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Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice
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Kinaesthetic change in the professional development of Dance Movement Therapy trainees
Dita Judith Federman
a a

Dance Movement Therapy, Graduate School of Creative Art Therapies, University of Haifa, Israel Published online: 18 Feb 2011.

To cite this article: Dita Judith Federman (2011) Kinaesthetic change in the professional development of Dance Movement Therapy trainees, Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice, 6:3, 195-214, DOI: 10.1080/17432979.2010.545190 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17432979.2010.545190

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Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy Vol. 6, No. 3, December 2011, 195–214

Kinaesthetic change in the professional development of Dance Movement Therapy trainees
Dita Judith Federman*
Dance Movement Therapy, Graduate School of Creative Art Therapies, University of Haifa, Israel (Received 18 December 2009; final version received 2 January 2011)

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The present study investigates changes in kinaesthetic ability among Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) trainees, as compared to Art Therapy trainees. A field study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pre-post group design. Participants were 42 graduate students. Kinaesthetic ability was evaluated using a table of movement dimensions, based on Laban Movement Analysis (LMA). Tutor evaluation was also included. Results indicated an increase among the DMT group in all areas of kinaesthetic ability. No change was found among the Art Therapy students. The particular combination of therapeutic elements and movement experience in DMT training may be the basis for changes in kinaesthesia. The study resulted in the development of an easy-to-use movement assessment tool based on LMA. Keywords: change; Dance Movement Therapy/psychotherapy; kinaesthesia; movement; training

Introduction This study focuses on changes in kinaesthetic ability in a group of DMT and Art Therapy trainees. Both DMT and Art Therapy are therapeutically oriented programmes. DMT, in addition, focuses on kinaesthetic ability for selfexpression and communication. The different programmes serve as different field contexts for studying change in kinaesthetic ability. This study may contribute to knowledge regarding changes in kinaesthetic ability in a DMT programme. This unique study is measuring change in 39 dimensions of kinaesthetic ability. Few studies have been conducted on DMT trainees (Goodman & Holroyd, 1993; Payne, 1996, 2001). Other studies have examined changes in movement among clinical and non-clinical populations (e.g., Fraenkel, 1983; Koch, 2007). The present study examines a large number of movement dimensions among DMT trainees during the training process. Most studies use
*Email: dfederman@univ.haifa.ac.il
ISSN 1743–2979 print/ISSN 1743–2987 online ß 2011 Taylor & Francis http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17432979.2010.545190 http://www.tandfonline.com

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qualitative methodology (Forinash, 2004; Payne, 2001) whereas this study uses quantitative methodology to examine change in a wide range of movement qualities. Kinaesthetic ability refers to the conscious perception, balance, and movement of the body (Stillman, 2002). Kinesis involves movement and aesthesis implies perception, or the direction and sensation of movement. The kinaesthetic experience entails the processing of proprioceptive information, derived mainly from muscle spindles and joints (Maschke, Gomez, Tuite, & Konezak, 2003). It refers to the ability to comprehend and respond to this information in movement. The sensory functions, collectively termed ‘proprioception’ (proprioceptive sensation or kinaesthesia), involve awareness of the spatial and mechanical status of the musculoskeletal framework.

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Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) DMT is one of the relatively young expressive Arts Therapies that utilises expressive movement and dance as a vehicle through which an individual can engage in the process of personal integration and growth. It is founded on the principle that a relationship exists between motion and emotion (Payne, 1992). DMT is the therapeutic use of movement, in which the therapist observes and responds to the physical movement of the other person, in order to access deep emotional content. Treatment through DMT rests on the conviction that changes in movement patterns can result in psychic change, and psychic change influences the patterns of movement and the posture of the body. The body in DMT serves as the therapeutic tool, much like words in verbal psychotherapy or the brush and paper in Art Therapy. Thus, the development of this basic therapeutic tool, i.e. kinaesthetic ability, is essential for both expressing and receiving the other. In order to feel emotions like empathy, the bodily channel between therapist and client–patient must be open. Dance movement therapy combines verbal and non-verbal communication; it enables the expression of feelings and participation in meaningful human relationships (Chaiklin, 1975a). The dance movement therapist works not only with specific movements, like those in the steps of a dance, but with the quality or dynamics of movement (timing, intensity, shape, direction, bound or free aspects, degree and type of flow, centrality or peripherality, and so on) (Bradley, 2000; Damasio, 1999; Le Doux, 1996; 1998; Lumsden, 2002; Schore, 1994). ‘Movement dynamics’ is a term coined by Rudolf Laban. Laban (1960) maintained that movement effort is closely related to intention and emotion. The DMT training programme at Haifa University uses the learner-centred, experiential learning approach described by Kolb (1984). The programme combines psychoanalytical thinking with the phenomenological concept of watching and analysing movement. The principles of Movement Therapy emerge from a deep understanding of the body, movement, group processes, and individual emotional needs. Emphasis is given to supervision in small groups, individual supervision, and supervision-on-supervision for field supervisors. The learning experience of this training is comprised of theoretical and

