Sergeants Distance Education Program

8013A

MILITARY STUDIES (8013A) Course Introduction

Scope

An outstanding Marine NCO must have the ability to train and advise Marines on many different subjects. You must be technically and tactically proficient in these subjects to accomplish this task. This course discusses a variety of subjects that will enhance your ability to assist junior Marines in their quest to be better Marine leaders. Though the subjects are considerably larger than this course can handle, this is merely a starting point in responding to inquiries from your junior Marines who are striving to become Marine leaders.

References

The following references were used in the writing of this course: Manual for Courts-Martial, United States (2000) Edition. JAG Instruction 5800.7C, Manual of the Judge Advocate General. MCRP 5-12.1A, Law of Land Warfare. MCRP 4-11.8A, Food Services Reference. Army Pamphlet 27-10, Military Justice. Marine Corps University Archives Simmons, Edwin Howard, The United States Marines, A History, 3rd Edition · Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center. · www.marinemedals.com · www.usmc.mil/historical.nsf · www.history.navy.mil · MCO P5060.20 Pt 1/Pt 2, Marines Corps Drill and Ceremonies Manual. · MCO P10520.3B, Marine Corps Flag Manual. · MCO P1020.34F, Marine Corps Uniform Regulations. · TM 10120-15/1, Marine Corps Fitting and Alterations Manual.
Continued on next page

· · · · · · ·

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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

Table of Contents

This course contains the following study units: Study Unit -1 2 3 4 5 -Title Course Introduction Non-Judicial Punishment (NJP) The Law of Land Warfare History and Contributions of Marine Noncommissioned Officers (NCOs) Drill Uniforms and Inspections Review Lesson Exercise Page i 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 R-1

Estimated Study Time

You will spend about 12 hours and 30 minutes completing this course. This includes the time to study the text, complete the exercises, and take the final exam. You will earn four retirement credits after you complete this course. You can earn reserve retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study time. Note: If you are awarded credits for drill attendance during drill periods, reserve retirement credits are not awarded for MCI study time.

Reserve Retirement Credits

Summary

The all-important gateways to successfully complete this course are summarized in the table below: Step 1 2 3 After you… Enroll in the program Complete the self-paced text Pass the final examination Then you will… Receive your program material. Arrange to take the final examination. Receive a course completion certificate.

Note: For more information, refer to the Program Guide.

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Course Introduction

STUDY UNIT 1 NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT (NJP) Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hour, 45 minutes

Unit Scope

This unit addresses the use of information required in the professional development of a senior NCO. This unit of study will enhance knowledge, benefit training, and help maintain discipline within a unit. The premise of this unit is every Marine should have a basic understanding of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) and non-judicial punishment (NJP). After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · Explain the rights of the accused to an accused suspect. Identify proper documenting of a charge sheet.

Learning Objectives

Unit Content

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Fundamentals Lesson 2 Article 31 Lesson 3 Documenting the Offense See Page 1-3 1-9 1-25

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Study Unit 1

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Study Unit 1

LESSON 1 FUNDAMENTALS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson will provide background information critical to understanding non-judicial punishment (NJP) and will identify the two basic elements of Article 31 under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · Describe the references for NJP. Identify the source authority for self-incrimination protection.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction References Self-Incrimination Protection Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

References

Multiple Sources

The system of military justice gets its authority from many sources. Just as a Marine must follow his or her chain of command, you must also research information from all the military justice sources. The table below lists various sources of information for military justice: Source Constitution of the · United States of America · Information Basic source that authorizes a separate system of criminal law in the military Authority from Article I, section stating that Congress shall have the power …to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces… Congress enacted in 1950 Military Justice Act of 1968 revised Provides a separate system of military criminal law for the armed forces Referred to as the code Contains 140 articles that form a basis for administering justice for the Armed Forces of the United States
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References of Information

Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)

· · · · ·

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

References, Continued

References of Information, continued

Source Manual for Courts-Martial · (MCM) · ·

Information A regulatory supplement that explains UCMJ provisions An executive order of the president Article 36 authorizes the president to issue regulations prescribing the procedure to follow before military tribunals, including the rules of evidence Article 56 authorizes the president to establish limits of punishment for most offenses Provides the force and effect of law Must be complied with Published by JAG of the Navy Contains additional provisions Explains how to carry out and supplement the MCM relative to Navy and Marine Corps service members

·

· Manual of the Judge Advocate General (JAGMAN) · · · ·

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Self-Incrimination Protection

Source Authority

The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States grants the privilege against self-incrimination. The Fifth Amendment protection applies procedurally to military personnel through the provisions of Article 31, UCMJ. To be admissible in a courtmartial, the accused makes a pretrial statement, which must meet the requirements of Article 31, UCMJ. These requirements are described in detail in the next lesson. Continued on next page

Military Application

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Congress enacted which of the NJP references listed below in 1950? a. b. c. d. Manual of the Judge Advocate General Constitution of the United States of America Uniform Code of Military Justice Manual for Courts-Martial

Item 1

Item 2

Which of the following is a major reference source that explains NJP? a. b. c. d. Battle Skills Guidebook Warfighting Handbook Manual for Courts-Martial Commanding Officers Leadership Book

Item 3

The privilege of self-incrimination is granted by the _____ Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. a. b. c. d. Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer c c c Reference 1-4 1-5 1-6

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 ARTICLE 31 Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson explains Article 31 of the UCMJ in detail. This article ensures that protection from self-incrimination is provided to military members suspected of committing a crime. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · Identify the contents of Article 31 by paragraph. Identify the two parts of Article 31 rights. Describe the proper procedure for advising accused suspects of rights. Identify who can give Article 31 warning. Identify when Article 31 warning should be given. State the importance of properly advising accused suspects of rights. Identify specific situations where Article 31 warning and waiver are required or not required.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Contents The Suspect’s Rights Advising the Suspect The Importance of Properly Advising the Suspect Specific Issues on Article 31 Rights Lesson 2 Exercise See page 1-9 1-11 1-13 1-15 1-17 1-18 1-20

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Contents

Protection From Incriminating Yourself

The contents of Article 31, UCMJ by paragraph are quoted in the table below:

Paragraph a

b

Contents No person subject to this chapter may compel any person to incriminate himself, or to answer any question that may tend to incriminate him. No person subject to the chapter may interrogate, or request any statement from an accused or a person suspected of an offense without first informing him of the nature of the accusation and advising him that he does not have to make any statement regarding the offense of which he is accused or suspected and any statement made by him may be used as evidence against him in a trial by court-martial.

Remarks Paragraph (a) of Article 31, UCMJ is a paraphrase of that portion of the Fifth Amendment that protects a citizen from being a witness against himself. Paragraph (b) of Article 31, UCMJ is the equivalent to the Miranda Rights that civilians must be advised of before they can be questioned pertaining to an offense that they are believed to have committed.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Contents, Continued

Protection From Incriminating Yourself, continued

Paragraph c

Contents No person subject to this chapter may compel any person to make a statement or to produce evidence before any military tribunal if the statement or evidence is not material to the issue and may tend to degrade him.

d

No statement obtained from any person in violation of this article, or obtained through the use of coercion, unlawful influence, or unlawful inducement may be received in evidence against him in a trial by court-martial.

Remarks Paragraph (c) of Article 31 protects military personnel from having to testify to immaterial and degrading matters. This kind of testimony would have a tendency to disgrace the witnesses or to bring them into disrepute even if they would not be subject to any real danger of prosecution. Paragraph (d) forbids the introduction of evidence obtained in violation of Article 31 into a courtmartial (evidence obtained without a proper warning or through coercion or unlawful influence). Statements, confessions, and admissions must be voluntary if they are to be admissible in a courtmartial.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

The Suspect’s Rights

Elements

There are two basic elements of Article 31: · · Warning Waiver

Warning

A warning is given so the accused suspect is informed and advised in compliance with Article 31, UCMJ. Before asking the suspect a question, he or she must be warned and advised of their rights: · · · · (Suspect’s name), you are suspected of the offense(s) of (a general description or the offense, such as larceny or assault). You have the right to remain silent. Any statement you make can be used as evidence against you in a trial by court-martial. You have the right to consult with a lawyer, to have a lawyer with you during all questioning, and to seek the lawyer's advice before you answer any questions. If you desire, you may obtain a civilian lawyer at your own expense. If you cannot afford or do not desire a civilian lawyer, a military lawyer can be appointed to you without cost. If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you will have the right to stop answering at any time. You also have the right to stop answering questions at any time in order to obtain a lawyer.
Continued on next page

· · ·

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

The Suspect’s Rights, Continued

Waiver

After the warning has been given, make sure the suspect or accused understands his or her rights by asking the three questions listed below: · · · (Suspect’s name), do you want a lawyer? (Suspect replies.) Do you understand that if you should decide to answer questions, you may stop answering questions at any time? (Suspect replies.) Do you want to answer questions and make a statement? (Suspect replies.)

Once the suspect understands their rights, then he or she can freely, knowingly, and intelligently waive them if so desired.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Advising the Suspect

Who Warns Suspects

Article 31(b), UCMJ imposes the duty to warn on only those persons subject to this code. However, by necessary implication, the duty is also imposed on any person acting as an agent of the military authorities for the purpose of furthering a military investigation. Give the accused suspect Article 31 rights before any interrogation begins or whenever an act constitutes a statement of admission. A verbatim (word for word) reading of Article 31 rights is the method to use to advise the suspect of his or her rights. The two elements (warning and waiver) of Article 31 should be stated exactly as published in Article 31 without error to the suspect or accused. The manner in which to advise suspects of their rights is as follows: · · · Identify yourself to the suspect. Read the Article 31 Warning Card verbatim without error to the suspect. Ask the suspect three questions: · · · · Do you want a lawyer? Do you understand that if you should decide to answer questions, you may stop answering questions at any time? Do you want to answer questions and make a statement?

When to Warn Suspects

Verbatim Reading

Procedural Recommendations

Terminate the reading if the suspect: · · · Does not understand his or her rights Declines to answer questions or make a statement Requests a lawyer
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Advising the Suspect, Continued

Procedural Recommendations, continued

· ·

Document the suspect’s Article 31 advisement on the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form. Instruct the suspect to read and sign the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form.

Note: Intoxication either by alcohol or drugs (illegal or prescribed) can prevent a suspect or an accused from understanding the warning. Delay interrogation until the effects of the intoxicants are reduced and the accused or suspect can understand the warning. Otherwise, the warning would be ineffective and improper.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

The Importance of Properly Advising Suspects

Understanding the Warning

At trial, the admissibility of a confession or admission of guilt depends on his or her signing of the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form, which is in compliance with Article 31. Of course, no one can know what the accused did or did not understand. If the defense contends the accused did not understand his or her rights, that burden of proof rests with the defense and not the trial counsel.

Written Advice and Waiver

If a written advice and waiver of the suspect's rights is available, it may be introduced to show what the accused saw, possibly read, and signed. This evidence does no more than show the circumstances from which the court could conclude the pretrial statement of the accused was in compliance with Article 31 and was voluntary. However, the defense counsel may introduce testimony of the accused to show that he or she did not understand their rights. The court decides whether any statement is admissible.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Specific Issues on Article 31 Rights

Statements

Article 31(b) prohibits the interrogation of an individual or the requesting of a statement from an accused person or suspect without first giving him or her the prescribed warning. The key word is statement—verbal statements include · An interrogation, which is any attempt to induce an accused or a suspect to make a verbal statement. In other words, an interrogation is a question or group of questions. Some physical acts that a suspect performs at the interrogator's request may be considered verbal statements in court.

·

Visual Inspection

Visual inspection of the person of an accused or suspect does not violate any right provided by the Constitution or by any provision of the UCMJ. An accused or suspect can be compelled to submit to · · · · · Fingerprinting Be photographed Write or speak for identification Assume a stance Make a particular gesture

Problem

The problem is deciding when a situation requires the Article 31 rights to be read, understood, and waived, and when it is not required. A problem arises when the accused or suspect is not asked to make a statement, but asked simple questions to provide the investigators with physical evidence or to assist them in getting it. Note: Whenever an act may constitute a statement of admission, an Article 31 warning and waiver is required.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Specific Issues on Article 31 Rights, Continued

Examples

The impact of Article 31 rights on admissibility in court for specific situations is cited in the table below: Example Situation A The person who is accused or suspected of an offense is asked to identify his clothing among clothing belonging to others. The action of the accused in complying with this particular request has been determined to be an acknowledgement of ownership and is considered a statement. B A Marine’s superior suspects the accused of having marijuana and informs him, “I think that you know what I want; give it to me.” So the Marine points to his shirt where the marijuana is then discovered. Since the Marine handed over the marijuana without receiving an Article 31 warning, the marijuana is not admissible at trial. C Examining the hands of a larceny suspect to determine the presence of a stain caused by stolen money, which had been dusted with a fluorescent powder. Article 31 Discussion An Article 31 warning is needed before the request is made so the clothes can be admitted in a court-martial.

Handing over a package of marijuana cigarettes by the suspect to the superior was inadmissible at trial because an Article 31 warning of rights did not precede the act.

This falls under the category of visual inspection and need not be prefaced by an Article 31 warning.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 9 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Which paragraph under Article 31 states: No statement obtained from any person in violation of this article or obtained through the use of coercion, unlawful influence, or unlawful inducement, may be received in evidence against him in a trial by court-martial? a. b. c. d. Paragraph a Paragraph b Paragraph c Paragraph d

Item 1

Item 2

What are the two basic elements of Article 31 rights? (1) _________________________________________________________ (2) _________________________________________________________

Item 3

How many questions are in the waiver element of Article 31? a. b. c. d. Three Four Five Six

Item 4

When must Article 31 warning and waiver be administered to the accused suspect? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Who is responsible for advising an accused suspect of the Article 31 rights? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

Item 6

How must the Article 31 rights be read to the accused suspect? a. b. c. d. Verbatim Slowly Whether or not the individual understands, he or she is guilty. Suspects are not required to have their rights read.

Item 7

In the case of an intoxicated or drug-induced (prescribed or illegally) suspect, what is the proper procedure you should carry out? a. Read the Article 31 rights immediately because of the regulations. b. Ask the suspect if he or she wants to drink some coffee. c. Allow time to pass before reading the warning, but proceed with the interrogation. d. Delay interrogation until the effects of the intoxicants are reduced and the accused or suspect can understand the warning.

Item 8

The admissibility of a confession from a suspect depends on his or her a. b. c. d. willingness to give you the truth. understanding the rights under the Article 31 warning. having a lawyer present. signing of the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form, which is in compliance with Article 31.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

Which of the following situations requires Article 31 warning and waiver to be administered? a. Visual inspection b. Asking simple questions c. Examining the hands of a suspect for residue from an item handled during a crime d. Requiring a suspect to write or speak for identification, to assume a stance, or to make a particular gesture Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 Answer d (1) Warning (2) Waiver a · Before any interrogation begins · Whenever an act constitutes a statement of admission Any person acting as an agent of the military authorities for the purpose of furthering a military investigation a d d b Reference 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-15

5

1-15

6 7 8 9

1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 DOCUMENTING THE OFFENSE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson provides the information you will need to charge someone of an UCMJ violation. As a Marine sergeant, you will be required to document an offense of the UCMJ. Once you have identified the violation, you will be able to submit a charge sheet for processing. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · State the punitive articles of the UCMJ. Identify the components of a punitive article. Identify who can submit a charge sheet. State the basic information required on a charge sheet.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Punitive Articles Narrowing the Charges Example Article Submit a Charge Sheet. Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 1-25 1-26 1-28 1-29 1-32 1-35

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Punitive Articles

Reference

The offenses are listed in the Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM) as punitive articles 77 through 134. The MCM contains the UCMJ (Appendix 2) and explanatory material needed to implement the code. Of particular importance is Part IV, which contains a discussion of military offenses and a listing of their elements. Note: The Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM), (19xx edition) is available through the Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Components

The six components of a punitive article are discussed in the MCM in the following sequence: · · · · · · Text of the article Elements of the offense or offenses Explanation Lesser included offenses Maximum punishment Sample specifications

Example

Article 86, unauthorized absence consists of five offenses that in turn are composed of separate elements. The offenses are · · · · · Failure to go to appointed place of duty consisting of three elements. Going from appointed place of duty consisting of three elements. Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty consisting of four elements. Abandoning watch or guard. Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises consisting of five elements.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Punitive Articles, Continued

Determining Article Violated

From any given set of facts, which crime has been committed, you will determine the nature of the offense the accused has allegedly committed. It is critical that you avoid erroneous determination. Follow the four steps listed in the table below: Step 1 Action Get all the facts about the incident: · · · An informal investigation A formal investigation A report from an investigative agency · Criminal Investigation Division (CID) · Naval Criminal Investigation Service (NCIS) · Local civilian law enforcement agencies · Witnessing the events yourself Note: The MCM requires a commanding officer to start a preliminary inquiry of an offense that may be tried by court-martial. Check the list of offenses for the one(s) that fit the facts (see Contents, Part IV, Punitive Articles of the MCM. Read the list and select any possible offenses. Note: Each offense is assigned a number such as Article 85, Desertion; Article 86, Unauthorized Absence, etc. Turn to the offense(s) you selected. Each offense is discussed separately within Part IV, MCM. After the text, a paragraph entitled ELEMENTS sets forth the essential conditions that must exist to convict an accused of the offense. These essential conditions are called the elements of an offense. To be found guilty of an offense, · · The essential elements must match the facts of the case. All the elements must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

2

3

4

If one or more elements are absent, the Marine did not commit that offense.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Narrowing the Charges

Reference

An individual may be charged with more than one offense, but each offense must have its own specification. Part IV, MCM references the language for almost every charge and specification. The Rules for Court-Martial (R.C.M.) 307(c) of the MCM discusses in detail how to prepare the charge and specification once the offense has been identified. The information that follows is an example of an article’s structure and considerations you must make when applying that charge to a suspect taken directly from the MCM.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Example Article

Article 86

Article 86, Unauthorized Absence (UA) · · Contains five separate UA offenses (see Punitive Articles, Example in this lesson). Covers every case not provided for elsewhere in which any member of the Armed Forces is, through the member's own fault, not at the place where the member is required to be at a prescribed time. It is not necessary that the person be absent entirely from military jurisdiction and control.

For purposes of this course, only the first offense will be discussed in detail. In actual practice, you would have to read through all five offenses of Article 86 to determine which offenses were violated.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Example Article, Continued

Offense

The first offense of Article 86 is Failure to Go to Appointed Place of Duty. To charge someone with the first offense, you must be able to prove all three essential elements of proof. The table below lists what the elements mean to you as a leader: Element Discussion (a) That a certain The ultimate offense. An oral or written order is authority appointed sufficient to appoint a time and place of duty. a certain time and · Violations of written orders that appoint a time and place of duty for place of duty can be charged; however, the accused the accused. will only be punished for his unauthorized absence (for which a lesser punishment is permitted). The ultimate offense is not the violation of the order, but the absence that violated the order. · (b) That the accused knew of that time and place… Generally, violation of an oral order that appoints a time and place of duty can only be prosecuted as UA. Knowledge of the order. The accused knew or should have known of that time and place of duty. This element may be proven by either · Direct Evidence · A witness testifies that at 1410 he heard the accused say, “Oh, oh – I’m in trouble now. The Gunny told me to report to the CO at 1400.” Evidence that tends to prove or disprove a fact in issue. In this example, the fact in issue is knowledge of the order.

·

·

Circumstantial Evidence · Evidence such as the Plan of the Day (POD) was properly posted and included an announcement stating the time and place of duty. Tends to prove knowledge; does not absolutely prove knowledge unless the accused read the POD or heard the announcement.
Continued on next page

·

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Example Article, Continued

Offense, continued

Element (c) That the · accused, without authority, failed to go to the appointed place of duty at the time prescribed.

Discussion Completion of the Offense. The accused failed to go to his or her appointed place of duty. The offense is complete at the moment the accused fails to appear at the appointed place of duty at the prescribed time. The fact that the accused later went to his or her appointed place of duty is not a defense. That the accused finally made an appearance may lessen the severity of the sentence that may be awarded. However, the Marine is still in violation of this article by failing to appear at the prescribed time. Without Authority. The key words in all absence offenses are without authority. Absence is not an offense. It must be coupled with the fact that the absence was without authority to constitute an offense under the UCMJ. A Marine may be absent with authority from his or her unit or place of duty as on liberty, leave, temporary additional duty (TAD), etc. Therefore, the allegation must be that a particular absence was without authority before that absence becomes an offense under the UCMJ. Use of Documents. Failure to go to an appointed place of duty at a prescribed time in violation of Article 86 is generally proven by official records, a copy of orders directing the time and place for reporting, etc. This offense is easily proven through the introduction of documentary evidence created by the particular order; e.g., a restriction muster, or a log sheet. This order directed a specific accused to be at a specific place at a particular time. His or her absence at that time may be proven by a master sheet or log entry made by the personnel in charge.

·

·

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Submit a Charge Sheet

Who Can Charge the Offense?

Before an NJP may be imposed, the offense must be identified and a charge and specification(s) determined. Once that is done, anyone may initially prepare a charge sheet. This sheet is to be forwarded to a unit’s local legal support section or law center. When the offense has been identified, a Charge Sheet, DD Form 458 is prepared. This form must be prepared before any punitive action can be taken. There are two elements of a charge sheet: · · Charge: a one-sentence statement that lists the number and title of the alleged offense. Specification: always included with the charge; it details who committed the offense, when, where, against whom, and under what circumstances. In other words, it specifies all the elements of the particular offense.

DD Form 458

Elements

A single charge sheet can have multiple charges and specifications on it. The charge and the specification's purpose is to inform the accused of the offenses alleged against him or her so that he or she will have an opportunity to plan a defense against those charges.
Example of a Charge

The charge would be as follows: · · Desertion: Charge I, Violation of the UCMJ, Article 85. Larceny: Charge I, Violation of the UCMJ, Article 121.

Example of a Specification

In a case of larceny, the specification would be as follows: In that Lance Corporal John Doe, United States Marine Corps did, at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia, on or about 20 November 1999 stole one wristwatch, of a value of about $95.00, the property of Larry Smith. (See paragraph 46(f)(1), Part IV, MCM, 1984).
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Submit a Charge Sheet, Continued

The Front View of DD Form 458

The front view of the Charge Sheet, DD Form 458 is identified in the diagram below:

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Submit a Charge Sheet, Continued

The Back View of DD Form 458

The back view of Charge Sheet, DD Form 458 is identified in the diagram below:

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 7 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. What are the numbered punitive articles found in the Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM)? a. b. c. d. 17 through 34 31 through 76 77 through 134 177 through 234

Item 1

Item 2

What are the six components of a punitive article? (1) _________________________________________________________ (2) _________________________________________________________ (3) _________________________________________________________ (4) _________________________________________________________ (5) _________________________________________________________ (6) _________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 3

Who can prepare a charge sheet and forward it to the unit’s local legal support section or law center? a. b. c. d. The commanding general Anyone The legal counsel of the accused The Marine accused of the offense

Item 4

What basic information is required on the charge sheet? a. b. c. d. Who and what happened Rights of the accused and request for counsel The commands authority and regulations The charge and specification
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 Answer c Text of the article Elements of the offense or offenses Explanation Lesser included offenses Maximum punishment Sample specifications b d Reference 1-26 1-26

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

3 4

1-32 1-32

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STUDY UNIT 2 THE LAW OF LAND WARFARE Overview
Estimated Study Time Unit Scope

1 hour, 15 minutes

Ancient wars were characterized by total and unrestrained violence. Defeated forces and civilians were subjected to wholesale extermination, torture, and slavery. During the Middle Ages, war was studied from both a philosophical and technical perspective, military and political leaders recognized that unlimited war was counterproductive to their objectives. Today, the Laws of War regulates combat. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · Identify the law of land warfare fundamentals. Identify the rules of engagement

Learning Objectives

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Law of Land Warfare Fundamentals Lesson 2 Rules of Engagement (ROE) See Page 2-3 2-21

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Study Unit 2

LESSON 1 LAW OF LAND WARFARE FUNDAMENTALS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

Following World War II, the Nuremburg Tribunal, which tried the major German war criminals, declared:
International Law is not the product of an international legislature. The law of warfare is to be found not only in treaties, but in the customs and practices of states which gradually obtain universal recognition from the general principles of justice.

