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Shailendra Singh1*, Research Scholar M.Tech, RTU, Alwar, Rajasthan India Dalip Singh Shekhawat2, Scholar, M. , M!" T, #walior, $M.!.%, Rakesh &'(ar), Scholar, M. , M!" T, #walior, $M.!.%

"orresponding A'thor* $Shailendra2)+,g(

Abstract: -esides con.entional tools and de.ices 'sed in /a0rication ind'stries /or a'to(ation, to i(pro.e the prod'ti.it1 and

2'alit1 o/ prod'cts, a'to(atic laser weld sea( tracking s1ste( is (ost accepta0le s1ste( in the(.In this paper we are /oc'ssing on the i(portance and application o/ this s1te( in enhancing the a'to(ation in prod'cti.it1 and 2'alit1 o/ prod'ct, si('ltaneo'sl1 it ens'res the sa/e working en.iron(ent in (ass prod'ction. Keywor s: A'to(ation, 3eld sea( tracking s1ste(, (ass prod'ction, hea.1 /a0rication.

!" I#tro $ct%o#

Arc welding is di//ic'lt and 'nhealth1 jo0.The arc sensor,the 'ltrasonic sensor and .ision 0ased sensor ha.e 0een 'sed in these /ield.A(ong all these sensors, laser 0ased .ision sensor has 0een paid a hot attention in recent1ears d'e to high speed,high acc'rac1,high ro0'stness to welding en.iron(ent. 425There are c'rrentl1 two (ain approaches to the 'se o/ laser sea( tracking in 6ea.1 /a0rication Ind'stries. 7ne 'ses a relati.el1 si(ple and low cost s1ste( which relies on (an'al operator inp't to select the target position /or'al weld passes. The other 'ses a (ore sophisticated $and (ore e8pensi.e% s1ste( which is capa0le o/ deter(ining the location o/'al weld passes 01 itsel/ as well as controlling the deposition process.The /irst approach 'ses a relati.el1 si(ple laser .ision s1ste( together with a h'(an inter/ace designed to (ake it eas1 to position the torch /or each weld pass. T1picall1, the (achine operator indicates the correct target position /or each pass and the s1ste( itsel/ then controls the position o/ the welding head thro'gho't welding that pass.The second approach 'ses (ore ad.anced sensors, hardware and so/tware to a'to(ate the entire process o/ (aking a ('lti pass weld. This is a.aila0le /or a (ore li(ited range o/ joint t1pes than the si(pler s1ste(. T1picall1 it is 'sed on narrow gap and se(i narrow gap s1ste(s and is (ost s'ita0le where a large n'(0er o/ joints o/ the sa(e t1pe ha.e to 0e welded in a prod'ction line t1pe o/ operation. 415
1 2 )

&" 'aser we( sea) trac*%#+ syte)

A'to(ated welding head (o.e(ent with a laser sensor ens'res the welding head is alwa1s in the 0est possi0le welding position relati.e to welding joint. 9aser Sea( Tracking S1ste(, 0rings noticea0l1 i(pro.ed 2'alit1 and e//icienc1 where scraps, de/ects and reworks are signi/icantl1 red'ced.It is a non:contact real:ti(e (eas'ring s1ste( with high sa(pling rate 'p to 2;,<<< (eas'ring points per second. 9aser sensor 'ses triang'lation (ethod to create 2D i(age o/ welding pro/ile. Then, the i(age is processed and co(pared with pre:de/ined welding joints. 3hen (atching is co(pleted, a'to(atic tracking starts. All these processes are done in (illiseconds 415.