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methodological studies, experiential workshops, clinical practicum, supervision, and tutorials. Students engage in creative movement, in sharing the story of their bodies, and in witnessing other members of the group. The Art Therapy training programme uses a similar conceptual basis for analysing drawings, sculptures, etc. as well as group process and supervision. Thus, both DMT and Art Therapy use group work in training as well as in therapy. In both areas, change occurs within a group context. The training of dance movement therapists frequently uses a group format. As DMT is a type of therapy that relies heavily on improvised movement, it is important to create a group atmosphere of safety and security (Lumsden, 2002; Payne, 2001). This encourages participants to experiment with new interpersonal behaviours and new ways of expressing themselves in movement (Stanton, 1992). The basis for a DMT group model is the work of Chace (Levy, 1988) who used expressive, symbolic, rhythmic, and communicative aspects of dance and integrated them into therapy. Her group work serves as a solid base upon which it is possible, and perhaps desirable, to increase the understanding of the dynamic processes existing in groups (Chaiklin, 1975b). Payne (1996) focused on students’ perspectives of an ‘as if’ group therapy personal development course in preparation for their role as dance movement therapists. She concluded that the experience of a DMT personal development group is crucial in the training of dance movement therapists. In addition Payne (2001), in her report on this student experience in a personal development group, demonstrated the importance of the individual’s sense of personal safety in the group setting. She found that the feeling of safety was based on dimensions such as trust, structure, boundaries, interpersonal caring, physical contact, and leader support. The facilitator’s style was crucial to the sense of safety. In DMT programmes, different aspects of group work stress a safe environment as the suitable place for development (Best, 2003; Payne, 2001; Pines, 1992). This would include development in both kinaesthetic ability and a sense of security in one’s own movement. Interactional shaping (Best, 2003) occurs within a group format, when participants relate to one another (Best, 2003). Shaping occurs between bodies and is affected by the context, the quality of movement, and the beliefs and expectations of participants. It may lead to an observable change in body movements, as well as inner change in personality characteristics, and engender personal change and growth.

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Theoretical orientation in a DMT group The ‘Chace’ approach and the ‘Authentic Movement’ (Adler, 1999b; Levy, 1988) approach to DMT deal with personal and emotional development that stems from group work in movement. Both accentuate the importance of movement with the ‘other’ or ‘others’, for self-reflection as well as for the individual development. These two models serve as the theoretical basis for the DMT training programme at Haifa University. They have provided a rich foundation and stimulus for the development of DMT movement, yet

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little empirical research has been carried out attesting to their reliability and validity.

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Authentic Movement The concept of Authentic Movement refers to the movement of one person (the client/patient/supervisee) in the presence of another (the therapist/witness/ supervisor) (Chodorow, 1991; Pallaro, 1999; Whitehouse, 1979). There are two basic positions in Authentic Movement: the ‘mover’ and the ‘witness’, in both group and individual settings (Bragante, 2006; Payne, 2006). Authentic Movement (Adler, 1999a) encourages creative expression of inner life, thus offering a bridge between the conscious and the unconscious. During this process, several meeting-points between the mover and the other participants/ witnesses are created in a sequence (Payne, 2001). ’A relationship is formed between the body of the client and the body of the therapist, and between the body of the therapist and body of the supervisor. This mutual shaping is both active and passive; it takes place in the spaces inbetween individuals and between individuals and contexts’ (Best, 2003, p. 1). As movement work deepens, the mover internalises the witness; movementpatterns are created and organised through certain body parts and rhythms (Payne, 2001). Verbal dialogue follows the movement experience. Both witnesses and participants describe what they have experienced and share their sensations and images (Bragante, 2006). In practicing Authentic Movement, the mover explores the relationship between himself/herself and a witness, being seen and seeing. With eyes closed, the mover listens inwardly and finds a movement arising from a hidden impulse. Gradually an explicit form is given to the content of direct experience.

The Chace Approach Chace’s basic concept is that dance is communication (Chaiklin, 1975a; Levy, 1988). There are four major classifications that Chace used in therapy. Physical activity, symbolism, therapeutic movements, and rhythmic group activity are used in dance and united into a special form of therapy. She argues that physical activity prepares the body for emotional and communicative expression. The ‘warm-up’ used at the beginning of the activity serves both to create a certain atmosphere and prepare the body for an emotional voyage (Chaiklin, 1975b). Symbolism provides a medium for recalling, re-enacting, and re-experiencing. The circle, so often used in group Movement Therapy, is a symbol of containment. The concept of therapeutic movements (Bernstein, 1979) refers to the language of movement. Chace (Bernstein, 1979) used movement to convey to the client that she knew how he/she felt, thus establishing affective, empathic interactions. Rhythmic movements (Bernstein, 1979) result from the simultaneous energetic activities of group members.

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A group moving together seems to have one breath and one pulse. When all members of the group move together energetically, a sense of power, organisation, and trust arises (Chaiklin, 1975b; Chaiklin & Schmais, 1993; Lewis, 1996). It would seem that the interaction between Authentic Movement and the Chace Approach to groups, in DMT group settings, often facilitates a very basic and powerful ‘being-with’ experience. This re-awakens archaic feelings and motifs within the individual and within the group (as an integrated whole) simultaneously.