This lesson will discuss the purpose for the laws of war. The key to understanding the laws of war is to know the overall objective of war as viewed by the United States. This lesson will show how the laws of war benefit the overall accomplishment of the military mission assigned to achieve that objective.
Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · · Identify the two main sources for the laws of war. Identify the objective of war. State the purpose for the laws of war. Identify the four basic concepts underlying the laws of war. Identify the nine Marine Corps principles for the laws of war. Identify what constitutes a war crime. Identify methods to prevent war crimes. Identify how to report a war crime.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Sources of Land Warfare War Concepts Underlying the Laws of War Basic Principles of the Laws of War War Crimes Preventing War Crimes Reporting War Crimes Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 2-3 2-5 2-7 2-9 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-15 2-16

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Sources of Land Warfare

Main Sources

There are two main sources for the laws of war: · · Customary International Law Ratified Treaties

Customary International Law

The customary international law is a body of rules that civilized nations recognize as binding them in their conduct towards one another. This body of rules is established by the custom and practice of a country: · · International Custom Codified International Laws

International Custom

International custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law, consists of · · · · A practice by a number of nations regarding situations falling within the domain of international relations Continuous practice over a long period of time Conception that the practice is required by or is consistent with prevailing international law General acquiescence by other nations

Many customary practices are eventually codified, such as most of the contents of the Geneva Convention.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Sources of Land Warfare, Continued

Codified International Laws

The codified international laws (Geneva Convention) can become so widely accepted that it is considered customary, even for nations that are not yet a party to a particular international agreement. Customary acts that have become internationally accepted practices are listed below: · · · · Formal declarations of war Prisoner exchanges Protection of civilians and non-combatants Communication through neutral third parties

Ratified Treaties

Treaties are formal agreements that are made between two or more countries. Sources for the laws of war are in treaties and international customs, which have been practiced over a long period of time by a large number of countries in the belief that it is required by law. Treaties that establish laws of war and have been ratified by the U.S. Senate are part of the U.S. law. The two main treaties that deal with laws of war are · · · · · · The Hague Rules of 1907 The Geneva Convention of 1949 Treatment of prisoners of war Protection of the sick and wounded on land Protection of the sick, wounded, and shipwrecked at sea Protection of civilians during times of war

A Marine in violation of the laws of war would be punished under the UCMJ.
Other References

There are numerous references for the law of land warfare. A few of them are listed below: · · · · · Handbook, On The Law of War For Armed Forces, written by Frederic De Mulinen Army Pamphlet 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare FM 27-10 MCRP 4-11.8B MCRP 5-12.1A

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

War

Objective of War

The objective of war is to destroy the enemy’s will to resist or change their will until it agrees with the objective set forth by higher authorities. Obeying the laws of war will help accomplish this objective with the least amount of suffering and destruction of personnel and property. There are three purposes for laws of war: · · · · · · · Prevent unnecessary suffering of combatants and non-combatants. Safeguard certain fundamental human rights of persons: Prisoners of war Sick and wounded Shipwrecked people Civilians Encourage the restoration of peace.

Purposes for Laws of War

Constitutional Obligations

The Nation’s law requires that we afford certain rights to persons captured on the battlefield. Every disciplined Marine needs to be aware of this basic philosophy. As the defenders of our Constitution, we have an obligation to enforce its provisions. However, affording this legal protection to captured persons also is of military value. Warriors developed the general rules on how to treat enemy prisoners of war (EPWs). Lawyers only wrote down what the commanders practiced. We also comply with these rules because it helps us on the battlefield. If the enemy knows that we will treat him with dignity and respect and not harm him, he is more likely to surrender. We also hope these basic rights will be afforded to our Marines if they become prisoners of war.
Continued on next page

Prisoner Treatment Effects Military Objective

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

War, Continued

Handling Prisoners

Once a person has surrendered or comes into your custody, it is your duty to ensure they are treated humanely. You must account for each and every EPW from capture until you turn him over to higher headquarters. Initially, treat a captured person as a prisoner of war¾always. Process them according to the five Ss: · · · · · Search Silence Segregate Safeguard Speed to the rear

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Concepts Underlying the Laws of War

Four Basic Concepts

The four basic concepts underlying the laws of war are listed below: · · · · Military necessity Proportionality Unnecessary suffering Discrimination

Military Necessity

The principle of military necessity justifies the employment of that degree or kind of violence, not forbidden by international law, required to secure the timely submission of the enemy. Military necessity is never accepted as a justification for committing a war crime.

Proportionality

In combat operations, Marines are required to strike a balance between infliction of suffering and the use of force. Marines must apply only the amount of force needed to accomplish the mission. Although suffering cannot be eliminated in war, you must exercise a degree of restraint in combat. Destruction must be limited to that which is necessary, relevant, and proportionate to the accomplishment of legitimate military missions. Attacks must be directed against a specific military target.

Unnecessary Suffering

Discrimination

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Basic Principles of the Laws of War

Source of Reference

The list of acts covered under various treaties and conventions are extensive. Every leader must review FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, to enhance their knowledge on this subject. The time to teach the Marines in your unit the laws of war is now, not when you are in harms way. The nine basic principles of the laws of war are listed in the table below: Number Principle 1 Marines fight only enemy combatants. While it is perfectly lawful to kill an enemy combatant, it is not legal to intentionally target a civilian who is not taking part in the hostilities. 2 Marines do not harm enemies who surrender. They must disarm them and turn them over to their superior. Giving good treatment of EPWs will encourage more enemies to surrender and shorten the time to achieve victory. It will also encourage the enemy to give better treatment to U.S. prisoners. 3 Marines do not kill or torture prisoners. Killing or torturing an enemy prisoner is a violation of the UCMJ and will be punished harshly. 4 Marines collect and care for the wounded whether friend or foe. Wounded enemy troops will not be left on the battlefield after the engagement is over to suffer a slow and lingering death. 5 Marines do not attack medical personnel, facilities, or equipment. Both friendly and enemy medical personnel are to be encouraged to come to the battlefield in safety to care for the wounded combatants. 6 Marines destroy no more than the mission requires. While it is legal to destroy properties to accomplish the military mission, unnecessary destruction of civilian property wastes resources and detracts from mission accomplishment. 7 Marines treat all civilians humanely. Civilians who are not taking part in the hostilities are to be treated with respect.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Basic Principles of the Laws of War, Continued

Source of Reference, continued

Number Principle 8 Marines do not steal. Marines respect private property and possessions. A thief is a thief whether in peace or war and will be prosecuted under the UCMJ. 9 Marines should do their best to prevent violations. They must report all violations of the laws of war to their superior. It is not sufficient for the individual Marine to only obey the laws of war, but Marines must use their authority to prevent others from violating the law. Where they cannot prevent a violation, they must report the offense up their chain of command. If the Marine believes his superior is partially responsible for the violation, this report may be made to any other officer in a position of authority. It may also be made to the provost marshal, judge advocate, or even the chaplain.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

War Crimes

Definition

A war crime is the intentional harming of civilians not taking part in the hostilities, enemy prisoners of war, medical personnel, or other noncombatants. While any violation of the laws of war may be considered a war crime, the violations that are directed at these particular protected persons are most likely to be prosecuted harshly. In all cases of armed conflict (whether or not there is a declaration of war) acts that violate the Geneva Convention are war crimes. Some examples of war crimes are · · · · · · · · · Torture Rape Murder Reprisals against EPWs or civilians Mutilation Unnecessary destruction of cultural sites Attacks on medical facilities Faking surrender only to attack Attacking while dressed in enemy uniforms

Examples

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Preventing War Crimes

Morale Courage

Marines must step forward and use moral courage to halt atrocities. The bottom line is if you know in your gut that what is happening is wrong, tell the perpetrators to cease their actions immediately. A review of war crime cases reveals that a pattern of lack of training, boredom, and poor leadership usually occurs just before acts of misconduct toward EPWs, the sick and wounded, and civilians. You should look for this pattern and take affirmative steps to prevent war crimes: · · · Conduct tactical training. Stress normal military behavior. Provide good leadership.

Correct Pattern

Conduct Tactical Training

In all tactical training before deploying, teach the procedures for dealing with situations that can easily become laws of war violations, such as how to · · · Handle troublesome EPWs properly. Select a lawful military target in the middle of the civilian community. Respond properly when a white flag is shown, using careful tactical responses.

Under the stress of combat, Marines will respond the way they were trained. Remind Marines that they are authorized to use deadly force and to destroy property only because of military necessity. Tactical situations will dictate confrontation with the enemy. Criminal conduct during a deployment is intolerable, distracts from accomplishment of the military mission, and will be dealt with swiftly. Properly treated, the civilian populace may be a prime source of intelligence information. Reinforce the basic laws of war instruction by emphasizing the nine basic principles of the laws of war.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Preventing War Crimes, Continued

Stress Normal Military Behavior

Most laws of war violations result from the constant change of combat stress and then long periods of boredom. Good leadership should emphasize normal behavior and positive activity. Constantly remind Marines of normal military behavior standards: · Maintain high standards of military: · Courtesy · Discipline · Hygiene · Moral conduct Keep your Marines informed. Prevent personal wars or vendettas within the unit and with local civilians.

· ·
Provide Good Leadership

Be watchful for signs of · · · · Personality disorders Stress-related actions Antisocial conduct A breakdown in military discipline and courtesy

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Reporting War Crimes

Identify Illegal Orders

Orders are presumed to be legal. Remember training is aimed at preventing the issuance of illegal orders. Illegal orders are regarded as a war crime violation. Examples of illegal orders are to · · Kill the prisoners. Mutilate the bodies.

Report the Order

The first way you should report the order is by following the chain of command, bypassing the superior who issued the order. The commanding officer has the responsibility and the authority to immediately correct and discipline any misconduct. A second option is to report the order to the military police, if a report cannot be made up the chain of command. If neither the chain of command nor military police are available, report the order to a judge advocate or chaplain.

Procedure

To report an illegal order, follow the steps listed in the table below: Step 1 Action Clarify the order. Example The order is, “Take care of those useless prisoners. You know what to do with them.” Your response should be, “Sir, are you ordering me to kill the helpless enemy prisoners?” Refuse the order. “Sir, I will not shoot the prisoner.” Report the order using the “Colonel, on this date, I was ordered chain of command, but to shoot a prisoner.” bypassing the superior who issued the order.

2 3

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 9 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. List the two main sources for the laws of war. (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________

Item 1

Item 2

Which two treaties deal specifically with laws of war issues? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________

Item 3

What is the objective of war? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________

Item 4

What are the three purposes for the laws of war? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

List the four basic concepts underlying the laws of war. (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________ (4) ________________________________________________________

Item 6

Following the basic principles of the laws of war, what are the proper procedures for handling a wounded foe discovered on the battlefield? ___________________________________________________________

Item 7

Define war crime. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Item 8

What three procedures are included in tactical training for preventing war crimes? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

What are the three steps to report an illegal order? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer (1) Customary International Law (2) Ratified Treaties (1) The Hague Rules of 1907 (2) The Geneva Convention of 1949 (1) Destroy the enemy’s will to resist. (2) Change their will until it agrees with the objective set forth by higher authorities. (1) Prevent unnecessary suffering of combatants and non-combatants. (2) Safeguard certain fundamental human rights to people such as EPWs, the sick and wounded, civilians, etc. (3) Encourage the restoration of peace. (1) Military necessity (2) Proportionality (3) Unnecessary suffering (4) Discrimination Collect and care for the wounded. The intentional harming of civilians not taking part in the hostilities, enemy prisoners of war, medical personnel, or other non-combatants (1) Handle troublesome enemy prisoners of war properly. (2) Select a lawful military target in the middle of civilian community. (3) Respond properly when a white flag is shown. (1) Clarify the order. (2) Refuse the order. (3) Report the order. Reference 2-5 2-6 2-7

4

2-7

5

2-9

6 7

2-10 2-12

8

2-13

9

2-15

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LESSON 2 RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE) Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

Although the laws of war provide the basic foundation for all military operations, individual Marines should receive detailed rules of engagement (ROE) for each particular exercise. This lesson explains the general principles that apply to rules of engagement. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Define the term rules of engagement. Identify the three main purposes of ROE. Name the three classes of persons who are entitled to self-defense. Name the three types of actions that will justify self-defense.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction General Information Self-Defense Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 2-21 2-22 2-24 2-27

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

General Information

Rules of Engagement Definition

The Joint Pub 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms defines rules of engagement (ROE) as…directives issued by competent military authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Higher authorities should establish the ROE to explain proper conduct in detail.

Purposes for ROE

The three main purposes for ROE are listed below: · · · Provides implementation guidance on the application of force for mission accomplishment Serves as a fire control method of military operations by the civilian and military chain of command Implements the inherent right of self-defense

Standing ROE

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Instruction 3121.01A dated 15 January 2000 provides the standing rules of engagement (Standing ROE) for U.S. forces. In the absence of superseding guidance, the Standing ROE (SROE) establishes fundamental policies and procedures governing the actions to be taken by U.S. force commanders. The SROE will apply in the event of a military attack against the United States and during all military operations, contingencies, terrorist attacks, or prolonged conflicts outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States. The SROE was established far in advance of any current deployment. The Chairman’s instruction recognizes that each particular mission will have different levels of threat, different objectives, and different weapons mix. Competent military authorities draft more specific ROE to accomplish a particular mission. The SROE provides guidelines for incorporating ROE development into the crisis action planning and deliberate planning processes by commanders and staffs at all levels.
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

General Information, Continued

Mission ROE

The responsibility of the mission specific ROE is listed below: · · G-3—when engaged in operations or crisis action planning G-5—when engaged in deliberate planning

Generally, the staff judge advocate provides assistance in developing specific mission ROE.
Restraints and Constraints

ROE are prepared based upon the following: · · · · Laws of war (LOW) Political policy Public opinion Military operational constraints

ROE are more restrictive than what the LOW allows. Targeting rules are usually incorporated within the ROE.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Self-Defense

Of Whom

Marines are authorized by ROE to use deadly force to defend three classes of persons. Those three classes are identified in the table below: Class of Persons Individuals and Self Units Explanation Marines have the inherent right to defend themselves. Marines have the right and obligation to defend U.S. forces, including elements or personnel thereof, and other U.S. forces in the vicinity against a hostile act or hostile intent. Example: In 1983, the Marine Barracks in Beirut, Lebanon was the victim of a suicide bombing. In the investigation, the young Marine sentry explained that he hesitated to chamber a round into his weapon upon the approach of the truck for fear that under his vaguely worded ROE card, he would be committing a war crime. The Marine sentry should have been instructed that he had the right to exercise unit self-defense. Marines have the right to defend U.S. citizens and their property from hostile acts or hostile intent. Note: The SROE do not automatically authorize Marines to defend designated non-U.S. forces, foreign nationals, and their property. Authority to exercise this collective selfdefense is normally retained by the National Command Authority (the President, Secretary of Defense, and National Security Advisor). Therefore, the correct level of authorization to defend non-U.S. forces and nationals should be obtained prior to entering into foreign territory.
Continued on next page

National Interests

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Self-Defense, Continued

Against What

U.S. forces need not be attacked before they can respond in self-defense. The use of force in peacekeeping, and even in peace enforcement, is normally a measure of last resort. Under those circumstances, attempts should be made to control the situation without the use of force. If force is necessary, the nature, duration, and scope of the force should not exceed the amount required to decisively counter the hostile act or intent. Self-defense force used against a hostile situation is identified in the table below: Situation Act Explanation An attack or use of force against U.S. forces and, when national and or collective self-defense has been implemented, against those persons and assets protected by those definitions. The threat of imminent use of force, including the threat of force used to impede or preclude the mission or duties of U.S. forces. Hostile intent is fact specific. Note: Although the classified portions of the SROE contain guidance throughout to the factors that may constitute evidence of hostile intent in various situations, the ultimate decision rests with the commander against whom the potential hostile intent is being demonstrated. Any force (civilian, terrorist, paramilitary, or military) that has committed a hostile act or demonstrated hostile intent, and is considered a continuing hostile threat. Once declared hostile by appropriate authority, U.S. forces need not observe a hostile act or demonstration of hostile intent before engaging. The basis of the engagement shifts from conduct of the potential threat to merely status of the force.
Continued on next page

Intent

Force

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Self-Defense, Continued

Request for Changes

The SROE expects the threat assessment will likely change throughout the course of a single mission and the mission specific ROE will have to change to stay current. During any deployment, you should expect routine changes to the mission specific ROE based upon better intelligence on the threat assessment and or the scope of the mission changes. If your unit is requesting a change for supplemental mission specific ROE, it should always include the justification for the request. Your unit should serialize all requests sent up the chain of command and all approvals, especially the Joint Task Force and higher headquarters that are promulgating and or approving the ROE. Example: A unit that has received CINC ROE approval serial 005 should ensure that they possess approval serials 001 through 004, unless the latest message is a total restatement of all previously approved ROE.

Training

During the stress of combat, Marines will react the way they are trained. In developing tactical unit training, ROE should be written for unit commanders and individual Marines to practice making judgment calls with regard to a possible threat. ROE will seldom, if ever, state in explicit detail when force may be utilized. Such a decision is subject to many factors that the person responsible for facing the threat must determine. Therefore, ROE should not be regarded as a comprehensive checklist of events that must occur before force can be used.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Define rules of engagement. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Item 1

Item 2

The three main purposes for ROE are (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________

Item 3

What three classes of persons does ROE authorize the use of deadly force to defend? (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

List the three types of hostile situations that justify self-defense. (1) ________________________________________________________ (2) ________________________________________________________ (3) ________________________________________________________ Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 Answer …directives issued by competent military authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. (1) Provides implementation guidance on the application of force for mission accomplishment (2) Serves as a fire control method of military operations by the civilian and military chain of command (3) Implements the inherent right of self-defense (1) Individuals and self (2) Units (3) National interests (1) Act (2) Intent (3) Force Reference 2-22

2

2-22

3 4

2-24 2-25

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

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STUDY UNIT 3 HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF MARINE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS (NCOs) Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 55 minutes

Unit Scope

This study unit will discuss the historic development of the noncommissioned officer (NCO), significant NCOs, and battles in Marine Corps history. As an NCO, you should realize the enormous burden of your responsibilities as well as the joys and success that come from those responsibilities. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · Identify the origins of the noncommissioned officer (NCO). State the purpose of the Medal of Honor (MOH). Identify historic individuals and battles.

Learning Objectives

Unit Content

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Origins of the Noncommissioned Officer Lesson 2 Medal of Honor (MOH) Lesson 3 Historic Individuals and Battles See Page 3-3 3-15 3-21

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Study Unit 3

LESSON 1 ORIGINS OF THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

Try to imagine a Marine Corps without noncommissioned officers (NCOs). Boot camp would not exist because drill instructors would not exist. Think of the hundreds of platoons in a Marine division, a lieutenant just out of the basic school would head each platoon with no NCO standing in. The dignity of a command, which is essential to discipline, would be lost without NCOs. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify the origins of the NCO. List the responsibilities of the NCO. Identify NCO obligations for self and to the unit. Identify the roles the NCO fulfills.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction International Origins American NCO Development Marine Corps NCO Development NCO Purpose NCO Obligations NCO Roles Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-11

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

International Origins

Seventh Century, B.C.

As recorded in the book of Deuteronomy in the seventh century B.C., captains of fifties and captains over tens served among the forces of Moses. A Roman gunnery sergeant was called a centurion who commanded the smallest tactical units in the Roman Legion. During the Middle Ages after the fall of Rome, no organized armies, as the Romans knew them or as we know them today, existed. However, as soon as the first rudiments of modern military organization appeared during the fourteenth century, the NCO reappeared. The Condottieri, the first modern military units, consisted of mercenary French, Swiss, and Italian soldiers. They were professionals who served under the colors of any state that paid and fed them. The Condottieri units initiated the ranks of sergeants and corporals. Sergeant, dating from 1425, is the older rank.

Middle Ages

The 1400’s

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

American NCO Development

Baron von Steuben

In 1778 Baron von Steuben, a Prussian adviser, was forging the continental Army into a professional force and wrote the Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States:
The choice of noncommissioned officers is an object of the greatest importance: The order and discipline of a regiment depends so much on the behavior, that too much care cannot be taken for granted. Honesty, sobriety and a remarkable attention to every point of duty are absolute necessary.

The Blue Book

Baron von Steuben also aided the NCO’s growth as an instructor of soldiers by writing the Blue Book—name derived from the color of the first edition. This manual covered all aspects of infantry service and stressed NCO responsibilities for the care, discipline, and training of the men in garrison and in the field. Von Steuben’s six attributes for an NCO are as valid today as they were at Valley Forge: · · · · · · Character Attention to duty Loyalty Command presence Professional skill Ability to instruct

Attributes for an NCO

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Marine Corps NCO Development

Shared Leadership

NCOs have always shared leadership responsibilities with their commissioned superiors. For more than 200 years, NCOs have served as leaders in the U.S. Marine Corps during peace and war. NCOs are key to unit morale and esprit de corps, as well as the mainstay of discipline and efficiency. Because both the American and European armies generally fought standing in lines facing the enemy (linear tactics), the NCOs had to keep the long ranks steady to maintain volley fire discipline. A fundamental problem in the Civil War was that the linear tactics still being used were designed for men carrying smoothbore muskets. During the Civil War, soldiers were armed with rifled muskets, which had greater accuracy. Unless tactics were changed, casualties were certain to be horrendous with the increased killing power of even newer weapons introduced late in the war.

Role of Tactics

Technological Changes

Breech loading rifles, cavalry carbines, and the gatling guns underscored the need for more open tactical formations. Various unit commanders gradually introduced such formations to reduce the vulnerability of their men to the increased volume and accuracy of enemy fire.

Maintain Order The gradual elimination of linear tactics after the Civil War redefined the

NCO’s combat leadership role. The change in technological advances and tactics emphasized and increased the role of the small unit leaders, the NCOs, to maintain order on a more complex battlefield.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

NCO Purpose

Essential Link in Command

The NCO provides the essential link between the unit’s commanders and enlisted Marines. To serve successfully as the link between commanders and unit members, the NCO has always had to perform several important functions simultaneously. The NCO’s responsibilities are listed below: · · · · Decentralize command authority in an orderly structure down to the smallest element in an organization. Provide links between commanders (as well as officers in general) and the troops. Provide a senior enlisted adviser, a platoon sergeant, a first sergeant, or a sergeant major for each commander. Afford avenues for advancement whereby enlisted men and women may realize their full potential as leaders. (Not every Marine can become a general, but with application and attitude, every Marine can win chevrons and, in so doing, demonstrate that the road to the top is always open.) Recognize and reward outstanding technical and military skills.

Responsibilities

·
Major Tasks Summarized

In other words, NCOs help the commander to · · · Lead, train, and take care of enlisted Marines. Enable good Marines to get promoted. Maximize the Marines’ best skills and abilities.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

NCO Obligations

To Yourself

As an NCO, you owe it to yourself to enjoy the burden of your leadership position. If you do not, your Marines will know it and you will be ineffective. Just as enthusiasm is contagious, so is lack of it. Providing your unit with positive leadership, you will reap the greatest returns from the Marines entrusted to your care: · · · · · Greatest accomplishment of the mission Willing obedience Inspire confidence Loyalty Respect

To the Unit

Your primary obligations to the unit are to · · · Win on the battlefield. Accomplish all assigned tasks. Build and foster unit cohesion: · Provide training. · Set meaningful standards. · Hold yourself and your Marines accountable to high standards.

Trust Among Marines

As an NCO, you must create trust among Marines from vastly different social backgrounds and cultural experiences: You can build on that trust by eliminating the ignorance of prejudice while at the same time, educating Marines on the value of diversity. This mutual trust is too easily destroyed if you tolerate racist overtures, sexual harassment, fraternization, or hazing. If you encourage or turn your head to any of these evils, you will immediately lose credibility and will destroy unit cohesion.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

NCO Roles

Roles of the NCO

The NCO fulfills five major roles: · · · · · Unit leader Trainer Guardian of standards Backbone of the Corps Disciplinarian

Unit Leader

Successful leadership demands excellence. To be a good unit leader, practice the six traits listed below: · · · · · · Know yourself and your troops. Be both tactically and technically proficient. Understand mission requirements and communicate them clearly. Make sound and timely decisions. Always set a good example. Take responsibility for unit performance.

