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Pulse Descriptors: regular, irregular, strong or weak Adult 60 to 100 beats per minute Children - age 1 to 8 years 80 to 100

Infants - age 1 to 12 months 100 to 120 Neonates - age 1 to 28 days 120 to 160 Blood pressure Systolic Adult 90 to 140 mmHg Children - age 1 to 8 years Infants - age 1 to 12 months Neonates - age 1 to 28 days Diastolic 60 to 90 mmHg 80 to 110 mmHg 70 to 95 mmHg >60 mmHg

Pulse Descriptors: regular, irregular, strong or weak Adult 60 to 100 beats per minute Children - age 1 to 8 years 80 to 100 Infants - age 1 to 12 months 100 to 120 Neonates - age 1 to 28 days 120 to 160 Blood pressure Systolic Adult 90 to 140 mmHg Children - age 1 to 8 years Infants - age 1 to 12 months Neonates - age 1 to 28 days Diastolic 60 to 90 mmHg 80 to 110 mmHg 70 to 95 mmHg >60 mmHg

Respirations Descriptors: normal, shallow, labored, noisy, Kussmaul Adult (normal) 12 to 20 breaths per minute Children - age 1 to 8 years 15 to 30 Infants - age 1 to 12 months 25 to 50 Neonates - age 1 to 28 days 40 to 60 Vital signs by age Adult vital signs Pulse Blood pressure Respirations

Respirations Descriptors: normal, shallow, labored, noisy, Kussmaul Adult (normal) 12 to 20 breaths per minute Children - age 1 to 8 years 15 to 30 Infants - age 1 to 12 months 25 to 50 Neonates - age 1 to 28 days 40 to 60 Vital signs by age Adult vital signs Pulse Blood pressure Respirations

60 to 100 beats per minute 90 to 140 mmHg (systolic) 60 to 90 mmHg (diastolic) 12 to 20 breaths per minute

60 to 100 beats per minute 90 to 140 mmHg (systolic) 60 to 90 mmHg (diastolic) 12 to 20 breaths per minute

Child vital signs (age 1 to 8 years) Pulse 80 to 100 beats per minute Blood pressure 80 to 110 mmHg systolic Respirations 15 to 30 breaths per minute Infant vital signs Pulse Blood pressure Respirations

Child vital signs (age 1 to 8 years) Pulse 80 to 100 beats per minute Blood pressure 80 to 110 mmHg systolic Respirations 15 to 30 breaths per minute Infant vital signs Pulse Blood pressure Respirations

100 to 140 beats per minute 70 to 95 mmHg systolic 25 to 50 breaths per minute

100 to 140 beats per minute 70 to 95 mmHg systolic 25 to 50 breaths per minute

Neonatal vital signs (full-term, <28 days) Pulse 120 to 160 beats per minute Blood pressure >60 mmHg systolic Respirations 40 to 60 breaths per minute Lung sounds Crackles or rales Wheezing Stridor Rhonchi Pulse oximetry Range Normal Mild hypoxia Moderate hypoxia Severe hypoxia

Neonatal vital signs (full-term, <28 days) Pulse 120 to 160 beats per minute Blood pressure >60 mmHg systolic Respirations 40 to 60 breaths per minute Lung sounds Crackles or rales Wheezing Stridor Rhonchi Pulse oximetry Range Normal Mild hypoxia Moderate hypoxia Severe hypoxia

crackling or rattling sounds high-pitched whistling expirations harsh, high-pitched inspirations coarse, gravelly sounds

crackling or rattling sounds high-pitched whistling expirations harsh, high-pitched inspirations coarse, gravelly sounds

Value 95 to 100% 91 to 94% 86 to 90% < 85%

Treatment None or placebic Give oxygen Give 100% oxygen Give 100% oxygen w/ positive pressure

Value 95 to 100% 91 to 94% 86 to 90% < 85%

Treatment None or placebic Give oxygen Give 100% oxygen Give 100% oxygen w/ positive pressure

Glasgow Coma Scale ADULT Eye opening Spontaneous To speech To pain No response Best motor response Obeys verbal command Localizes pain Flexion - withdraws from pain Flexion - abnormal Extension No response Best verbal response Oriented and converses Disoriented and converses Inappropriate words Incomprehensible sounds No response

INFANT E 4 3 2 1 M 6 5 4 3 2 1 V 5 4 3 2 1

Eye opening Spontaneous To speech To pain No response Best motor response Normal movements Localizes pain Withdraws from pain Flexion - abnormal Extension No response Best verbal response Coos, babbles Cries but consolable Persistently irritable Grunts to pain/restless No response

Glasgow Coma Scale ADULT Eye opening Spontaneous To speech To pain No response Best motor response Obeys verbal command Localizes pain Flexion - withdraws from pain Flexion - abnormal Extension No response Best verbal response Oriented and converses Disoriented and converses Inappropriate words Incomprehensible sounds No response

INFANT E 4 3 2 1 M 6 5 4 3 2 1 V 5 4 3 2 1

Eye opening Spontaneous To speech To pain No response Best motor response Normal movements Localizes pain Withdraws from pain Flexion - abnormal Extension No response Best verbal response Coos, babbles Cries but consolable Persistently irritable Grunts to pain/restless No response

E + M + V = 3 to 15 90% less than or equal to 8 are in coma Greater than or equal to 9 not in coma 8 is the critical score Less than or equal to 8 at 6 hours - 50% die 9-11 = moderate severity Greater than or equal to 12 = minor injury Coma is defined as not opening eyes, not obeying commands, and not uttering understandable words.

E + M + V = 3 to 15 90% less than or equal to 8 are in coma Greater than or equal to 9 not in coma 8 is the critical score Less than or equal to 8 at 6 hours - 50% die 9-11 = moderate severity Greater than or equal to 12 = minor injury Coma is defined as not opening eyes, not obeying commands, and not uttering understandable words.

A P G A R

Sign Activity (muscle tone) Pulse Grimace (reflex irritability) Appearance (skin color) Respirations

2 Active >100bpm Sneezes, coughs, pulls away Normal over entire body Good, crying

1 Arms and legs flexed <100bpm Grimaces Normal except extremities Slow, irregular

0 Absent Absent No Response Cyanotic or pale all over Absent

A P G A R

Sign Activity (muscle tone) Pulse Grimace (reflex irritability) Appearance (skin color) Respirations

2 Active >100bpm Sneezes, coughs, pulls away Normal over entire body Good, crying

1 Arms and legs flexed <100bpm Grimaces Normal except extremities Slow, irregular

0 Absent Absent No Response Cyanotic or pale all over Absent