Movement Analysis In the current study, Laban Movement Analysis provides the basis for movement assessment. It focuses on observation, description, and an understanding of movement patterns. Based on these dimensions, movement observation in the current study includes categories of body attitude, use of space, shape, and effort and an interpersonal category of ‘relating to others’. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is one of the main tools of assessment in DMT (Bartenieff & Lewis, 1980; Bernstein, 1986; Davis, 2005; Laban & Lawrence, 1947/1974; Laban & Ullman, 1976; Lamb, 1965; North, 1972; Payne, 1992). Laban’s Movement Analysis may be used as a system for measuring kinaesthetic ability. It is a descriptive system, assuming a dynamic relationship between the body’s functional and expressive capacities (North, 1972). The German word Antreib, used by Laban, means the ‘drive towards’, the power of the motivation to act and deal with the environment. The qualities of the efforts give colour to the movement, much like the dynamic signs in music that give emotion, affect, and expression to the piece being played (Stanton, 1992). Laban Movement Analysis describes how the body uses kinetic energy in space. It is composed of four major components: body, space, shape, and effort. Body attitude includes characteristic movement qualities that can be readily detected without formal movement notation (Hackney, 2000; Kestenberg-Amighi, Loman, Lewis, & Sossin, 1999). This is the type of readiness-to-act expressed in the trunk of the body (Bartenieff & Lewis, 1980). Body attitude and posture are often used interchangeably; the latter generally incorporates expressive content (Bartenieff & Lewis, 1980). ‘Space’ refers to horizontal, vertical, and sagittal movements. The ability to shift flexibly between the three planes is notable. ‘Shape’ describes the changing forms the body makes in space: expanding and contracting, coupled with breathing (Lamb, 1965; Rothbart & Derryberry, 1981). ‘Effort’ emphasises the dynamic qualitative nuances of movement in terms of flow, weight, time, and focus/ space. It examines the structure and coordination of the body, the exertion or effort the body manifests, and the changing shapes of the body. The effort qualities deal with motivation and the power to act.

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Summary of reviewed literature Many studies in the DMT and Art Therapy literature have employed qualitative methods (i.e., Gilroy, 2006; Payne, 2001; Shaw, 2003). There are relatively few quantitative studies. Notable are the studies of Koch (2007) and Fraenkel (1983), drawing on concepts from LMA and the Kestenberg Movement Profile (KMP). The current study is based on two important theories: Authentic Movement (Chodorow, 1991; Payne, 2001; Whitehouse, 1979) and the Chace Approach (Chaiklin, 1975b; Levy, 1988). Both approaches utilise kinaesthesia, a concept central to DMT (Maschke et al., 2003; Stillman, 2002). In addition, LMA (Laban, 1960; Laban & Lawrence, 1947/1974; Newlove & Dalby, 2004; North, 1972) provides a solid basis for movement analysis. The current research centres on changes in kinaesthetic ability among DMT trainees, the research group, comparing it with changes among Arts Therapy trainees, the comparison group. The hypothesis is that kinaesthetic ability will increase among the group of DMT trainees, while such changes will not be observed among trainees in the Art Therapy group.

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Methodology Design This field study has been conducted using a non-randomised controlled trial, also called quasi-experimental, pre-post comparison group design. Quantitative research tools were used to assess kinaesthetic ability: video analysis of freedance and lecturer evaluation. The study traces a group of DMT students studying at Haifa University throughout their training, comparing them with a group of Art Therapy students. The observational evaluation of kinaesthetic ability, as well as its evaluation by lecturers, was based on assessment methods derived from the theory of Laban (1960). Both groups were evaluated at the beginning and end of the year.

Participants The sample in this study is a convenience sample. It consists of 42 Hebrewspeaking, graduate students; 22 DMT (52%) and 20 Art Therapy (48%) students, 38 women (90%) and four men (10%). The students ranged from 25– 48 years of age (M ¼ 31.08, SD ¼ 4.89). 23 students were married (54.8%), the others were single; 17 have undergone personal therapy (40.5%). It should be mentioned that though personal therapy is not compulsory, it is recommended in both the DMT and the Art Therapy programmes. No significant background differences were found between the two groups. A total of 54 students started the study and completed the pre-phase questionnaires, 42 completed the post-phase questionnaires (78%), and 12 students dropped out during the course of the study (22%). No background differences (gender, age, education, family status, personal therapy) were found between students who completed the study and those who dropped out.

Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy Research instruments

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Movement Assessment Using Video The kinaesthetic assessment tool developed for this study was based on concepts taken from the Laban Movement Analysis Scale (Laban, 1960) and comprised of four areas: body attitude, space, shape, and effort. A fifth area was added to capture additional interpersonal variables in movement. Examples of items composing from this area are ‘echoing’ (Fraenkel, 1983) and ‘eye contact’ (Koch, 2007). A table of 41 items was used to categorise movement observation, with an ordinal scale of 0 (not present) to 3 (present a lot - all the time) attached to each. It was independently constructed by two senior experts in DMT and Laban Movement Analysis, who then agreed on the contents of the items, as well as on their measurement scales. DMT and Art Therapy groups were evaluated according to movement (kinaesthetic) dimensions. They were videotaped in a free dance, individually and in pairs. Movement warm up preceded free dance. The appropriate time frame and time units for reliable observation were taken into account, as some movement features may have different baseline frequencies affected by the time frame of the observation. This allowed enough time for all movement dimensions to be observed. A minimal time frame of 10 minutes per observation is recommended, and was used under the assumption that it allows for enough repetition to identify behavioural patterns (Cruz & Berrol, 2004). The video-tapes were analysed by two experts in Movement Assessment who were blind to each other’s ratings. One was familiar with the students (the researcher) and the other was unfamiliar with the students. Inter-rater reliabilities of the movement dimensions ranged from .82 (p 5 .05) to .99 (p 5 .01) (Kendall’s W).

Lecturers’ evaluations Two lecturers evaluated DMT students on major dimensions of kinaesthetic ability. These were independent evaluations, done in addition to the movement assessments via video. Two lecturers graded each student on these dimensions on a scale of none (0) to a lot – all the time (3). Inter-rater reliability ranged from .85 (p 5 .05) to .95 (p 5 .01) (Kendall’s W). The main purpose of the lecturers’ evaluation was to add information and to validate the findings of the Movement Assessment Using Video. Kinaesthetic dimensions were chosen on the basis of the ability to assess them from a general acquaintance with the student’s movement patterns. Nine dimensions were evaluated, as shown in Figure 1.