Trainer

You are a trainer ready to teach troops everything they must know, from the proper wearing of the uniform and the observance of military customs and traditions to marksmanship and physical training. Above all, you must fully understand military professionalism and be able to pass along to others whatever knowledge is required to accomplish the mission. Historically, the setting of standards has been the responsibility of officers. However, the teaching and enforcing of standards, both of soldier discipline and soldier skills, has been the NCO’s responsibility. Thus, you must enforce standards of conduct. NCOs are the backbone of the Marine Corps. From the recruiting process, through recruit training, and into the operation forces, the Marine Corps holds the NCOs responsible for the care and development of the nation’s most precious resource, the individual Marine. No other service in the world fully entrusts its NCOs to the extent that the Marine Corps does.
Continued on next page

Guardian of Standards

Backbone of the Corps

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

NCO Roles, Continued

Disciplinarian

Subordinates have always watched NCOs. Therefore, you must discipline yourself first to present a positive example at all times. You must remain thoroughly prepared in tactics and techniques of your field. If you present a negative example for any reason, you encourage your subordinates to violate accepted standards of conduct. Serious discipline problems will soon develop.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 12 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Matching: For items 1 through 4, match the letter of the period of time in column 2 to the NCO development in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 NCO Development ___ 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. The Condottieri units initiated the ranks of sergeants and corporals. Centurions commanded the smallest tactical units in the Roman Legion Baron von Steuben listed six attributes for an NCO that are still valid. Technological advances and tactical changes increased NCO leadership role. Column 2 Period of Time a. b. c. d. e. Seventh Century, B.C. Middle Ages 1400’s 1778 Civil War

Items 1 Through 4

Item 5

What are the three major tasks that summarize the NCO’s responsibilities? (1) _______________________________________________________ (2) _______________________________________________________ (3) _______________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Items 6 Through 10

Matching: For items 6 through 10, match the letter of the type of obligation in column 2 to the action in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Action ___ 6. ___ 7. Column 2 Obligation

Provide training. a. To yourself Build and foster unit b. To the unit cohesion. ___ 8. Provide positive leadership. ___ 9. Hold yourself and your Marines accountable to high standards. ___ 10. Inspire confidence.
Item 11

As an NCO, what are four of the six tasks to be a good unit leader? (1) _______________________________________________________ (2) _______________________________________________________ (3) _______________________________________________________ (4) _______________________________________________________

Item 12

What are the major roles of the NCO? a. Soul of the unit, assistant to the commander, trainer, and disciplinarian b. Backbone of the Corps, intermediary between commanders and unit members, and trainers c. Unit leader, assistant to the commander, an example of standards, and trainer d. Unit leader, trainer, guardian of standards, backbone of the Corps, and disciplinarian

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer c a d e Lead, train, and take care of enlisted Marines. Enable good Marines to get promoted. Maximize the Marines’ best skills and abilities. b b a b a Know yourself and your troops. Be both tactically and technically proficient. Understand mission requirements and communicate them clearly. Make sound and timely decisions. Always set a good example. Take responsibility for unit performance. d Reference 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7

· · ·

6 7 8 9 10 11

· · ·

3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-9

· · · 12

3-9

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 MEDAL OF HONOR (MOH) Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

NCOs must combine history and tradition with skill and ability to prepare for combat. The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the highest award for valor in action against an enemy force that can be bestowed upon an individual serving in the armed services of the United States. Generally presented to its recipient by the President of the United States of America in the name of Congress, it is often called the Congressional Medal of Honor. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · State the purpose of the Medal of Honor (MOH). List the criteria for receiving the MOH. Identify the first Marine NCO to receive the MOH.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Background Information History Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Background Information

Purpose

The purpose of the MOH is to recognize deeds of gallantry and heroism in times of war and of peace. It is given for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her life above the call of duty. The act or execution of duty must be performed while · · · Engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States Engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force Serving with friendly foreign forces (such as the case with the United Nations’ forces in Korea) engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party

The MOH is the highest award given for bravery in the United States.
MOH Criteria

The criteria of the MOH is as follows: · · No margin of doubt or possibility of error in awarding this honor. Service is rendered conspicuous above their comrades by an act so outstanding that it clearly distinguishes their gallantry beyond the call of duty from lesser forms of bravery. The deed must be the type that if not done, it will not subject the individual to any justified criticism. The deed must be without detriment to the mission of the command or to the command to which attached.

· ·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

History

Birth of the MOH

The idea for the MOH was born during the Civil War as men fought gallantly and often displayed great heroism: · · · Instituted only for the enlisted men of the Navy with officers being permitted to receive the award later Authorized by Congress Approved on 21 December 1861 by President Abraham Lincoln

Presentation

On 20 September 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order: · · · · Presentation of the award will always be formal and impressive. The recipient will, when practical, be ordered to Washington, DC. The President will make the presentation, as Commander in Chief or by such representative designated by the President. When not practicable to have the presentation at Washington, the details of time, place, and ceremony will be prescribed by the Chief of Staff for each case. On campaign, the division or higher commander will make the presentation.

·

First Marine Recipient

In May 1862, Corporal John F. Mackie was the first Marine to receive the MOH. During the attack on Fort Darling at Drewry’s Bluff, Virginia, he fearlessly maintained his musket fire against the rifle pits on shore, and when ordered to fill vacancies at guns caused by men wounded and killed in action, manned the weapon with skill and courage. Currently, 294 Marines have received the MOH since 1862.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 6 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. What is the purpose of the Medal of Honor (MOH)? ____________________________________________________________

Item 1

Items 2

List three of the four criteria for receiving the MOH. (1) _________________________________________________________ (2) _________________________________________________________ (3) _________________________________________________________

Item 3

The MOH is the highest award given in the United States for a. b. c. d. leadership. bravery. judgment. initiative.

Item 4

Who was the first Marine recipient of the MOH? ____________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Marines have received the MOH since a. b. c. d. 1775. 1862. 1881. 1941.

Item 6

When did President Lincoln approve the MOH? a. b. c. d. 20 September 1805 21 December 1862 20 September 1841 21 December 1861
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 Answer To recognize deeds of gallantry and heroism in times of war and of peace · No margin of doubt or possibility of error in awarding this honor. · Service is rendered conspicuous above their comrades by an act so outstanding that it clearly distinguishes their gallantry beyond the call of duty from lesser forms of bravery. · The deed must be the type that if not done, it will not subject the individual to any justified criticism. · The deed must be without detriment to the mission of the command or to the command to which attached. b Corporal John F. Mackie b d Reference 3-16 3-16

3 4 5 6

3-16 3-17 3-17 3-17

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 HISTORIC INDIVIDUALS AND BATTLES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

The history of the Marine Corps is rife with tales of the Marine NCO. Today’s corporals and sergeants carry on one of the strongest and longest unbroken traditions of duty, honor, courage, and commitment within our Corps. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · State the NCO’s tasks throughout history. Write the NCO creed. Cite specific examples of NCO behavior that exemplified the NCO creed. Identify the importance of specific incidents in Marine Corps history.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction NCO Tasks Through History NCO Creed NCOs in Action 1776 Through 1890s 1900 Through 1940s 1950s and 1960s 1980s Through 1990s Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 3-21 3-22 3-24 3-25 3-29 3-30 3-31 3-32 3-34

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCO Tasks Through History

Neatness and Sanitation

In the early days of American Revolution, little standardization of NCO duties or responsibilities existed. Sergeants and corporals were expected to instruct recruits in all matters of military training, especially with regard to their neatness and sanitation. However, the increase of technology that accompanied modernization greatly effected the NCO corps during the last half of the 19th century. The duties of the NCO were clearly defined during this period.

Weapons and Daytime Maneuvers

World War I required the first massive training of men that the United States had seen. NCOs trained hundreds of Marines who would be sent overseas. NCOs were the primary instructors during this period with lessons emphasizing weapons and daytime maneuvers. With the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States found itself at war. This attack forced basic training to be centered around hands-on experience instead of the classroom instruction. NCOs conducted all of the training. After basic training, Marines were sent to their units where training continued. During the Korean War, NCOs emerged more prominently as battle leaders than they had in World War II. The deeply eroded hills, ridges, narrow valleys, and deep gorges forced many units to advance as squads. The Korean War was the first war the United States entered with an integrated force. Black and white Marines fought side by side on the battlefield against a common foe.

Basic Training

Battle Leaders, Integrated Squads

Junior Leaders, Decentralized Control

In 1965, the first American ground troops were committed to Vietnam. The American policy of containment of communism was severely challenged. The Vietnamese communists fought a long, drawn out war that eventually wore down the American forces. At times, there were no clear battle lines and often it was hard to tell friend from foe. This battle proved to be a junior leaders’ war with decentralized control. Much of the burden of combat leadership fell on the NCOs.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCO Tasks Through History, Continued

NCO Education In recent years, the emphasis on NCO education was stressed to all units in

the Marine Corps. In 1981, the NCO Basic Course was established. The basic course was designed to educate NCOs on subjects and skills needed to enhance their performance and abilities on and off the battlefield.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCO Creed

Live by the NCO Creed

Memorize and try to live by the NCO creed as follows: I am an NCO dedicated to training new Marines and influencing the old. I am forever conscious of each Marine under my charge, and by example I will inspire him (or her) to the highest standards possible. I will strive to be patient, understanding, just and firm. I will commend the deserving and encourage the wayward. I will never forget that I am responsible to my commanding officer for the morale, discipline, and the efficiency of my men and their performance will reflect an image of me.

NCO Contributions

History has shown that proficient NCOs utilize the NCO creed as words to live by in all facets of life. During many of the battles in which the Marine Corps has participated, NCOs have exemplified the NCO creed. These NCOs were always winners on the battlefield and subsequently earned numerous prestigious awards for their distinguished and noteworthy contributions. The Marine Corps owes its existence to the accomplishments of generations of NCOs who have served under its colors and have made history. That history is an integral part of the sense of pride and tradition that pervades the present day Marine Corps. Learning the NCO creed, you will · · · Understand your responsibilities as an NCO. Have a ready tool to conduct your life. Continue the legacy and tradition for future NCOs.

Summary

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCOs in Action

Exemplify

From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, Marines continue to fight and die in war and peace to secure the liberties and freedom of democracy and humanitarianism worldwide. Special recognition is given to four NCOs and their actions on duty: · · · · Sergeant J.E. Johnson Sergeant J.I. Poynter Corporal R.E. O’Malley Sergeant Daniel P. Matthews

Special Recognition

Sergeant J.E. Johnson

Sergeant Johnson was awarded the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life while serving in Korea as a squad leader for 3/7 1st Marine Division in December 1950. Sergeant Johnson and his squad were vastly outnumbered when a well-entrenched and cleverly concealed enemy force wearing the uniforms of friendly troops attacked the platoon’s open and unconcealed positions. Sergeant Johnson unhesitatingly took charge of his platoon in the absence of the leader and, exhibiting great personal valor in the face of a heavy barrage of hostile fire, coolly proceeded to move about among his men, shouting words of encouragement and inspiration and skillfully directing their fire. To help his platoon, Sergeant Johnson immediately placed himself in an extremely hazardous position to provide effective cover for his men. Fully aware that his voluntary action meant either certain death or capture to himself, he courageously continued to provide effective cover for his men and was last observed in a wounded condition single handedly engaging enemy troops in close hand-grenade and hand-to-hand fighting.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCOs in Action, Continued

Sergeant J.I. Poynter

Sergeant Poynter was awarded the MOH for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader in a rifle platoon of Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. In action against enemy aggressor forces during the defense of Hill 532, south of Sudong, Korea on 4 November 1950. Sergeant Poynter gallantly gave his life for his country. When a vastly outnumbering, well-concealed hostile force launched a sudden vicious counterattack against his platoon’s hasty defense position, Sergeant Poynter displayed superb skill and courage in leading his squad and directing its fire against the onrushing enemy. With his ranks critically depleted by casualties and he himself critically wounded, the onslaught gained momentum. The hostile force surrounded his position. Sergeant Poynter seized his bayonet and engaged in bitter hand-tohand combat as the breakthrough continued. Observing three machineguns closing in at a distance of 25 yards, he dashed from his position, grasping hand grenades from his fallen Marines as he ran. He then charged the emplacements in rapid succession, killing the crews of two and putting the other out of action before he fell, mortally wounded.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCOs in Action, Continued

Corporal R.E. O’Malley

Corporal O’Malley was honored for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against the communist (Viet Cong) forces at the risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading his squad in the assault against a strongly entrenched enemy force, his unit came under intense small arms fire. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Corporal O’Malley raced across an open rice paddy to a trench line where the enemy forces were located. Jumping into the trench, he attacked the Viet Cong with his rifle and grenades and single-handedly killed eight of the enemy. He then led his squad to the assistance of an adjacent Marine unit that was suffering heavy casualties. Continuing to press forward, he reloaded his weapon and fired, with telling effect, into the enemy emplacement. Corporal O’Malley personally assisted in the evacuation of several wounded Marines, and again regrouping the remnants of his squad, he returned to the point of the heaviest fighting. Ordered to an evacuation point by an officer, Corporal O’Malley gathered his besieged and badly wounded squad and led them under fire to a helicopter for withdrawal. Although three times wounded in his encounter, and facing imminent death from a fanatic and determined enemy, he steadfastly refused evacuation. He continued to cover his squad’s boarding of the helicopters while, from an exposed position, he delivered fire against the enemy until his wounded men were evacuated. Only then, with his last mission accomplished, did he permit himself to be removed from the battlefield. By his valor, leadership, and courageous efforts on behalf of his comrades, he served as an inspiration to all who observed him.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

NCOs in Action, Continued

Sergeant Daniel P. Matthews

During the Vietnam conflict, Sergeant Matthews was assigned to F Company, 2/7, 1st Marine Division as a squad leader. Sergeant Matthews was participating in a counterattack against a firmly entrenched and wellconcealed hostile force that had repelled six previous assaults on a vital enemy-held outpost far forward of the main line. During the attack, Sergeant Matthews observed the deadly fire preventing a corpsman from removing a wounded man lying in an open area. Without much thought for his own safety, Sergeant Matthews leaped into the machinegun nest, taking the enemy by complete surprise. He continued his one-man assault until he had succeeded in destroying the machinegun nest that enabled his comrades to evacuate the stricken Marine to safety.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1776 Through 1890s

Invasion of Bahamas

The first Marine landing took place during the Revolutionary War. Marines invaded New Providence Island in the Bahamas and seized guns and supplies. The uniform of the day had a stiff stock worn around the neck to protect from sword slashes, thus earning Marines the nickname Leather Neck.

Civil War

Despite the Marines’ readiness and prompt action at Harpers Ferry, the Marine Corps played only a small part during the Civil War. Even so, during this conflict, 16 Marines were awarded the MOH. After the USS flagship Colorado was fired upon 10 June 1871 on the Han River in west Korea, Captain McLane Tilton led his squad in an assault against the Korean forts. After taking two of the forts without much difficulty, Captain Tilton then led his Marines against a heavily fortified Citadel. During the ensuing battle, which required hand-to-hand combat, Corporal Charles Brown and Private Hugh Purvis made their way to the flagstaff and tore down the enemy flag. As a result of this heroic act, both Marines were subsequently awarded the Medal of Honor.

Foreign Duty in Korea

Landing in Cuba

On 11 June 1881 after the Marines landed and established its first beachhead on Cuban soil, they attacked. On the morning of 15 June 1881, Lieutenant Magill was ordered to bypass the objective and cut off any enemy retreat. As Lieutenant Magill led his men to the crest, a nearby ship opened fire upon the squad. As the shells began falling, Lieutenant Magill realized he and his men were in the ship’s line of fire. Without hesitation, Sergeant John Quick stood up in plain sight of the enemy and began waving an improvised flag in a cease-fire fashion. With the enemy bullets whistling through the air, Sergeant Quick remained exposed and continued to signal until the firing stopped.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1900 Through 1940s

China’s Boxer Rebellion

During the summer of 1900, prior to the extensive Marine buildup in the Philippines, the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China. On the following day, the Boxers destroyed railways and shops. With violent mobs screaming for the death of all Westerners, an alarm had been sent for military assistance. Of course, the Marines responded. During June of 1918, Marines attacked well-entrenched Germans at Belleau Woods and defeated them with tenacious, courageous, and gallant fighting styles. Due to the Marines’ dogged fighting style, the Germans gave the name Devil Dogs to the Marines. As a result of the Marines’ outstanding service in World War I, the French awarded the French Fourragere to the 5th and 6th Regiments for their outstanding service. The French Fourragere is a yellow braided cord that is worn around the arm of the dress uniform at the shoulder.

Belleau Woods

French Fourragere

Pearl Harbor

On the morning of 7 December 1941, Japan launched a devastating attack on the American Pacific Fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor. As a result, Marines defended against attacks throughout the Pacific during the opening stages of the war. During the war, the Marine Corps was the principal ground force the Allies used in a strategy of island hopping campaign. This major role led to the strength of the Marine Corps reaching nearly 500,000 during the war.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1950s and 1960s

Provisional Brigade

Conflict in Korea tested the Marine Corps’ combat readiness. The Marines responded to the North Korean attack by quickly assembling the first Marine Provisional Brigade from the under-strength of 1st Marine Division. The 1st Marine Provisional Brigade acted as a fire brigade to defend the Pusan perimeter. The Marines fulfilled other roles in the Korean War: · · Amphibious landing forces over the seawalls at Inchon Aviators flying helicopters in battle for the first time

Vietnam

In February 1965, shortly after the celebration of Tet (a Vietnamese holiday), the Viet Cong attacked two U.S. military installations, injuring and killing a large number of U.S. Army advisors and maintenance personnel. As a result of these attacks, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered military targets in North Vietnam be bombed. Marines landed in South Vietnam, committing the Marine Corps to its longest war in history.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1980s Through 1990s

Beirut, Lebanon

In the summer of 1982, at the request of the Lebanese government, the United States agreed to establish a U.S. military presence in that country to serve as a peacekeeping force. On 24 March 1983, the 24th Marine Amphibious Unit (MAU) left America in support of that mission. On 23 October 1983, a suicide-truck bomb attack on the headquarters building killed 241 Americans and wounded 70 others. On 24 March 1984, a tree was planted along Lejeune Boulevard in Jacksonville, N.C. for each of the lost service members. The last Marines withdrew in July 1984. On 23 October 1986, a memorial plaza was dedicated in memory of all the service members.

Operation Urgent Fury

In 1983 following the assassination of the Prime Minister and the overthrow of the government of Grenada, Marines participated in Operation Urgent Fury. It was a joint military operation in response to a request from neighboring Caribbean nations. The Marines’ rapid response secured the island and safeguarded hundreds of American citizens living on the island. During 1989 in response to increasing unrest in Panama, the President ordered the joint military Operation Just Cause. The United States forces, including the Marines, overthrew the military government of General Manuel Noriega and installed a civilian government. Under indictment in the United States for drug trafficking and racketeering, Noriega was arrested and sent to the United States for trial.

Operation Just Cause

Operation Desert Shield

In 1990 following the Iraq invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Shield was launched. This military operation was designed to halt the advance of Iraqi forces and to position multinational forces assembled for possible offensive action to dispel the invading force. Operation Desert Shield validated the Marine Corps’ maritime prepositioning force (MPF) concept and enacted the plan of tailoring units to accomplish a mission as part of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF).
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1980s Through 1990s, Continued

Operation Desert Storm

During 1991, Operation Desert Storm was launched after the Iraqi government refused to comply with the United Nations’ resolutions. Marine aviation conducted combat operations when the air phase commenced in January 1991. After massive bombing, Marine ground forces participated in the sweep into Kuwait to help liberate the country and damage the Iraqi military capability. In 1992 as part of the joint military Operation Restore Hope, Marine forces landed in war-torn Somalia. United States forces provided security for the distribution of humanitarian aid. The U.S. forces were later incorporated in the United Nations’ peacekeeping forces and were sent to stabilize the situation in the country. During 1994, joint military Operation Uphold Democracy was ordered by the President to restore the civilian government in Haiti. Marines landed in the northern part of Haiti to stabilize the situation and provide security for the orderly transfer of power from the military to the democratically elected government of President Jean Bertrand Aristide.

Operation Restore Hope

Operation Uphold Democracy

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 12 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Sergeants and corporals in the early 19th century instructed recruits, especially with regard to a. b. c. d. weapons and tactics. neatness and sanitation. integration and diversity. decentralized control.

Item 1

Item 2

During the Vietnam War, NCOs carried the burden of a. b. c. d. technical performance and education. integration and diversity. combat leadership. decentralized control.

Item 3

Write the NCO creed. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Items 4 and 5

Matching: For items 4 and 5, match the letter of the NCO in column 2 to the action in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Action ___ 4. He exemplified valor leadership and courage by single-handedly killing eight of the enemy; personally assisted with the evacuation of wounded Marines; and steadfastly refused evacuation until wounded men were evacuated safely. He took charge of his platoon in absence of the leader; encouraged, inspired, and skillfully directed fire; and placed himself in mortal position to provide effective cover for his men. Column 2 NCO a. b. c. d. Sergeant J.E. Johnson Sergeant J.J. Poynter Corporal R.E. O’Malley Sergeant Daniel P. Matthews

___ 5.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Items 6 Through 9

Matching: For items 6 through 9, match the letter of the time period in column 2 to the historic event in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Historic Event ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. ___ 9. The first Marine landing took place. Corporal Charles Brown and Private Hugh Purvis tore down the enemy flag. The MOH was given to 16 Marines. The Marines landed and established its first beachhead. Column 2 Time Period a. b. c. d. e. Invasion of Bahamas Civil War Foreign Duty in Korea Landing in Cuba Belleau Woods

Items 10 Through 12

Matching: For items 10 through 12, match the letter of the time period in column 2 to the historic event in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Historic Event ___ 10. The Marines were given the name Devil Dogs. ___ 11. The French Fourragere was awarded to the 5th and 6th Regiments. ___ 12. The Marine Corps’ combat readiness was tested. Column 2 Time Period a. b. c. d. e. f. Boxer Rebellion Belleau Woods World War I Pearl Harbor Provisional Brigade Vietnam
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer b c I am an NCO dedicated to training new Marines and influencing the old. I am forever conscious of each Marine under my charge, and by example I will inspire him (or her) to the highest standards possible. I will commend the deserving and encourage the wayward. I will never forget that I am responsible to my commanding officer for the morale, discipline, and the efficiency of my men and their performance will reflect an image of me. c a a c b d b c e Reference 3-22 3-22 3-24

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

3-27 3-25 3-29 3-29 3-29 3-29 3-30 3-30 3-31

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 4 DRILL Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours, 25 minutes

Unit Scope

As a Marine NCO, you are expected to know how and when to conduct drill with your Marines. Troop movement and simple formations are the responsibility of the Marine NCO. This study unit will cover the basics of · · · Troop movement Conduct with the NCO sword Flags and guidons

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · Conduct drill with a platoon. Perform drill movements with the sword. Display the different flags and guidons the Marine Corps uses.

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Platoon Drill Lesson 2 Sword Manual Lesson 3 Flags and Guidons See Page 4-5 4-39 4-57

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Study Unit 4

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Study Unit 4

LESSON 1 PLATOON DRILL Introduction

Estimated Study Time

40 minutes

Lesson Scope

Drill accustoms the individual to working as a member of a team- a team moving confidently together in unison and to a measured cadence. Marines are famous for their ability to march in step, keep straight lines and perform the manual of arms with precision. The scope of this lesson includes the basic fundamentals of platoon drill. Note: Throughout this unit, commands and commands of execution will be written in all capital letters. The commands of execution will also be underlined. For example, the command forward march will be written as “FORWARD, MARCH.”

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · Identify common drill terms. Identify the procedures to form a platoon. Identify common halted platoon movements. Identify common marching platoon movements. Identify the procedures to dismiss a platoon.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued
In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction General Information Common Drill Terms Forming the Platoon Aligning the Platoon Open Ranks Form for Inspection Halted Movements Positions of Rest Marching the Platoon Commands Given in the Oblique Pass in Review Dismiss the Platoon Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 4-3 4-5 4-6 4-9 4-12 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-21 4-23 4-29 4-31 4-32 4-33

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

General Information

Organization

The platoon is the basic drill unit. The organization consists of · · A platoon headquarters · A platoon commander (PC) · One or more assistants Two or more squads that are numbered · Front to rear while on line · Left to right while in column

Symbols

The different symbols used for drill are identified below:

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Common Drill Terms

Definitions

The common terms used for close order drill are defined in the table below: Term Alignment Base Cadence Center Column Depth Definition A straight line on which several elements are formed. The element on which a movement is regulated. The uniform step and rhythm in marching. The middle point or element of a unit or left-center element for an even number of elements. A formation in which the elements are placed one behind the other. Space from head to rear of a formation or position. The graphic below depicts the direction of depth, as well as the direction of the front.

Distance Double Time Element Extended Mass Formation File

Space between elements in the direction of depth. Cadence at 180 steps per minute. An individual, squad, section, platoon, company, or other unit that is part of another unit. The arrangement of a company or larger unit in which elements in column are abreast and at a specified interval greater than close interval. A column of men or line of vehicles one behind the other.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Common Drill Terms, Continued

Definitions, continued

Term Flank

·

Definition The right or left extremity of a unit, either in line or in column.

Formation Front

· The element on the extreme right or left of the line. Arrangement of elements of a unit in line, in a column, or any other prescribed manner. · The space occupied by an element measured from one flank to the other. · The front of a man is accepted as 22 inches. See Depth for an illustration of front. The individual upon whom a formation or elements thereof regulates its march. To regulate interval, direction, or alignment. The lateral space between elements on the same line. The two intervals used in drill are normal and close interval as depicted in the graphic below: · · · · ·

Guide

Interval

Platoon at normal interval.

