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# ENG1021 Electronic Principles

ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Learning Package 4 Kirchoff‟s laws

1

ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Kirchoff‟s laws

1 Do you know all this already?

If in doubt, please attempt the self assessments questions in this Learning Package. If you are not sure about any of the terminology, please read on.

2 Introduction

Although simple in concept, the application of Kirchoff‟s laws can be quite confusing. T he main source of the confusion is usually concerned with the direction and polarity of currents and voltages. The situation is not helped by the various methods of solution, which are easy to mix up. Although most books on electronics described many different methods, here I only want you to learn how to use one of the methods, namely branch currents.

3 Kirchoff‟s laws

In the previous Learning Package I said that the voltage drops around a circuit must equal the electromotive force. I used this to derive the equation for the equivalent resistance in a series circuit. Similarly, in deriving the equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit I used the idea that current at a junction would behave in such a way that the current flowing out of a junction must equal the current flowing into a junction. These two ideas were introduced by Kirchoff and are known as Kirchoff‟s laws. Formally stated they are: Kirchoff‟s voltage law - The algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero; Kirchoff‟s current law – The algebraic sum of all currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero Let‟s take the current law first, as I believe this is the simpler of the two.

Figure 1 At a node, or a junction, where wires are joined together, the sum of the current flowing into the node must equal the sum of he current leaving the node. If this wasn‟t the case there would be a surplus which would form a pool of charge at the node, and t his doesn‟t happen. If Figure 1 we have two 2

ENG1021 Electronic Principles currents flowing into the node, I1 and I2, and two currents flowing out, I3 and I4. The convention is that current flowing into a node should have the opposite sign to current flowing out of a node. It doesn‟t matter which, but I will assign current flowing in to a node as positive and current flowing out as negative. Then: I1 + I2 – I3 – I4 = 0 Or put another way: I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 This equation is the mathematical equivalent to Kirchoff‟s current law. The su m of all the currents entering and leaving a node is zero. Now let‟s try Kirchoff‟s voltage law. First of all I need to explain what is meant by a loop. When we were looking series circuits, there was only one loop, and that was the complete circuit. Usually circuit are more complex, such as that shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 In Figure 2 we have a circuit with three resistors. It‟s not as simple as a series circuit or a parallel circuit as there is a mixture of the two. There are a number of ways that this circuit could be tackled to analyse what is going on. However, I just want to use it to illustrate what is meant by a “loop” in Kirchoff‟s voltage law. If we start at the point marked A, we could go A – B – E – F – A and that would be a loop. Let‟s call it Loop 1. We could also go from A again and this time travel around a different loop: A. Let‟s call this one Loop 2. A–B–C–D–E– F–

Finally, a third loop starts at B and goes B – C – D – E – B. Let‟s call this one Loop 3. So, there are a possible three different loops in this circuit. Kirchoff‟s voltage law applies to each one. 3

and that we note the potential difference as positive if we travel from ““ to “+”. where the voltage goes from “ -“ to “+” so we record the voltage as positive. From B to C to D we find R2 with a potential difference that goes from “+” to “ -“. Finally we go from D to E to F to A and pass through the battery. travel clockwise to B.ENG1021 Electronic Principles In Figure 2 I‟ve already drawn in the polarity of the potential differences in the circuit. Next we go from B to E and travel through R1. where the potential difference goes from “+” to “ -“. If it turned out that one of the currents actually goes the other way. that current will come out negative. across R2 be V2 and across R3 be V3. -V2. let‟s apply Kirchoff‟s voltage law. it wouldn‟t matter if I was wrong. So: -V3 – V1 + E = 0 Rearrange to get: E = V1 + V3 Loop 2 Starting form A and going clockwise to B we find the potential across R3 again. Similarly. it doesn‟t matter if you travel clockwise or anticlockwise. and as negative if we travel from “+” to “ -“. so we record a negative potential difference. Again. where the voltage goes from “ -“ to “+” so we record the voltage as positive. The potential difference across R3 goes from “+” to “ -“ so this would be recorded as negative. -V1. so we record a negative voltage again. that would indicate that I had drawn the polarity of the potential difference the wrong way round. then when I do the analysis. Now. -V3. which we record as – V3. and the currents in each branch. E. Let‟s say we go clockwise. you travel around the loop and note down all the potential differences and electromotive forces. When analysing a loop. Let the potential difference across R1 be V1. E. Although I am confident that I„ve drawn these correctly. Kirchoff‟s voltage law states that the sum of the voltages around a loop is zero. if I calculate the potential difference and it comes out negative. Finally we go from E to F to A and pass through the battery. Using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: -V3 – V2 + E = 0 Rearranging we get: 4 . Loop1 Starting at A.

I‟ll come back to this. If I redraw the circuit of Figure 2. V1. Think of the battery as an elevator. Using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: -V2 + V1 = 0 Rearranging gives: V1 = V2 We end up with three equations. V1 = I1R1 and so on. and this time we find the potential difference going from “ -“ to “+” so we record a positive potential difference. If we were analysing this circuit we would now go on to subs titute using Ohm‟s law so that. From D to E to B we find R1. for example. where potential difference is equivalent to a change in height. but it doesn‟t quite explain why the voltages should sum to zero. which we know already. In the previous example we‟ve seen Kirchoff‟s voltage law applied. you should be able to see what I mean. This last one should be no surprise as all it is saying is that the voltage across two parallel branches are equal. Before that I just want to see if I can help to explain Kirchoff‟s voltage law using an analogy. I like to think of it using an analogy. 5 . and the resistors as steps.ENG1021 Electronic Principles E = V2 + V3 Loop 3 Starting from B and going clockwise to C then D we find R2 and record –V2.

if you end up where you started then you can‟t have gained or lost any height. let‟s put some numbers in. namely I1 and I3. F and D are joined together. we can replace the potential differences by the current times the resistance using Ohm‟s law. which tells us that: I3 = I1 + I2 So now we can get rid of I2 in Equation 2 for example by substituting: I2 = I3 – I1 E = (I3 – I1)R2 + I3R3 E = I3R2 – I1R2 + I3R3 = I3(R2 +R3) – I1R2 (3) We now have equation 1 and Equation 3 which both have two unknowns. Rather than solve a theoretical circuit. then in our analysis of the loops we ended up with 3 equations. or you could go up the stairs from D to C and then C to B to A. repeated here: E = V1 + V3 E = V2 + V3 V1 = V2 We can‟t solve these because we don‟t know the values of the potential differences. you end up at the same height. and so these can be solved. since E. That‟s why the sum total of the height that you‟ve travelled in going around a loop is zero. This represents the highest point. Even though you have to climb up and down to get around the loop. 3 The method of branch currents If we return to the circuit that was used earlier. The elevator (battery) takes you up from F to A. E = I1R1 + I3R3 (1) E = I2R2 + I3R3 I1R1 = I2R2 (2) The next stage in the solution is to use Kirchoff‟s current law. Let: E = 10 V R1 = 100 Ω 6 . Alternatively. First.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 3 In Figure 3. Either way. they must be at the same height (potential). you climb to a particular height and then have to come back down by the same amount to end up where you started. as seen in Figure 2. So if you travel around a loop. you can get to A by going up the stairs from E to B and then form B to A.

028 A = 28 mA Substitute in Equation 6: 7 (7) (6) (5) (4) . Replace the potential differences by the current times the resistance using Ohm‟s law. we have (using E = 10 V): 10 = V1 + V3 10 = V2 + V3 V1 = V2 We can‟t solve this because we don‟t know the values of the potential differences. 10 = I1x100 + I3x300 10 = I2x200 + I3x300 I1x100 = I2x200 The next stage in the solution is to use Kirchoff‟s current law.ENG1021 Electronic Principles R2 = 200 Ω R3 = 300 Ω What are the values of the currents in the circuit? Starting from the beginning again. which tells us that: I3 = I1 + I2 So now we can get rid of I2 in Equation 2 for example by substituting: I2 = I3 – I1 10 = (I3 – I1)x200 + I3x300 10 = I3x200 – I1x200 + I3x300 = I3x(200 +300) – I1x200 10 = I3x500 -I1x200 Multiply Equation 4 by 2: 20 = I1x200 + I3x600 Add Equations 6 and 7 10 + 20 = I3x500 -I1x200 + I1x200 + I3x600 30 = I3x1100 I3 = 30/1100 = 0.

028 – 0. I now want to look at a slightly more complex circuit which has an additional battery in one of the other branches. using Equation 5: 0.028x500 -I1x200 10 = 14 -I1x200 I1x200 = 14 – 10 = 4 I1 = 4/200 = 0.02 = 0. and derive the equation for each loop Step 4 Apply Kirchoff‟s current law to a node in the circuit to get the relationship between currents. The steps that you need to take are: Step 1 Identify the currents in each branch of the circuit. using the concept that electron current will flow from “-“ to “+”. Step 6 Solve the equations.02 + I2 I2 = 0. If in doubt guess the direction. Step 5 Manipulate the equations so that you end up with two equations with two unknowns. Step 2 Label each potential difference with its polarity. 8 .08 A = 8 mA We have analysed the circuit using the method of branch currents.02 A = 20 mA Finally. Step 3 Apply Kirchoff‟s voltage law to at least two loops in the circuit.028 = 0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 10 = 0. 4 Additional circuits The circuit that we‟ve just analysed had one battery in it. This is shown in Figure 4.

in which I pass through the other battery from ““ to “+” so the potential difference is recorded as positive. Putting all this together I get: -V2 – E2 + E1 – V1 = 0 Loop 2 From A. For no particular reason I am going to choose Loop 1 as A . -V1.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 4 Even before I‟ve put any values on the components I‟ve made a start. I‟ve then put “+” and “-“ across all the potential differences in accordance with the rule that electron current flows from “-“ to “+”. next there‟s the battery. E1.B – E – F – A. Now to analyse the circuit. If they turn out to be wrong. I‟ve put in three branch currents. Then it‟s back to F and through to A as in Loop 1. Next is E to F to A. I1. Loop 1 Starting from A and going clockwise. the first potential difference is across R2 and I‟m going from “+” to “-“ so it‟s –V2. my current values will be negative. using Kirchoff‟s current law I get at Node B: I3 + I2 = I1 Using Ohm‟s law I can substitute in Equations 8 and 9: 9 (10) (9) (8) . I‟ve guessed the direction of the current flow. and then through R1 from “+” to ““ so it‟s negative. so I record –V3. going clockwise I eventually pass through R3 going from “+” to “-“. Again I‟m going from “+” to “-“ so the potential difference is negative. So I get: -V3 + E1 – V1 = 0 Finally. and Loop 2 as A – B – C – D – E – F – A. and is recorded as –E2. I2 and I3.

