylindrical measure in 3 layers, each layer being given 25 strokes with a rod. The sample is then transferred to the cup of the aggregate impact testing machine & tapped 25 times with the rod. After subjecting the specimen to 15 blows through the hammer, the crushed aggregate is sieved on 2.36 mm sieve. The weight materials passing through this sieve expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gives the Aggregate Impact Value (AIV).

Ten Percent Fines


This is normally is carried out after the aggregate impact & crushing tests. The purpose of this test is to determine the force required to produce the 10% fines value.

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Aggregate Polishing Test


The resistance of aggregates to polishing under traffic determines it skid resistance. The standard method for testing is to embed the aggregates in a curved mould in cement-sand mortar & subject the sample to accelerated polishing caused by a rotating pneumatic wheel. The specimens are mounted on a circular frame 40 cm diameter. The size of each specimen is 45 mm wide x 90.5 mm long.
Accelerated Polishing Machine
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Aggregate Polishing Test (continued)


The specimen directly measures the Polishing Stone Value (PSV) on a graduated scale.

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Aggregate Polishing Test (continued)

Durability and Soundness


Aggregates must be resistant to breakdown & disintegration from weathering (wetting/drying & freezing/thawing) or they may break apart & cause premature pavement distress. Durability & soundness are terms typically given to an aggregates weathering resistance characteristic. Aggregates used in HMA are dried in the production process & therefore should contain almost no water. Thus, for aggregate used in HMA, freezing / thawing should not be a significant problem. However, this is not true for aggregate used in PCC or as base and/or subbase courses. These aggregates typically contain some water (on the order of 0.1% to 3% usually) & are not dried prior to use. Soundness test (ASTM C88) is used to determine the soundness loss of the aggregate.

Road Wheel & Samples

The rubber wheel is 20 cm diameter & 5 cm broad, loaded with 40 kg load at a tire pressure of 3.15 0.15 kg/cm2. Sand & water are fed to the machine when its rotated at an RPM of 320 325 for 3 hours 13 minutes. The specimens are thereafter tested for their polishing value on a British portable pendulum tester.
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Aggregate Polishing Test (continued)


This machine consists of a rubber sliding shoe which is mounted at the end of a pendulum. The slider, when released, brushes past the specimen & comes to a halt.

Durability and Soundness (continued)


The most common soundness test involves repeatedly submerging an aggregate sample in a saturated solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate. This process causes salt crystals to form in the aggregate pores, which simulate ice crystal formation.

British Portable Pendulum Tester


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Aggregate Before Soundness Test

Aggregate After Soundness Test


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Durability and Soundness (continued)


The basic procedure is as follows : o Oven dry the sample & separate it into specific sieve sizes. o Immerse the sample in a saturated solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate & let it remain at a constant temperature for 18 hours. o Remove the sample from the solution & dry to a constant weight at 110 5oC (230 9oF). o Repeat this cycle five times. o Wash the sample to remove the salt; then dry. o Determine the loss in weight for each specific sieve size & compute a weighted average percent loss for the entire sample. The maximum loss values typically range from 10 20 percent for every five cycles.
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Particle Shape and Surface Texture (continued)


2) Flat or Elongated particles These particles tend to impede compaction or break during compaction & thus, may decrease strength. 3) Smooth-surfaced particles These particles have a lower surface-to-volume ratio than rough-surfaced particles & thus may be easier to coat with binder. However, in HMA asphalt tends to bond more effectively with rough-surfaced particles, & in PCC rough-surfaced particles provide more area to which the cement paste can bond. Thus, rough-surface particles are desirable for both HMA & PCC
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Particle Shape and Surface Texture


Particle shape & surface texture are important for proper compaction, deformation resistance, HMA & PCC workability. However, the ideal shape for HMA & PCC is different because aggregates serve different purposes in each material. In HMA, since aggregates are relied upon to provide stiffness & strength by interlocking with one another, cubic angularshaped particles with a rough surface texture are best. However, in PCC, where aggregates are used as an inexpensive high-strength material to occupy volume, workability is the major issue regarding particle shape. Therefore, in PCC rounded particles are better.