Platoon at close interval.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Common Drill Terms, Continued

Definitions, continued

Term Line Mass Formation Pace Piece Point of Rest Quick Time Rank Slow Time Snap

Definition A formation in which the elements are abreast. The arrangement of a company or larger unit in which its elements are in column and abreast at close interval. The length of a full step in quick time, 30 inches. An individual firearm, such as a rifle. The point toward which all elements of a unit establish their dress or alignment. Cadence is 120 steps per minute. A line of men or vehicles side by side. Cadence at 60 steps per minute; used for funerals only. · In commands or signals, the quality that inspires immediate response. · In drill, the immediate execution of movements. The distance from heel to heel between the feet of a marching man.

Step

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Forming the Platoon

Purpose

The purpose for forming the platoon falls back into the purpose for drill, which is used to · · · · · Move the unit from one place to another in a standard, orderly manner. Provide simple formations from which combat formations may be readily assumed. Teach discipline by instilling habits of precision and automatic response to orders. Increase confidence through the exercise of command, by giving proper commands, and by controlling drilling troops. Give troops the opportunity to handle individual weapons.

Commands

Forming the platoon is done by giving the command "FALL IN." After this command, the platoon is ordered to · · · · "REPORT" "INSPECTION ARMS" "PORT ARMS" "ORDER ARMS"
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Forming the Platoon, Continued

Fall In

To fall in, the platoon sergeant · · · · Takes post three paces in front of the point where the center of the platoon will be positioned Faces that point Draws sword, if armed with one Commands, “FALL IN” or “AT CLOSE INTERVAL, FALL IN” · A combined command · Given without rise or inflection of the voice

After the command “FALL IN” is given, the platoon will fall in on line.
Fall In Procedures

The procedures that occur at the command “FALL IN” are listed in the table below: Who Guide Action Takes post so the first rank, when aligned, will be centered on and three paces from the platoon sergeant 1st Squad Leader Falls in at normal interval (or close interval if so ordered) to the left of the guide Other Squad Falls in directly behind the first squad leader with 40 Leaders inches of distance between them st 1 Squad · Falls in on their squad leader at normal interval (or close interval if so ordered) · All Other Squads · · Takes exact interval by raising their arms, then lowers their arms to the position of attention Fall in on their squad leader at normal interval (or close interval if so ordered) Cover down on the corresponding member of the first squad

Note: All personnel will fall in at the position of attention and if armed with weapons, will fall in at order arms.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Forming the Platoon, Continued

Report

The command “REPORT” consists of two substeps: · · Receiving the report Giving the report

Receive The Report

To receive the report after all personnel have been formed, the procedures are listed in the table below: Who Platoon Sergeant Squad Leaders Platoon Sergeant Action Commands “REPORT.” In succession from front to rear, salute and report “ALL PRESENT” or “(Number) MARINES ABSENT.” Commands when the Marines are armed with rifles, · · · “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “ORDER, ARMS.”

Note: A good way to remember this sequence is to remember the acronym, FRIPO: Fall in, Report, Inspection arms, Port arms, and Order arms to form a platoon with rifles.
Give The Report

To give the report when the platoon commander is present, the procedures are listed in the table below: Who Platoon Sergeant Platoon Commander Platoon Sergeant Action Faces about after receiving the report and ordering inspection arms and order arms Positions himself six paces to the front and centered on the platoon Salutes and reports, “SIR, ALL PRESENT AND ACCOUNTED FOR” or “SIR, (Number) MARINES ABSENT.”

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Aligning the Platoon

In Line

Aligning a platoon in line includes a series of commands and movements by the PC: · · · Initial command Dressing the ranks Resuming line formation

Initial Command

The PC gives the command, “DRESS RIGHT (LEFT), DRESS.” The procedures for the command of execution, “DRESS are listed in the table below: Who Platoon Members · · · Action Execute the arm and head movements as in falling in at normal interval and obtain their alignment. Remain in this position until given another command. Faces half left as in marching and proceeds in the most direct route until positioned on line with the front rank and one pace to the right of the right flank Marine Executes a halt facing to the rear Executes a right face, facing down the line
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Platoon Commander

· ·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Aligning the Platoon, Continued

Dressing The Ranks

When dressing the ranks, the PC should follow the substeps listed in the table below: Step 1 2 3 4 5 Action Aligns the front rank by commanding those Marines in advance or rear of the line to move backward or forward Addresses the Marines by either name or number in rank Those commanded to move will move the designated number of steps or will continue to move until given the command, “STEADY.” Executes a short series of side steps to the right or left to identify a Marine, but must be in line with the rank when commanding a Marine to move. After verifying the alignment of the first rank · Faces to the left as in marching · Marches straight to the next rank · Does not veer in toward the next squad leader · Halts on line with each succeeding rank · Executes a right face · Aligns that rank in the same manner as the first rank After verifying the alignment of the rear rank · · · · Faces to the right as in marching Proceeds straight to a point three paces beyond the front rank Halts Executes a left face
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6

7

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Aligning the Platoon, Continued

Resuming Line Formation

The platoon commander gives the command, “READY, FRONT; COVER.” On the command of execution, “FRONT” all platoon members immediately assume the position of attention by lowering their left arm and simultaneously turning their heads to the front. The procedures for the command of execution, “COVER” are listed in the table below: Who Front Rank Remaining Ranks Platoon Commander Action Stands fast Covers on the Marine to their front March by the most direct route and take post six paces in front and center of the platoon

Align In Column

To align a platoon in column while marching, the PC gives the command “COVER.” The procedures for the command, “COVER” are listed in the table below: Who Base Squad Leader Other Squad Leaders Base Squad Remaining Marines Action Obtains a 40-inch distance from the guide Obtain proper interval and align on the base squad leader Obtains a 40-inch distance from the Marine to the front Align on the base squad and cover on their squad leaders

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Open Ranks

Purpose

The purpose of open ranks is to increase the interval between squads on line. The procedures for opening ranks are similar to the procedures for aligning a platoon in column. The PC gives the command, “OPEN RANKS, MARCH.” The procedures that occurs at the command of execution “MARCH” are listed in the table below: Who First Squad Members · · · · · · · · · · Action Take two steps forward. Halt. Execute the movements for dress right. Take one step forward. Halt. Execute the movements for dress right. Stand fast. Execute the movements for dress right. Checks the alignment of the squads Returns squads to the position of attention in the same manner as aligning a platoon in line formation

Open Ranks “MARCH” Procedures

Second Squad Members

Third Squad Members Platoon Commander

Close Ranks “MARCH” Procedures

The platoon commander gives the command, “CLOSE RANKS, MARCH.” The procedures that occurs at the command of execution “MARCH” are listed in the table below: Member First Squad Members Second Squad Members Third Squad Members Action Stand fast. Take one step forward and halt. Take two steps forward and halt.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Form for Inspection

Initial Commands

To form for inspection, the platoon executes open ranks. After the PC gives the commands, “READY, FRONT, COVER,” he will · · · Take one step forward and then face to the front. Be in a position three paces in front of the right file of the first rank of the platoon. Wait to receive the inspection officer at this post.

Receiving The Inspecting Officer

When receiving the inspecting officer, · · · The PC salutes and reports, “_____ PLATOON, FORMED FOR INSPECTION, SIR.” The inspecting officer returns the salute and asks the PC to precede or follow him through the inspection. The PC precedes or follows the inspecting officer during the inspection as directed by the inspecting officer.

Completing The Inspection

When the inspecting officer has finished inspecting the platoon, · · · The PC takes post three paces in front of the right file of the first rank. The inspecting officer will make comments and discuss discrepancies as appropriate and tell the PC to take charge of the platoon. The PC · Salutes · Replies, “AYE, AYE, SIR” · Faces left · Gives the command, “CLOSE RANKS, MARCH” · Assumes his or her post six paces in front centered on the platoon

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Halted Movements

Overview

After forming the platoon, you need to become familiar with the different movements of the platoon. The halted movements of a platoon drill are · · · · Facing movements Side step Back step Hand salute

Facing Movements

Facing movements allow you to face in a different direction while halted at the position of attention. They are executed in the cadence of quick time (120 steps per minute). While facing, your arms should not swing out from your sides, but remain at the position of attention. The facing movements covered in this lesson are · · · Right face Left face About face

Right Face

Right face is a two-count movement. The actions for each count are listed in the table below: Count 1 Action At the command, “FACE” · · · · · Raise your left heel and right toe slightly. Turn to the right on your right heel and left toe. Keep your left leg straight, but not stiff. Place the left foot smartly beside the right. Stand at the position of attention.
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2

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Halted Movements, Continued

Left Face

Left face is also a two-count movement. The actions for each count are listed in the table below: Count 1 Action At the command, “FACE” · · · · · Raise your right heel and left toe slightly. Turn to the left on your left heel and right toe. Keep your right leg straight, but not stiff. Place the right foot smartly beside the left. Stand at the position of attention.

2

About Face

About face is a two-count movement. The actions for each count are listed in the table below: Count 1 Action At the command, “FACE” · Place your right toe half a foot length behind and slightly to the left of your left heel. · Do not change the position of your left foot. · Rest most of your weight on your left heel. Turn smartly to the right until facing to the rear. · · Make turn on the left heel and ball of the right foot. Feet will be at attention when the turn is completed, if your right toe was placed properly in the beginning.
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2

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Halted Movements, Continued

Side Step

The purpose of side step is to move the unit a short distance to the right or left. The command, “RIGHT (LEFT) STEP, MARCH,” is given only while halted at the position of attention. At the command, “MARCH” · · · · · Move your right (left) foot 12 inches to the right (left). Place your left (right) foot beside your right (left). Repeat this movement at the rate of 120 steps per minute. Keep your legs straight, but not stiff. Hold your arms at attention.

Back Step

The purpose of side back is to move the unit a short distance to the rear. The command, “BACKWARD, MARCH,” is given only while halted at the position of attention. At the command, “MARCH” · · · · Step off to the rear with your left foot. Take 15-inch steps at a rate of 120 steps per minute. Repeat this movement at the rate of 120 steps per minute. Swing your arms naturally.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Halted Movements, Continued

Hand Salute

The purpose of the hand salute is to render appropriate honors. The command “HAND, SALUTE” is performed in two counts, each with its own command. · · “HAND, SALUTE.” “READY, TWO.”

Hand Salute Procedures

The procedures that occur on the commands of execution are listed in the table below: Command SALUTE · Action Raise your right hand smartly in the most direct manner until the tip of your forefinger touches the lower part of the headdress, above and slightly to the right of your right eye. Your thumb and fingers should be extended and joined. You should see your entire palm when looking straight forward. Upper arm should be level with the deck and forearm at a 45-degree angle. Your wrist and hand should be straight, a continuation of the line formed by your forearm.

· · · · · TWO

If not in ranks, turn your head and eyes toward the person or colors you are saluting. Move your hand smartly in the most direct manner back to the position of attention.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Positions of Rest

Positions

The different positions of rest are · · · · “PARADE, REST” “AT EASE” “REST” “FALL OUT”

With the exception of parade rest, all commands are combined commands. Parade rest is the only one with a preparatory and command of execution.
Parade Rest

The purpose of parade rest is to give relief from the position of attention. The command, “PARADE, REST” is given only while halted and at the position of attention and is a one-count movement. At the command, “REST” · · · · · · Move your left foot smartly 12 inches to the left. Both legs should be straight with your weight resting equally on each foot. At the same time, join your hands behind your back with your right hand inside your left, palms to the rear just below the belt. Loosely hold your left thumb with your right hand. Fingers are extended and joined. Do not move. Do not talk. Hold your head and eyes in the same position as you would if at attention.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Positions of Rest, Continued

At Ease

The purpose of at ease is to give further relief from the position of attention. The command, “AT EASE” is given while halted and at the position of attention or when not in ranks. It is a one-count movement. At the command, “AT EASE” · · · Keep your right foot in place. You may move about (adjust gear), but you must not talk. When given the command while not in ranks, simply means to continue what you are doing, but cease talking.

Rest

The purpose of rest is to give further relief from the position of attention. The command, “REST” is given while halted and at the position of attention. It is a one-count movement. At the command, “REST” · · Keep your right foot in place. You may talk and move about (adjust gear).

Fall Out

The purpose of fall out is to give further relief from the position of attention for extended periods of time. The command, “FALL OUT” is given while halted and at the position of attention. It is a one-count movement. At the command, “FALL OUT” leave your position in ranks, but remain nearby. When “FALL IN” is given, return to your position in ranks at the position of attention.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon

Common Platoon Movements

Once you have your platoon facing in the right direction, you should be ready to step off. The most common platoon movements on the march are · · · · · · · Mark time Half step Change step Change direction on the march March to the flank March to the rear March to the oblique

Mark Time

The purpose of mark time is to stop the forward movement of the platoon while still maintaining a rhythmic cadence. The command, “MARK TIME, MARCH” may be given at the halt or while marching forward at quick time, half step, or double time as either foot strikes the deck. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all platoon members will · · · Take one more 30-inch step as if coming to a halt. Bring your heels together then begin marking time without loss of cadence with the opposite foot. Raise each foot so the ball of the foot is approximately 2 inches and the heel approximately 4 inches from the deck at a cadence of 120 steps per minute. At the same time, swing your arms naturally as in marching.

·
Resuming Forward March

The purpose of resuming march is to resume the forward march at a quick time cadence. The command, “FORWARD, MARCH” may be given as either foot strikes the deck. On the command, “MARCH,” take one more step in place, then step off with a 30-inch step.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon, Continued

Half Step

The purpose of a half step is to slow the forward movement of the platoon while still maintaining a rhythmic cadence by reducing the size of the step to 15 inches. The command, “HALF STEP, MARCH” may be given at the halt or while marching forward at quick time as either foot strikes the deck. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all platoon members will · · · · Take one more 30-inch step. Begin taking 15-inch steps at quick time cadence. The balls of your feet should strike the deck before your heels At the same time, maintain a natural arm swing.

Resuming Forward March

The purpose of resuming forward march is to resume the forward march at a quick time cadence. The command, “FORWARD, MARCH” may be given as either foot strikes the deck. On the command, “MARCH,” take one more 15-inch step, then step off with a 30-inch step.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon, Continued

Change Step

The purpose of change step is to change the step of cadence while on the march. The command, “CHANGE STEP, MARCH” may be given while marching at quick time or double time, marking time, or double time in place as the right foot strikes the deck. The procedures that all platoon members take on the command of execution, “MARCH” are listed in the table below: From Quick Time or Double Time · · Action Take one more step, 30-inch or 36-inch as appropriate.

Change Step Procedures

Marking Time Double Time in Place

As your right foot comes forward to the next step, place the toe near the left heel and step out again with the left foot. This changes the cadence count, but not the rhythm. Lift and lower the left foot twice in succession. Hop twice on the left foot and continue to double time in place.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon, Continued

Change Direction

The procedures to change the direction of a column while marching are listed in the table below: Who Platoon Commander · · Action Commands, “COLUMN RIGHT (left, half right, half left), MARCH.

Pivot Marine

Gives the preparatory command and the command of execution so that they end on the foot in the direction of the turn. On the command of execution, “MARCH” · Faces to the right (left) as in marching and steps out one full step with his right (left) foot in the direction of the turn Half steps

· · Other Marines of the Leading Rank

Resumes the full step when the other Marines of his rank are abreast On the command of execution, “MARCH” · Twice oblique to the right (left) without changing interval · · Execute the first oblique at the command of execution. Execute the second oblique when opposite their new line of march. When the oblique is completed, they will be marching the new front with proper interval.

Ranks in the Rear of the Leading Rank

Come abreast of the pivot Marine and conform to his or her step. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” execute the movement on the same ground and in the same way as the leading rank.

·

Note: The base element during the turn is the squad on the flank in the direction of the turn. The pivot Marine is the first Marine in the base squad, excluding the PC and the guide.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon, Continued

Platoon Commander and Guide

During column movements, the PC and guide · · · Execute smartly oblique in the direction of the turn. Half step. Resume full step in a manner that places them in their proper positions.

March to the Flank

The purpose of march to the flank is to march a platoon to either flank. The command is “BY THE RIGHT (LEFT) FLANK, MARCH.” This movement may be executed while marching forward at quick time. The command of execution will come as the foot in the direction of travel strikes the deck. Do not give this command when a platoon is halted. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all platoon members · · · Take one more step. Pivot 90 degrees to the right (left) as in marching. Step out with their right (left) foot in the new direction.

When this movement is executed from a column at close interval, the squad to the rear of the squad that becomes the leading squad after making the turn takes up the half step after turning until a 40-inch distance is obtained between the squads. After such a movement, the platoon maintains normal interval until ordered otherwise.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Marching the Platoon, Continued

March to the Rear

The purpose of march to the rear is to march a platoon to the opposite direction of travel. The command, “TO THE REAR, MARCH” is given so the command of execution will come as the right foot strikes the deck. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all platoon members · · · Take one more step with the left foot in the direction of march. Pivot 180 degrees on both feet. Step off with the left foot in the new direction of march.

Note: Use this movement to march to the rear for a short distance. Do not give the platoon column movements while marching to the rear.
March in the Oblique

To march a platoon in the oblique, the PC gives the command, “RIGHT (LEFT) OBLIQUE, MARCH.” On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all platoon members · · · Take one more step forward. Pivot 45 degrees to the right (left). Step off in the oblique with their right (left) foot.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Commands Given in the Oblique

Only Commands

The only commands you can give while marching in the oblique are · · · · · “FORWARD, MARCH.” “PLATOON, HALT.” “IN PLACE, HALT.” “MARK TIME, MARCH.” “RESUME, MARCH.”

“FORWARD, MARCH”

Give the command, “FORWARD, MARCH” to resume the original direction of march. Give the command of execution, “MARCH” as the foot toward the original direction of march strikes the deck. On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all members of the platoon will · · Pivot 45 degrees to their left (right) on their right (left) foot. Step off with their left (right foot in the original direction of march.

“PLATOON, HALT”

Give this command, “PLATOON, HALT” to halt the platoon in the original direction of march. Give the command of execution, “HALT” as the left (right) foot strikes the deck when halting from the right (left) oblique. On the command of execution, “HALT,” all members of the platoon will · · · Take one more step in the oblique direction. Pivot to the original direction of march on their right (left) foot. Assume the position of attention by placing their left (right) foot against their right (left) foot.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Commands Given in the Oblique, Continued

“IN PLACE, HALT”

Give the command, “IN PLACE, HALT” to temporarily halt the platoon in the oblique to correct errors. The command of execution, “HALT” is given as either foot strikes the deck. On the command of execution “HALT,” all members of the platoon will · · Take one more step in the oblique. Assume the position of attention by placing the right (left) foot against the left (right) foot.

“MARK TIME, The command, “MARK TIME, MARCH” is executed the same as while on MARCH” the march. To resume marching in the oblique after marking time, give the

command “RESUME, MARCH.”
“RESUME, MARCH”

The only command you can give after halting in place is “RESUME, MARCH.” On the command of execution, “MARCH,” all members of the platoon will · · Step off with the left foot. Continue to march in the oblique direction.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Pass in Review

Purpose

Pass in review is conducted to give honors to a reviewing officer. March the platoon past the reviewing officer and render the appropriate salute as you pass. Conduct a pass in review with the platoon in column at either close or normal interval with weapons at right shoulder arms. The steps to pass the platoon in review are listed in the table below: Step 1 2 Action The PC marches the platoon to a position where they will pass in front of the reviewing stand. · The PC gives the command, “EYES, RIGHT.” The command of execution, “RIGHT” is given as the right foot strikes the deck about six paces before coming on line with the reviewing stand. On the command of execution, “RIGHT” · · 4 · The base squad maintains the position of attention. All other members of the platoon snap their head 45 degrees to the right as they march. When the end of the platoon is about six paces past the reviewing stand, the PC gives the command, “READY, FRONT.” ·

Procedure

3

5

The command of execution, “FRONT” is given as the left foot strikes the deck. On the command of execution, “FRONT,” the members of the platoon with their head to the right snap their head back to the original front and continue to march.

·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Dismiss the Platoon

Armed Platoon

Dismiss a platoon from line formation with the Marines at attention. To dismiss a platoon when the troops are armed, give the following commands: · · · “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “DISMISSED.”

Unarmed Platoon

To dismiss a platoon of unarmed troops, give the command, “DISMISSED.” The platoon sergeant usually dismisses the platoon.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 5 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. How many steps per minute is quick time cadence? a. b. c. d. 60 100 120 180

Item 1

Item 2

What is the correct order to form a platoon of armed Marines? a. b. c. d. Fall in, order arms, report, port arms, and give the report. Fall in, report, inspection arms, port arms, and order arms. Fall in, inspection arms, report, port arms, and order arms. Fall in, port arms, order arms, report, and inspection arms.

Item 3

In which cadence (steps per minute) are all facing movements executed when in a halted position? a. b. c. d. 60 100 120 180
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4 Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

What is the only command that may be given after halting in place in the oblique? a. b. c. d. “FORWARD” “TO THE REAR” “MARK TIME” “RESUME MARCH”

Item 5

What is the correct command to dismiss a platoon of unarmed Marines? a. b. c. d. “INSPECTION ARMS, PORT ARMS, AND DISMISSED.” “PORT ARMS, DISMISSED.” “DISMISSED.” “FALL OUT.”
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4 Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer c b c d c Reference 4-8 4-11 4-17 4-30 4-32

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Study Unit 4 Lesson 1 Exercise

(This page intentionally left blank.)

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Study Unit 4 Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 SWORD MANUAL Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson includes the commands and movements of platoon drill using the sword. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · Identify the scabbard nomenclature. Identify the sword nomenclature. Describe how to properly size the sword. Describe how to properly wear the sword. Describe how to properly carry the sword. Identify common rules for sword manual.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

Learning Objectives, continued

· · · · · · ·

Identify the procedures to draw sword. Identify the procedures to order sword. Identify the procedures to carry sword. Identify the procedures to present sword. Identify the procedures to execute eyes right with the sword. Identify the procedures to return sword. Identify the procedures to parade rest with the sword.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction General Information Common Rules Draw Sword Order Sword Carry Sword Present Sword Eyes Right (Left) Return Sword Parade Rest Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 4-39 4-41 4-43 4-45 4-46 4-47 4-48 4-50 4-51 4-52 4-53

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

General Information

Marine NCO Honor

Of all the active duty services in our country, the only NCOs authorized to carry a sword are Marine NCOs. In recognition of their leadership and contributions, Marine NCOs have been entrusted with this proud symbol of authority and leadership. With this trust comes the responsibility of properly executing the Marine NCO sword manual. The Marine NCO sword is almost identical to the Army officer’s sword of 1850. In the mid-1800’s, Marine officers used this sword. When the Mameluke hilt sword was reintroduced for Marine officers in 1875, the Army officer’s sword of 1850 was prescribed for Marine NCOs. The scabbard nomenclature is identified in the diagram below:

History

Scabbard Nomenclature

Sword Nomenclature

The sword nomenclature is identified in the diagram below:

Sizing the Sword

The sword comes in various lengths in increments of 2 inches (28, 30, 32, etc. inches). Determine the proper size of the sword while at the position of carry sword. The tip of the blade should be on line with the center of the opening of your ear.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

General Information, Continued

Wearing the Sword

Wear the sword on the left side of the body with the knuckle bow to the front. The frog will ensure the scabbard and sword remain in place.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Common Rules

Draw and Return Sword

Draw your sword whenever you are with armed troops or in command of a unit. Draw and return sword is done without command. Unless you are members of the commander’s staff, all other movements of the sword manual are executed at the commander’s command to the unit. The commander and his staff execute all other movements of the sword manual at the commander’s separate command to his staff, given either before or after his command to the unit.

Carry Sword

Assume carry sword when · · · · · Giving commands Changing position in formation at quick time Addressing of being addressed by a senior Receiving the preparatory command for and while marching at quick time Any manual of arms movement has been ordered, except · Parade rest · At ease · Rest · Present arms · Order arms · Eyes right (left)

When in formations with personnel to your front at normal distance (organizational staff included), remain at carry sword except during rest or at ease.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Common Rules, Continued

Present Sword

Assume present sword when · · · · · Saluting with the sword The unit is presented to colors The National Anthem, To the Colors, Retreat, or Hail to the Chief is being played Executing eyes right (left) Marching past a reviewing officer

Note: Remain at the carry in the interior of a formation.
Marching With the Sword

When marching with the sword at the carry, swing your arms naturally. Do not hold the scabbard with your left hand. When you march at double time, hold the sword diagonally across your chest with the sharp edge towards the front. Hold the scabbard with your left hand just below the frog.