7 I1 = 12. E2 = 5V R1 = 100 Ω.03175 A = 31.009 A = 9 mA Substitute in Equation 13: -I1x400 + 0.7/400 = 0. R2 = 200 Ω.ENG1021 Electronic Principles -I2R2 – E2 + E1 – I1R1 = 0 (12) Then get rid of I3 in Equation 12 using Equation 10: -(I1 – I2)R3 + E1 – I1R1 = 0 -I1R3 + I2R3 + E1 – I1R1 = 0 I2R3 + E1 – I1(R1 + R3) = 0 Let‟s put some values in: E1 = 10V.009x300 = -10 -I1x400 + 2.7 = -10 -I1x400 = -12.75 mA 10 (11) -I3R3 + E1 – I1R1 = 0 (13) (14) (15) (16) . Re-writing Equations 11: -I2x200 – 5 + 10 – I1x100 = 0 I1x100 + I2x200 = 5 Re-writing Equation 13: I2x300 + 10 – I1(100 + 300) = 0 -I1x400 + I2x300 = -10 Multiply Equation 14 by 4: I1x400 + I2x800 = 20 Add Equations 15 and 16: I2x1100 = 10 I2 = 10/1100 = 0. R3 = 300 Ω.

009 = 0. Figure 5 shows the currents I 1. to make sure that the polarities of the voltages are correct. Since we will use Kirchoff‟s law to solve the problem. I have used the convention of electron current flow. use the method of branch currents to solve for I 1. Note: Conventional current flow (from positive to negative) could have been used and the end results would be the same. Once the currents have been calculated. substitute in Equation 10: I3 + 0. Please now attempt the following Problems. I think of voltages here as we normally do. but I would advise you to stick to one convention to avoid confusion.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Finally. which flows from the negative terminal of the voltage sources to the positive terminal. we need to sum the voltages around two loops. Problem 1 Figure 5 Circuit for Problem 1 In Figure 5. Also the direction in which we sum the voltages (that is. It is vital. By luck they all turn out positive. Solution This problem is an example of branch current analysis. which means that I guessed correctly when I chose the direction of the currents. however. determine the values of VR1. Any two loops will do. Polarities are also marked on the resistors. Had I got any of the directions wrong. There are three possible loops . I2 and I3 marked on it. Assume that V1 = 30 volts and V2 = 90 volts.one which includes both voltage sources and two which include a voltage source and R3. the current would have turned out with a negative value. that is the voltage is increasing (going from 11 . go round the loop) is optional.75 mA The three branch currents have been successfully calculated.03175 I3 = 0. I2 and I3.02275 A = 22. VR2 and VR3.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles negative to positive) as we go round the loop then it is a positive voltage. If the voltage is decreasing (going from positive to negative) as we go round the loop then it is a negative voltage.I1 . starting at the negative end of R3. but when if we take them to the other side of the equals sign (transpose them) they will become positive. This will leave the voltages across the voltage sources as negative. and using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: VR3 + VR1 . R2 and R3 gives (considering currents into the branch point as positive and those leaving the branch point as negative): I3 .V1 = 0 Transposing gives: VR3 + VR1 = V1 By Ohm‟s law: I3R3 + I1R1 = V1 Substituting the available values gives: I318 + I1120 = 30 (16) Similarly if we choose to go around the loop which includes V2 and R3 in a clockwise direction. starting at the negative end of R3.V2 = 0 Transposing gives VR3 + VR2 = V2 By Ohm‟s law I3R3 + I1R2 = V2 Substituting the available values gives: I318 + I2180 = 90 (17) Using Kirchoff‟s current law at the junction of R1. So as we do not introduce too many negative voltages (and increase the risk of mathematical error) we will choose loops and directions which allow us to add voltages across the resistors in a positive sense if we can.I2 = 0 Rearranging: 12 . If we choose to go around the loop which includes V1 and R3 in an anticlockwise direction. and using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: VR3 + VR2 .

Equation 20 gives: 138 I1 − 18 I1 + I2 − I2 = 30 − 90 18 198 18 198 30×198−90×18 I = 1 138×198−18×18 13 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles I3 = I1 + I2 (18) If we substitute the right hand side of Equation 63 into Equations 16 and 17 we have: (I1 + I2)18 + I1120 = 30 and (I1 + I2)18 + I2180 = 90 Collecting I1 and I2 terms together: 138I1 + 18 I2 = 30 198I2 + 18 I1 = 90 (19) (20) To remove I2 divide Equation 19 by 18 and Equation 20 by 198 and subtract the results : 138 18 30 I1 + I2 = 18 138 I1 + I2 = 18 30 18 18 18 198 18 90 I1 + I2 = 198 18 I1 + 198 I2 = 198 198 90 198 Equation 19 .

ENG1021 Electronic Principles 198×18 198×18 I1 = 30×198−90×18 138×198−18×18 I1 = I1 = 0. VR2.44 A I3 = I1 + I2 I3 = 0.16 + 18 I2 = 30 I2 = I2 = 0.16 × 120 VR1 = 19.44 × 180 VR2 = 79.8 V Problem 2 In Figure 6. and VR3.16 + 0.6 A We can now determine the voltages across R1. R2 and R3 using Ohm‟s law: VR1 = I1R1 VR1 = 0.44 I3 = 0. use the method of branch currents to solve for I1.2 V VR3 = I3R3 VR3 = 0. I2.6 × 18 VR3 = 10.2 V VR2 = I2R2 VR2 = 0.16A To find I2 we substitute I1 into Equation 19 or 20 giving: 138 × 0. R1 + R2 + 14 . VR1. I3.

VR3 = V1 By Ohm‟s law: I1R1 .I3R3 = V1 Substituting the available values gives: I115 . As before. starting at the negative end of R3.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 15 I1 V1=20V 10 I2 + 10 I3 V2=40V + R3 + Figure 6 Circuit diagram for Problem 2 Solution The circuit diagram for Problem 2 is shown in Figure 6. In the case of I3 I‟ve just had to guess which direction the current is flowing.I310 = 20 This can be simplified by dividing both sides of the equation by 5: I13 . I2 and I3 are shown. If I‟ve got the direction wrong then when I find the value for I3 it will be negative.V2 = 0 Transposing gives 15 . starting at the negative end of R3. I‟ve shown electron current which flows out of the negative terminal of the batteries. and using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: VR3 + VR2 .I32 = 4 (21) Similarly if we choose to go around the loop which includes V2 and R3 in a clockwise direction. If we choose to go around the loop which includes V1 and R3 in an anticlockwise direction. in which the branch currents I1. and using Kirchoff‟s voltage law we get: VR3 -VR1 + V1 = 0 Transposing gives: VR1 .

ENG1021 Electronic Principles VR3 + VR2 = V2 By Ohm‟s law I3R3 + I1R2 = V2 Substituting the available values gives: I310 + I210 = 40 This can be simplified by dividing both sides of the equation by 10: I3 + I2 = 4 (22) Using Kirchoff‟s current law at the junction of R1.I2 = 0 Rearranging: I2 = I1 + I3 (23) If we substitute the right hand side of Equation 23 into Equations 22 we have: I3 + (I1 + I3) = 4 Collecting I1 and I3 terms together: I1 + 2 I 3 = 4 To remove I3 add Equation 24 to Equation 21: 4I1 = 8 I1 = 2 A To find I3 we substitute I1 into Equation 24 giving: 2 + 2 I3 = 4 2 I3 = 2 I3 = 1 A Finally. R2 and R3 gives (considering currents into the branch point as positive and those leaving the branch point as negative): I3 + I 1 . R2 and R3 using Ohm‟s law: 16 (24) . to find I2 we substitute I1 and I3 into Equation 23: I2 = 2 + 1 = 3A We can now determine the voltages across R1.

just the first two parts on “What is network analysis?” and “Branch current method”. and “DC network analysis”. 6 Where next? You are encouraged to study the Learning Package entitled “Alternating Voltage and Current” next. you may wish to have a look at the on-line Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 5 Alternating voltage and current 17 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles VR1 = I1R1 VR1 = 2 × 15 = 30 V VR2 = I2R2 VR2 = 3 × 10 = 30 V VR3 = I3R3 VR3 = 1 × 10 = 10 V 5 Further reading For further information about Kirchoff‟s laws and the method of branch currents. The relevant sections are “Divider circuits and Kirchoff‟s laws” all parts.