Procedure At the outset of the research, participants were given a written explanation of the aims of the project, including an explanation of the assessment procedure. An informed consent form was signed. During the first two weeks of the

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General posture – open General posture – closed Use of general space Use of personal space Free flow movement Use of pelvis Ability to echo the movement of another person Leading Responding

Figure 1. Movement dimensions evaluated by lecturers.

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academic year and once again two weeks before its end, the students were asked to perform a ‘free dance’ in front of the class, both individually and in pairs. The free dances were videotaped. Movement warm-up in a group preceded the free dance. Students were then asked to move to the centre of the room and to use movement to express how they felt at that moment. They were asked to relate to their inner rhythm, impulse, sensation, and express themselves in movement for 10 minutes. Rhythmic music was played during group warm up, but not in the following individual free dance, in order to allow for an inner rhythm to evolve. At the same time, lecturers completed student evaluations.

Data analysis Data was analysed via both parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. As movement dimensions were defined on a four-point Scale, pre-post and group differences were analysed with non-parametric Z tests. The five movement areas were defined as the sum of the dimensions composing them, and pre-post and group differences were analysed with two-way ANOVA’s of the areas by group and time. Spearman Correlations were used to examine the relationships between video and lecturers’ assessments.

Results Changes in kinaesthesia were first evaluated using the five movement areas, followed by an analysis of the dimensions within each area. Table 1 presents pre-post and group differences on the five movement areas. Table 1 shows an increase in kinaesthesia for the DMT group, while no change was observed among the Art Therapy students. The interaction of time by group was significant for all areas. Post-hoc analyses revealed that in all areas, pre-post differences were significant for the DMT students: Body attitude: F (1, 40) ¼ 35.23, p 5 .001, 2 ¼ .47; Use of space: F (1, 40) ¼ 19.03,

Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy
Table 1. Summary scores of movement areas by group and time (N ¼ 42). DMT Art F - time (1,40) 13.61*** (2 ¼ .25) 14.04*** (2 ¼ .27) 19.61*** (2 ¼ .33) 11.23** (2 ¼ .22) 31.64*** (2 ¼ .44) F - group (1,40) 10.89** (2 ¼ .21) 33.43** (2 ¼ .46) 1.97 (2 ¼ .01) 17.63*** (2 ¼ .31) 14.13*** (2 ¼ .26)

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Pre Body attitude 15.00 (3.53) Use of space 19.59 (3.74) Use of shape 3.68 (1.39) Use of effort 12.63 (2.79) Relating to 17.09 others (2.72)

Post 20.05 (3.27) 23.41 (2.63) 5.68 (1.64) 16.95 (2.63) 24.86 (2.55)

Pre 14.40 (4.60) 14.63 (5.29) 4.10 (2.00) 11.75 (3.86) 17.85 (4.26)

Post 13.90 (4.00) 15.63 (4.41) 4.65 (1.50) 11.20 (3.22) 17.75 (4.30)

F - time  group (1,40) 20.21*** (2 ¼ .34) 4.81* (2 ¼ .11) 6.34* (2 ¼ .14) 18.75*** (2 ¼ .32) 33.31*** (2 ¼ .45)

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*p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

p 5 .001, 2 ¼ .33; Use of shape: F(1, 40) ¼ 25.33, p 5 .001, 2 ¼ .39; Use of effort: F(1, 40) ¼ 30.98, p 5 .001, 2 ¼ .44; Relating to others: F (1, 40) ¼ 68.19, p 5 .001, 2 ¼ .63). Pre-post differences were not significant for the Art Therapy group: (Body attitude: F (1, 40) ¼ 0.31, n.s., 2 ¼ .01; Use of space: F(1, 40) ¼ 1.13, n.s., 2 ¼ .03; Use of shape: F (1, 40) ¼ 1.74, n.s., 2 ¼ .04; Use of effort: F(1, 40) ¼ 0.46, n.s., 2 ¼ .01; Relating to others: F(1, 40) ¼ 0.01, n.s., 2 ¼ .001. Changes in the dimensions of kinaesthetic ability within each area were analysed using Wilcoxon Z test for pre-post differences within each group. Initial differences between the two groups were analysed with Mann-Witney U-Test. Tables 2 to 6 present the results for each area. Results in Table 2 show that DMT students manifested significant increases in open body posture, and in the use of torso, pelvis, and leg movement, while no change was seem in the Art Therapy students. Self touch had significantly increased in both groups. Table 3 shows that significant increases were observed among the DMT students in the use of general and personal space, and in the use of the high level of space. No such change was seen in the Art Therapy group. DMT students, at the pre-study stage, were already using a low level of space, a variety of levels, and vertical and sagittal as dominant planes, significantly more than the Art Therapy group. Both groups did not show changes in these dimensions. Table 4 show that DMT students presented an increase in outward movement, inward movement, and grounding. No change was observed among the Art Therapy students. Table 5 shows that DMT students demonstrated a significant increase in free flow, light weight, time – accelerated/sudden, and direct focus movement. The Art Therapy students showed an increase only in direct focus/space.