Reading Documents

When you call roll, read documents, or publish orders to a formation · · · · Slip the fingers of your left hand between the sword grip and the guard. Allow the sword to hang across your knuckles with the grip to the front. Keep your left elbow against your side. Hold the document with both hands.

Out of Formation

When not in formation, keep your sword in your scabbard. Salute by executing a hand salute.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Draw Sword

Three-Count Movement

When at attention with the sword in the scabbard, draw your sword when you hear the command, “DRAW SWORD.” Draw sword is a three-count movement. Draw sword only when halted and at attention. The procedures for each count of draw sword is listed in the table below: Count 1 Action On the preparatory command, “DRAW” · Grip the scabbard just below the frog with your left hand. Tilt the scabbard forward to form an angle of 45 degrees with the deck.

Procedures

2

Take the grip in your right hand and raise it about 10 inches from the scabbard. Your right forearm is parallel to the deck with your left hand holding the scabbard against your side. On the command of execution, “SWORD” · Draw the sword smartly from the scabbard, raising your right arm to its full extent and directly to the front at an angle of 45 degrees. Your arm and the sword, with the true edge down, form a straight line.

·

3

· At the same time, drop your left hand to your side. Then · Bring the back of the blade against the shoulder seam of your coat or shirt with the blade vertical and the knuckle bow to the front. When you make this movement, your right arm remains straight and the sword is rotated into position by manipulating your wrist and fingers. Your arm is vertical and nearly extended, but may contain a slight bend at the elbow to hold the sword in position. Your thumb and first two fingers embrace the lower part of the grip with the thumb against the trouser seam. Your remaining fingers are joined behind the end of the hilt.

· · ·

This is the position of carry sword.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Order Sword

Position

In the order sword position · · · The sword slants down to the front with the point 3 inches from the deck. The true edge of the blade is turned down. Your right arm hangs naturally to the side with the thumb along the trouser seam.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Carry Sword

Carry Sword to Order Sword

To move from carry sword to order sword position, rotate the sword down into position using your wrist and fingers. To move from order sword to carry sword position · · · · Pivot the sword about the fulcrum the thumb and index finger forms. Push your palm down on the pommel. Snap your wrist to start the movement of the blade. Lock the sword into position when the blade reaches your shoulder seam.

Order Sword to Carry Sword

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Present Sword

Two-Count Movement

To present the sword from carry or order sword, the command is “PRESENT, SWORD” or “PRESENT, ARMS.” Give these commands only when halted at order or carry sword. Present sword is a two-count movement. The procedures for each count of present sword are listed in the table below: Count 1 Action On the preparatory command, “PRESENT” · While rotating the sword so the knuckle bow faces your left, raise your right hand to the level of and 6 inches in front of your neck. As your hand is raised from the seam of the trousers, keep it close to the body, moving it in a straight line. When your hand is in the upper position, your arm is bent at the elbow with your elbow against your body. Keep your thumb on the left side of the grip and keep your wrist straight.

Procedures

· · · ·

2

The blade is inclined forward and up at an angle of 30 degrees from the vertical and the true edge is to the left. On the command of execution, “SWORD (ARMS)” · · Move the point down smartly to a position of 3 inches above the deck and slightly right of your right foot. Move your arm in a straight line on the downward movement so that it ends up hanging vertically with the knuckle bow of the sword against your trouser seam. Your thumb remains on the left side of the grip, pointing toward the center of the guard. The blade is inclined down and forward with the true edge to the left.

· ·

You are now at the position of present sword.
Continued on next page
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Present Sword, Continued

Order Sword from Present Sword

To move to order sword from present sword, the command is “ORDER SWORD (ARMS).” Order sword is a one-count movement. On the command of execution, “SWORD (ARMS),” turn the true edge down by rotating the sword with your fingers to the position prescribed for order sword.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Eyes Right (Left)

Two-Count Movement

Execute eyes right (left) only when halted at order sword or marching at carry sword. Eyes right (left) is a two-count movement. The command is “EYES, RIGHT (LEFT).” When marching, give both commands on the right (left) foot. The procedures for each count of eyes right (left) are listed in the table below: Count 1 2 Action On the preparatory command, “EYES,” execute the first count of present sword. On the command of execution, “RIGHT (LEFT)” · · Execute the second count of present sword. At the same time turn your head 45 degrees to the right (left).

Procedures

Returning to the Front

The procedures to return to the front are listed in the table below: While Halted Action Follow the reviewing officer with your head and eyes until he is in front of you. When the reviewing officer has passed by, execute order sword by turning the true edge down. Give the command, “READY, FRONT” when you are six paces passed the reviewing officer. On the preparatory command, “READY,” turn the true edge down. On the command of execution, “FRONT,” smartly turn your head and eyes to the front and execute carry sword from the order.

· ·

Marching

· · ·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Return Sword

Three-Count Movement

To return the sword to the scabbard, the command is “RETURN, SWORD.” Return sword is a three-count movement and is executed from order or carry sword. The procedures for each count of return sword are listed in the table below: Count 1 Action On the preparatory command, “RETURN” · · Execute the first count of present sword.

Procedures

2

At the same time, grasp the scabbard with your left hand just below the frog and tilt it forward at an angle of 30 degrees. Then · · Look down at the opening of the scabbard. Turn the sword down and guide the point into the opening until the hilt is 10 inches above the throat of the scabbard. Your right forearm is parallel to the deck with your left hand holding the scabbard against your body.

·

3

· Raise your head back up to the position of attention On the command of execution, “SWORD” · · Push smartly down on the sword so it slides all the way into the scabbard and release it. In the same motion, bring your right hand back to your right side, release the scabbard with your left hand, and assume the position of attention.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Parade Rest

Command

Execute parade rest from order sword. The command is “PARADE, REST.” If you are at carry sword when the command is given, come to order sword on the preparatory command “PARADE.” On the command of execution, “REST” · · Move the left foot and arm the same as when armed with a rifle. At the same time, lower the point of the sword to the deck.

Command of Execution

Order Sword from Parade Rest

The command to return to the position of order sword from parade rest is “ATTENTION.” On this command, simultaneously · · Raise the point of the sword 3 inches off the deck. Move your left arm and foot back to the position of attention.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 11 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Identify the nomenclature for the sword as indicated in the diagram below:

Items 1 Through 4

(1) ___________________________________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________________________ (4) ___________________________________________________________

Item 5

What position determines the proper size for the NCO sword? a. b. c. d. Parade rest Order sword Present sword Carry sword
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 6

Draw sword is a ____________ movement. a. b. c. d. one-count two-count three-count four-count

Item 7

After the third count of draw sword, what position are you in? a. b. c. d. Carry sword Order sword Raised sword Present sword

Item 8

In the order sword position, which direction is the true edge of the sword turned in? a. b. c. d. Down Up Inboard Outboard

Item 9

Present sword or present arms may only be given from what positions? a. b. c. d. Carry and parade rest Carry and order Order and eyes right Order and parade rest

Item 10

On the first count of return sword, raise the sword up as in the first count of present sword and a. b. c. d. look down at the opening of the scabbard. raise your head back to the position of attention. grasp the scabbard and tilt it forward. parallel your right forearm to the deck.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 11

Where is the sword tip during parade rest? a. b. c. d. Resting on the deck 2 inches above the deck 3 inches above the deck 4 inches above the deck
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Answer Hilt Ricasso True edge Fuller d c a a b c a Reference 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-45 4-45 4-46 4-48 4-51 4-52

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 FLAGS AND GUIDONS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

40 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson mainly deals with a guidon—usually rectangular, of distinctive color and design, and used as a symbol, a standard, a signal, or an emblem. This lesson will cover the common definitions, history, and etiquette of the flags used in the United States Marine Corps. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · · · · · Identify the flag types used in the Marine Corps. Identify common flag terminology. Describe the history of the national ensign. Identify how to properly display the colors. Identify proper protocols for the national ensign. Describe organizational flag history. Describe the Marine Corps organizational flags. Identify Marine Corps standard protocols. Identify the three classes of organizational standards. Identify proper usage for guidons. Identify select movements with the guidon.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Introduction, Continued
In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Flag Terminology National Ensign History National Ensign Sizes Displaying the National Ensign National Ensign Protocols Organizational Flag History Standard Protocols Types of Organizational Standards Guidon Protocols Guidon Movements Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 4-57 4-59 4-60 4-61 4-62 4-63 4-66 4-68 4-70 4-71 4-73 4-78

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Flag Terminology

Two Basic Types

The two flags commonly used by the Marine Corps today are known by many different names. However, they still represent either the · · Nation (national flag) Organization (organizational flag)

Definitions

The different flag related terms are defined in the table below: Term Battle Standard (Battle Color) Cased Colors Definition The distinguishing organizational flag authorized for and bearing the title of a designated unit of the Fleet Marine Force. Colors covered with a canvas or leather type shell. Flags are colors when · · · Mounted on a staff (pike) and carried by an individual on foot Displayed or cased in a fixed location The national flag flown on a naval vessel or aboard a Navy or Marine Corps installation ashore.

Ensign

Guidon Mast Pennant Staff Standards Streamer

· Also called national ensign. A small flag or pennant that a military unit carries as a standard. A vertical pole used to hoist the national ensign. A flag or emblem similar in shape to a ship's pennant. · A pole on which a flag is displayed · A flagstaff Flags mounted on a vehicle · A long narrow flag, banner, or pennant · Commonly used to decorate organizational standards with unit awards

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

National Ensign History

Nicknames

The national flag is a representation of our country. Our flag is a symbol around which we all unite. Old Glory and Stars and Stripes are just a couple of nicknames used to reference our national flag.

Initial Adoption The Continental Congress adopted the American flag, according to tradition

made by Betsy Ross, on 14 June 1777. Representing the 13 original colonies, the flag was adorned with a circle of 13 white stars on a blue background (known as the union) and 13 red and white stripes.
Inspiration for National Anthem

As the American frontier expanded, two new states were added to the Union and were incorporated into the flag. Two stars and two stripes were added to the design—making a total of 15 each. This flag withstood enemy bombardment at Fort McHenry, Maryland from 13 to 14 September 1814, which inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. Captain Samuel C. Reid, U.S. Navy, suggested to Congress that the stripes remain 13 in number to represent the 13 original colonies and that a star be added to the blue field for each new state coming into the Union. The resulting law of 4 April 1818 requires that a star be added for each new state on the 4th of July after its admission. Today’s American flag remains virtually unchanged with the exception of the number of stars in the union. Now 50 states are represented in the union.

Law About Stars and Stripes

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

National Ensign Sizes

Dimension Measurements

The flag’s dimensions are measured on the · · Hoist—the length that rides along the mast. Fly—the length that blows in the wind.

Storm

The national ensign comes in three sizes. The smallest size measures 5 feet by 9½ feet. This flag is · · Flown during inclement weather conditions Called the storm flag

Post

The post flag measures 10 feet by 19 feet. The post flag is · · Flown under normal conditions Flown daily between the hours of 0800 and sunset

Garrison

The garrison flag is the largest, measuring 20 feet by 38 feet. The garrison flag is · · Flown on Sundays and holidays Not flown from a mast of less than 65 feet

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Displaying the National Ensign

Always Right

The national flag represents the living country and is considered a living thing. The union is the honor point. The right arm is the sword arm and therefore the point of danger. Hence, the right is the place of honor. The edge of the flag that is toward the staff is the heraldic dexter or right edge. The union of the flag and the flag itself, when in company with other flags, is always given the honor point. That means the national flag is always given the marching right, the flag's own right, or an observer's left.

Customary Display

The universal custom is to display the flag from sunrise to sunset. However, when a patriotic effect is desired for special occasions, the flag may be displayed 24 hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of darkness. Colors, also known as the ceremonial hoisting and lowering of the national ensign, is performed daily. Hoisting the colors (morning colors) is performed at 0800. Lowering the colors (evening colors) occurs at sunset. Colors will be flown from the peak or truck of the mast, except when directed to be flown at half-mast. Colors at half-mast means it is flown at the middle point of the mast. The middle point of a · · Guyed mast is midway between the truck of the mast and the point of attachment of the guys. Mast with a yardarm is midway between the truck of the mast and the yardarm.

Hoisting and Lowering

Half Mast

Technically, an ensign flown at any position other than the truck of the mast is considered to be half-masted.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

National Ensign Protocols

Executive Order

Never permit any form of disrespect to the national flag. Obey the cautions set forth in the Executive order by President Taft, dated 29 October 1912: As set forth in the Executive order, do not · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Dip the national flag to any person or thing. The organizational colors, state flag, or institutional flag will render this honor. Display the national flag with the union down, except as a distress signal. Place any other flag or pennant above, on the same level, or to the right of the national flag. Let the national flag touch the ground or the floor or trail in the water. Place any object or emblem of any kind on or above the national flag. Use the national flag as drapery in any form. Fasten the national flag in any manner that will permit it to be easily torn. Drape the national flag over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle, train, or boat. Fix the national flag firmly to the vehicle. Display the national flag on a float in a parade except from a staff. Use the national flag as a covering for a ceiling. Carry the national flag flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free. Put lettering on the national flag. Use the national flag in any form of advertising or fasten advertising signs to a pole from which you fly the national flag. Display, use, or store the national flag so that it can be easily soiled or damaged.

Cautions To Be Obeyed

Note: During divine services on board a ship out to sea, the church pennant is flown above the national ensign.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

National Ensign Protocols, Continued

Folding

The procedures for folding the national ensign are identified in the table below. Step 1 Action Fold the flag in half lengthwise, so the crease parallels the red and white stripes.

2

Fold the flag in half again, so the new crease also parallels the red and white stripes and the union is to the outside.

3

Fold the fly end (the end away from the union) of the flag to the top, so the single edge lies perpendicularly across the stripes.

4

Continue to fold the triangle formed in step 3 until you have folded the entire flag into a triangle.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

National Ensign Protocols, Continued

Funerals

The national flag is used to cover the casket at the military funeral of any · · · · · Member of the military forces in active service Member of the Marine Corps Reserve Persons on the retired list of the Marine Corps and the Marine Corps Reserve Members of recognized military organizations Former members of the military service who have been discharged therefrom under honorable conditions

On the Casket

Place the national flag on the casket the reverse of that prescribed for displaying it vertically against a wall. The flag shall be placed · · Lengthwise on the casket Union at the head and over the left shoulder of the deceased

However, the flag will not be · · ·
Present the Flag

Lowered into the grave Allowed to touch the ground Committed to the deep for a burial at sea

The interment flag is furnished at government expense for the nearest kin at the conclusion of the interment. When presented, the flag is · · Folded in the prescribed manner Presented to the next of kin in a dignified manner with a short statement such as, "This flag is offered by a grateful nation in memory of the faithful service performed by your (relationship)."

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Organizational Flag History

Precursors to the Standard

Very little information is available regarding the flags carried by early American Marines, although indications are the Grand Union flag was carried ashore by the battalion led by Captain Samuel Nicholas on New Providence Island, 3 March 1776. It is quite possible the Rattlesnake flag was also carried on this expedition. During the 1830s and 1840s, the standard consisted of a white field with gold fringe and bore an elaborate design of an anchor and eagle in the center. Before the Mexican War, this flag bore the legend, To the Shores of Tripoli across the top. Later it was revised to read, From Tripoli to the Halls of the Montezumas.

Standards of Early Battles

During the Mexican and Civil Wars, Marines in the field carried a flag similar to the national flag, comprised of red and white stripes and a union. The union, however, contained an eagle perched on a shield of the United States and a half-wreath beneath the shield, with 29 stars encircling the entire design. Beginning in 1876, Marines carried the national colors (the Stars and Stripes) with U.S. Marine Corps embroidered in yellow on the middle red stripe. At the time of the Vera Cruz landing in 1914, Marines carried a more distinctive standard. The design consisted of a blue field with a laurel wreath encircling the Marine Corps emblem in the center. A scarlet ribbon above the emblem carried the words U.S. Marine Corps while another scarlet ribbon below the emblem carried the motto Semper Fidelis.

Orders

Orders were issued on 2 April 1921, which directed all national colors be manufactured without the · · Yellow fringe Words U.S. Marine Corps embroidered on the red stripe

An order dated 14 March 1922 retired all national colors still in use with yellow fringe or wording on the flag. Following World War I, the Army practice of attaching silver bands carrying inscriptions enumerating specific decorations and battles was adopted. This practice was discontinued on 23 January 1961.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Organizational Flag History, Continued

Modern Standard

Marine Corps Order No. 4 of 18 April 1925 designated gold and scarlet as the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps. These colors, however, were not reflected in the official Marine Corps standard until 18 January 1939 when a new design incorporating the new colors was approved. The design was essentially that of today's Marine Corps standard.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Standard Protocols

General Description

The Marine Corps organizational flag shall be · · Nylon, 52 inches on the hoist by 66 inches on the fly, excluding the headings and fringe Made of either one or two plies of lightweight nylon scarlet cloth

Marine Corps Insignia

On the outer side of each ply will be appliqued machine embroidered components of the Marine Corps insignia, consisting of · Spread eagle with a flowing · Motto ribbon containing the words Semper Fidelis in the eagle’s beak · Scroll, 3½ inches tall, underneath the eagle that contains 2½-inch lettering citing the name of the organization, United States Marine Corps or United States Marine Corps Reserve. Globe Fouled anchor

· ·
Fringe

The fringe shall be · · · · Hand knotted 2½ inches wide Golden-yellow color Trimmed on three sides of the standard

Cord

Except when streamers are authorized, each standard shall have attached below the spearhead of the staff a cord of scarlet and yellow threads approximately · · 3/8 inch in diameter 8 feet and 6 inches in length with a tassel at each end
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Standard Protocols, Continued

Authority

Marine Corps colors or standards will be carried by the organization to which issue is authorized on the same occasions as the national colors. Except when specifically authorized by the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Marine Corps colors or standards will not be issued to temporary or provisional units or organizations.

Colors

Gold and scarlet are the official colors of the Marine Corps. All guidons, banners, athletic ribbons, pennants, and other articles ordinarily designed to represent the Marine Corps will use these colors. The gold will conform as nearly as possible to that in the dress chevrons for enlisted personnel.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Types of Organizational Standards

Three Classes

A joint service specification designates Marine Corps flags as Type III flags. The three classes of organizational standards are identified as · · · Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Type III Class 1

Type III Class 1 standards are the command battle and organizational standards authorized for · · · Designated units of the Fleet Marine Force Major non-Fleet Marine Force commands The Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (USMCJROTC)

These distinguishing flags require the organization embroidered on the scroll. The command designation on the scroll is spelled out unless the unit designation is too long for the 36 spaces contained on the scroll. Then, standard Marine Corps abbreviations, with numbers and letters will be used. The letters, FMF will be included last on the scroll for all Fleet Marine Force battle standards.
Type III Class 2

Type III Class 2 organizational standards are authorized for · Active non-Fleet Marine Force activities are not authorized the Type III Class 1 standard · The words, United States Marine Corps are on the scroll.

Type III Class 3

Type III Class 3 organizational standards are authorized for · · · General officers of the Marine Corps Reserve in an active status Reserve units that are not authorized the battle standard The words, United States Marine Corps Reserve are on the scroll.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Protocols

Definition

An organization guidon is a company, battery, squadron, or designated detachment marker bearing the Marine Corps emblem and the abbreviated designation of the unit to which authorized. The guidon shall be made of red wool bunting upon which insignia, letters, and numbers, as required, of gold wool bunting shall be sewn on each side. This guidon shall measuring 1.83 feet on the hoist and 2.33 feet on the fly. Guidons will always have regimental letters and numbers and will be consistent in size: · · · · One number or letter 6 inches Two to three letters or numbers 4½ inches Four or more letters or numbers 1¾ inches Numerals preceding letters will be 4½ inches

Guidons Description

Marine Corps Emblem

A Marine Corps emblem (eagle, globe, and anchor) is placed in the center of each side of the guidon. The emblem shall measure approximately · · · 8½ inches from tip to tip of the eagle's wings Globe 5½ inches in diameter Anchor 11 inches overall

Display and Carrying

In garrison, the guidon may be displayed at company headquarters between morning and evening colors, except during inclement weather and when carried in formation. The guidon is carried at ceremonies and any other time the commander prescribes. The guidon bearer is considered under arms and will not carry a weapon.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Protocols, Continued

Types

There are three types of organization guidons. The requirement for each organizational guidon is listed in the table below: Type I II III Unit Fleet Marine Force Non-Fleet Marine Force Reserve Lettering The letters, FMF shall be centered above the Marine Corps emblem on an arc. The letters, USMC shall be placed centrally above the Marine Corps emblem on an arc. Same as for Types I and II, except the letters, USMCR shall be centered above the emblem.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Movements

Seven Positions

There are seven positions of the guidon: · · · · · · · Order guidon Carry guidon Present guidon Ready guidon Guidon salute Parade rest with the guidon Fall out with the guidon

Order Guidon

At the order, the · · · · · · · Ferrule rests on the deck touching the right shoe to the right of the toe. Staff is held in the “V” formed by the thumb and fingers. Thumb and fingers should be straight with fingers touching. Right arm is kept behind the staff and slightly bent. Upper staff rests in the hollow of the right shoulder. Staff points straight up with the flat side of the spearhead facing front. Guidon bearer is at the position of attention with the exception of the right hand.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Movements, Continued

Carry Guidon

Carry guidon, the normal position of the guidon while marching, is the same position as order guidon except the ferrule is 6 inches above the deck. The steps to carry guidon are listed in the table below: Step 1 2 3 Action Executed on a preparatory command, such as “FORWARD,” which requires moving to a new position. Place the left hand on the staff 2 inches above the right hand. · Loosen the grip of the right hand. · Pull the staff up with the left hand until the ferrule is 6 inches above the deck. · Hold the staff straight with the right hand. Move the left hand smartly back to the side.

4

To return to the order guidon position, on “ARMS,” allow the staff to slip through the right hand until the ferrule touches the deck.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Movements, Continued
Present Guidon

Present guidon can be reached from three different positions. The commands to present and return are listed in the table below: From Position Order guidon at the halt Carry guidon on the march At officers center · · · Command “PRESENT, ARMS” and “ORDER, ARMS.” “EYES, RIGHT” and “READY, FRONT.” Note: Eyes right is executed in the same manner except the head turns to the right as the staff is lowered. Executed at a halt, from carry, without command.

Present guidon is executed in one count. On the command, “ARMS” Lower the guidon straight to the front until the staff is horizontal and rests in the pit of the right arm. Turn the staff to the right so the sharp edge of the spearhead faces down. Hold your right elbow firmly against the body.

The commands to return to order or carry are listed in the table below: Command Preparatory “ORDER or READY” Execution “ARMS or FRONT” Action Smartly and audibly grasp the staff with the left hand with the palm up at a point forward of the right hand. With the left hand, carry the guidon up and back to the position of carry guidon. At the same time, return to · Order · Let the staff slide straight downward through the right hand until the ferrule rests on the deck, the left hand will steady the staff as it slides downward. Once the staff is returned to the deck, cut the left hand smartly back to its normal position at the left side. Return your head and eyes to the front Once the staff is back into the shoulder, cut the left hand smartly away.
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Carry · ·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Movements, Continued

Ready Guidon

Ready guidon is used as a signal for aiding troops in the execution of commands where hearing verbal commands is difficult. The guidon is brought to ready guidon on the preparatory command and is smartly lowered to order or carry on the command of execution. Ready guidon may be used as a signal for the execution of any command except present arms and eyes right (left), at which times the guidon also renders honors.

Guidon Salute

The purpose of guidon salute is to render honors as in hand salute. “GUIDON, SALUTE” is executed in two counts. Count 1 Action On the command of execution “SALUTE” Move your left hand, palm down, smartly to a position approximately 18 inches above the right hand. · Keep the thumb and fingers straight and together. · Touch the staff with the first joint of your forefinger. · Turn your head and eyes toward the person being saluted. After your salute is returned, move your left hand smartly back to your side and look to the front.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Guidon Movements, Continued

Parade Rest

“PARADE, REST” is executed in one count and may be given only when halted at the position of attention. On the command, “REST” · · · · · Move your left foot smartly 12 inches to the left. Place your left hand behind you, just below the belt. Keep your fingers straight and touching with your palm flat and facing to the rear. Straighten your right arm forward and grasp the staff so the guidon tilts forward at 30 degrees. The ferrule and the spearhead remain in the same position as order guidon.

Fall Out

Fall out is only given from order guidon. On the command, “FALL OUT” · · Leave your position in ranks with the guidon. Remain near the formation area.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 11 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. The two flags commonly used by the Marine Corps today are a. b. c. d. colors and standards. guidons and pennants. class III and type 3s. national and organizational.

Item 1

Item 2

When mounted on a staff and carried by an individual on foot, the national and organizational flags are called a. b. c. d. colors. standards. ensigns. ceremonial markers.