If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. Having spent our studies (up to now) differentiating between voltage and current. 2 Introduction So far in the course we have considered direct voltages and currents (DC).ENG1021 Electronic Principles Alternating voltage and current 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. please read on. as shown in Figure 1. it is a pity that this confusing and incorrect use of the language is so universally used that we will have to put up with it. the power equations and the rules for combining resistors apply just as well to AC. music and television. Figure 1 shows the value of sin(x) against x in degrees. in particular you will learn various ways of describing an AC waveform. We are usually dealing with voltages and describe. the sine wave and amplitude values The term AC refers to an alternating current or voltage. circuits in which the current flows in one direction only. You will see that it has a maximum value of 1. our mains electrical power as 230V ac (230 volts alternating current). This is also true of the abbreviation “DC” which stands for direct current. In this section you we learn how to deal with the varying nature of alternating current. AC allows us to transfer information. 3 AC voltages and currents 3. “an ac voltage” (an alternating current voltage-eh?). for example.1 AC. for example. we just have to take into account that the currents and voltages are alternating (or varying). speech. and that one whole cycle runs every 360 degrees. a minimum value of -1. for example. The abbreviation “AC” stands for alternating current. Ohm‟s law. Generally in electronics we are usually dealing with AC in one form or another. In this section we look at alternating currents (AC). but it is often used to describe an alternating voltage. If not. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. So in the future when we see the abbreviation “AC” we should understand that it refers to alternating current and voltages. Howeve r. The form that the current and voltage take over time is sinusoidal. 18 .

which is measured in radians per second.5 1 0. instead of the angular velocity you can use the frequency.5 0 0 -0. (3) (2) 19 .5 -1 -1. Alternatively. Another value which is used is the period. f. The maximum value is called the amplitude. To use this function as a waveform over time. and is usually measured in hertz (Hz). f. the terms ω is used (Greek letter omega) to represent angular velocity. where: ω = 2πf You may recall that 2π in radians is equivalent to 360 degrees. T.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 1. It equals the reciprocal of the frequency. In electronics it comes about as the result of creating voltage using a generator or dynamo. In these devices a coil is rotated within a magnetic field so that the voltage generated oscillates between a maximum and a minimum value.5 degrees 200 400 600 800 Figure 1 Sin(x) versus x in degrees This shape is found often in nature. We generally write the equation for the waveform as: v = VSin(ωt) = VSin(2πft) (1) We use lower case v to indicate the instantaneous value of voltage. which is the length of time for one cycle to occur. Then when you multiply the angular velocity by the time. you end up with an angle. so we have: T = 1/f A typical AC waveform is shown in Figure 2. The number of times per second that the waveform repeats is called the frequency. The sine function is a function of an angle.

04 0. then a third property is used which is called the relative phase or just phase. the period would be 1/50 = 0.02 0. Figure 3: The first waveform that we‟ve seen already has the form: v1 = 250sin(100πt) The second waveform is: v2 = 220sin(100πt + 1) 20 . With a frequency of 50 Hz.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 300 200 100 0 0 -100 -200 -300 time/s 0.02 seconds or 20 ms.08 Figure 2 AC voltage This voltage has a peak voltage of 250 V and the frequency is 50 Hz. A single sinewave has two properties which are amplitude and frequency. Figure 3 shows two sinewaves of the same frequency. If we are comparing two sinewaves.06 0.

V. which stands for root-mean-squared. even if they are only oscillating back and forth inside the conductor. which is measured as the power. So if a waveform has an amplitude of A. This is the size of the gap between the maximum and minimum values. 3. the power in an AC circuit would be: Power =VrmsIrms = V × I = VI = 0. Since the waveform is symmetrical. It‟s as if the second wave started before the first wave. Now we said that when current flows it produces heat. An AC circuit also produces heat. since the electrons are flowing in the circuit.2 Power in an AC circuit We saw in an earlier Learning Package that the power in a DC circuit is equal to the voltage times the current. finding the average value. The rms value is found in a sinewave by squaring the sinewave. The peak-to-peak value is therefore 500 V.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The first waveform has an amplitude of 250 V.707V Similarly. the minimum value is minus the amplitude. the power is half the value of the amplitude of the voltage times the amplitude of the current. The relationship between the rms voltage and the amplitude.707I So. If a battery has a voltage of 10 V and delivers a current of 2 amps. We use the term RMS.5VI 2 2 2 (5) (4) (6) In other words. and varies for different waveforms. and the second an amplitude of 220 V. The value 0. for current: I Irms = 2 = 0. Another value which might be quoted is the peak-to-peak value. 21 . in a sinewave is: V Vrms = 2 = 0. the power would be 10 x 2 = 20 watts. An equivalent AC circuit could have a generator that produced 10 V rms. and then taking the square root of the average.5 that multiplies VI is called the “power factor”. It is very similar in AC circuits except that the power is a bit less than the voltage times the current. and the result would also be a power of 20 watts. We have already seen that a sinewave has an amplitude which corresponds to its peak value. To explain I need to introduce some terms. the peak-to peak value is 2A. and delivers 2 amps rms. in AC circuits to give an equivalence to the power in a DC circuit. The relative phase is 1 radian. In the waveform that we used earlier the peak value or amplitude was 250 V.

1107 Please now attempt the following Problems. Calculate the power dissipated in the resistor. Solution This question exercises your understanding of a waveform‟s phase in both degrees and radians. The ratio of the rms value to the average value is called the “form factor” and again is different for different waveform. Solution 22 (7) . Problem 1 Give the angle in degrees and radians for each of the following: one cycle. three quarter cycles.707)/(V × 0. one quarter cycle. This is also true of other fractions of π.) One whole cycle in degrees is therefore equal to the number of degrees in a circle or 360 degrees.637V. (It is assumed that the rate of rotation is constant. one half cycle. For a sinewave the form factor is: form factor = rms value/average value = (V × 0.5π radians.637) = 0. Beware it is an easy mistake to think of π/2 as half a cycle when in fact it is a quarter of a cycle. For sinewaves this turns out to be 0.637 = 1. One quarter and three quarters of a cycle Similarly we obtain one quarter of a cycle to be 360/4 = 90 degrees or 2π/4 radians and three quarters of a cycle to be 3 x 360/4 = 270 degrees or 3 x 2π/4 = 1. Radians are used in ac calculations so it is worth becoming comfortable with using them. Now a sinewave has an average of zero. Problem 2 A 5 Ω resistor in a circuit connected to the ac power line has an rms current of 1. However. The phase angles calculated in this exercise are so common that we should eventually be able to quote them (in degrees and radians) without thinking. There are 2π radians in a circle and so one cycle of waveform is also equivalent to 2π radians. Half a cycle The angle which represents one half cycle is simply 360 divided by 2 which equals 180 (in degrees) or 2π divided by 2 which equals π in radians.707/0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles A similar but less useful value is the average value. since it is symmetrical about the x-axis. we can find the average of half a cycle.17 Amps. One cycle One whole cycle of ac waveform is equivalent to the waveform produced by a single loop ac generator travelling through one complete circle.

5 µV. Since we are using rms values we can apply Ohm‟s law and the power equation as we did for dc circuits. We can either use the equation. Problem 3 Convert to RMS voltage the following peak-to-peak values of sine-wave ac signal voltage: (a) 462. This is equal to: 462.p. (b) 9. It is important to realise that we cannot use Ohm‟s law directly if our current and voltage values are not rms values. Solution We are asked to convert peak to peak values to rms.5 × 10-6 = 163 µV rms -6 (8) (9) 23 . Problem 3a Our first value to convert is 462. not 2 just peak. (c) 35.707 or 2 multiplied by the peak value. The voltage (rms value) is: Vrms = I R = 1. The rms value of a sine-wave is 0.5/2 = 231.19 mV.5 µV p . The current I is measured in amperes rms.17 × 5 = 5.84 mV. Note that these values are peak to peak.ENG1021 Electronic Principles This is a simple Ohm‟s law/Power equation problem applied to ac circuit.845 watts We could not have used the power equation if either the current or voltage (or both) were not rms values.25 × 10 × 2 = 163.25 × 10-6 V peak 2 To find the rms value we need to multiply the peak value by 2 .17 × 5. The peak value is half of the peak-to-peak value. 2 Vrms = 231.85 V rms Now we use the power equation to obtain the power P = I × V = 1. P = I2/R or calculate V using Ohm‟s relationship and find the power using: P=I×V I will use the second method.85 = 6.

The peak value of the waveform: Vpeak = 19.84/2 × 10-3 = 4. but first we must find the peak value.44 × 10-3 = 12. 3c These problems are solved in the same way.15 V peak The peak value.92 mV peak 2 To find the rms value we need to multiply the peak value by 2 . Problem 4 A sinewave ac voltage has an rms value of 19.595 × 10 × 2 = 12.414.2 × 2 = 27. 2 Vrms = 4.766.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problems 3b.p is equal to: 35.19 mV p .595 mV peak 2 To find the rms value we need to multiply the peak value by 2 . the broader the waveform the larger the conversion factor will be.44 mV rms -3 The important point to note here is while is acceptable to divide any vertically symmetrical waveform by two to convert the peak to peak value to the peak value.2 V.p is equal to: 9.766 = 20. At 50 degrees it must be less than the peak value. by definition is the largest value that the sine wave reaches in it cycle. The value 9. 2 Vrms = 17. (a) Find the peak value. To find the peak value we must multiply the rms value by 2 or 1.92 × 10-3 = 4. Vinst = 27. The instantaneous voltage is the peak voltage multiplied by the sine function at that instant. Using my calculator it is 0.15 × 0.19/2 × 10-3 = 17.92 × 10 × 2 = 3.595 × 10-3 = 17.97 mV rms -3 And finally. We need to look up what is the value of the sine function when the phase angle is 50 degrees. the value 35. the conversion factor for converting from peak to rms (or average) is not fixed and is specific to the waveform.84 mV p . (b) What is the instantaneous value at 50 o of the cycle? Solution This problem involves calculating the instantaneous value of a sinusoidal voltage given the phase. Generally. It reaches its positive peak at 90 degrees (when the sine function equals 1) and the negative peak at 270 degrees (when the sine function equals -1).80 V 24 .97 × 10-3 = 3.