&"! ,or*%#+ -r%#c%-(e:

The sensor head contains a (iniat're ca(era, si(ilar to those /o'nd in a nor(al .ideo ca(era, and either one or two lasers. The lasers act as a light so'rce, and shine a stripe onto the s'r/ace 'nder the sensor. The ca(era .iews the stripe directl1 'nder the sensor. In /ront o/ the ca(era is a special /ilter that allows the light /ro( the lasers to pass, 0't keeps o't nearl1 all other light, s'ch as the light /ro( a welding arc.The laser stripe shines down at an angle, /ro( the /ront o/ the sensor. -eca'se the light shines down at an angle it (eans that i/ the workpiece ( closer to the sensor,


Shailendra Singh, Dalip Singh Shekhawat,Rakesh &'(ar

the position o/ the laser stripe on the workpiece ( /orwards. I/ the work:piece ( /'rther awa1 /ro( the sensor, then the position o/ the laser stripe on the s'r/ace will (o.e 0ackwards. The ca(era .iews the laser stripe and is a0le to (eas're the distance to the workpiece 'nderneath. =ro( the shape o/ the stripe seen on the workpiece, it is a0le to (eas're the pro/ile o/ the s'r/ace and so the position o/ the sea( within the stripe. This allows the sensor to (eas're the position o/ the sea( to the side. The sensor ('st 0e (o'nted in /ront o/ the welding torch so that it can see the sea( 0e/ore it is welded. The distance /ro( the sensor 0od1 to the workpiece sho'ld 0e correct /or the t1pe o/ sensor 0eing 'sed. 3hen the welding torch is correctl1 positioned the sea(, the sea( sho'ld 0e close to the (iddle o/ the laser stripe. This is so that the ca(era can clearl1 see the laser stripe and the sea( within it. =ig're 1and 2 ill'strates the principle o/ triang'lation /or a single point distance (eas're(ent. The laser 0ea( is projecting straight down and is shown in the /ig're striking s'r/aces at three di//erent distances. The res'lting three i(age positions are also shown and it is clear that the i(age position is a /'nction o/ the distance /ro( the sensor to the s'r/ace 4)5.

F%+$re & 9aser weld sea( tracking

The pict're /ro( the ca(era is processed 01 the >ista3eld application so/tware. It /irst anal1ses the i(age /ro( the ca(era and decides where the stripes are in the pict're. It then 'ses the settings /ro( the sea( t1pe to di.ide the stripes into lines that /or( the sea(. =ro( the position o/ the lines that (ake the sea(, the s1ste( can then decide where the position o/ the sea( is. This is then con.erted /ro( a (eas're(ent in the pict're into a (eas're(ent in (( o/ the sea( position 'nder the sensor. This con.ersion is per/or(ed 'sing the ?cali0ration data@ that is stored in each sensor head.

F%+$re ! !rinciple o/ triang'lation

/" A--(%cat%o# a# %)-orta#ce o0 1orte2 t$be to sea) trac*er:

In spite o/ so (an1 ad.antages o/ this s1ste(, it has li(itation o/ its operating te(perat're. It has to work e//icientl1 'nder high te(perat're Aone i.e. near weld Aone. 9aser sea( tracking s1ste( is installed j'st near

A'to(ation in /a0rication ind'str1 in (ass prod'tion

welding head to g'ide it. There a lot o/ heat generated /or longer ti(e. So /or nor(al operating


3eld is (ade in the correct place in the joint all o/ the ti(e. Ad.anced i(age processing so/tware has the a0ilit1 to locate the tr'e root o/ the joint e.en

F%+$re /"So/tware Sea( tracker displa1 'nit $"o'rtse1*: $Mill:),3elsp'n "orp 9i(ited,#'jarat%

conditions sea( tracking sho'ld work 'nder nor(al te(perat're $a0o't )BC"%, which is attained 01 cold air prod'ced 01 >orte8 t'0e$shown in /ig.D%.7perating te(perat're is (aintained o/ this s1ste( 01 it as shown in /ig) ill'strating displa1 'nit o/ se( tracking s1ste(.