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Table 2. ‘Body attitude’ by group and time. DMT Pre N% Post N% Art Therapy Pre N% 3 7 7 3 0 9 8 3 3 5 6 6 15.0 35.0 35.0 15.0 0.0 45.0 40.0 15.0 15.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 45.0 35.0 10.0 10.0 35.0 20.0 25.0 20.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 80.0 0.0 45.0 45.0 10.0 80.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 Post N% 5 8 3 4 1 8 7 4 2 4 8 6 9 5 1 5 12 2 4 2 0 2 8 10 0 10 6 4 11 2 5 2 25.0 40.0 15.0 20.0 5.0 40.0 35.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 40.0 30.0 45.0 20.0 5.0 25.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 10.0 40.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 30.0 20.0 55.0 10.0 25.0 10.0 Difference - Z Art Pre- by DMT Therapy group Pre-post Pre-post 1.57 3.11** 0.88

Variable

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General posture: PostureNone 2 9.1 0 0.0 open A little 17 77.3 7 31.8 Some 1 4.5 9 40.9 A lot 2 9.1 6 27.3 PostureNone 0 0.0 1 4.6 closed A little 5 22.7 12 54.5 Some 7 31.8 7 31.8 A lot 10 45.5 2 9.1 Sunk-heavy None 1 4.6 1 4.5 A little 5 22.7 7 31.8 Some 9 40.9 10 45.5 A lot 7 31.8 4 18.2

2.10*

2.99**

0.00

0.71

1.03

0.69

Areas in body in which movement occurs: Torso None 4 18.2 2 9.1 9 A little 5 22.7 1 4.5 7 Some 8 36.4 8 36.4 2 A lot 5 22.7 11 50.0 2 Pelvis None 6 27.3 3 13.6 7 A little 7 31.8 3 13.7 4 Some 6 27.3 3 13.6 5 A lot 3 13.6 13 59.1 4 Arms None 1 4.6 0 0.0 1 A little 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 Some 3 13.6 3 13.6 2 A lot 18 81.8 19 86.4 16 Legs None 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 A little 4 18.2 0 0.0 9 Some 7 31.8 5 22.7 9 A lot 11 50.0 17 77.3 2 Self touch None 13 59.1 4 18.2 16 A little 2 9.1 6 27.3 0 Some 4 18.2 5 22.7 4 A lot 3 13.6 7 31.8 0 *p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

2.39*

3.07**

1.31

0.03

2.61**

2.07*

0.20

0.71

0.91

2.72*

2.35*

0.24

1.48

2.68**

2.06*

As can be seen in Table 6, a significant increase was observed among the DMT students in eye contact, echoing, able to follow and respond to others’ movement, initiation of new movement, leading, allow touch, and initiation of touch. No change was observed in the Art Therapy group. Results pertaining to lecturer evaluations of the movement of DMT students showed significant increases in all measured dimensions

Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy
Table 3. ‘Use of space’ by group and time.
DMT Art Therapy Difference - Z

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Variable Use of general space None A little Some A lot

Pre N%

Post N%

Pre N%

Post N%

Art Pre- by DMT Therapy group Pre-post Pre-post 2.80** 0.30

0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.52 4 18.2 0 0.0 5 25.0 5 25.0 9 40.9 4 18.2 12 60.0 11 55.0 9 40.9 18 81.8 3 15.0 4 20.0 3 7 4 8 13.6 0 0.0 31.8 0 0.0 18.2 4 18.2 36.4 18 81.8 7 5 2 6 35.0 25.0 10.0 30.0 4 20.0 1.18 9 45.0 1 5.0 6 30.0 7 2 8 3 35.0 3.14** 10.0 40.0 15.0

Use of Near personal Middle space Far combination

3.17**

0.31

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Levels in space: Level Low None A little Some A lot None A little Some A lot None A little Some A lot One Two Three 4 18.2 4 18.2 13 65.0 5 22.7 5 22.7 2 10.0 2 9.1 2 9.1 3 15.0 11 50.0 11 50.0 2 10.0 0.05 1.85

Level Middle

2 9.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1.37 2 9.1 1 4.6 1 5.0 0 0.0 3 13.6 3 13.6 2 10.0 2 10.0 15 68.2 18 81.8 17 85.0 18 90.0 7 6 4 5 2 9 11 31.8 1 27.3 5 18.2 9 22.7 7 9.1 0 40.9 5 50.0 17 4.6 11 55.0 8 22.7 6 30.0 7 40.9 2 10.0 4 31.8 1 5.0 1 0.0 10 50.0 5 22.7 4 20.0 5 77.3 6 30.0 10 4 6 4 6 7 4 5 4 7 4 6 3 20.0 30.0 20.0 30.0 3 5 9 3 40.0 1.92 35.0 20.0 5.0 25.0 2.28* 25.0 50.0 15.0 1.29 25.0 45.0 15.0

1.47

0.71

Level High Variety of levels

2.57*

0.89

1.89

1.73

Dominant planes: Horizontal None A little Some A lot Vertical None A little Some A lot None A little Some A lot 1 4.6 1 4.5 3 13.6 2 9.1 12 54.5 9 40.9 6 27.3 10 45.5 1 3 11 7 1 2 6 13 4.6 0 0.0 13.6 3 13.6 50.0 7 31.8 31.8 12 54.6 4.5 0 0.0 9.1 1 4.5 27.3 6 27.3 59.1 15 68.2 1.51 0.06

Sagittal

35.0 4 20.0 2.24* 20.0 6 30.0 25.0 6 30.0 20.0 4 20.0 35.0 10 50.0 3.32*** 20.0 4 20.0 30.0 5 25.0 15.0 1 5.0

1.28

0.93

1.23

1.41

*p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

(Wilcoxon Z ranged between Z ¼ 2.41, p 5 .05 to Z ¼ 3.74, p 5 .001; for a list see Figure 1). Lecturers’ evaluations were congruent with the video analysis of the same movement dimensions. Pre-test correlations ranged between .84 (p 5 .001) and .93 (p 5 .001), averaging at .89 (p 5 .001, SD ¼ .03), post-test correlations ranged between .40 (p 5 .07) and .87 (p 5 .001), averaging at .67 (p 5 .001, SD ¼ .18).