Problem 5 A sine wave of voltage has an average value of 38.637 = 0.637 = 1. In the case of measuring a nonsinusoidal waveform with such an instrument.637 or 2/π. Solution In the last problem of this section we will have to deal with average voltages. although some digital voltmeters have special circuitry to do it. Calculate the waveforms: (a) rms value.04 V peak Now we will convert the peak value to rms 2 2 Vrms = Vpeak × 2 = 60. We will firstly convert the average value to peak and then convert the peak value to rms. They tell us nothing about the ac waveform unless we are given the phase angle also. We convert average values to peak values by dividing by 0. The form factor for a sinusoidal waveform form factor = rms value/average value = Vpeak × 0. the reading is meaningless (because it does not even tell us the average value).637 = 60.04 V peak Problem 5c 25 . (c) peak to peak value.1107 = 38. Voltmeters commonly measure average voltages.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Note that instantaneous voltages are not normally useful quantities. (If we did not know the waveform‟s shape we could not solve this problem. Vrms = Vaverage × 1.707/0.707/Vpeak × 0. (b) peak value. but their scale reads the rms equivalent assuming that the waveform is sinusoidal.1107 = 42.1107 Different shapes of waveforms will have different form factors.22/0. It is easier to measure an average voltage than an rms voltage.45 V rms Now the form factor method.637 = 38.22 × 1. In this problem we are initially going to convert from average to rms given that the waveform is sinusoidal.) Problem 5a The easiest way to convert average values to sinusoidal values is to multiply by the form factor for the ac waveform. but we will do it the hard way first and then show that the form factor method works. Vpeak = 60. Vpeak = Vave/0. To do this the average values are multiplied by the “form factor” for the scale values.04 × 2 = 42.45 V rms Problem 5b The peak value has already been found in Part (a).22 V.

Problem 7 What is the frequency for the following ac variations? (a) 10 cycles in 1 s. Problem 6d This part of the question tests if you understand the meaning of rms. (a) How much is the rms current in the circuit? (b) What is the frequency of the current? (c) What is the phase angle between the current and the voltage? (d) How much dc applied voltage would be necessary for the same heating effect in the resistance? Solution This problem serves as revision from the last section with a reminder of the meaning of rms values and as a gentle introduction to frequency and phase. The current is then “in phase” with the voltag e and the phase angle is zero. (e) 50 cycles in 5 s. The rms current is given by Ohm‟s relationship I = V/R = 120/20 = 60 A rms Problem 6b The alternating current will vary in sympathy with the alternating voltage according to Ohm‟s relationship.04 = 120. 26 .08 V peak .ENG1021 Electronic Principles The peak-to-peak value is twice the peak value.to . (d) 50 cycles in ½ s. Problem 6a The power line voltage is 120 V and since we are not told otherwise we should assume that this is an rms value. Vp-p = 2 × Vpeak = 2 × 60. (c) 50 cycles in 1 s. that is 120 volts. (b) 1 cycle in 1/10 second. before completing the rest of the cycle.peak Problem 6 The 60 Hz power line voltage of 120 V is applied across a resistance of 20 Ω. If you remember the rms value is defined as that value of an ac waveform (not necessarily sinusoidal) that will produce the same heating effect in a resistor as the dc value. the current starts from zero at exactly the same time and reaches its positive and negative peaks at the same time as the voltage. The current will vary at the same frequency as the power-line voltage which is stated as being 60 Hz Problem 6c As the voltage alternates from zero up through its positive peak. The dc voltage that would produce that same heating effect in a resistance is therefore the same as the rms voltage.

We ask ourselves. We have 50 cycles occurring in one second. since we have one cycle occurring in 1/10th second. so 100 cycles would occur in one second. This will give us our answer in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz). so the frequency is: f = 50Hz Problem 7d We have 50 cycles occurring in ½ second. f = 1/T = 1/(1/10) = 10 Hz Problem 7c This part is similar to Part (a). That is. which is: T = (1/2)/50 = 1/100 The frequency is: f = 1/T = 1/(1/100) = 100 Hz 27 . if there are 50 cycles in ½ second. each cycle has a period of ½ second divided by 50. Problem 7a The first example is easy. probably because it is more descriptive. This gives us the answer for the frequency as: f = 10 Hz Alternatively.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Solution Here we will find the frequency of an ac waveform by considering how many cycles the waveform goes through in a given time and then calculate how many cycles would have occurred in one second. “How many cycles in one second”. but the term cycles per second or cps it still used. I hope it is clear that 10 cycles will occur in one second. giving f = 100 Hz Alternatively. the frequency: f = 10 cycles per second or 10Hz Problem 7b Here we have 1 cycle every 1/10th of a second. we can say that the waveform has a period T of 1/10th second and we can take the reciprocal of T to find the frequency. We have 10 cycles occurring in one second. The units cps have been replaced by the Hertz as an international standard.

25 ms Problem 8b As in Part (b) we find the period and divide by 8. I prefer to work in SI units. In this case the frequency is 500 Hz. The frequency is: f = 10Hz You should also try to calculate the period of the waveform and take its reciprocal to arrive at the frequency. Different waves have different velocities. Therefore in the following exercises. using metres rather than centimetres. Solution So far our problems have dealt with phase. In other words.002 = 0. The period is: T = 1/f = 1/(2 × 106)= 0.5 ns Problem 9 Calculate the period T of a radio wave whose wavelength λ is 2 m. We need to exercise our understanding of the wavelength of a waveform. Solution A 45 degree phase angle will mean that one waveform starts 1/8 th of a cycle (45/360=1/8) after the other. Problem 8a The period of a waveform is the reciprocal of its frequency. the period is: T = 1/f = 1/500 = 0. (b) 2 MHz. frequency and period. Problem 8 Calculate the time delay for a phase angle of 45 o at the frequency of (a) 500 Hz. but we are told that this is a radio wave and so it travels at the velocity of light.5 × 10-6 = 0. if we know the wavelength and the velocity we can calculate the frequency (and/or period) and vice versa. we must first calculate the period and then divide the period by 8. The wavelength of an ac waveform is related to the frequency (and period) through the velocity of the wave.00025 = 0. The time delay will therefore be 1/8th of the waveforms period later.5 × 10-6 s The time delay for 45 degree phase angle td = 1/8 × 0.002 s The time delay for 45 degree phase angle td = 1/8 × 0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 7e If we have 50 cycles in 5 seconds then in one second 10 cycles will occur. so the speed of light is 3 × 10 8 28 .0625 × 10-6 = 62.

3. and the rms value is V/2.4 Electromagnetic waves Another type of wave that you may encounter in electronics is an electromagnetic wave.5 Harmonics 29 . rather than just being oscillations in a conductor.000 = 100 m 3. Probably the most common is the square wave which is found in digital electronics. 40 Hz. a square which repeats every 50 ms has a fundamental frequency of 1/50 ms = 20 Hz. even through a vacuum. There is a whole wealth of theory about waveforms other than sinewaves. the values switch from the maximum for half a period to the minimum for the other half of the period. We can create a square wave by adding up sine waves with a frequency of 20 Hz. In a square wave. microwaves. what is the wavelength of the wave? λ = v/f = 300. travel through space. sometimes in electronics waveforms other than sinewaves are encountered.000.5 × 108 Hz = 150 MHz This frequency has a period: T = 1/f = 1/(1.5 × 10 8) = 6. In this problem we are given the wavelength and asked to calculate the period. infra-red and gamma radiation. In other words. The relationship between the frequency.25.ENG1021 Electronic Principles metres/second. usually coming under the heading of Fourier transforms. the average value is V/2. In essence. 80 Hz and so on. 60 Hz. Rearranging Equation 10 for the frequency f = velocity/wavelength = (3 × 108)/2 = 1.000. what Fourier showed was that any repetitive waveform could be constructed from sinewaves with varying amplitudes and frequencies which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. The wavelength is: λ = velocity/frequency (10) We are going to find the frequency first and then find the period by taking the reciprocal. Therefore. a radio wave could have a frequency of 3 MHz. velocity and wavelength is: v = fλ (11) where v is the speed of light. visible light. If the speed of light is approximately 300. f is the frequency and λ (Greek letter lambda) is the wavelength. These waves.000. the peak-to-peak value is 2V. and the form factor is rms/average = 1 since the average and the rms value are both the same. If the amplitude is V. the power in a square wave is VI/4 giving the power factor of 0. These secondary waveforms with frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency are called harmonics. and a wavelength. and this turns out to be a constant generally known as the speed of light.000 m/s. For example.667 ns 3.000/3.4 Non-sinusoidal waveforms Very briefly. Since they are travelling they must have a velocity. Examples are radio waves. then the peak value is V. These waves also have a frequency.

In physical terms an octave is a doubling of a frequency. It is odd. The alternative to octaves are “decades”. Every time we divide a frequency by ten. So if a note has a frequency of 256 Hz. In music the term “octave” is used to mean the same note only an octave higher or lower. Solution Decades are multiples of ten. Problem 10 List the first four harmonics of 7.5 × 2 = 15 MHz. that is 7. Three is an odd number and so this harmonic is odd. Four is an even number and so this harmonic is even. we have decreased the frequency by one decade. its new frequency is 2560 Hz. Solution The harmonics are integer (whole number) multiples of the fundamental frequency. because we have multiplied the fundamental by “one” and one is an odd number.5 KHz.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Harmonics are at frequencies which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. If a frequency is increased by a decade then the new higher frequency is 10 times the lower frequency. In this case the fundamental frequency is 7. The third harmonic is “three” times the fundamental frequency or 22. Two is an even number and so this is an even harmonic. If note of frequency 256 Hz is increased by a decade.5 MHz. In general. say. The first harmonic is “one” times the fundamental frequency. Also. we don‟t usually talk about the first harmonic. 30 . that is. is the second harmonic) The second harmonic is “two” times the fundamental frequency. Problem 11 List the frequency three decades above 100 Hz. They are problems that reinforce your understanding of harmonics and multiples of frequencies. because it can be confusing. (It becomes confusing because the first “interesting” harmonic. The fourth harmonic is “four” times the fundamental frequency or 30 MHz. interesting in the sense that it is in anyway different to the fundamental. In this problem the frequency of concern is 100Hz and we are asked to find the frequency three decades above it. Now attempt the following Problems. the first harmonic is the fundamental which has a frequency of 7. Every time we multiply a frequency by ten we have increased the frequency by one decade. The first decade will be 100 × 10 = 1000 Hz or 1 kHz.5 MHz.5 MHz. Two octaves higher would be 1024 Hz and so on. then an octave higher would be 512 Hz. identify each harmonic as being either an even or odd multiple of the fundamental frequency.