Item 3

The Continental Congress adopted the American flag on a. b. c. d. 4 July 1776. 14 June 1777. 14 September 1814. 4 April 1818.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

When in the company of other flags, the national flag is always given point of honor. The point of honor is the a. b. c. d. marching right, the flag’s own left, or an observer’s right. high point, an observer’s right, or the marching right. marching right, the flag’s own right, or an observer’s left. observer’s right, the flag’s own right, or the marching right.

Item 5

The Executive order outlining cautions pertaining to the flag of the United States of America was drafted by President a. b. c. d. Truman. Washington. Eisenhower. Taft.

Item 6

Marine Corps Order No. 4 of 18 April 1925 designated the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps as a. b. c. d. gold and scarlet. red and gold. red and yellow. scarlet and yellow.

Item 7

The Marine Corps organizational flag shall measure ______ inches on the hoist by ______ inches on the fly. a. b. c. d. 50; 60 52; 66 54; 68 60; 74
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

The distinguishing organizational flags authorized for and bearing the title of a designated unit of the Fleet Marine Force are a. b. c. d. guidons. streamers. battle standards. colors.

Item 9

The three types of organizational standards are a. b. c. d. Type II Class 1, 2, and 3. Type II Class A, B, and C. Type III Class 1, 2, and 3. Type III Class A, B, and C.

Item 10

A flag used to identify a company is called a a. b. c. d. guidon. marker. pennant. streamer.

Item 11

Parade rest with the guidon is a(n) ______-count movement. a. b. c. d. one two three four
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Answer d a b c d a b c c a a Reference 4-59 4-59 4-60 4-62 4-63 4-67 4-68 4-70 4-70 4-71 4-77

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3 Exercise

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 5 UNIFORMS AND INSPECTIONS Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 55 minutes

Unit Scope

Marines have long been known for their military appearance, smartness, and distinctive uniforms. What has maintained that reputation has been an unceasing emphasis on the correct wearing of the uniform, careful supervision (by noncommissioned officers especially), and the pride of individual Marines. It is up to you as a noncommissioned officer, 24 hours a day, on duty and off, to help uphold the Marine Corps reputation. Marine NCOs are often called on to inspect their troops. Before formations, the squad or section leader inspects the troops to make sure they present a professional military appearance. When preparing for formal inspections, NCOs are usually the first level inspectors for the unit. Therefore, you must know how to conduct an inspection and be familiar with uniform regulations.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · Instruct Marines about basic information on uniforms. Specify an estimated time line for your inspection. Conduct an inspection.

Unit Content

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Basic Information Lesson 2 Establish a Time Lesson 3 Conduct a Preliminary Inspection See Page 5-3 5-13 5-21

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Study Unit 5

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Study Unit 5

LESSON 1 BASIC INFORMATION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

MCO P1020.34F Marine Corps Uniform Regulations is the bible on uniforms, insignia, and grooming. Uniform regulations list the articles of uniform that every enlisted Marine must maintain at all times. This lesson describes the two basic types of inspections that the regulation covers and the guidelines for conducting each type. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify the uniform reference. Identify the two types of inspections by purpose. List the basic guidelines for clothing and equipment inspections. Identify the sequence and items to inspect for personnel inspections.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Types of Inspections Clothing and Equipment Inspection Guidelines Personnel Inspection Guidelines Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-8

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Types of Inspections

Purpose

The purpose of an inspection is to determine the appearance and condition of a Marine or object, such as a piece of equipment or weapon. Marines are subjected to two types of inspections: · · Clothing and equipment Personnel

Clothing and Equipment

Clothing and equipment inspections are conducted to make sure each Marine has all the prescribed clothing and equipment, his or her own gear, and all gear is clean and serviceable. Additionally, the barracks are inspected to make sure they are clean and well maintained.

Personnel

A personnel inspection is the most efficient inspection where time is concerned. The purpose of a personnel inspection is to make sure your Marines · · · Present a professional military appearance. Appear in good health. Communicate intelligently in military subjects.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Clothing and Equipment Inspection Guidelines

Detail and Sequence

A clothing and equipment inspection takes much more time than personnel inspections. You must inspect in detail and in sequence for · · · · Proper display Serviceability Cleanliness Irish pennants

Bunks

When inspecting bunks, start in sequence at the head of the bunk and work down. When inspecting a uniform display in a wall locker, inspect from left to right and top to bottom for · · · · · Proper display Serviceability Cleanliness Proper name marking Fit (have the Marine try on one or two items)

Wall Lockers

Treatment

When conducting clothing and equipment inspections, · Respect the display. Do not tear up the display. Replace each item as you inspect it. The Marine has worked long and hard on the display. Treat it with the same respect that you would want yours to be shown. Behave professionally toward the person being inspected. Take notes of discrepancies and show them to the Marine. Be sure to praise the Marine, if praise is due.

·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Personnel Inspection Guidelines

Sequence

When conducting a personnel inspection, inspect in sequence starting from the top of the cover and working down to the shoes. For covers, inspect for · · · · · Serviceability Cleanliness Fit Condition of emblem (bent, shiny, etc.) Proper marking

Cover and Head Area

Personal Hygiene

Inspect the overall personal hygiene and grooming standards of the Marine: · · · · · · Haircut Mustache Nose hair Shave Breath odor Fingernails (including nail polish and length)

Blouse and Coat Area

Inspect the upper uniform appearance for the following items: · · · · · · · · · · · Tie or necktab Collar stays Lapel Ribbons Badges Buttons Fit of blouse or shirt Tie clasp Rank insignia Emblems Service stripes
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Personnel Inspection Guidelines, Continued

Trouser and Shoe Area

Inspect the lower uniform for the following items: · · · · · Belt and buckle Fit and length of trousers or skirt Brass and leather items (shiny with no marks or scratches) Serviceability and cleanliness of shoes or boots Proper press (double creases)

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the exercise items 1 through 9 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. What is the governing regulation for conducting inspections? a. b. c. d. MCO P1020.34F MCO P1000.00 MCO 1500.01 MCO 3000.01

Item 1

Item 2

The purpose of an inspection is to a. make sure all your Marines are present. b. determine the appearance and condition of your Marines or object. c. determine if your Marines’ uniforms are serviceable and if their equipment works. d. punish your Marines for unsatisfactory performance or behavior.

Item 3

The purpose of a clothing and equipment inspection is to a. make sure each Marine has all the prescribed clothing and equipment, his or her own gear, and all gear is clean and serviceable. b. develop discipline and attention to detail in your Marines by having them spend many hours preparing uniforms and equipment. c. support requisitions for additional equipment by showing how much is missing or inoperable. d. establish teamwork and responsibility in the unit by having NCOs supervise Marines in their preparations.
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

The purpose of a personnel inspection is to a. identify Marines who need extra supervision and those who are ready for additional responsibilities. b. make sure your Marines are present and meet personal appearance standards. c. make sure your Marines present a professional military appearance, appear in good health, and communicate intelligently in military subjects. d. establish standard procedures in a unit for formations, dress, and organization.

Items 5 Through 7

Matching: For items 5 through 7, match the letter of the guideline for clothing and equipment inspections in column 2 to the inspection statement in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Inspection Statement ___ 5. Inspect from left to right for serviceability, marking, proper fit, cleanliness, and display. Do not tear up the display. Start at the head and work down. Column 2 Inspection Guideline a. b. c. d. Detail and sequence Bunks Wall lockers and wardrobes Treatment

___ 6. ___ 7.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

List four of the six personal hygiene and grooming standards in a personnel inspection. (1) ___________________________________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________________________ (4) ___________________________________________________________

Item 9

List three of the five items to inspect on the lower uniform. (1) ___________________________________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer a b a c c d b Haircut Mustache Nose hair Shave Breath odor Fingernails (including nail polish and length) Belt and buckle Fit and length of trousers or skirt Serviceability and cleanliness of shoes or boots Brass and leather items (shiny with no marks or scratches) Proper press (double creases) Reference 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-6

· · · · · · · · · ·

9

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 ESTABLISH A TIME Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

To establish a time for an inspection, the inspector must be given the requirements and commander’s intent. The commander’s guidance should include · · · · · Type of inspection Time of inspection Location for inspection List of uniforms and equipment to be inspected Format or diagram of how items are to be displayed

From this information, you can use reverse planning and conduct a preliminary inspection.
Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Define reverse planning. Identify guidelines for reverse planning. Identify the purpose of a preliminary inspection. Identify guidelines for a preliminary inspection.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Reverse Planning Preliminary Inspection Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 5-13 5-14 5-16 5-18

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Reverse Planning

Definition

The reverse planning process begins long before the actual inspection. Reverse planning starts with the inspector who formulates the plans from the top to the lowest level of the organization. Regardless of the type of inspection, reverse planning is a procedure designed to · · Keep all key players in the chain of command informed so they can plan accordingly. Give the inspector an opportunity to plan for an inspection from the highest to the lowest level in his or her chain of command.

Guidelines

When using reverse planning, follow the guidelines listed in the table below: Guideline Receive the Commander’s Intent · · Plan and Prepare Action Identify the type of inspection to be conducted. Check the time, date, and location.

· Notify key personnel in your chain of command. · Determine the amount of time needed for the inspection. · Make sure the Marines set aside enough money for uniforms that may have to be purchased (due to being unserviceable or missing) as provided for by the clothing maintenance allowance. Inform every individual of time, location, type of inspection, uniform, and equipment required. Identify an alternate location in case of inclement weather.
Continued on next page

· ·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Reverse Planning, Continued

Guidelines, continued

Guideline Inspect

Action · Wear the same uniform as the Marines being inspected. · · · · · · Make sure your appearance exceeds the requirements you place on your personnel. Look the Marine in the eye when you make comments. Keep your remarks impersonal and pertinent. Note all deficiencies. Take measures to correct them immediately. Conduct more inspections to ensure corrections were made.

Correct Deficiencies

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Preliminary Inspection

Purpose

The purpose of a preliminary inspection is to conduct it far enough in advance so your Marines will have time to correct discrepancies before the scheduled inspection. You must know the time, location, type of inspection, uniform, and equipment requirements. With that information, you should adapt the guidelines to the specific circumstances of the inspection and develop your own style of inspecting based on the guidelines listed in the table below: Guideline Preparation Action · Allow sufficient time for the unit to prepare for the inspection. · · Balance Permit NCOs and smaller unit leaders a chance to inspect their troops before you inspect.

Guidelines

Review the uniform regulations before conducting a uniform inspection, especially when inspecting members of the opposite sex. · Stay firm and consistent during the inspection. · · Commend the effort put forth and call attention to discrepancies.

Comments and Questions

Note discrepancies as well as things that are done well. · Look the Marine in the eye. · · · Keep your remarks impersonal and pertinent. Never ridicule or unnecessarily embarrass a Marine. Question Marines on general military knowledge to accustom them to answering questions while in the ranks.
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Preliminary Inspection, Continued

Guidelines, continued

Guideline Details

· ·

Actions Pay close attention to detail.

Post-inspection

Do not become lost in detail. Maintain the inspection time schedule. · Conduct a critique and correct discrepancies soon after the inspection. · Indicate good and bad points.

· Pass the praise from the inspecting officer on to the Marines. · · Follow-up on the discrepancies. Be sure all Marines correct their discrepancies. Keep your notes for future reference.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 8 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Reverse planning is used to a. give the inspector an opportunity to plan for an inspection from the highest to the lowest level in his or her chain of command. b. determine the appearance and condition of a Marine or object. c. determine if a Marine's equipment and uniforms are serviceable. d. punish your Marines for unsatisfactory performance.

Item 1

Items 2 Through 4

Matching: For items 2 through 4, match the letter of the guideline for reverse planning in column 2 to the action listed in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Action ___ 2. Wear the same uniform as the Marines being inspected. ___ 3. Conduct more inspections. ___ 4. Determine the amount of time needed for inspection. Column 2 Guideline a. b. c. d. Receive the commander’s intent Plan and prepare Inspect Correct deficiencies
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

The purpose of a preliminary inspection is to a. see that each Marine has all the prescribed clothing and equipment, his or her own gear, and all their gear is clean and serviceable. b. develop discipline and attention to detail in your Marines by having them spend many hours preparing their uniforms and equipment. c. support requisitions for additional equipment by showing how much is missing. d. conduct it far enough in advance so your Marines will have time to correct discrepancies before the scheduled inspection.

Items 6 Through 8

Matching: For items 6 through 8, match the letter of the guideline for preliminary inspection in column 2 to the action listed in column 1. Place your response in the spaces provided. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Action ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. Stay firm and consistent during the inspection. Pay close attention to detail. Do not become lost in detail. Look the Marine in the eye. Column 2 Guideline a. b. c. d. e. Preparation Balance Comments and questions Details Post-inspection

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer a c d b d b d c Reference 5-14 5-15 5-15 5-14 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-16

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 CONDUCT A PRELIMINARY INSPECTION Introduction
Estimated Study Time Lesson Scope

30 minutes

The purpose of conducting a preliminary inspection is to identify the proper fit, wearing of uniforms, and grooming standards far in advance to allow enough time to correct discrepancies before the scheduled inspection. Wearing the uniform is a matter of personal pride for all Marines. Your uniform must be properly fitted according to the TM 10120-15/1, Marine Corps Fitting and Alterations Manul, and the MCO P1020.34F Marine Corps Uniform Regulations to set an example of professional appearance and strict conformity. Every sergeant must know the proper fit of uniforms to ensure the traditions and standards of the Marine Corps are properly displayed. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · Identify the proper fit of uniforms for females and males Marines Identify the proper wearing of the different uniforms Identify the proper grooming standards females and males Marines

Learning Objectives

· Identify a proper wall locker and junk on the bunk equipment display
In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females Proper Wearing of Uniforms Proper Grooming Standards Proper Grooming Standards for Males Proper Grooming Standards for Females Clothing and Equipment Displays Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 5-21 5-22 5-32 5-38 5-43 5-44 5-45 5-47 5-50

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males

Shirts

If the shirt is manufactured from polyester cotton, it will probably show a maximum shrinkage of 2 percent in the collar, chest, back length, and sleeve length. The guidelines for the proper fit of shirts are listed in the table below: Fit Overall · · Short (Quarter) Sleeve Shirt · · Long Sleeve Shirt · · · Guideline Allow ample room around the chest and shoulders to permit free use of the arms without binding. Shoulder and arm seams should reach the point of the outer edge of the shoulder joint. Chest size determines the fit. Fits over an undershirt with all front buttons fastened. Neck size and sleeve length determine the fit. Fits over an undershirt with the collar and sleeves buttoned. Collar · · · Fits smoothly around the neck Allow ½ to 1 inch of ease

Shirt Guidelines

Cuff (buttoned) · Bottom edge should cover the wrist bone to a point 2 inches above the second joint from the end of the thumb. Allow a plus or minus tolerance of ½ inch to account for the shrinkage factor.
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Trousers

Trousers have a numeric sizing system and are labeled according to waist and inseam measurements. Waist measurement is secondary to proper seat fit, since the waist can be altered. Fit trousers over undergarments while wearing a dress shirt, dress shoes, and web belt. Trousers are worn so the lower edge of the waistband is placed squarely on top of the hipbones. Trousers are furnished with unfinished leg bottoms, but with the intended 3-inch hem that is included in the inseam measurement. Measuring the waist is the final consideration. If the seat fits well, the waist can be altered accordingly. The guidelines for the proper fit of trousers are listed in the table below: Fit Overall Guideline Trousers are sized numerically according to the waist measurement and are supplied in waist sizes 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 42, and 44. They are designed to fit smoothly, but not tightly around the hips, seat, and waist with a slight fullness for comfort: · Loose enough around the hip and buttocks to avoid · · · Gaping of the pockets Visible horizontal wrinkles in the front near the pelvis

Trouser Guidelines

Rise

Fly must hang in a vertical line without gaping when zipped The measurement from the crotch to the bottom of the waistband is called the rise. · · Too short a rise results in tightness and discomfort Too long a rise results in drooping of the seat and crotch of the trousers that exhibits an unsightly appearance

The rise of the trousers shall allow ½ inch to 1-inch looseness to assure comfort and stride in normal movements such as sitting, ascending steps, and marching.
Continued on next page
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Trouser Guidelines, continued

Fit Length (After Hemming)

Guideline · · Hem should have a 2½- to 3-inch turn up. Legs of trousers must hang straight from the seat · · · Fronts rest on top of the shoes with a slight break in the lower front crease Front length finishes ¾ to 1 inch shorter than the back

Waist

· ·

Back length hits at the welt of the shoe. No breaks in back crease. There shall be ½ inch to 1 inch looseness for proper fit and comfort. No horizontal wrinkles across the rear of the trousers below the waistline Positioned on the front panel with the back edge of the stripe aligned with the outseam and the edge of the pocket. The stitching is to continue to the back panel of the trouser. The top of stripe is to finish at or in the waist seam and the bottom end of the stripe is to be turned up in the hem
Continued on next page

Ornamental Stripes · (Blood Stripe) Placement · ·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Service and Dress Coat Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of the service and dress coat are listed in the table below: Note: Unless otherwise indicated below, all fitting checks and tolerances for the dress coat are the same as those for the service coat. Fit Overall Service Coat Fits over the shirt and trousers with the coat fastened and belt secured Dress Coat Fits over an undershirt and trousers with the web belt buckled on either side of the fly. Loose enough so material can be pinched · · 1 inch in the chest ½ inch in the waist

·

·

· · · ·

Loose enough so material can be pinched · 2 inches in the chest 1½ inches in the waist Belted loosely enough for a smooth appearance ·

Collar

· ·

Fit smoothly at the back Lapels have smooth appearance Padding should extend about ½ inch beyond the outer edge of the shoulder joint.

· ·

Belted loosely enough for a smooth appearance (may have slight wrinkles at the belt line) The collar shall have ½ inch to 1 inch ease

Shoulders and Arms

·

Front opening meets without gaps Same as service coat

· Sleeves

Armhole should not have any constrictive binding. Extend to a point of 1 inch above the second joint from the end of the thumb, plus or minus ¼ inch.

Same as service coat

Continued on next page
MCI Course 8013A

5-25

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Service and Dress Coat Guidelines, continued

Fit Chest

· ·

Service Coat Rest easily on the chest without bulges. Front closure is offset ¾ inch to the wearer’s right of the crotch. Even horizontal edges of the front and rear panels to within a plus or minus of ¼ inch. Back of the coat hangs smoothly (rear vent and back seam form a straight vertical line). Proper – waist seam fits directly on top of the belt. Excessive – rear vent flares open. Insufficient – creates an excessive front overlap.

Dress Coat Same as service coat

Length

·

Same as service coat

·

· · ·

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-26

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Service and Dress Coat Guidelines, continued

Fit Flare ·

Service Coat Dress Coat Same as service coat The design of the service coat calls for a flared skirt to permit ease of movement

·

Back Vent

A gathering of up to 1 inch of material on both of the side seams of the flare is allowable The left side of the back vent shall overlap the right side approximately 3 to 4 inches. In some cases, the profile of the individual precludes obtaining the minimum overlap. In those cases, a minimum of 1½ inch overlap is permissible, provided the vertical edge of the vent closure is straight.

Same as service coat

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-27

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

All-Weather Coat

The all-weather coat (AWC) is provided in a numeric size including length. The AWC fits over the service coat with the liner zipped in the coat. The guidelines for the proper fit of the AWC are listed in the table below: Guideline Sleeves Extend beyond the undergarment sleeve by ½ inch, plus or minus ¼ inch. Length Extend midway between the knee and the mid-calf. Chest and Shoulders Fit smoothly across the chest and shoulder blades Waist · Noticeably full on the back waist to provide a pleated effect of the material under the belt. · · Belts loose enough to appear smooth at the center of the front and back. Tapered end of belt must · · Pass through the buckle to the wearer's left. Fit

AWC Guidelines

Collar

Extend not less than 1 ½ inch beyond the belt keeper and not more than ½ inch beyond the left belt loop of the coat. The back of the collars shall cover all subgarment collars.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-28

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Utility Uniform Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of the utility uniform are listed in the table below: Fit Coat · · · · · · · · Guidelines Size for camouflage coat is based on the neck and sleeve measurements Fits over an undershirt loosely enough to allow ease of movement Sleeve must be long enough to cover the wrist bone Size based on the waist and inseam measurements Fits loosely enough to prevent binding or restricting effects May be oversized up to 2 inches to allow for shrinkage Trouser legs must reach at least the ankle bone to allow for blousing over the boot No prescribed maximum length
Continued on next page

Trousers

MCI Course 8013A

5-29

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Caps, Frame, Garrison, and Utility

The frame and garrison caps, provided in numeric sizing, are best fitted using the try on method. The size of the garrison cap should be the same as that of the frame cap. The utility cap is provided in five alpha sizes—extra-small through extra-large. All caps should · · · Fit snugly and comfortable around the largest part of the head Have lower band of the frame rest high enough on the head to preclude the top of the head from forcing the cover above its natural tautness Have bottom of the visor slightly above (½ inch) the eye level of the wearer

The garrison cap should fit around the head so that neither the top, front, or rear contour of the cap breaks.
Footwear

The foot is held securely in the shoe from the lacing at the instep to the heel, but with sufficient room in the toe for the foot to be free from restriction. Fitted over the appropriate socks, the wearer should experience maximum comfort. The guidelines for the proper fit of shoes or boots are listed in the table below: Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Action Place the heels well into the back. Lace dress shoes completely. Tie at least five eyelets on boots. Check the widest part of the footwear, the widest point (ball joint) of the foot. Foot fills the footwear without excessive tightness. Length is sufficient to allow at least ½ inch between the end of the longest toe and the end of the footwear Do a full knee bend with the heel off the deck. Recheck the ball joint, width, and length: · · Ball joint should be snug, but not too tight Footwear should have ½ inch clearance for the toes
Continued on next page

Footwear Guidelines

MCI Course 8013A

5-30

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males, Continued

Footwear Guidelines, continued

Step 8 9

Action Walk around as a final check for comfort. The wearer has the final approval of the proper fit of the footwear. Check the overall appearance: · · Any damage that will effect the serviceability and appearance of leather Each item for loose stitching

MCI Course 8013A

5-31

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females

Shirts

The shirt is designed as a semi-formfitting (can be tailored) garment meant to remain untucked. There are two types: · · Long sleeve—Lengths come in short, regular, or long to allow for the natural waist of the garment to fit around the natural waist of the Marine. Short sleeve—Colors come in khaki and white. The white is worn with no rank insignia and never worn without the blue coat.

Shirt Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of shirts are listed in the table below: Fit Bust Measurement Shoulders Long Sleeves Collar Guideline Fits smoothly over the bust without strain. Seam should not extend beyond natural shoulder line. Bottom edge of cuff covers wrist bone and extends to a point of 2 inches above the second joint from the end of the thumb. · Fits smoothly and closely to the neck · Allow insertion of one finger between neck and collar with collar closed. · Fits smoothly over the hips · Does not ride up

Waist

Necktabs

Necktabs come in one size and three colors: · Green—will be worn when long sleeve khaki shirts are worn with the service “A” and “B” uniforms and when the short sleeve shirt is worn with the service “A” uniform. Black—will be worn by enlisted Marines with the blue dress “A”, “B”, and “C” or blue-white dress “A” and “B” uniforms. Scarlet—will be worn with the blue dress blue-white “A” and “B” uniform.

· ·

No necktab will be worn with service “C” uniform or when the service sweater is worn.
Continued on next page
MCI Course 8013A

5-32

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females, Continued

Skirts

The service green and dress blue skirts are designed from the same basic pattern. The fitting and alteration requirements are the same for both skirts. Skirts must be fitted over the appropriate undergarments according to · · Hip measurement Waist measurement

Skirt Length

An individual’s height determines the length of the skirts: · · · 63 inches or less wear short length 64 to 66 inches wear regular length 67 inches or more wear long length

Skirt Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of the skirt are listed in the table below: Fit Hip Waist · · · Guideline Fits smoothly over the hips Fits easily, not tightly

Length

Center side seams at the sides so seam hangs straight from the waistline to the hem. Knee length within 1 inch above or below the kneecap
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-33

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females, Continued

Service and Dress Slacks

The service green and dress blue slacks are designed from the same basic pattern and share the same fitting requirements. They are furnished with unfinished leg bottoms with the intended 3-inch hem included in the inseam measurement. Slacks must be fitted over the appropriate undergarment according to · · Hip measurement Waist measurement

Service and Dress Slack Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of the service and dress slacks are listed below: · · · · · Must fit smoothly around hips and waist Authorized hem is 2 to 3 inches Legs must be long enough to reach the juncture of the welt of the shoe in the rear After hemming, the front should be ¾ inch to 1 inch shorter than the back. Slight break in front.