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Table 4. ‘Use of shape’ by group and time. DMT Pre N% Post N% Art Therapy Pre N% Post N% Difference - Z Art Pre- by DMT Therapy group Pre-post Pre-post 0.03 3.02** 0.01

Variable

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Movement None 2 9.1 0 0.0 2 10.0 3 15.0 outward A little 14 63.6 6 27.3 12 60.0 10 50.0 Some 4 18.2 8 36.3 5 25.0 6 30.0 A lot 2 9.1 8 36.4 1 5.0 1 5.0 Movement None 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 10.0 3 15.0 inward A little 2 9.1 9 40.9 7 35.0 7 35.0 Some 6 27.3 10 45.5 7 35.0 6 30.0 A lot 14 63.6 3 13.6 6 30.0 4 20.0 Grounding None 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 A little 7 31.8 4 18.2 10 50.0 7 35.0 Some 9 40.9 7 31.8 4 20.0 7 35.0 A lot 6 27.3 11 50.0 6 30.0 6 30.0 *p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

2.40*

3.22**

1.30

0.67

2.53*

0.72

To summarise findings, substantive significant changes were observed among DMT students in kinaesthetic ability, whether analysed by video observations or by Lecturer evaluations, whereas no changes characterised the Art Therapy group.

Discussion DMT emphasises the use of expressive movement in both training and therapy. The observed improvement in kinaesthetic ability occurred, despite the fact that there was no formal emphasis on teaching movement ‘technique’ or ‘ability’ per se. This change in kinaesthetic ability may reflect the acquisition of new ways of self expression in movement. DMT uses kinaesthesia as its main tool in therapy. Assuming that this is the case, there may be a relationship between an increase in kinaesthetic ability and an increase in therapeutic ability. Body attitude increased during the training period and an overall opening of posture was observed. It is interesting to note that the use of arms, which received high scores on the pre-test, did not change. This may be due to the culturally accepted use of hands, more so than the use of other body parts. The increased use of the body, as well as a high initial use of the hands, may all be part of the general opening of posture that was ultimately observed in post-test. In DMT training, special attention is paid to the differentiation of bodyparts (Lamb, 1965, 1992). This is further augmented by the use of video and

Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy
Table 5. ‘Use of effort’ by group and time.
DMT Art Therapy Difference - Z

207

Variable Flow: Bound flow

Pre N%

Post N% 0.0 1.8 9.1 9.1

Pre N% 2 10.0 4 0.0 7 5.0 7 5.0 1 9 7 3 8 1 6 5 2 7 8 3

Post N% 1 5.0 3 15.0 9 45.0 7 35.0

Art Pre- by DMT Therapy group Pre-post Pre-post 0.62 1.75 0.55

None 0 0.0 0 A little 4 18.2 7 Some 10 45.5 13 A lot 8 36.3 2 None A little Some A lot None A little Some A lot None A little Some A lot

Free flow

2 9.1 0 0.0 7 31.8 0 0.0 8 36.4 12 54.5 5 22.7 10 45.5 3 7 6 6 13.6 2 9.1 31.8 4 18.2 27.3 6 27.3 27.3 10 45.4

5.0 2 10.0 5.0 10 50.0 5.0 6 30.0 5.0 2 10.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 8 40.0 5 25.0 6 30.0 1 5.0 2 10.0 8 40.0 9 45.0 1 5.0

0.53

3.56***

0.74

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Weight: Strong weight

0.74

1.73

1.28

Light weight

2 9.1 0 0.0 9 40.9 1 4.5 7 31.8 11 50.0 4 18.2 10 45.5 4 7 4 7 5 7 5 5

0.09

3.11**

0.69

Time: Time – accelerated/ None sudden A little Some A lot Time – Sustained None A little Some A lot Focus/space: Direct None A little Some A lot

18.2 0 0.0 5 31.8 4 18.2 11 18.2 8 36.4 3 31.8 10 45.4 1 22.7 1 4.5 7 31.8 8 36.4 2 22.8 6 27.3 6 22.7 7 31.8 5 5 8 1 6

5.0 6 30.0 5.0 10 50.0 5.0 2 10.0 5.0 2 10.0 5.0 8 40.0 0.0 1 5.0 0.0 6 30.0 5.0 5 25.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 1 5.0 4 20.0 6 30.0 9 45.0 0 0.0 9 45.0 4 20.0 7 35.0

1.86

1.97*

0.01

0.03

1.47

0.18

5 22.7 0 0.0 9 40.9 2 9.0 6 27.3 10 45.5 2 9.1 10 45.5

0.30

3.24**

2.43*

Indirect

None 0 A little 1 Some 9 A lot 12

0.0 0 0.0 1 4.5 3 3.6 5 1.0 10 5.5 2 4.5 9 40.9 12

0.41

1.41

1.73

*p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

feedback from the group. Emphasis is on awareness of the body and reflection upon sensation and experience while moving. This results in increased sensitivity to body attitude, which may be a cause for change in the above mentioned dimensions. In addition, the warm-up phase as seen in the Chace Approach (Bernstein, 1979; Chaiklin, 1975b) pays special attention to the warming-up of all body areas as a preparatory stage for therapeutic work. Movement in front of a non-judgmental witness, as seen in the Authentic Movement Approach