3" Be#e0%ts:
9aser 0ased sea( tracking pro.ides opti('( welding penetration to ens're welding 2'alit1 (eets international re2'ire(ents s'ch as A!I.7ne o/ the ad.antages is the sensor tracks welding pro/ile with high sensiti.it1 and (aking (an1 s(all ( in response to s(all position errors which res'lts an i(pro.e(ent o/ cos(etic appearance o/ welding. "onsidering the a'to(ation 'sed in (an'/act'ring o/ 6SA3 $6elical S'0(erged Arc 3elded% E 9SA3 $9ongit'dnal S'0(erged Arc 3elded% pipes we see the latest technolog1 o/ 9aser weld Sea( tracking s1ste(. =ollowing are its (ajor /eat'res* a4 5$a(%ty Be#e0%ts: The (ain 2'alit1 0ene/its /ro( laser sea( tracking that the s1ste( ens'res*

F%+$re 3" 9aser weld sea( tracking s1te( in 6SA3 pipes (an'/act'ring$"o'rtse1*Mill:),3elsp'n "orp 9i(ited,#'j.%

when edge 0e.elling is not constant d'ring welding. The root penetration is 0etter controlled co(pared with either (an'al sea( tracking res'lts in (ore consistent interpenetration 0etween ID and 7D welds.

The s1ste( controls the .ertical welding head position as well as the horiAontal position, general weld 2'alit1 is i(pro.ed.

Shailendra Singh, Dalip Singh Shekhawat,Rakesh &'(ar

b4 Pro $ct%1%ty Be#e0%ts: The 'se o/ laser sea( tracking is a0le to o//er signi/icant prod'cti.it1 0ene/its. 9ess (anpower needed to r'n the (ill. The operator is /ree to concentrate on other tasks instead o/ worr1ing a0o't g'iding the weld head. In the case o/ ('lti stand pipe (ills, one operator can control (ore than one (achine, red'cing (anning M'ch lower de/ect rate, /ewer repair welders are needed. It dra(aticall1 i( prod'cti.it1 and red'ces scrap and rework o/ /actor1

The di//erent conto'r height o/ (eas'red o0ject prod'ces de.iation o/ the re/lected laser line. This de.iation is corrected and lineariAed trigono(etricall1. In addition to distance in/or(ation, the position o/ the (eas'red point at laser line o/ the scanner is shown.

8" Sco-e a# %ts 1ar%o$s 0%e( s

a" HSA, -%-e Ma#$0act$r%#+ 3elsp'n "orp 9i(ited is the world leading (an'/act'rer o/ 6SA3 E9SA3 large dia(eter pipe. 7'r e8perience and know:how 0rings in new trends to the spiral (arket. Sea( tracking s1ste( ens'res that the weld head is in the correct place in the welding joint to opti(iAe welding penetration.

Applications ID welding tracking 7D welding tracking Ultrasonic g'idance Sea( 3eld Milling tracking

c4 Sa0ety Be#e0%ts:
It ens'res the sa/e working conditions.

6" Tec7%#ca( 0eat$res 6"!So0tware

Its /riendl1 'se inter/ace pre.ents 'sers /ro( operator (istakes. It is 0eing 'sed /or (an1 welding applications and r'nning with high per/or(ance and sta0ilit1.Meta.ision has .ario's algorith(s which are de.eloped /or di//erent welding joints s'ch asF >: groo.e, U:groo.e, hal/ >:groo.e, corner, 0'tt, groo.e: 0'tt, lap and /illet.There are so(e e8a(ples o/ de/ined welding joints on Meta.ision.

b" ER, Ma#$0act$r%#+ 9aser sea( tracking is co((onl1 'sed /or R3 applications. Sea( tracking is a /'ll1 a'to(ated s1ste( that starts tracking /ro( the start to the end o/ the t'0e. c" Ot7er I# $str%es Tank:.essel (an'/act'ring, ship 0'ilding, a'to(oti.e (an'/act'ring, railroads and aircra/t (an'/act'ring are so(e o/ the other areas that laser sea( tracking s1ste(s are 0eing 'sed /or di//erent applications. 9aser sea( tracking a'to(ates welding processes in real ti(e. 3ithin the sa(e principle, there is a laser sensor placed in /ront o/ welding head to (ake s're the welding head is in right place o/ welding joint. Th's welding process is pre.ented /ro( de/ects and /a'lts 0e/ore the1 happen. Sea( tracking s1ste( can 0e c'sto(iAed d'e to c'sto(er needs and can 0e easil1 adapted an1 welding applications s'ch as ('lti pass applications.