Particle Shape and Surface Texture (continued)


There are several common tests used to identify & quantify aggregate particle shape & surface texture. Among the most popular are ; 1) Angularity number (BS 812 : Part I) 2) Flakiness and elongation tests (BS 812 : Part III) 3) Others test (for Superpave technology) Particle index (ASTM D 3398) Coarse aggregate angularity / Percent fractured face (ASTM D 5821) Fine aggregate angularity (AASHTO T304 & ASTM C1252) Flat or Elongated Particles (ASTM D 4791)

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Particle Shape and Surface Texture (continued)


Relevant particle shape / texture characteristics are : 1) Particle shape Rounded particles create less particle-to-particle interlock than angular particles & thus provide better workability & easier compaction. However, in HMA less interlock is generally a disadvantage as rounded aggregate will continue to compact, shove & rut after construction. Thus angular particles are desirable for HMA (despite their poorer workability), while rounded particles are desirable for PCC because of their better workability (although particle smoothness will not appreciably affect strength).

Angularity Number
The angularity of an aggregate can be estimated indirectly from the fact that the degree of packing of particles of the same size, compacted in a specified way, depends on the shape. The angularity number of an aggregate is the difference by which the percentage void exceed 33 after being compacted in a prescribed manner. If one conducts a test on the most rounded gravel, 67% of the volume of the vessel is filled by the solid volume of aggregate. The percentage voids will then be 33, making the angularity number zero, as per definition. The higher the number, the more angular the aggregate, the usual range being 0 11. The apparatus for testing the angularity number consists of a metal cylinder of capacity 3 liter, tamping rod & a metal scoop. The test is sieved & a specified size range of the sample is used for the test.
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Angularity Number (continued)


A scoop full of this single size aggregate is placed in a cylinder & tamped 100 times. A 2nd & 3rd layers are placed & tamped similarly & the excess aggregate is struck off level to the top surface of the cylinder. The weight of aggregate is found (W). Then the cylinder is emptied & weight of water filing the cylinder is found (C). The specific gravity of aggregate also determined (GA).

Specific Gravity
Aggregate specific gravity is useful in making weight-volume conversions & in calculating the void content in compacted HMA. In general, specific gravity & water absorption tests are conducted together. The specific gravity of aggregates is an indirect measure of its strength. The higher the specific gravity, the denser the rock is & stronger is the aggregate. Water absorption depends on the pores & voids in the rock. The more water absorption, the higher the voids. Generally, there are 3 different aggregate specific gravities used in association with pavements: 1) Bulk specific gravity 2) Apparent specific gravity 3) Effective specific gravity
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Flakiness and Elongation Tests


These tests are conducted on coarse aggregates to assess the shape of aggregate. Aggregates which are flaky or elongated are detrimental to the higher workability & stability of mixes. They are not conductive to good interlocking & hence the mixes with an excess of such particles are difficult to compact to the required degree.

Specific Gravity (continued)


Vpp Vap Vpp Vap

Vs

Metal thickness & length gauges

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Flakiness and Elongation Tests (continued)


The flakiness index is defined as the percentage by weight of aggregate particles whose least dimension is less than 0.6 of their mean size. The elongation index of aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one & four-fifths times their mean dimension. Both tests are not applicable to aggregates smaller than 6.3 mm.

Specific Gravity (continued)

Apparent Specific Gravity (Gsa) o Includes only the volume of the aggregate particle. o It does not include the void volume that becomes filled with water during the test soak period. o Ideally, it would not include any void volume but in reality some voids may not become entirely filled with water during the test soak period. o The void volume that does not become filled with water is thus counted with the solid volume. o Since it is intended to only measure the specific gravity of the solid volume, it will be the highest of the 3 aggregate specific gravities.
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Specific Gravity (continued)

Specific Gravity & Absorption of Coarse Aggregate (continued) Approximately 5 kg of thoroughly washed aggregate retained on a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve is oven-dried to a constant weight. The dried sample is then immersed in water for 24 hours. The aggregate is removed from the water, drained, & surfacedried until all visible films of water are removed (The surfaces will still appear damp). The weight of the sample in the surface-dry condition is then obtained & recorded as B.
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Bulk Specific Gravity (Gsb) o Includes the volume of the aggregate particle plus the void volume that becomes filled with water during the test soak period. o Since it includes the void volume, bulk specific gravity will be less than apparent specific gravity. o It is very important to measure Gsb as accurately as possible. o Since it is used to convert weight measurements to volumes, any small errors in Gsb will be reflected in significant volume errors, which may go undetected.
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Buoyancy Balance & Wire Basket