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Table 6. ‘Relating to others’ by group and time.
DMT Art Therapy Difference - Z Art Pre- by DMT Therapy group Pre-post Pre-post 0.48 3.02** 0.17

Variable None A little Some A lot Echoing None A little Some A lot Able to follow, None respond to A little Some A lot Initiate new None movement A little Some A lot Leading None A little Some A lot None Forcing movement A little on partner Some A lot Enter other’s Never kinesphere Some Often Allow None inter-personal A little space Some A lot Allow touch None A little Some A lot Initiate touch None A little Some A lot Entrance Yes level as No partner Eye contact

Pre N% 0 5 10 7 1 5 14 2 2 1 18 1 6 11 3 2 10 9 3 0 16 4 1 1 16 5 1 0 5 5 12 2 10 8 2 8 8 6 0 20 2 0.0 22.7 45.5 31.8 4.6 22.7 63.6 9.1 9.1 4.6 81.8 4.5 27.3 50.0 13.6 9.1 45.5 40.9 13.6 0.0 72.7 18.2 4.6 4.5 72.7 22.7 4.6 0.0 22.7 22.7 54.5 9.1 45.4 36.4 9.1 36.4 36.3 27.3 0.0 90.9 9.1

Post N% 0 0 4 18 0 0 2 20 0 2 4 16 0 2 12 8 2 4 11 5 16 4 2 0 12 8 2 0 3 5 14 1 2 8 11 2 3 6 11 18 4 0.0 0.0 18.2 81.8 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 9.1 18.2 72.7 0.0 9.1 54.5 36.4 9.1 18.2 50.0 22.7 72.7 18.2 9.1 0.0 54.5 36.4 9.1 0.0 13.7 22.7 63.6 4.5 9.1 36.4 50.0 9.1 13.6 27.3 50.0 81.8 18.2

Pre N%

Post N%

0 0.0 1 5.0 3 15.0 4 20.0 14 70.0 10 50.0 3 15.0 5 25.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 5 25.0 5 25.0 14 70.0 11 55.0 1 5.0 3 15.0 0 0.0 2 10.0 4 20.0 1 5.0 9 45.0 11 55.0 7 35.0 6 30.0 6 30.0 6 30.0 4 20.0 2 10.0 9 45.0 8 40.0 1 5.0 4 20.0 12 60.0 16 80.0 1 5.0 2 10.0 6 30.0 2 10.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 20 100.0 19 95.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 14 70.0 12 60.0 5 25.0 7 35.0 1 5.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 6 30.0 2 10.0 14 70.0 16 80.0 9 45.0 8 40.0 3 15.0 2 10.0 5 25.0 8 40.0 3 15.0 2 10.0 13 65.0 12 60.0 2 10.0 1 5.0 3 15.0 5 25.0 2 10.0 2 10.0 20 100.0 18 90.0 0 0.0 2 10.0

0.02

4.13***

0.01

1.43

3.53***

0.33

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0.83

3.46***

0.93

0.01

3.57***

1.75

2.49*

0.28

1.00

0.19

1.23

0.82

1.43

1.03

0.38

1.23

2.82**

0.33

1.17

3.54***

0.71

1.37

1.41

1.41

*p 5 .05; **p 5 .01; ***p 5 .001.

(Chodorow, 1991; Whitehouse, 1979), enables the mover to dare and use the body, and patterns of movement not usually employed. The patterns of movement that result from increased daring to use the body are characterised by a differentiation of body parts, the distancing of organs from each other and

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from the centre of the body outwards (Bartenieff & Lewis, 1980; Hackney, 2000; Lamb, 1965). Just as non-judgmental witnessing (Chodorow, 1991; Pallaro, 1999; Whitehouse, 1979) encourages the mover to risk using body parts and patterns of movement not usually used; it also allows him/her to move in greater general and personal space, with more outward movement. Chace emphasises movement in a circle, as well as exiting the circle to move in space and coming back to the circle (Chaiklin, 1975b). The Chace group begins and ends with movement in a circle and in between allows participants to venture out and explore movement in space, thus changing the ‘shape’ of the body in space (Hackney, 2000; Laban, 1960). DMT students are exposed to each others’ body/movement expressions, which may enhance awareness and thus form the basis for a change in these specific variables. Use of effort in free-flow, light-weight, and accelerated/sudden time represent a light flow of rapid and easeful movement. They indicate the loosening of inhibitions that may be due to a sense of security, based on the evolving group and lecturer-student relationship. Being able to take a direct road to reach a goal (direct-focus/space) may also indicate a freeing-up of inhibitions, as students dared move straight to a goal rather than reaching it indirectly. With the help of the group, they learned to be direct and attentive and to communicate with other group members. The Chace Approach (Bernstein, 1979; Chaiklin, 1975b) stresses communication between group members by using the circle that mirrors and echoes other people’s movements in the group. This encourages group members to become more attentive to and communicative with each other. Mirroring another person’s movement, or being mirrored, requires self-reflection as well as ‘seeing’ the other and communicating with him/her. Relating to others is an essential part of DMT training, emphasising student–lecturer and peer relationships, as representative of client–therapist relationships. Findings regarding eye contact in this study may be viewed in light of Koch’s study (2007) about eye contact in conflict situations. A pattern of making eye contact and then discontinuing it was found, as a function of the conflict in the situation, perhaps reflecting avoidance. Possibly, non-conflict situations engender more lasting eye contact, which may explain the increase in eye contact found in this study. It may be that during the year, as tension among the students decreased and their sense of security seemed to increase, a concurrent increase in eye contact was manifested. The findings regarding touch (allow touch and initiate touch) are coherent with Shaw’s (2003) findings regarding the use of touch as a therapeutic tool. Touch is treated with great caution in psychotherapy, in light of the ‘touch taboo’. Although controversial, both the current study and Shaw’s study (2003) view touch as a communicative tool. It is likely that during the year, with increasing experience in group situations that included bodily warm-up, rhythmic movement in the group, eye contact, and acceptance (Chace cited in Chaiklin, 1975a), the communication pattern of touch increased as well. The DMT group seemed to have learned to use the body for self-expression and communication during the year of the study. By projecting feelings into