9aser sensors pro.ide 2:di(ensional (eas'ring o/ pro/ile heights. The (eas'red o0jects (a1 consist o/ .ario's (aterials. A laser line projected onto the target and the distance to the se.eral points o/ the o0ject is (eas'red 01 triang'lation (ethod. The height 01 distance is (eas'red. The res'lt is 2:di(ensional conto'r o/ the o0ject.9aser sensor is working according to the triang'lation (ethod. The laser line is prod'ced 01 a p'lsed laser diode and line generating optics.The di//'se re/lected light /ro( the target is projected onto 2:di(ensional""DArra1.

A'to(ation in /a0rication ind'str1 in (ass prod'tion

" No#9,e( A--(%cat%o#s: 9aser sea( tracking is not onl1 'sed /or welding applications. Applications that are 0eing tracked 01 operators or ro0ots where there is a groo.e, lap and 0'tt. :" S$))ary
9aser Sea( Tracking is now well esta0lished in hea.1 /a0rication ind'sties. It o//ers signi/icant 0ene/its in ter(s o/ 0oth 2'alit1 and prod'cti.it1.There are two (ain approaches, and the selection o/ the 0est approach /or a partic'lar co(pan1 and application depends on (an1 /actors, incl'ding the .ol'(e and range o/ prod'ction, operator and (aintenance skill le.els, e8perience with the technolog1.

#'jarat. 8pertise in welding and Ther(al interests in ther(al and (an'/act'ring. 2" Da(%- S%#+7, Scholar, M. . $Ad.anceprod'ction and Ind'strial (anage(ent s1ste(s%, R#!>, M.!., and -. . $A'to(o0ile ngg.%, R#!>, M.!., with <) 1rs. teaching e8perience., 8pertise in A'to(o0ile ngg.and prod'ction engg. ).Ra*es7 K$)ar, Scholar, M. . $Ad.ance prod'ction and Ind'strial (anage(ent s1ste(s%, R#!>,M.!.,and -. . $A'to(o0ile ngg.%, R#!>, M.!.,with <) 1rs. teaching e8perience., 8pertise in A'to(o0ile ngg.and ther(al engg.


;" Re0ere#ces:
415 -eattie R.G. 2<<D HApplication o/ laser sea( tracking s1ste( in
welding thick wall .esselsI.Meta.ision 9td. U& ,S7G7M . 425 Jan, De K', Min Tan.,2<<;, HA >ision:-ased Sea( Tracking S1ste( /or S'0(erged Arc 3elding , Ro0otic 3elding, Intelligence and A'to(ationI ,9ect're Lotes in "ontrol and In/or(ation Sciences, 2<<;, >ol'(e )+2M2<<;, )DN:)B; 4)5 #ao, "h'ansong 3', KiAhang 9i' and Dian8i' Kia,2<<;,>ision:0ased weld sea( tracking in gas (etal arc welding, =rontiers o/ Materials Science in "hina >ol'(e 1, L'(0er ) $2<<;%, 2+O:2;),

4D5 www.(

1.S7a%(e# ra S%#+7, Scholar, M.Tech$Ther(al ngg.% ,RTU, &ota, Rajasthan and -.Tech $Mechanical ngg,U!TU,2<<;. 3orked with S'Alon and 3elsp'n "orp 9i(ited, #andhidha(,