In general. we can multiply by 22. and dividing by the “nth” power of ten is equivalent to decreasing the frequency by n decades. We can do this by dividing by two. Every time we divide a frequency by two. Problem 12 Raising the frequency of 400 Hz by two octaves corresponds to what frequency? Solution Octaves are multiples of two. 4 Further reading If you want to read more about the topics discussed in this Learning Package you could have a look at the appropriate sections of the on-line book “Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics”. So. Problem 13 What is the frequency three octaves below 40 kHz? Solution Here we are asked for 3 octaves below 40 kHz. all parts except perhaps “principles of radio” which isn‟t particularly relevant. In this problem we are asked to find the frequency two octaves above 40 kHz. we have decreased the frequency by one octave. this gives 40000 × 2 × 2 = 160 kHz. twice. Every time we multiply a frequency by two we have increased the frequency by one octave. multiplying by the “nth” power of ten is equivalent to raising the frequency by n decades. 100 × 103 = 100 kHz. three times. three times.ENG1021 Electronic Principles To find the third decade above 100Hz. In general. and dividing by the “nth” power of two is equivalent to decreasing the frequency by n decades. Alternatively. 31 . Another way of doing this is to multiply our frequency by 10 3. giving us another method of solution. ((40000/2)/2)/2 = (20000/2)/2 = 10000/2 = 5000 or 5 kHz Or by dividing by 23: 40000/23 = 40 000/8 = 5000 Hz or 5kHz Note that dividing by 23 is equivalent to multiplying by 2-3 = 1/8. We can do this by multiplying 40 kHz by two. multiplying by the nth power of 2 is equivalent to raising the frequency by n octaves. 40000 × 22 = 160 KHz. So three decades above 100 Hz is: 100 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 100000 = 100 kHz. The relevant sections are “Basic AC theory”. or by 1000. we multiply our frequency of concern by 10.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles 6 Where next? The next suggested Learning Package in entitled “Electromagnetism”. 32 .

ENG1021 Electronic Principles ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 6 Electromagnetism 33 .

tape recorders. similar poles. Alternatively. such as two north poles. please read on.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Electromagnetism 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. the iron filings will each become small bar magnets. and from south to north inside the magnet. We will start with magnetism and then introduce laws which connect electricity and magnetism. the lines of force can be found by either putting a sheet of paper over a bar magnet and sprinkling iron filings on the paper. These are usually pieces of iron which have a north and a south pole. 2 Electromagnetism The relationship between magnetism and electricity is very important. then you find that north poles are attracted to south poles. Alternatively. In this section we will explore this relationship. computer hard disks. a force will act on in the direction shown by the lines of force. 34 . Magnets can therefore produce a force. If another magnet is brought near the first. as shown in Figure 1. repel each other. and align themselves along the lines of force. microphones and loudspeakers are a small selection of devices that depend on the electromagnetic relationship. These lines run from the north poles to the south pole outside of the magnet. If the paper is tapped gently a number of times. 2. If not. generators. Figure 1 Bar magnet If another magnet is brought close to the first one. You will learn that any wire carrying a current will generate a “magnetic field” and that a loop of wire in a changing magnetic field will have a voltage induced in it. In Figure 1 I have drawn in the “lines of force”.1 Magnets What is magnetism? I am sure that you are familiar with bar magnets. In a real system. Electric motors.

000. 3. so I drew 6 lines.000 lines of force. We therefore call this a magnetic field (think of a force field in science fiction). and is measured in maxwells. If these are then joined up by extending the line of the arrows. However. That is: B = φ /A = maxwells/cm2 = gauss Alternatively. 35 (1) . One weber is equivalent to 100. The strength of the magnetic force increases with the number of lines. In Figure 1 the lines are closer at the poles and get more diffuse as you move further away from the magnet. while flux density is given the symbol B and is the flux (or number of imaginary lines) in a given area. Please attempt Problems 1. 2. We will now exercise our understanding of the new terms. you will find you trace out the lines of force. and is given the Greek letter phi. Position the compass anywhere on the paper and draw a small arrow in the in the direction the needle of the compass is pointing. when I drew Figure 1 I was drawing a representation of a bar magnet which has a flux of 6 Mx. the lines of force can be traced on the paper. φ. Since this is quite a large unit. if you are using the units of maxwells. so this magnetic field is said to have a magnetic flux equal to 6 maxwells. the difference is that the number of lines you would get when tracing them would not correspond to the flux. and in this case: B = φ /A = weber/m2 = tesla This has hopefully explained what a magnetic field is and introduced the terms flux and flux density. we often use the micro weber (µWb) which is equivalent to 100 Mx or 100 lines of force. It is important to realise that these lines are imaginary and that a magnetic field exists at all points around the magnet (not just on the lines). but would still have some of the same properties such as direction. In Figure 1 there were a total of 6 lines of force. which is abbreviated to Mx. which is abbreviated to Wb. The magnetic flux density is given the symbol. It is something of a coincidence. So in Figure 1: φ = 6 Mx The magnetic field can be thought of as imaginary lines of force. abbreviated to T.ENG1021 Electronic Principles using a small compass. Magnetic flux density is the magnetic flux per unit area or often described as the number of lines of force passing perpendicularly through a unit area. By repeating this over the paper you will get a set of small arrows pointing in different directions. The units of maxwells have now been superseded by the unit called the weber. In other words. Magnetic flux density goes some way to address this. The total number of lines doesn‟t really convey the idea that the magnetic force varies according to the position relative to the magnet. Flux is given the symbol φ and is the total number of the imaginary lines of the magnetic field. B. These lines are imaginary. and is measured in Gauss. but represent the magnetic field and its strength. The area around a magnet is therefore able to exert a force. B is measured in tesla. Magnetic flux is defined as the total number of magnetic lines. Thus the flux density would be highest at the poles and get smaller as you move away from the poles. that if you trace the lines of force using either the iron filings method or the compass method that you get something that looks the same. abbreviated to G.

If magnetic lines of force were real then we could not have a tenth of one and the smallest magnetic field that could exist would be one line or 1 maxwell. Solution This problem is similar to the previous problem except that we are now working with tesla units. which is 10-9 webers. Teslas are a measure of the number of webers (108 maxwells) flowing through a one square metre area. We are told that the total number of lines is 5000 and this flux flows out of a 5cm2 area. Problem 2 If the area of the pole in Problem 1 is 5 cm2.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 1 (Magnetism) A magnet produces 5000 field lines. One maxwell is one field line. we have to calculate how many webers will flow through a one square metre area. calculate B in gauss units. Given this information. This is a practical unit for the measurement for weak magnetic fields. Solution We are told that the magnet produces 5000 field lines. therefore this same flux measured in webers is: 5000/108 webers or 10-5 webers. The gauss unit measures how many maxwells pass through one square centimetre. There are 108 maxwells in a weber. The number lines flowing through one square metre is therefore the flux density in teslas B = φ /Area = (200 × 10-6)/(5 × 10-4) = 200/5 × 10-2 = 0. Flux density is measured in flux per unit area. If we consider this unit in maxwells it is equal to 10-9/10-8 = 10-1 maxwell This unit then measures a tenth of a maxwell (or a tenth of a field line). Solution This problem introduces the area of the pole of the magnet and we are asked to calculate B (the flux density) in gauss units. The number lines flowing through one centimetre is therefore the flux density: B = φ/Area = 5000/5 = 1000 gauss Problem 3 Calculate B in tesla units for a 200 µWb flux through an area of 5 × 10 -4 m2. To reinforce the idea that the magnetic field is continuous and that field lines are imaginary consider the nanoweber. This is a measurement of the magnetic flux φ.4 tesla 36 . We are told that 200 µWb flow through 5 × 10 -4 m2. Find φ in maxwells and webers. therefore 5000 field lines is 5000 maxwells.

then you would know this rule as the right-hand grip rule. When electricity flows through a conductor it produces a magnetic field. usually made of iron. leaving the thumb sticking out. The direction of the magnetic field is described by the left-hand grip rule. rather like the hitch-hiking gesture. The direction of the current in the wire is supposedly represented by a dart.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 2. Note: if. you studied electronics some time ago. If we coil a wire up. In Figures 2b and 2c the wire is in the centre of the circle and the magnetic line of force is the outer circle. The current produces a magnetic field which radiates from the wire. An alternative is an electromagnet.2 Electromagnets The type of magnet that we‟ve looked at so far is a permanent magnet. like me. If the wire flows into the page then you would see the flights at the back of the dart. current refers to electron current. the lines of force come together and the result is just like a bar magnet. This magnet exists while current if flowing. as shown in Figure 2. as in Figure 3. and your fingers represent the direction of the magnetic field. and are used to using conventional current. Figure 2 In Figure 2. then you thumb represents the direction of the current. whereas if the current is coming out of the page you would see the point of the dart. with a north pole and a south pole. as opposed to electron current as we‟ve used in this module. 37 . If you coiled your fingers of your left hand up. which flows from the positive terminal to the negative. but stops being a magnet when the current is switched off.