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space through the body, movement itself is immediately communicative. Only the experience of safety in a group can provide the grounds for acquiring new ways of expression (Payne, 2001). The Art Therapy group did not show changes in the five areas of kinaesthetic ability. Differences in the two groups may be due to the nature of each programme. The Art Therapy training provides therapeutic/psychological learning, but does not use movement as part of their expressive repertoire. The essence of the DMT training programme is a combination of movement, self-awareness, and therapeutic and theoretical understanding. This is achieved by using video and feedback from the group; feedback that is both verbally oriented and movement oriented (mirroring, echoing). Courses are held in a safe environment in group format, allowing watching one another in movement. The relationship with lecturers and supervisors, along with field work experience, provides a ‘containing context’ for the expression of inner material. That is, the coupling of theoretical study and experiential movement learning, unique to the DMT group, is the factor most likely to have triggered the change in kinaesthetic ability. Limitations and suggestions for further research Sample size within each group was rather small. Many studies on unique populations use such samples (e.g. Fraenkel, 1983; Goodman & Holroyd, 1993; Imanaka & Abernethy, 1992; Strayer, 2004). Nevertheless, it would be preferable to use larger samples, to decrease the likelihood of spurious results. A longer period of data collection could have provided more evidence of kinaesthetic change that may require more than a year to develop. Further, while Movement Assessment Using Video was used with both DMT and Art Therapy trainees, only DMT trainees were evaluated by their lecturers: movement evaluation by lecturers in DMT is part of the training process. In Art Therapy, movement and its evaluation is not part of the training. A movement analysis scheme was developed for this study, using a quantitative rather than a qualitative approach. Since it is an exploratory attempt to quantify Laban’s (1960) conceptualisation, issues of validity arise. The strength of the scheme lies in its multidimensional approach, yet additional research is required. Further validation of the movement analysis scheme may be achieved by using other sample populations, clinical and non-clinical, as well as cross-cultural comparisons. More research may investigate content areas of the training programme that can explain the variance connected with such change. Implications, contributions, and conclusions Changes in kinaesthetic ability may originate in the experience of movement, interwoven with the therapeutic elements and theoretical knowledge inherent in the course of training. It is highly likely that the dual use of physical expression and reflection in DMT training served as a catalyst for the change

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seen in pre-post analyses. Using the Chace Approach allowed communication in a safe environment, and experiencing the Authentic Movement process raised the students’ level of self-awareness. Both heightened communication and selfawareness skills may have facilitated the changes in kinaesthetic ability. The current study used assessment concepts taken from Laban’s approach (1960) to create quantifiable observation guidelines. The use of these movement dimensions, as an integrated movement assessment tool, affording a comprehensive method of analysis of movement, may be considered a significant contribution. Data gained from this instrument is quantifiable, allowing for statistical analyses that transcend mere descriptive methods. The study presents a comprehensive movement analysis scheme. This assessment tool is based on sound theory and is easy to administer. Future research may provide further validation. As noted above, there is a relationship between increase in kinaesthetic ability and increase in therapeutic ability. Thus, the table of movement dimensions may be used in both training and therapy to evaluate change. Therapeutic goals may be set by using the table of movement dimensions at intake. Success in therapy may be evaluated by using the same table at the end of therapy. This will provide a baseline to evaluate change at the end of the process. The analysis of movement dimensions, using video, seems to enhance trainees’ professional development. It may engender self-awareness of movement patterns, encourage change through feedback and self-reflection, and allow for a methodologically sound and focused analysis of movement patterns. The use of video in analysis enables repeated observations, so that deeper insight may be gained each time. Movement experiences, applied to the clinical arena of verbal therapy, may add a useful tool. Shaw (2003) has suggested that, in verbally-oriented therapy, movement adds another perspective and emphasises the realisation that two bodies are present in the inter-subjective encounter between therapist and client. The therapeutic encounter is embodied and the therapist’s body is therefore a vital part of this encounter. The training of therapists (verbal, artistic, and others) may benefit from using movement experiences as part of their training, to support trainees in their developmental voyage. In psychotherapy training, movement is not part of the teaching curriculum, yet there seems to be agreement that expressive bodily movement is an important aspect of communication and understanding within the therapeutic arena and relationship (Allbeck & Badler, 2002; Emde, Osofsky, & Butterfield, 1993; Izard & Dougherty, 1982; Le Doux, 1996; Shaw, 2003). The unique contributions of this study are its empirical evaluation of change in the kinaesthetic ability of DMT trainees, and the easy-to-use Labanbased assessment tool that has been developed.

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Notes on contributors
Dr. Dita Judith Federman is an accredited Dance Movement Therapist, psychotherapist and senior supervisor (DMT). Graduated in Psychology, MA in Expressive Arts Therapies, PhD in Human &Life Science from the University of Surrey, UK. Sixteen

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years as head of a diploma DMT training. Currently, director of the DMT training at the Graduate School of Creative Art Therapies, University of Haifa, Israel, researcher and lecturer with years of experience within psychiatric settings, children, adults and geriatric population.

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