Blood Stripe Placement

Corporals and above have blood stripes on their slacks. The blood stripe · · · Positioned on the front panel with the back edge of the stripe aligned with the outseam and the edge of the pocket. The stitching is to continue to the back panel of the trouser. The top of stripe is to finish at or in the waist seam and the bottom end of the stripe is to be turned up in the hem

Service and Dress Coats

Both the service and dress coats are formed fitted, available in a range of sizes, and come in three lengths—short, regular, and long. Bust, shoulder, and sleeve fit are the same for both coats. However, the dress coat is designed to be slightly longer then the service coat.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-34

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females, Continued

Service and Dress Coat Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of the service and dress coats are listed in the table below: Fit Bust · · · Guideline Use the fit that most closely corresponds to bust measurement. Front should lie smoothly over the bust, without strain. Shoulder edge of coat does not extend beyond the natural shoulder edge.

Shoulders

Back Waist

· Seam should rest directly on top of the shoulders. Should mold smoothly over the individual’s back from the neck to hem edge, with no wrinkles in the waist area. · If waist of coat in the back is too high above the natural waistline, try the same size coat in a longer length. · · · If coat blouses at the waist, try a short coat of the same size. Fits easily through the waist, extending to a smooth flare over the hips. Allow a 2-inch overlap in the center front to hang evenly. Fit smoothly when arms hang straight at the side. Approximately 1 inch above the second joint from the end of the thumb and long enough to cover the long sleeve shirt. Long enough to cover the skirt zipper.

Sleeves

· ·

Length

· ·

Collar

One-fourth inch below the skirt zipper or 7 inches below the natural waistline. Fit smoothly and closely at the back of neck.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-35

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females, Continued

Caps

Caps are available in a range of sizes that correspond to the head size, measured in inches around the head midway on the forehead above the ears. There are three types of caps: · · · Garrison service Dress and service Utility

Cap Guidelines

The guidelines for the proper fit of caps are listed below: · · · Put on over the hairstyle the Marine usually wears Must be snug without puckers or wrinkles across the top Wear the visor straight with its tip in line with the eyebrows.

Footwear

Choice of appropriate footwear for females depends on the uniform being worn. There are four types of footwear authorized for females: · · · · Boots Oxford shoes Pumps Flats

Oxford Shoe Guidelines

Guidelines for the female’s oxford shoes are similar as for males. Oxfords can only be purchased from a Marine Corps authorized source (Marine Corps Exchange, clothing sales facility, or approved commercial source). Oxfords should fit to ensure maximum comfort when fitted over hosiery. The guidelines for pumps are listed below: · · Heels must measure between 1 and 2½ inches in height Base of the heel must measure between ⅜ inch by ⅜ inch and 1½ inch by 1⅞ inch.
Continued on next page

Pump Guidelines

MCI Course 8013A

5-36

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Fit of Uniforms for Females, Continued

Fit

The fit for pumps is the same as for oxfords. When trying on shoes or boots, be sure to follow the same guidelines presented in Proper Fit of Uniforms for Males in this lesson. In addition, check the fit when the foot is · · Flat on the deck Bent

MCI Course 8013A

5-37

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Wearing of Uniforms

Types

The three types of authorized uniforms for enlisted Marines are · · · Dress Service Utility

The evening dress uniform is authorized for wear by staff noncommissioned officers as an optional uniform.
Special Dress Uniforms

The blue-white dress “A” and “B” uniforms are the same as the blue dress “A” and “B” uniforms, except the trousers, skirt, or slacks are white. This uniform can only be worn by SNCO’s during the summer. It can be prescribed for NCO’s and below by the Commanding Officer for official parades, ceremonies, and reviews. The types of blue dress uniforms and their description are listed in the table below: Type Dress “A” Description Blue dress coat with · large medals, ribbons for which medals · have not been struck · · · Occasions Parades Ceremonies Reviews Solemnities Entertainment when the commander desires to pay special honors to the occasion Not authorized for leave or liberty Prescribed for the same occasions as the blue dress “A” uniform Authorized for leave and liberty
Continued on next page

Dress Uniforms

· Dress “B” Blue dress coat with ribbons worn in lieu of medals ·

·

MCI Course 8013A

5-38

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Wearing of Uniforms, Continued
Dress Uniforms, continued

Type Dress “C”

Description Long sleeve khaki shirt · without coat · ·

Occasions Uniform of the day for specified occasions or duties Authorized for leave and liberty Blue dress sweater can be worn at the option of the individual except when the coat is more appropriate Uniform of the day for specified occasions or duties Authorized for leave and liberty.

Dress “D”

Short sleeve khaki shirt · without coat ·

Service Uniforms

The types of service uniform and their description are listed in table below: Type Service “A” Description Service coat Ribbons and badges Women can wear either the long or short sleeve khaki shirt and green necktab. · Occasion Almost all official occasions, such as when a member of a court-martial, official visits, and reporting to a new duty station Authorized for leave and liberty

· · ·

·

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-39

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Wearing of Uniforms, Continued

Service Uniforms, continued

Type Service “B”

·

Description Same as the service · “A” uniform, except the coat is · not worn

Occasion Uniform of the day Authorized for leave and liberty Not worn for formal or semiformal social events Uniform of the day Authorized for leave and liberty Not worn for formal or semiformal social events

·

Service “C”

Ribbons and · badges as directed or optional long sleeve shirt necktie. Short sleeve khaki shirt · with appropriate service trousers · ·

Note: The service sweater can be worn at the individual's option as part of the service “B” or “C” uniform.
Camouflage Utility Uniform

The camouflage utility uniform is only authorized for wear in · · · The field Field type exercises Working conditions where the service uniform is not practical

The utility uniform is not authorized for leave or liberty. Marines can wear the utility uniform to and from their domicile, unless their commander prohibits doing so. Commanders can authorize the wear of the utility uniform for brief and appropriate stops off base during duty hours or while commuting.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-40

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Wearing of Uniforms, Continued

Maternity Uniform

When the local commander determines that a pregnant woman can no longer wear the service uniform, she must wear the maternity uniform as the uniform of the day. The maternity uniform consists of · · Slacks or skirts Long or short sleeve maternity shirts with or without the tunic top · · · · The tunic top must be worn when the service coat is prescribed for wear. Always wear the green necktab when the tunic top or the long sleeve maternity shirt is worn. Wear the short sleeve maternity shirt with an open collar and no necktab when it is worn without the tunic.

Maternity utilities

Maternity Uniform Guidelines

Guidelines for proper wearing of the maternity uniform are listed below: · · · · · · Place and wear the insignia of grade on the maternity shirts as you would on regular khaki shirts. Wear either pumps or oxfords when wearing the skirt. Always wear oxfords when wearing slacks. Wear all other uniform items of the maternity uniform the same as for the service uniform. Wear the AWC unbuttoned in the latter stages of pregnancy. Do not wear the sweater with the maternity uniform.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-41

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Wearing of Uniforms, Continued

Female Accessories

Hosiery and handbags are two specific uniform items for females. Wear fulllength nylon hose with the service and dress uniforms when wearing a skirt. Hosiery must harmonize with the natural skin tone of the individual. The black handbag is issued or sold through the Marine Corps Supply System and Marine Corps Exchange. It can be carried with the service and dress uniforms, except when in formation, over the left shoulder and arm.

MCI Course 8013A

5-42

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Grooming Standards

General Guidelines

Articles of religious apparel that are not visible or apparent when worn with the uniform are authorized. Grooming regulations do not allow eccentric and faddish styles: · · · Hair Jewelry Eyeglasses

Grooming Regulations

Unauthorized Items

Unless authorized by CMC or higher authority, the items listed below may not be exposed with the uniform: · · · · · · · · · · · Pencils Pens Watch chains Pins Handkerchiefs Combs Cigarettes Pipes Barrettes Hair ribbons Flowers

MCI Course 8013A

5-43

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Grooming Standards for Males

Hair

Grooming regulations for the male’s hair will be · · Neat and closely trimmed Evenly graduated from zero length at the hairline in the lower portion of the head to a maximum of 3 inches in length on the upper portion of the head · Sideburns will not extend below the top of the orifice of the ear.

Face

The face will be clean, unless the male Marine chooses to wear a mustache. However, the mustache must be · · · · Neatly trimmed Between the margin of the upper lip and bottom of the nose Within the corners of the mouth Hair cannot exceed ½ inch fully extended

MCI Course 8013A

5-44

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Grooming Standards for Females

Hair

The female’s hair can touch the collar, but cannot fall below the collar's edge. Grooming regulations for the female’s hair: · · · Neatly shaped Attractive feminine style No interference with the proper wear of the uniform headgear—should be appropriately based on the appearance of the hair when headgear is worn.

Hair Regulations

Unauthorized Hair Regulations

Grooming regulations do not allow · · · · Eccentric hairstyles Conspicuous pins Hairnets, unless authorized for specific duties Conspicuous color changes

Any artificial coloring must harmonize with the individual’s complexion tone and eye color. Wigs must look natural and conform to all the above listed regulations.
Cosmetics

Apply cosmetics conservatively. Do not wear exaggerated or faddish cosmetic styles. The aim is to achieve a natural, finished look. · Lipstick must harmonize with the scarlet shade used in that uniform: · Worn with the service, dress, or maternity uniform · Can wear red or pink shades with the utility uniform · Nail polish must either harmonize with lipstick or be colorless.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-45

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Proper Grooming Standards for Females, Continued

Jewelry

Inconspicuous wristwatches, watchbands, and rings are permitted in uniform. You can wear earrings (only one earring on each earlobe) with the service and blue dress uniform. The regulations for earrings are listed below: · · · Must be small, polished, yellow-gold color ball or round stud type Cannot exceed ¼ inch in diameter Cannot extend below the earlobe

Authorized Earrings

No Earrings Allowed

Grooming regulations do not allow earrings: · · · With the utility uniform While in formation In certain (or similar) military functions · Parade · Review · Ceremony

MCI Course 8013A

5-46

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Clothing and Equipment Displays

Purpose

Clothing and equipment displays are the usual method of inspecting an individual’s clothing and combat equipment (782 gear). Displayed in the appropriate area, an inspector will inspect the required items for the · · · Number Marking Condition

Types

There are two types of clothing and equipment displays: · · Wall locker Junk on the bunk (JOB)

The Marine must stand a wall locker and JOB inspection to meet the requirements of the commander’s guidance that initiated the inspection. A commander may require a combination of bunk and wall locker displays to achieve his or her inspection purposes.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-47

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Clothing and Equipment Displays, Continued

Wall Locker Display

Wall locker displays should follow the model illustrated in the diagram below to promote uniformity throughout the Marine Corps. Though the commander may prescribe displays that vary from this model, the commander’s guidance is the key to the display. The wardrobe display and instructions are identified in the diagram below:

Diagram

Continued on next page
MCI Course 8013A

5-48

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Clothing and Equipment Displays, Continued

Junk On The Bunk Display

Junk on the bunk (JOB) displays should follow the model illustrated in the diagram below to promote uniformity throughout the Marine Corps. Though the commander may prescribe displays that vary from this model, the commander’s guidance is the key to the display. The JOB inspection display is identified in the diagram below:

Diagram

MCI Course 8013A

5-49

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 12 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. Where can you find instructions for the proper fit of uniform clothing? a. b. c. d. TM 10120-15/1, Marine Corps Uniform Fitting and Alterations Manual Naval And Marine Corps Uniform Regulations On the clothing tag Marine Battle Skills Training Handbook

Item 1

Item 2

How long is the sleeve on the male’s long sleeve shirt? a. b. c. d. To the wrist bone To the thumb 3 inches above the first joint on the thumb 2 inches above the second joint from the end of the thumb

Item 3

After hemming, what is the length of the hem on the trouser legs? a. b. c. d. 1 to 2 inches 1½ to 2½ inches 2½ to 3 inches 3½ inches

Item 4

The male’s service coat should be loose enough to pinch _____ of material in the chest. a. b. c. d. 1 inch 2 inches 3 inches 4 inches
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-50

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

What is the proper length of the AWC? a. b. c. d. Midway between the thigh and the knee At the knee Midway between the knee and the mid-calf At the ankle

Item 6

What is the priority of fitting for the female’s long sleeve shirt? a. b. c. d. Shoulders, waist, and sleeve Bust measurement, shoulders, and sleeve Bust measurement, waist, and shoulders Overlap, shoulders, and sleeve

Item 7

What is the proper length of the skirt? a. b. c. d. Midway down the thigh, 1 inch below the knee cap Knee length, plus or minus 1 inch above or below the knee cap 2 inches above or below the knee cap 4 inches above or below the knee cap

Item 8

What is the maximum authorized hem for the service and dress slacks? a. b. c. d. 1 inch 2 inches 3 inches 4 inches
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-51

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

What is the proper length of the sleeves on the female’s service coat? a. b. c. d. To the wrist bone 1 inch below the wrist bone 1 inch above the second joint from the end of the thumb 2 inches above the second joint from the end of the thumb

Item 10

What are the four types of authorized uniforms for enlisted Marines? a. b. c. d. Blue dress, service, utility, and mess white Service, utility, formal blue, and semi-formal blue Alphas, bravos, charlies, and deltas Blue dress, blue-white dress, service, and utility

Item 11

What is the maximum authorized length of hair on the upper portion of a male Marine's head? a. b. c. d. 2 inches 3 inches 4 inches 5 inches

Item 12

How long can the female Marine’s hair hang? a. b. c. d. Cannot touch the collar Can touch the collar, but can not fall below the collar's edge 2 inches beyond the collar Must be pinned up so that it does not fall at all
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

5-52

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Answer a d c b c b b c c d b b Reference 5-21 5-22 5-24 5-25 5-28 5-32 5-33 5-34 5-35 5-38 5-44 5-45

MCI Course 8013A

5-53

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

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MCI Course 8013A

5-54

Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

MILITARY STUDIES REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson

Estimated Study Time

1 hour and 15 minutes

Introduction

The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for the final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination. Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided. The primary references for non-judicial punishment are the a. Constitution of the United States of America, the Manual for CourtsMartial, the Declaration of Independence, and Article 31. b. Bill of Rights, Article 31, Manual of the Judge Advocate General, and the Constitution of the United States of America. c. Manual of the Judge Advocate General, the Fifth Amendment, Article 31, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. d. Constitution of the United States of America, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Manual for Courts-Martial, and the Manual of the Judge Advocate General.
Continued on next page

Directions

Item 1

MCI Course 8013A

R-1

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 2

Protection against self-incrimination is granted by a. the Bill of Rights through direct application of the Fifth Amendment. b. the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America through direct application of Article 31 of the UCMJ. c. the Commandant of the Marine Corps through direct application of Article 31 of the UCMJ. d. Article 31 of the Bill of Rights through direct application of the UCMJ.

Item 3

No person subject to the chapter may interrogate or request any statement from an accused or a person suspected of an offense without first informing him of the accusation and advising him that he does not have to make any statement regarding the offense of which he is accused or suspected. He is also informed that any statement made by him may be used as evidence against him in a trial by court-martial composes the contents of paragraph ______ of Article 31 of the UCMJ. a. b. c. d. 1 2 3 4

Item 4

No person subject to this chapter may compel any person to incriminate himself, or to answer any question that may tend to incriminate him composes the contents of paragraph ______ of Article 31 of the UCMJ. a. b. c. d. 1 2 3 4
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-2

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 5

No person subject to this chapter may compel any person to make a statement or to produce evidence before any military tribunal if the statement or evidence is not material to the issue and may tend to degrade him composes the contents of paragraph ______ of Article 31 of the UCMJ. a. b. c. d. 1 2 3 4

Item 6

The two basic elements of Article 31 rights are the a. b. c. d. beginning and end. warning and waiver. Rocks and Shoals revisions of 1950. Manual of Courts-Martial and Manual of Judge Advocate General.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-3

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 7

The recommended procedures to advise a suspect of his or her Article 31 rights are listed below in scrambled order: (1) Instruct the suspect to read and sign the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form. (2) Identify yourself to the suspect. (3) Ask the suspect three questions: · Do you want a lawyer? · Do you understand that if you should decide to answer questions, you may stop answering questions at any time? · Do you want to answer questions and make a statement? (4) Read the Article 31 Warning Card verbatim without error to the suspect. (5) Document the suspect’s Article 31 advisement on the Suspects Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement Form. (6) Terminate the reading if the suspect: · Does not understand his or her rights · Declines to answer questions or make a statement · Requests a lawyer. What is the correct sequence of procedures to advise a suspect of his or her Article 31 rights? a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 1 2, 4, 3, 6, 5, 1 3, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4

Item 8

Who can administer the Article 31 advisement? a. Officer in charge, platoon commander, or commanding officer as deemed necessary by the scope of the military investigation b. Any person acting as an agent of the military authorities for the purpose of furthering a military investigation c. First sergeant in lieu of the officer in charge, platoon commander, or commanding officer for the purpose of furthering a military investigation d. Platoon sergeant or first sergeant prior to anyone to establish the need for furthering a military investigation
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-4

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 9

When should the suspect be advised of Article 31? a. Daily to ensure that if something happens you are covered b. During an illegal act c. After it has been determined by the first sergeant that there has been a substantial violation of the UCMJ d. Before any interrogation begins or whenever an act constitutes a statement of admission

Item 10

It is important to properly issue the Article 31 advisement to an accused suspect for the admissibility of a. b. c. d. a confession or admission of guilt at a trial. evidence at a trial. any information at a performance evaluation board. character references during court proceedings.

Item 11

A suspect is required to submit to fingerprinting for a security clearance. a. Article 31 warning is required b. Article 31 warning is not required

Item 12

A suspect is requested to give a handwriting sample for the purpose of identification. a. Article 31 warning is required b. Article 31 warning is not required
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-5

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 13

An individual is required to submit a photograph for the purpose of identification at a promotion board. a. Article 31 warning is required b. Article 31 warning is not required

Item 14

An individual under the influence of alcohol, but understanding his or her rights, is requested to identify his or her personal effects at a crime scene. a. Article 31 warning is required b. Article 31 warning is not required

Item 15

An individual is required to submit a photograph for identification in connection with an investigation. a. Article 31 warning is required b. Article 31 warning is not required

Item 16

The punitive articles are found in the ______ and are listed from a. b. c. d. Manual of Judge Advocate General, Appendix 2; 1 through 134. Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM), Appendix 2; 1 through 134. Manual of Judge Advocate General, Appendix 2; 77 through 134. Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM), Appendix 2; 77 through 134.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-6

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 17

The punitive articles are composed of a. b. c. d. charges and specifications. offenses and elements. offenses and defenses. charges and arguments.

Item 18

The components of the punitive articles that lead to charging a suspect of an offense are listed below in scrambled order: (1) Determine the article violated. (2) Check the list of offenses that fit the facts. (3) Determine the essential elements of the offense, which cover the essential conditions that must exist to convict the accused. (4) Sight the specification. (5) Narrow the charge. (6) Get all the facts about the incident. (7) Prepare and submit the charge sheet. What is the correct sequence of responses listed below to charge a suspect of an offense? a. b. c. d. 6, 1, 2, 4, 3, 5, 7 6, 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, 7 1, 6, 2, 3, 5, 4, 7 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, 6, 7

Item 19

Who is authorized to submit a charge sheet? a. b. c. d. First sergeant Platoon commander Squad leader Any Marine
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-7

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 20

What is the basic information on a charge sheet? a. Charge(s) and specification(s) b. Charge(s), specification(s), and maximum punishment c. Charge(s), specification(s), witnesses, and maximum punishment

Item 21

What are the two primary sources for the laws of war? a. b. c. d. The customary international law and ratified treaties The international conferences and customary international law The ratified treaties and international summits for peace The customary international law and Sun Tsu’s Art of War

Item 22

Destroying the enemy’s will to resist or change their will until it agrees with the objective set forth by higher authorities is defined as the a. b. c. d. purpose of theatre tactics. objective of infantry missions. Department of Defense’s objective for high intensity conflict. objective of war.

Item 23

The three purposes for laws of war are identified in the list below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Prevent unnecessary suffering of combatants and non-combatants. Strengthen international coalitions. Ensure free and democratic elections are held and enforced. Safeguard certain fundamental human rights of persons. Encourage the restoration of peace. Establish free markets and open trade with other sovereign countries. Allow United Nations to set up peacekeeping forces.

Select the correct purposes for laws of war from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 7, 2, 3 4, 2, 6 1, 4, 5 1, 3, 5
Continued on next page
MCI Course 8013A

R-8

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 24

What are the four basic concepts underlying the laws of war? a. Military necessity, proportionality, unnecessary suffering, and discrimination b. Proportionality, fire and maneuver, discrimination, and fire superiority c. Fire and maneuver, amphibious doctrine, air superiority, and combined arms d. Military necessity, proportionality, combined arms, and amphibious doctrine

Item 25

The nine Marine principles of war are identified in the list below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Marines utilize the MAGTF concept. Marines do not steal. Marines fight only enemy combatants. Marines do not kill or torture prisoners. Marines locate close with and destroy the enemy. Marines collect and care for the wounded whether friend or foe. Marines should do their best to prevent violations of the law of war. Marines destroy no more than the mission requires. Marines provide relief organizations with support. Marines do not harm enemies who surrender. Marines treat all civilians humanely. Marines do not attack medical personnel, facilities, or equipment. Marines should maximize fire support.

Select the correct principles of war from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-9

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 26

A war crime is defined as the intentional a. misuse of materiel and military personnel for purposes that are inconsistent with theatre policies to include rules of engagement. b. harming of civilians not taking part in the hostilities, enemy prisoners of war, medical personnel, or other non-combatants. c. disobedience of any orders issued on the battlefield whether or not it involves prisoners of war, non-combatants, or medical personnel. d. harming of non-combatants, personnel not taking part in the exchange of fire, enemy prisoners of war, or other civilians not taking part in the hostilities.

Item 27

The most effective methods of preventing war crimes are to a. keep your Marines informed, maintain a high state of readiness, and prevent degradation of personal weapons readiness. b. make the enemy nameless and faceless, maintain a high state of readiness, and keep your Marines prepared for any situation. c. maintain high military standards, keep your Marines informed, and prevent personal wars or vendettas. d. maintain a high military standards, prevent personal relationships, and keep your Marines prepared for any situation.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-10

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 28

The three steps required to report an illegal order are identified in the list below: (1) Clarify the order. (2) Execute the order. (3) Report the order using the chain of command, but bypassing the superior who issued the order. (4) Report the order to the closest U.N. observer. (5) Refuse the order. (6) Apprehend the order issuer and turn them in to the commanding officer. Select the correct sequence of steps listed below to report an illegal order. a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 6 1, 5, 3 3, 4, 5 4, 5, 6

Item 29

Directives issued by competent military authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered are defined as a. b. c. d. battle orders. combat directives. operations orders. rules of engagement.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-11

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 30

The three purposes for rules of engagement (ROE) are identified in the list below: (1) Provides direct interface between application of the Geneva Convention and self-defense force members on international contingency deployments (2) Provides implementation guidance for the application of force for mission accomplishment and for the exercise of the inherent right and obligation of self-defense (3) Implements silence is consent defense for fire control during indirect fire planning and application (4) Serves as a fire control method of military operations by the civilian and military chain of command (5) Implements the inherent right of self-defense (6) Provides a safe back blast area when engaging targets with antiarmor weapons Select the correct purposes for ROE from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 1, 3, 6 2, 4, 3 2, 4, 5 3, 5, 6

Item 31

What are the classes of persons that are entitled to self-defense? a. b. c. d. U.S. forces, U.S. Marines, U.S. Postal Service Individuals and self, units, and national interests U.S. citizens, multinational coalitions, medical personnel Missionaries, medical personnel, and third party nationals
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-12

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 32

What are the three types of actions that will justify self-defense? a. A hostile act, threat or hostile intent, or presence of a force deemed hostile b. Unruly crowds in imminent danger zones, verbal exchanges with negative connotations from host county personnel, or unauthorized entry into secure areas by third party persons c. Multinational training operations in imminent danger zones, counter drug operations in support of the ATF, or joint staffs assigned to imminent danger zones d. Direct and indirect fire, security patrols in imminent danger zones, or joint operations with national and internal forces

Item 33

The origins of the noncommissioned officer are identified in the list below: (1) Battle Drill Guide for Marines (2) Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States (3) Uniform Code of Military Justice (4) Non-Commissioned Officers’ Handbook (5) Regulations for the Troops of the Foreign Legion and American Legion (6) United States Constitution and Bill of Rights (7) The Blue Book and Condottieri Units (8) Regulations for Good Order and Discipline Select the correct origins of the noncommissioned officer from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 1 and 8 2 and 7 5 and 3 6 and 4
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-13

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 34

The responsibilities of the NCO are identified in the list below: (1) (2) Discipline Marines as directed by the UCMJ. Provide links between commanders (as well as officers in general) and the troops. (3) Recognize and reward outstanding technical and military skills. (4) Prepare rosters and ensure that personnel action requests are submitted for all administrative action. (5) Muster formations as often as possible to improve accountability. (6) Organize a professional library at every command level. (7) Afford avenues for advancement whereby enlisted men and women may realize their full potential as leaders. (8) Ensure that the Marines apply for special duty. (9) Decentralize command authority in an orderly structure down to the smallest element in an organization. (10) Provide a senior enlisted adviser, a platoon sergeant, a first sergeant, or a sergeant major for each commander. Select the correct responsibilities of the NCO from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 2, 3, 7, 9, 10 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 3, 4, 6, 9, 10
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-14

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 35

The NCO’s obligations for self and to the unit are identified in the list below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Win on the battlefield and accomplish all assigned tasks. Develop delegation skills to eliminate overextending your responsibility. Develop subordinates to ensure a lighter workload yourself. Enjoy the burden of your leadership position. Focus on shortcomings of others to improve morale and readiness. Build and foster unit cohesion. Provide training and set meaningful standards. Provide assistance only to Marine under your supervision. Providing your unit with positive leadership. Hold yourself and your Marines accountable to high standards. Ensure that you are nominated for personal awards and recognition.