µr. is defined as the mmf divided by the length of the coil. Mmf = Ix N (2) Strictly speaking the mmf is measured in ampere-turns. times the number of turns. H = mmf/L The units for H are ampere-turns per unit length. mmf would be constant. but since “turns” is a unitless number.t for ampere-turns. To reflect this phenomenon. Finally. the number of coils is still the same and the current is still the same. Now if you imagine a coil with a fixed number of turns and a constant current flowing through it. the units should be amperes. Most material are then quoted as having a relative permeability. 2. like that in Figure 3 is called a solenoid. To find the absolute permeability you have to multiply the relative permeability by µ o. The value of the current and the number of turns is so important in electromagnetism that it‟s own term. The mmf is equal to the current. I. 38 . Within electrical circuits you may find an electromagnet like this one in electric bells. A. µ. This would get confusing as you wouldn‟t know if someone is referring to the current or the mmf.26 x 10-6 T/A. so the mmf is still the same. B. uses an electromagnet to open or close a circuit. and the big electromagnets used in scrap yards. This then creates a magnetic flux with a flux density. Typically that core would be made of soft iron which is easily magnetised and demagnetised. It usually contains a core. B=µ× H (4) (3) The permeability of air is 4π × 10-7 or 1.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 3 Electromagnet A coil. with the wire coiled around the core. so we will use the unit A. b) increase the number of turns in the coil? It turns out that both of these would increase the magnetic field strength or flux. the current in the coils produces a magnetic field which has an intensity H.3 Magnetic units We‟ve just seen that we can create a magnetic field using elect ricity. but I haven‟t said anything about the strength of the magnetic field produced by such a device. which is its permeability relative to air. N. One device. What do you think would happen to the strength of the magnetic field if: a) you increase the current.t/m. The relationship between H and B depends on the material that the core of the electromagnet is made from and is called the permeability and given the Greek character mu. This mmf creates a magnetic field. namely the magnetomotive force or mmf. If you stretch the coil along its length. known as a relay. particularly using coils of wire. the field intensity H. but the strength of the magnetic field is weakened.t/m and is given the special symbol µo.

(c) Calculate B in teslas in the iron core if its µ r is 300. Problem 4a The first part of the problem requires us to calculate the battery voltage having been given the mmf of the coil as 200 ampere turns. The battery voltage is: V = IR = 2 × 20 = 40 volts Problem 4b We now have to calculate the magnetic field intensity H. with an iron core 0. (e) How much is the reluctance ℜ of the iron core.ENG1021 Electronic Principles There is one other term which is often used in electromagnetism. in ampereturns per weber? Solution This problem is very useful. The flux φ is produced by ampere turns I × N of magnetomotive force. permeability and reluctance. The symbol for reluctance is ℜ. which we are given as 200 ampere turns and 0.t? (b) Calculate H in the iron core in Ampereturns per meter. I = mmf/N = 200/100 = 2 A We can now calculate the battery voltage using Ohm‟s law. because it mixes concepts you have learnt about electrical voltage and current and resistance. The three factors – flux. Opposition to the production of flux in a material is called the reluctance.2 metres respectively. Since: mmf = NI where N is the number of turns on the solenoid and is given as 100. and reluctance – are related as follows: φ = mmf/ℜ which is known as Ohm‟s law for magnetic circuits. Reluctance is inversely proportional to permeability. (a) How much battery voltage is needed for 200 A. 39 (5) . the magnetic flux corresponds to current. Iron has a high permeability and low reluctance. which is reluctance. magnetic flux density. Air or a vacuum has low permeability and high reluctance. Problem 4 (Magnetic units) A battery is connected across a coil of 100 turns and a resistance of 20 Ω. ampere-turns or mmf. magnetic field intensity. with magnetic potential. (d) Calculate φ in webers at each pole with an area of 8 × 10-4 m2.2 m long. In comparison with electric circuits. The magnetic field intensity H is dependant on the mmf and the length of the coil L. Please attempt Problem 4. comparable with resistance. magnetic flux. We are given the resistance of the coil as 20 Ω which is the total resistance of the electrical circuit. Before we can calculate the battery voltage we need to calculate the electrical current I. Therefore the mmf corresponds to voltage.

02 × 10-4 webers Problem 4e Here we have to find the reluctance ℜ of the iron core.t/W 40 . φ = mmf/ℜ Rearranging and substituting our values for φ and mmf we arrive at a value for the reluctance: ℜ = mmf/φ = 200/(3.ENG1021 Electronic Principles H = mmf/L = 200/0. The reluctance ℜ of a magnetic circuit is analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit. the magnetic flux density.2 = 1000 A. In an electrical circuit more current flows. as the resistance is decreased (Ohm‟s law). In the magnetic circuit there is more flux.02 × 10-4) = 66 × 104 A. for a given emf (voltage).t/m Having found the absolute permeability.t/m Problem 4c We are now required to calculate B. as the reluctance is decreased. When we use SI units in the equation: B = µ × H and we have a figure for the relative permeability µ r we must introduce the permeability for air (or a vacuum) µ0 = 4π × 10-7 to find the absolute permeability µ.377 tesla Problem 4d The total flux at the pole ends is given by: φ=B×A The area A is 8 × 10-4. therefore the flux is: φ = 0.77 × 10-4 T/A. That is: µ = µr × µ0 We are given the relative permeability µr of the iron core as 300 therefore the absolute permeability is: µ = µr × µ0 = 300 × 4 π × 10-7 = 3.77 × 10-4 × 1000 = 0.377 × 8 × 10-4 = 3. the flux density is found using Equation 13 above: B = µ × H = 3. You may have noticed that the answer is required in teslas which are SI units and that all other units (such as length) are also SI units. for a given mmf. The equ ation for φ in terms of reluctance and mmf shows this.

the index of first finger represents the field. The conductor is connected to a battery. The thumb represents the motion. The result would be that the conductor moves upwards. and the direction of the magnetic field is from the North pole to the South pole. then a force is applied to the conductor. Figure 4 shows a conductor which has been placed within a magnetic field.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 2. It is often memorised using Fleming‟s motor rule. If you arrange your left hand such that your thumb is sticking up. This is basically how motors work. Figure 4 Motor effect The direction that the conductor moves is described by Lenz‟s law. and the middle or second finger represents current. index finger and middle finger should all be pointing in different directions. Figure 4 illustrates this principle. which produces a current flowing from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. or Fleming‟s right hand rule.4 Electro-Magnetic Induction You have seen that current flowing in a conductor creates a magnetic field. and your index finger is pointing straight ahead. we can conclude that if a conductor is placed within a magnetic field and a current is passed through it. So. that a forces act on magnets when they close top each other. The magnetic field is produced by the horseshoe magnet. then if you move your middle finger so that it‟s pointing to the side. The thumb. you have it. Also. Thumb First finger motion field 41 .

ENG1021 Electronic Principles Second finger current In a similar way, if you move a conductor in a magnetic field then a current is created. This is illustrated in Figure 5. In this case you can memorise the directions using Fleming‟s dynamo or left hand rule. The fingers of the left hand are arranged as before, and have the same meaning. Therefore, moving a conductor in a magnetic field generates electricity. This is the basis of a dynamo or a generator.

Figure 5 Dynamo effect In the dynamo effect, I said that a current was produced. In order for a current to flow there must be a potential difference. Therefore, the dynamo or generator could be said to be generating a voltage.

42

ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Figure 6 Figure 6 shows a solenoid again, where a coil is wrapped around a core. If that core is a magnet, then either moving the core or moving the coil would generate a voltage. The value of this voltage depends on three factors: • • • The magnetic flux – a stronger the magnetic field would produce a higher voltage; The rate at which the core (or the coil) is moving – the faster it moves the more voltage is generated; The number of coils or turns – the more turns the higher the voltage.

These are summarised in Faraday‟s law, which is: vind = N dφ/dt (21)

Where N is the number of turns, φ is the magnetic flux, and dφ/dt means “the rate of change” of flux. This is interpreted as dφ is a small change in flux, and dt is a small change in time, t. For example, if a coil has 100 turns, and the flux changes from 2 Wb to 5 Wb in 2 seconds, the induced voltage would be: vind = N dφ/dt = 100 x (5 – 2)/2 = 150 volts Similarly, if the flux changed from 5 Wb back to 2 Wb, the induced voltage would be: vind = N dφ/dt = 100 x (2 – 5)/2 = -150 volts You now know the fundamental relationships between electricity and magnetism. That is, you will know how to produce magnetism from electricity and how to produce electricity from magnetism. The principles behind motors and generators have been described. That is, a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field is subject to a force, which will cause it to move (the motor effect) and a conductor moving such that it cuts across a magnetic field will have a voltage generated across it (the generator effect). Two more important laws have been introduced (Faraday‟s law and Lenz‟s law). Now attempt Problem 5. Problem 5 (Electro-Magnetic Induction) 43