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Specific Gravity (continued)

Specific Gravity & Absorption of Coarse Aggregate (continued) The saturated surface-dry sample is placed in a wire basket, submerged in water, & the submerged weight determined & recorded as C. The sample is then removed from the water, dried & placed in an oven & dried to a constant weight. The oven-dried weight is recorded as A.

Effective Specific Gravity (Gse) o Typically used with HMA. o The ratio of the mass in air of a unit volume of a permeable material (excluding voids permeable to asphalt) at a stated temperature to the mass in air (of equal density) of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature. o Gse includes the volume of the aggregate particle plus the void volume that becomes filled with water during the test soak period minus the volume of the voids that absorb asphalt. o Effective specific gravity lies between apparent & bulk specific gravity.
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Specific Gravity (continued)


Specific gravity & absorption tests can be carried out for both; 1) Coarse aggregate (AASHTO T85 & ASTM C127) 2) Fine aggregate (AASHTO T84 & ASTM C128)

Specific Gravity & Absorption of Coarse Aggregate (continued) The specific gravity & absorption are calculated as follows:

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Specific Gravity & Absorption of Fine Aggregate


The flask (pycnometer) to be used to measure specific gravity is filled with water & the weight recorded as B. Approximately 1,000 g of fine aggregate is oven-dried to a constant weight. The dried sample is then immersed in water for 24 hours. The fine aggregate is spread on a clean flat surface & exposed to a gently moving current of warm air until a saturated surface dry condition is achieved. A saturated surface-dry condition is reached at the moisture content at which the lightly compacted material in a cone 1st slumps when cone is removed. The aggregate has some cohesion as long as there is surface moisture but has no cohesion when the surface moisture evaporate; hence, the fine aggregate slumps when the cone is removed.

Cleanliness & Deleterious Materials


Aggregates must be relatively clean when used in HMA or PCC. Vegetation, soft particles, clay lumps, excess dust & vegetable matter are not desirable because they generally affect performance by quickly degrading, which causes a loss of structural support and/or prevents binder-aggregate bonding. Tests commonly carried out are; 1) Tests for Deleterious Materials: Sand Equivalent 2) Tests for Deleterious Materials: Clay Lumps & Friable Particles

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Specific Gravity & Absorption of Fine Aggregate (continued)


The cone test must be repeated several times to ensure that the highest moisture content (saturation) at which the aggregate will slump is determined. Approximately a 500 g sample of the saturated surface dry material is placed in the flask & the actual weight of the sample recorded as D. The flask is then filled with water, using a specified procedure, & the weight recorded as C. The fine aggregate is removed from the flask, oven-dried to a constant weight, & the weight recorded as A.

Sand Equivalent
The sand equivalent test is a rapid field test to show the relative proportions of fine dust or claylike materials in aggregate (or soils). A sample of aggregate passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve & a small amount of flocculating solution are poured into a graduated cylinder & are agitated to loosen the claylike coatings from the sand particles. The sample is then irrigated with additional flocculation solution forcing the claylike material into suspension above the sand. After a prescribed sedimentation period, the height of flocculated clay & height of sand are determined.

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Specific Gravity & Absorption of Fine Aggregate (continued)


The specific gravity & absorption are calculated as follows:

Sand Equivalent (continued)


The sand equivalent is determined from the following equation. Cleaner aggregates will have higher sand equivalent values. Agencies often specify a minimum sand equivalent around 25 to 35

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Clay Lumps & Friable Particle


To test for clay lumps or friable particles, a sample is first washed & dried to remove material passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve. The remaining sample is separated into different sizes & each size is weighed & soaked in water for 24 hours. Particles that can be broken down into fines with fingers are classified as clay lumps or friable material. The amount of this material is calculated by percentage of total sample weight. Specifications usually limit clay & friable particles to a maximum of 1%.

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The End THANK YOU

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