Select the NCO’s correct obligations for self and to the unit from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d.
Item 36

1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 2, 4, 5, 6 10, 11 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

The major roles the NCO fulfills are identified in the list below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Cursory observer and protagonist Unit leader and disciplinarian Sergeant of the guard Trainer and guardian of standards Tactical planner and developer Training NCO and squad leader Backbone of the Corps Duty NCO at company commands

Select the correct roles the NCO fulfills from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 2, 6, 8 3, 4, 7 1, 3, 5 2, 4, 7
Continued on next page
MCI Course 8013A

R-15

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 37

The purpose of the Medal of Honor (MOH) is to a. posthumously recognize armed forces personnel for performance above and beyond the line of duty. b. recognize deeds of gallantry and heroism in times of war and of peace. c. provide an opportunity for goal setting and a command support program for gallantry volunteers. d. recognize heroic achievement in combat zones after there is a declaration of war.

Item 38

The MOH criteria are identified in the list below: (1) The deed must be the type that if not done, it will not subject the individual to any justified criticism. (2) The deed must be in support of a unit involved in combat operations. (3) The deed must be without detriment to the mission of the command or to the command to which attached. (4) The valor must include hand-to-hand combat and there must be at least one enemy casualty using an entrenching tool. (5) The unit must suffer high combat casualties, and with at least one of the key personnel being replaced by the MOH recipient. (6) No margin of doubt or possibility of error in awarding this honor. (7) Service is rendered conspicuous above their comrades by an act so outstanding that it clearly distinguishes their gallantry beyond the call of duty from lesser forms of bravery. (8) The deed must be executed while assigned to a combat arms unit or during the execution phase of an expeditionary operation. Select the correct criteria of the MOH from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 5, 7 1, 3, 6, 7 2, 3, 4, 8 3, 4, 5, 8
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-16

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 39

The first Marine NCO awarded the MOH was a. b. c. d. Corporal John F. Mackie while serving aboard USS Calena. Sergeant Henry J. Denigt while serving aboard USS Brooklyn. Sergeant Richard Binder while serving aboard USS Tichonderoga. Sergeant James Martin while serving aboard USS Richmond.

Item 40

The historical NCO duties are identified in the list below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) NCO education (1981 to present) Color guard details (American Revolution to present) Junior leaders, decentralized control (Vietnam to present) Burial details (American Revolution to present) Weapons and daytime maneuvers (World War I to present) Basic training (World War II to present) Sea duty (American Revolution to present) Marine Security Guard duty (Boxer Rebellion to present) Battle leaders, integrated squads (Korean War to present) Neatness and sanitation (American Revolution to present)

Select the historical NCO duties from the responses listed below. a. b. c. d. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-17

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 41

The first paragraph of the NCO creed is cited below: I am an NCO dedicated to training new Marines and influencing the old. I am forever conscious of each Marine under my charge, and by example I will inspire him (or her) to the highest standards possible. I will strive to be patient, understanding, just and firm. I will commend the deserving and encourage the wayward. Select the correct second paragraph of the NCO creed from the responses listed below. a. I will remember that I am responsible to the SNCO and NCO corps for the discipline, focus, and combat effectiveness of my men. b. I will never forget that I am responsible to my commanding officer for the morale, discipline, and the efficiency of my men and their performance will reflect an image of me. c. I am responsible to the SgtMaj and SNCO’s for the management of my Marines, their professional and personal discipline, combat effectiveness, and attention to detail. Their performance reflects directly on my personal performance standards and me. d. I will never forget that I am responsible to my platoon commander and platoon sergeant for the combat efficiency, morale, and good order of my men and their overall performance.

Item 42

In 1983 following the assassination of the Prime Minister and the overthrow of the government of Grenada, the Marines participated in an operation. It was a joint military operation in response to a request from neighboring Caribbean nations. The Marines’ rapid response secured the island and safeguarded hundreds of American citizens living on the island. What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Sharp Edge Operation Just Cause Operation Urgent Fury Operation Restore Hope
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-18

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 43

During 1989 in response to increasing unrest in Panama, the President ordered a joint military operation. United States forces, including the Marines, overthrew the military government of General Manuel Noriega and installed a civilian government. What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Just Cause Operation Uphold Democracy Operation Ernest Will Operation Urgent Fury

Item 44

This military operation was designed to halt the advance of Iraqi forces and to position multinational forces assembled for possible offensive action to dispel the invading force. This operation validated the Marine Corps’ maritime prepositioning force (MPF) concept and enacted the plan of tailoring units to accomplish a mission as part of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF). What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Desert Storm Operation Rolling Thunder Operation Ernest Will Operation Desert Shield

Item 45

During 1991, an operation was launched after the Iraqi government refused to comply with the United Nations’ resolutions. Marine aviation conducted combat operations when the air phase commenced in January 1991. After massive bombing, Marine ground forces participated in the sweep into Kuwait to help liberate the country and damage the Iraqi military capability. What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Desert Shield Operation Desert Calm Operation Desert Storm Operation Peace Vector IV
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-19

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 46

In 1992 as part of a joint military operation, Marine forces landed in war-torn Somalia. United States forces provided security for the distribution of humanitarian aid. The U.S. forces were later incorporated in the United Nations’ peacekeeping forces and were sent to stabilize the situation in the country. What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Freedom Banner Operation Restore Hope Operation Urgent Fury Operation Fiery Vigil

Item 47

During 1994, a joint military operation was ordered by the President to restore the civilian government in Haiti. Marines landed in northern Haiti to stabilize the situation and provide security for the orderly transfer of power from the military to the democratically elected government of President Jean Bertrand Aristide. What is the correct name of this descriptive deployment? a. b. c. d. Operation Just Cause Operation Restore Hope Operation Urgent Fury Operation Uphold Democracy

Item 48

A column of men or line of vehicles is identified as a. b. c. d. column. file. rank. element.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-20

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Directions for Items 49 Through 52

Choose the answer that correctly describes the term identified by the corresponding number in the platoon diagram below:

Item 49

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

Footstep Ground distance Distance Right guide Second squad Middle Center Alignment Baseline Depth Front Line Front Row Squad File
Continued on next page

Item 50

Item 51

Item 52

MCI Course 8013A

R-21

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 53

An arrangement of elements of a unit in line, in column, or any other prescribed manner is described as a. b. c. d. an extended mass formation. a squad. a platoon. a formation.

Item 54

The individual upon whom a formation or elements thereof regulates its march is identified as the a. b. c. d. platoon commander. squad leader. guide. platoon sergeant.

Item 55

The lateral space between elements on the same line is defined as a. b. c. d. interval. a pace. distance. a step.

Item 56

Cadence of 120 steps per minute is referred to as ___________ time. a. b. c. d. double slow normal quick
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MCI Course 8013A

R-22

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Item 57

Select the correct procedures that a platoon sergeant must execute to form an unarmed platoon. Choice a Step
(1) Post himself or herself three paces in front of the point where the center of the platoon will be and face that point. (2) Command, “FALL IN” or “AT CLOSE INTERVAL, FALL IN.” (3) Command, “REPORT.” (4) Receive the report. (5) Salute and report, “SIR, ALL PRESENT AND ACCOUNTED FOR” or “SIR, (Number) MARINES ABSENT.” (1) Post himself or herself six paces in front of the point where the center of the platoon will be and face that point. (2) Command, “FALL IN” or “AT CLOSE INTERVAL, FALL IN.” (3) Command, “REPORT.” (4) Receive the report. (5) Salute and report, “SIR, ALL PRESENT AND ACCOUNTED FOR” or “SIR, (Number) MARINES ABSENT.” (1) Post himself or herself three paces in front of the point where the center of the platoon will be and face that point. (2) Draw sword. (3) Command, “FALL IN” or “AT CLOSE INTERVAL, FALL IN.” (4) Command, “REPORT.” (5) Receive the report. (6) Command, “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “ORDER, ARMS (7) Salute and report, “SIR, ALL PRESENT AND ACCOUNTED FOR” or “SIR, (Number) MARINES ABSENT.” (1) Post himself or herself six paces in front of the point where the center of the platoon will be and face that point. (2) Command, “FALL IN” or “AT CLOSE INTERVAL, FALL IN.” (3) Command, “REPORT.” (4) Receive the report. (5) Command, “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “RIGHT SHOULDER, ARMS.” “ORDER, ARMS.” (6) Salute and report, “SIR, ALL PRESENT AND ACCOUNTED FOR” or “SIR, (Number) MARINES ABSENT.”
Continued on next page

b

c

d

MCI Course 8013A

R-23

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 58

Facing movements, side step, ______________________ are different halted movements of a platoon drill. a. b. c. d. back step, and hand salute reverse step, and hand salute change step, and hand salute dismissed, and back step

Item 59

Mark time, half step, change direction on the march, and march to the oblique are common marching movements. What are the other three most common marching movements? a. b. c. d. Change step, march to open ranks, and march to the tactical column Change step, march to the flank, and march to the rear Change step, march to route step, and march to the rear Chain step, march to the flank, and march to the rear

Item 60

Select the correct procedures to dismiss an armed platoon at attention in line formation. a. “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “ORDER, ARMS.” “DISMISSED.” b. “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “RIGHT SHOULDER, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “DISMISSED.” c. “DISMISSED.” d. “INSPECTION, ARMS.” “PORT, ARMS.” “DISMISSED.”
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MCI Course 8013A

R-24

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Directions for Items 61 Through 64

Using the diagram below, identify items 61 through 64 on the scabbard.

Item 61

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

Upper end Orifice Throat Hand grip Diamond stud Frog stud Frog catch Rhombic catch Tip Striking end Lower end Blade cover Drag Foible Casement tip False edge
Continued on next page

Item 62

Item 63

Item 64

MCI Course 8013A

R-25

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Directions for Items 65 Through 68

Using the diagram below, identify items 65 through 68 on the sword.

Item 65

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

Stud Hilt Grip Pommel Hand shield Brass knuckle Knuckle bow Brass guard Hand grip Hilt Carrying handle Cutlass Picasso Test approval star Ricasso Neck
Continued on next page

Item 66

Item 67

Item 68

MCI Course 8013A

R-26

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Directions for Items 69 Through 72

Using the diagram below, identify items 69 through 72 on the sword.

Item 69

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

Foible Blade edge True edge Wilkinson edge Foible Cutting edge Blade Percussion point Percussion point Fuller Foible False edge False edge Foible Fuller Percussion point
Continued on next page

Item 70

Item 71

Item 72

MCI Course 8013A

R-27

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued
Directions for Items 73 Through 77

Using the diagram below, identify items 73 through 77 on the sword.

Item 73

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

Wilkinson edge False edge Percussion point Foible False edge Wilkinson edge Foible Percussion point Quillion Forte Ricasso Blade Upper blade Ricasso Forte Quillion Hilt Grips Handle Knuckle bow
Continued on next page

Item 74

Item 75

Item 76

Item 77

MCI Course 8013A

R-28

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 78

The sword is the correct size when the tip of the sword is a. b. c. d. eye level at carry sword. 3 inches above the ground at present sword. on line with the center of your ear opening. 6 inches above the ground at the scabbard carry.

Item 79

The sword is worn a. on the left side of the body in the scabbard placed inside the frog. b. on the right side of the body at carry sword at all times. c. on the left side of the body if the carrier is right-handed and opposite for left handed carriers. d. as dictated by local drill and ceremony regulations.

Item 80

The sword is drawn whenever you are with armed troops or you a. b. c. d. are ready to move from one location to another. approach an officer. are in command of a unit. think there is a good reason.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-29

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 81

A Marine should assume carry sword when any manual of arms movement has been ordered except: parade rest, at ease, rest, present arms, order arms, eyes right (left), and changing position in formation at quick time. What are the other two exceptions? a. Giving commands and returning the weapon to the armory b. Addressing and being addressed by a senior and giving commands c. Receiving the preparatory command for and while marching at quick time and after the platoon has been dismissed d. After executing return sword and while receiving the command of execution from at ease or parade rest

Item 82

When marching with the sword at the carry, you should swing your arms naturally and a. hold the scabbard with your left hand. b. hold your left elbow stiff to make it symmetrical with your right arm. c. switch your sword carriage to your left arm when your right arm gets tired. d. do not hold the scabbard with your left hand.

Item 83

Hold the sword ____________________ when you march at double time and a. forward of the chest remembering to swing the arm; rotate the drag of the scabbard forward. b. diagonally across the chest with the sharp edge towards the front; hold the scabbard with your left hand just below the frog. c. both hands across the body at the port; have to be aware of the bouncing scabbard. d. by the grip under the right arm remembering to pinch the elbow to the body; grasp the scabbard by the upper end.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-30

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 84

Draw sword is a a. b. c. d. three-count movement when halted and at attention. two-count movement when halted or marching manual. static movement at the beginnings of formation. one-count movement at the commander’s discretion.

Item 85

When the sword slants down to the front with the point 3 inches from the deck and the true edge of the blade turned down best describes a. b. c. d. present arms. order sword. parade rest when armed with a sword. at ease when armed with a sword.

Item 86

When moving from order sword to carry sword, the sword should be a. at a 45-degree angle across the chest and ready for double time. b. ready for return sword at the bearer’s own unspoken command. c. locked into the wrist when bringing it and in front of the face to give the appropriate salutation or greeting. d. locked into a vertical position when the blade reaches your shoulder seam.

Item 87

On the preparatory command of present arms, the sword will be a. straight out at a 45-degree angle, dropping it down and vertically with the thumb along the shoulder seam. b. raised up to the level of and 6 inches in front of your neck with the blade at a 30-degree angle. c. pulled from the scabbard when walking, brought out at a 45-degree angle and up in front of the body. d. retained in the scabbard and a hand salute will be rendered.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-31

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 88

When executing eyes right (left), when is the command “READY, FRONT” given? a. After the true edge of the sword is turned down in preparation for the command of execution. b. When the last man of the platoon passes by the reviewing officer. c. When you are six paces passed the reviewing officer. d. As you pass the second flag set up in the parade reviewing area.

Item 89

Return sword is executed as a a. two-count command on your own and returning to the position of attention. b. self-executed command after being directed to do so by the staff commander and returning to the position of attention thereafter. c. three-count command ending with snapping the sword into the scabbard and coming to the position of attention simultaneously on the third count. d. self-inflicted command when drilling alone, which should be heard by the evaluator.

Item 90

When executing parade rest with a sword, you may a. b. c. d. lower the point of the sword to the deck. return sword and assume the normal parade rest position as if unarmed. keep the sword at the carry position if you wish. let the blade fall across your body and into your left hand and hold the sword across your body.

Item 91

What are the two types of flags used by the Marine Corps? a. b. c. d. Organizational and guidons Guidons and national Streamers and guidons Organizational and national
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-32

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 92

Which is the distinguishing organizational flag authorized for and bearing the title of a designated unit of the Fleet Marine Force? a. b. c. d. Organizational colors Battle standard Guidon Battle pennant

Item 93

Colors covered with a canvas or leather type of shell defines the term a. b. c. d. covered. retired. cased. stowed.

Item 94

A flag mounted on a vehicle is called a. b. c. d. standards. streamer. guidon. national ensign.

Item 95

When did the Continental Congress adopt the American flag? a. b. c. d. 4 July 1776 14 June 1777 4 July 1777 14 June 1776

Item 96

Where is the national ensign displayed when in the company of other colors? a. b. c. d. On the left or honor position Separated by one lateral pace to the right In the center of the group as long as it is on the tallest staff Always given the marching right or the honor point
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8013A

R-33

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 97

The universal custom to display the national ensign is a. b. c. d. from 0800 to sunset. from 0800 to 1830. from sunrise to sunset. 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Item 98

The national flag is dipped in respect to heads of state and at war memorials. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 99

As a universal distress signal, the national flag can be displayed with the union down. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 100

It is not appropriate to carry the national flag flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free. Neither is it to be used as a covering for a ceiling. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 101

The national flag can be displayed where it can be easily soiled or damaged, as long as you have a replacement. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 102

For storage after use, the national flag is folded into a rectangle and stowed. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 103

The national flag is used to cover the casket at a military funeral for any member of the military forces on active service, in the Marine Corps Reserve, on the retired lists of USMC and USMCR, or a former member of the military service discharged under any kind of condition. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 104

The national flag is placed lengthwise with the union at the head and over the left shoulder of the deceased, which is the reverse of that prescribed for displaying it vertically against a wall. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 105

The flag may be lowered into the grave and committed to the deep for a burial at sea. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 106

The interment flag is furnished at government expense for the nearest kin at the conclusion of the interment. a. Stated correctly b. Stated incorrectly

Item 107

In 1876, Marines carried the national colors (the Stars and Stripes) with ________________ embroidered in yellow on the middle red stripe. a. b. c. d. Don’t Tread on Me U.S. Marine Corps To the Shores of Tripoli From Tripoli to the Halls of Montezuma
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 108

At the time of the Vera Cruz landing in 1914, Marines carried a design of ____________ with a laurel wreath encircling the Marine Corps emblem in the center. A ______ ribbon above the emblem carried the words U.S. Marine Corps while another scarlet ribbon below the emblem carried the motto, a. b. c. d. scarlet and gold; blue; The First Team. gold field; scarlet; First to Fight. blue field; scarlet; Semper Fidelis. scarlet field; blue; From the Shores of Tripoli.

Item 109

Marine Corps Order No. 4 of ____________ designated gold and scarlet as the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps, but was not incorporated until _____________. This new design reflected what was essentially that of a. b. c. d. 18 Nov 1775; 23 July 1876; the Stars and Stripes. 2 April 1921; 23 January 1961; the Viet Nam era Marine Corps standard. 23 May 1914; 14 March 1922; the World War II Marine Corps standard. 18 April 1925, 18 January 1939; today’s Marine Corps standard.

Item 110

The Marine Corps organizational flag shall be constructed of one or two plies of lightweight scarlet ________________, excluding the headings and fringe. a. b. c. d. cotton duct, 56 inches top to bottom, 76 inches long gortex, 56 inches on the fly, 42 inches on the hoist nylon, 52 inches on the hoist by 66 inches on the fly resilient material, 56 inches long, 42 inches vertically
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 111

The Marine Corps standard shall contain a. 2½ inches of golden-yellow fringe, embroidered components of the Marine Corps insignia, and staff a cord. b. embroidered unit identification; eagle, globe, anchor, golden-yellow fringe, and battle streamers. c. gold silk fringe, battle streamers, Marine Corps insignia, and unit identification. d. staff a cord, 2½ inches of ivory fringe, Marine Corps insignia, and embroidered unit awards.

Item 112

A joint service specification designates Marine Corps flags as Type III flags. The three types of organizational standards are a. b. c. d. Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3. colors, standards, and guidons. garrison, post, and storm. national, Marine Corps, and unit battle colors.

Item 113

Where will guidons be displayed and when? a. b. c. d. The battalion headquarters for holidays and parades only The company headquarters between morning and evening colors The battalion commander’s office when the company is not in the field The company commander’s office when the commander is present

Item 114

There are _________ positions of the guidon. a. b. c. d. four five six seven
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 115

At present guidon, the guidon is carried a. across the chest of the bearer and slightly forward with the edge of the spearhead facing down. b. vertically with the left across the bearer’s chest and horizontal to the deck. c. horizontal to the deck and resting in the pit of the right arm so the sharp edge of the spearhead is face down. d. at a 45-degree angle to the front and under the bearer’s right arm pit with the spearhead down.

Item 116

The Marine Corps Uniform Regulations gives instructions on how to a. b. c. d. buy new uniforms. dry-clean your uniforms. wear your the uniform. preserve your uniform once you get out of the Marine Corps.

Item 117

The two types of inspections conducted are clothing and equipment and a. b. c. d. vehicles. service record book. hygiene. personnel.

Item 118

What are the basic guidelines for the clothing and equipment inspections? a. Make sure each Marine has all of their prescribed clothing and equipment, his or her own gear, and all their gear is clean and serviceable. b. Establish a routine on inspections and all the gear is displayed in the same order. c. Fill out a missing gear statement in a timely manner so supply can order the prescribed gear. d. Let Marines get a lesson on time lines in regards to how long it takes to clean his or her gear and check for serviceable gear.
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 119

When conducting a personnel inspection, what is the main guideline to follow? a. b. c. d. Spend 5 minutes on each Marine. Look at each Marine differently because you are trying to find trends. Look at each Marine the same, top to bottom, same order of sequence. Look only at the new Marines to see if their section leaders prepared them for the inspection.

Item 120

What is reverse planning? a. Letting the plan start at the lowest level in the chain of command for the inspection b. Giving the inspector an opportunity to plan for an inspection from the top to bottom of the chain of command c. Having small inspections before the big inspection d. Letting the inspector see all the Marines and their gear

Item 121

What are the guidelines for reverse planning when determining the time needed for an inspection? a. b. c. d. Pre-inspections Commanders involvement Planning and preparation Inspections

Item 122

What is the purpose of a preliminary inspection? a. b. c. d. Gives the junior Marines a chance to inspect Tells the NCO what to look for during an inspection Lets the unit know what to inspect for in the inspection Allows sufficient time for the unit to correct discrepancies before the scheduled inspection
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 123

When conducting a preliminary inspection, what is the main guideline to follow? a. b. c. d. Spend 5 minutes on each Marine. Look at each Marine differently because you are trying to find trends. Look at each Marine the same. Look only at the new Marines to see if their section leaders prepared them for the inspection.

Item 124

Where can you find proper fitting and authorized alterations for uniform items? a. b. c. d. Marine Corps Uniform Fitting and Alterations Manual Marine Battle Drill Handbook Naval Uniform Regulations NCO Leadership Handbook

Item 125

Grooming standards for both male and female hair a. b. c. d. must be neatly in shaped, evenly graduated, and non-eccentric. follow the local trends. depend on your nationality. must be put up if it gets in your way.

Item 126

What are the two types of equipment displays? a. b. c. d. Wall locker and junk on the bunk Wall locker and personnel Junk on the bunk and personnel Personnel and equipment display
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the review lesson items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Answer d b b a c b c b d a b b b a b d b c d a a d c a c b c b d c b a Reference Page 1-4 and 1-5 1-6 1-11 1-11 1-12 1-13 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-17 1-17 1-17 1-17 1-24 1-24 1-25 through 1-30 1-30 1-30 2-5 2-7 2-7 2-9 2-10 and 2-11 2-12 2-14 2-15 2-22 2-22 2-24 2-25
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Review Lesson, Continued

Answers, continued

Item Number 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

Answer b b b d b b a d b c a d c b d b c c b a d c a d a a b d c b a a d

Reference Page 3-4 and 3-5 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-16 3-16 3-17 3-22 and 3-23 3-24 3-32 3-32 3-32 3-33 3-33 3-33 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-10 4-12 and 4-13 4-19 4-25 4-34 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41
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Review Lesson, Continued

Answers, continued

Item Number 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Answer c b c c c b a d d a c b c a c c d b a b d b c c a d b c a b

Reference Page 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-41 4-42 4-43 4-43 4-44 4-44 4-45 4-46 4-47 4-48 4-50 4-51 4-52 4-59 4-59 4-59 4-59 4-60
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Answers, continued

Item Number 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126

Answer d c b a a b b b a b a b c d c a a b d c c d a c b c d c a a a

Reference Page 4-62 4-62 4-63 4-63 4-63 4-63 4-64 4-65 4-65 4-65 4-65 4-66 4-66 4-67 4-68 4-68 4-70 4-71 4-73 4-75 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-14 5-14 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-21 5-45 and 5-46 5-48

MCI Course 8013A

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Review Lesson Examination

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