ENG1021 Electronic Principles A magnetic flux of 800 Mx cuts across a coil of 1000 turns in 1 µs. How much is the voltage induced in the coil? (1 Mx = 10-8 Wb) Solution This problem involves the use of Faraday‟s law. If you are not familiar with mathematical differentiation, the dφ/dt expression may appear a little daunting. It is described as the “rate of change”, where the “d” in “dφ” means a small change in φ. When you see this notation, don‟t be tempted to cancel out the “d” on the top and bottom of the equation. Just as φ stands for flux and t for time, so dφ stands for a small change in flux and dt stands for a small change i n time The expression dφ/dt is simply the gradient or slope of a graph at any point. What is wrong with using the term “gradient” then? We could, if the graph was a straight line, but often the slope of a graph varies along its length so that it is not straight but curved. You can imagine a real hill on a road; no matter how steep it is, it will not be the same steepness at the bottom of the hill or at the top of the hill as it is in the middle. A gradient sign near to the road may indicate the gradient, but does not say at which point this applies. The dφ/dt allows us to see the gradient at any point, not just an average gradient. This will become more important later when we study AC. and transformers. In these problems the graph will always be a straight line. In this problem we have a magnetic flux of 800 maxwells cutting across a coil of wire in 1 µs. Firstly, let us find dφ/dt. We should assume that the coil cuts across the field at a steady rate giving a straight line graph for the magnetic field φ plotted against time t. The gradient is: dφ/dt = The change flux/The change in time for that change in flux = 800 × 10-8 Wb/1 × 10-6 seconds = 8 Wb/s We know the number of turns N is 1000, so we can substitute for N and dφ/dt to determine the voltage. V = N dφ/dt = 1000 × 8 = 8000 V or 8 kV Now attempt Problems 6 and 7. Problem 6 A circuit has a 20 V battery connected to a 100 Ω coil of 400 turns with an iron core 0.2 m long. Using SI magnetic units, calculate (a) I; (b) ampere-turns of mmf; (c) field intensity H; (d) flux density B in a core with µr of 500; (e) total flux φ at each pole with an area of 6 × 10 -4 m2. Solution The first part of this problem relies on our knowledge of the relationships between the current in the coil, the flux φ, the flux density B, the mmf and the magnetic field intensity H. Problem 6a 44

The length of the coil is given as 0. if we want to work in SI units.turns/metre Problem 6d We want to calculate the flux density B. then we have to calculate the absolute permeability: µ = µ0 × µr = 4π × 10-7 × 500 = 6.283 × 10-5 We can then find the flux density B using B = µ × H = 6.2 metres.2 = 80 ampere .turns Problem 6c We need the length of the coil to calculate the field intensity H which is the mmf per unit length.251 × 6 × 10-4 = 1.2 A Problem 6b We have 400 turns through which flows a current of 0.2A. It is interesting because we are changing the flux by removal of the iron core of the coil. in order to generate an emf in the coil. therefore the mmf in ampere-turns is given by: mmf = N I = 400 × 0. moved the magnet or subject a coil (somehow) to a changing magnetic field.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The current is given by Ohm‟s law. The area of the coil is 6 × 10-4 m-2. how much will the flux be in the air core coil? (b) How much induced voltage would be produced by this change in flux while the core is being moved out in 1 s? (c) How much is the induced voltage after the core is removed? Solution The main reason that you were advised to attempt Problem 6 is that it revises the previous work and sets you up for this rather interesting problem.508 × 10-4 Wb Problem 7 For the coil in Problem 6: (a) If the iron core is removed.2 = 400 ampere.283 × 10-5 × 400 = 0. therefore the field intensity H = mmf/length = 80/0. We have a 100 Ω coil connected to a 20 volt battery. We are given the relative permeability µ r so. therefore: I = V/R = 20/100 = 0. therefore the flux φ = B × A = 0.251 tesla Problem 6e Having found the flux density B the amount of flux φ is dependant upon the area of the coil. The question again exercises your understanding of Faraday‟s law. Problem 7a 45 . Note that in previous examples and problems we have moved the coil.

therefore: dφ/dt = 1. So the induced voltage is: V = 400 × 1. The flux will change.0162 × 10-7 Wb Problem 7b The next part of the question requires us to calculate dφ/dt. You have studied new concepts and learnt some new terms. Although the field intensity H has not changed.505 × 10-4 = 0.505 × 10-4 Wb/s The induced voltage is N times the change in flux. H. the on-line book “Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics” has some relevant sections. and • magnetic field which is a concept described in terms of the three other physical quantities φ. It is easy to confuse the terms: • magnetic flux φ.027 × 10-4 × 6 × 10-4 = 3.508 × 10-4 . • magnetic flux density B. 3 Further reading If you would like to read some more about electromagnetism. • magnetic field intensity H.505 × 10 -4 Wb/1 second = 1.5 Summary Read the Review at the end of the Chapter. B.027 × 10-4 tesla The flux in the area of the coil is then φ = B × A = 5. Look at all of the parts under this heading except for the last part on mutual inductance. The permeability is now just µ0 = 4π × 10-7. where N is the number of turns which equals 400. because the permeability has changed.0162 × 10-7 = 1.0602 V Problem 7c After the core is removed there is no more change so the induced voltage is 0 V. 2. is the flux if the iron core is removed.505 × 10-4 Wb We are told that this change takes place in 1 second.3. I suggest you look under DC where there is a sub-section called magnetism and electromagnetism. the flux density is now B = µ × H = 4π × 10-7 × 400 = 5.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The first thing that we are asked to calculate. 46 . The change in flux is equal to the value before the removal of the iron core minus the value of the flux after the removal of the iron core which is: 1. the permeability of air.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 7 Capacitance 47 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles 4 Where next? You are advised to study the learning package entitled “Capacitance” next.

the there is no way that electrons can flow through the capacitor. a potential difference is created across the capacitor. you may like to think of them as small rechargeable batteries. You will learn how to combine resistive and reactance values (which cannot simply be added together) to form an impedance value. Reactance has similarities with resistance. Although they generally do not hold as much charge as a rechargeable battery (and they store charge in a very different way). Capacitors have the ability to store charge. You will also learn about reactance. and is measured in ohms.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Capacitance 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. The end result is that there is a difference in charge on either side of the capacitor. please read on. when the battery is first connected. Capacitors have reactance in AC circuits. If not. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. as in Figure 1. and charge A capacitor is a device that can store electrical charge. To do this we have to take into account the relative phase between the voltage and current in a capacitive circuit which leads to the concept of phase angle. and between the plates is a material called a dielectric. but has some surprising differences. Figure 1 shows a capacitor connected to a battery. We know that continuous current can‟t flow round the circuit because of the insulator. Finally this section introduces simple capacitive circuits. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. dielectrics. and that this difference 48 . It consists of two plates.1 Capacitance. 2 Introduction Nearly all electronic circuits contain capacitors. This dielectric material is an insulator. In the other plate. the potential difference created causes electrons to accumulate in the plate connected to the negative terminal of the battery. often called RC circuits which consist of a capacitor in a series or parallel combination with a resistor. Figure 1 When a battery is connected to a capacitor. 3 Capacitance 3. electrons are lost to the positive terminal of the battery. However. so that one plate (the one connected to the positive terminal) has a higher potential that the other plate (connected to the negative terminal of the battery).

We can discharge the capacitor by connecting a wire between the plates. V. then that constant current will flow which will be continuously delivering charge to one plate of the capacitor. rather than a battery. So. For example. Now if the battery is disconnected. Exactly how much is a subject of a later Learning Package. The system settles when this potential difference across the capacitor equals the potential difference created by the battery. which is 10-12 farads. we have said that the capacitor becomes charged. So to find the charge we simply substitute the values for capacitance and voltage into the equation 49 (1) . One coulomb corresponds to 6. However. which the other side loses charge. and Q is the charge in coulombs. Then the capacitor is said to be fully discharged. then the ratio of the charge produced to the voltage applied is called the capacitance of the capacitor. F. the charge difference within the capacitor remains. The capacitor has been fully charged. where there is no resistance. The amount of charge stored in a capacitor is given the symbol Q. charging takes a finite time. and so capacitance is often measured in microfarads. there is always some resistance in a circuit.25 x 1018 electrons. How much charge is stored? Q = CV = 2 x 10-6 x 9 = 18 x 10-6 C When a battery is connected to a capacitor. so that the charge can flow from the negatively charged side until both side have equal charge. pF. µF. either in the wires. and is applied for a time t. and is measured in coulombs. this would be instantaneous. and is measured in farads. Capacitance is also given the symbol C. In an ideal circuit. If the constant current has a value of I amps. Problem 1 How much charge in coulombs is in a 4 µF capacitor charged to 100 V? Solution All of these problems require the use of equation for charge Q = CV Where C is the capacitance in Farads. a 2 µF capacitor is connected to a 9 V battery. the battery or even in the capacitor itself. is applied to a capacitor. C. which is 10-6 Farads or even picofarads. In reality. C = Q/V Q = CV The unit of a farad is very large. V is the voltage across the capacitor. then the charge introduced to the capacitor is: Q=Ixt (2) Now attempt Problems 1. If a voltage. if a constant current can be applied. 2 and 3.ENG1021 Electronic Principles creates its own potential difference. in volts.

4 mC or 400 µC Problem 2 A 4 µF capacitor has 400 µC of charge. Problem 3a In this problem a 2 µF capacitor is charged with a constant current of 3 µA for 6 s. Timing circuits and slope generators use this principle. We are asked to find the charge in the capacitor. (a) How much charge is stored in the capacitor? (b) How much is the voltage across the capacitor? Solution Constant current charging of capacitors is implemented in many electronic circuits. (a) How much voltage is across the capacitor? (b) How much is the voltage across an 8 µF capacitor with the same 400 µC charge? Solution Again we use Equation 1 in a rearranged form for the voltage V = Q/C Problem 2a The first part of the question asks for the voltage across a 4 µF capacitor which is holding 400 µC of charge. The charge is found by substituting the values for the current and time into the equation: Q = I × t = 3 × 10−6 × 6 = 18 µC Problem 3b 50 . Although it is not stated. If it were not constant current charging would add to any charge already in the capacitor. we must assume that the capacitor is fully discharged. because the voltage rises linearly with time.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Q = CV = 4 × 10−6 × 100 = 4 × 10−4 = 0. Substituting these values into Equation 1 gives: V = 400 × 10−6/4 × 10−6 = 100 volts Problem 2b If the same charge is stored in a 8 µF capacitor then the voltage V = 400 × 10−6/8 × 10−6 = 50 volts Problem 3 A 2µF capacitor is charged by a constant 3 µA charging current for 6 s.

Another factor is the size of the gap between the plates. ε. paper is 2 to 6.1 Construction of capacitors A practical capacitor is made up of plates and a dielectric. which then has to be multiplied by the absolute permittivity of air. ε o. we can now say that the capacitance is given by the following equation. This symbol represents an electrolytic capacitor which can only be connected one way round. usually in either microfarads or picofarads. ceramic is 80 to 1200. with bigger plates creating bigger capacitance. In some cases they are colour coded using a similar scheme as resistors. with the same range of values as resistors.854 x 10-12 F/m. Finally. we usually quote a relative permittivity of a material. where A is the area of the plates and d is the size of the gap between the plates. in capacitance we have permittivity. energy stored and trouble shooting 3. the material used as the dielectric has a major influence. the area of the plates influences the value of the capacitance. which influenced how much magnetic flux is produced.85 x 10-12 F Now please attempt Problems 4. the bigger the capacitance. Often the value of the capacitance is written on the capacitor.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The voltage across the capacitor is given by Equation 1: V = Q/C = 18 × 10−6/2 × 10−6 = 9 volts 3. As with permeability. The smaller this gap. The symbol used in electronics is shown in Figure 2. In either case. The relative permittivity is also given the symbol Kε. Figure 2 Symbols used for a capacitor The symbol on the left is most common. Given all of the above. air has a relative permittivity of 1. Problem 4 51 (3) . and then these layers are rolled up. ε r. capacitors are only available in preferred values. but you can also often see the symbol in the middle being used. In general.2. Similarly.2 Practical capacitors. 5 and 6. which equals 8. One example is the “paper” capacitor in which layers of tin foil surround a layer of paper. the Greek character epsilon. For example. The curved side always represents the negative connection. Finally the symbol on the right indicates a variable capacitor. C = Kε x A/d x 8. When we looked at magnetism we found a quality called permeability.

a thickness of 0. This means that electrical equipment that contain capacitors can often hold on to large amounts of charge even when the equipment is switched off. Capacitors in parallel add together. Problem 5 Calculate the energy in joules stored in (a) a 500 pF capacitor charged to 10 kV. K є is the dielectric constant alternatively called the relative permittivity є r. (Hint: 1 cm = 10-2 m and 1 cm2 = 10-4 m2. For example. є0. d.85 × 10−12 = 212.4 = 1. d is the distance between the plates in metres. So firstly we must calculate how much capacitance there is in a single layer. plates of 6 cm2.02 cm. Given the above information I prefer to write Equation 3 as C = A/d × єrє0 (4) The equation is more concise in this form and it reminds us that the capacitance is proportional to the area of the plates and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. Please bear this in mind when handling equipment that is supposed to be ”dead” (disconnected from power). The capacitance of a single layer capacitor is given by the equation C = Kє × A/d × 8.062 nF 3. The figure 8. The energy stored is small. In this problem we have 5 layers which is equivalent to having 5 single layer capacitors in parallel. but this voltage can still give an electric shock and cause burns.2. Other capacitors within electronic equipment may also store hazardous voltages when equipment is disconnected from the mains. The amount of energy is found using the following equation: E = ½ CV2 (5) It is important to realise that capacitors store this charge even when disconnected. (b) a 1 µF capacitor charged to 5 kV. therefore the capacitance across 5 sections will be: 5 × 212.85 × 10−12 where A is the area of the plates in metre2. which is given the symbol є 0.85 × 10−12 is the absolute permittivity of air or a vacuum.2 Energy stored Charge stored in a capacitor has energy. a television picture tube will can hold enough charge to generate twenty five thousand volts even when disconnected form the wall. 52 . and єr into Equation 4 we have: C = 6 × 10−4/(0. and five sections in parallel.4 pf This is the capacitance between a single plate. (c) a 40 µF capacitor charged to 400 V.) Solution The construction of the mica capacitor is such that it many single layer capacitors in parallel. Substituting our values for A.02 × 10−2) × 8 × 8. with Kє = 8.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Calculate C for a mica capacitor.

Substituting the values into the equation gives: E = ½ (1 × 10−6)(5 × 103)2 =½ × 1 × 10−6 × 25 × 106 = 12.5 joules Problem 5c Here C = 40 µf and V = 400 V. Therefore the reciprocal of total capacitance of two capacitors in series is the sum of the reciprocal of the individual capacitances.02µF C2=0. Ceq = C1 + C2 (6) Connecting capacitors in series is equivalent to increasing the dielectric thickness or the gap between the plates. Substituting the values into the equation gives: E = ½(500 × 10−12)(10 ×103)2 = 250 × 10−12 ×108 = 2.2.5 × 10−2 joules Problem 5b Here C = 1 µf and V = 5 kV.2 joules 3.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Solution Here we are asked to calculate the energy stored in capacitors.4 Series and parallel capacitors When capacitors are connected in parallel it is equivalent to increasing the plate area. (7) C1=0. Therefore the capacitance of two capacitors in parallel is the sum of the individual capacitances. 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 Problem 6 Calculate CT for the series-parallel combination of capacitors shown in Figures 3a and 3b. Substituting the values into the equation Gives: E = ½ (40 × 10−6)(400)2 = 20 × 10−6 ×16 × 104 = 320 × 10−2 = 3. Problem 5a Here C = 500 pf and V = 10 kV. We use the equation: E =½CV2 The solutions are found simply by substituting the vales of C and V into the equation for energy.04µF C1=47pF 53 .

Let us call the series combination of C1 and C2. C12.ENG1021 Electronic Principles C1=150pF C1=100pF CT C3=0.047µF C Figure 3a Solution T Figure 3b This problem exercises our familiarity with parallel and series capacitor combinations.04 × 10−6) = (50 + 25) × 106 = 75 × 106 Taking reciprocals: C12 = 0. Problem 6a The problem can be though of as a parallel combination of two capacitors where one of the capacitors is a series combination of two capacitors. Remember that the rules for parallel and series capacitor combinations are the reverse of the rules for combinations of series and parallel resistors. Then using the equation for capacitors in series: 1/C12 = 1/C1 + 1/C2 = 1/(0.02 × 10−6) + 1/(0.0133 × 10−6 F 54 . Therefore we work out the equivalent capacitance of the series capacitors first.

0633 µF Problem 6b This part of the problem should be thought of as a series combination of two capacitors. An analogy that is sometimes used is that of a hydraulic system. 3. Therefore we work out the value of the parallel combination C1 and C2 first. it forces more water into one of the chamber which pushes against the rubber diaphragm.047 × 10−6 + 0. A capacitor is represented by two chambers separated by a rubber diaphragm. 3. A capacitor is essentially a break in the circuit. but often open and leaky capacitors are not that obvious to an ohmmeter and since we must disconnect one end of the capacitor from the circuit anyhow.3 Trouble shooting Leaky and open capacitors can be detected with an ohmmeter.3 Capacitive reactance So far we‟ve looked at DC circuits. where a pump represents the battery. This is analogous to the charge building up on one of the 55 . all well and good. a 150 pF capacitor. and all connected together with pipes.06033 × 10−6 or 0. so a continuous current cannot flow. at which point no more water can move. then C12 = C1 + C2 = 47 pF + 100 pF = 147 pF C12 is in series with C3.0133 × 10−6 = 0. The diaphragm stretches which forces water out of the other chamber.2. When the pump is switched on. but one of those capacitors is a parallel combination of two capacitors.2 pF Note that in the later part of this problem I have used the formula for two series capacitors and worked entirely in picofarads in order to show the alternative methods. This continues until the pressure produced by the pump equals the pressure produced by the rubber diaphragm. The total capacitance is given by: CT = C12 × C3/(C12 + C3) = 147 × 150/(147 + 150) = 22050/297 = 74. So: CT = C3 + C12 = 0. When a battery is connected there is an initial current that builds up charge on the capacitor plates. If this technique works. Let use call the equivalent capacitance of the parallel capacitors C12.ENG1021 Electronic Principles CT is the parallel combination of C12 and C3 and parallel capacitors add in value. it is usually more efficient to trouble shoot leaky and open capacitors by replacement. Initially the pipes and the chambers are full of water. but then reaches a stable point where the potential difference are equal and no more current flows.

Reactance is given the symbol X. measured in ohms. 0. the reciprocal of the total reactance of two capacitors in parallel is found as the sum of the reciprocal of the individual reactances. in a capacitor the charge can move back and forth in the circuit under the emf of the AC voltage generator.5 MHz. 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 Xeq = 1/2πfCeq = 1/2πf C1 + 1/2πf C2 = Xc1 + Xc2 Similarly. the total reactance is the sum of the individual reactances. In this scenario the pump keeps changing direction. although there is still a diaphragm.2 MHz and 0. We see this by starting with the equation we found earlier for the total capacitance of two series capacitors. In the case of capacitive reactance.1 MHz. and is called reactance. 0. 0. in this analogy. Now let‟s think of an AC circuit.e. If we have a sinusoidal voltage applied. This is summarised in the following equation for the reactance of a capacitor: Xc = 1/2πfC (9) In an AC circuit. Init ially it will pump water in one direction. no current flows. Then the pressure eases of and the pump reverses direction and repeats the cycle. and as this is capacitive reactance it is referred to as Xc.1 MHz. with the same frequency. Solution We are asked to find the value of a capacitance which has a reactance of 2000 Ω at four frequencies 1 MHz. Similarly. 1/Xeq = 1/Xc1 + 1/Xc2 Please attempt Problems 7 and 8.ENG1021 Electronic Principles plates of the capacitor. 0.5 MHz. It obeys Ohm‟s law as follows: V = I Xc (8) The main difference between reactance and resistance is that reactance is dependent on frequency. i. when the frequency is zero (DC) then the reactance is infinite. At higher frequencies the reactance gets less. the water all through the circuit can move back and forth under pressure from the pump. The amplitude of the voltage sinewave divided by the amplitude of the current sinewave is similar to resistance. and the lack of negative charge on the other plate. Problem 7 Give the values of C needed for 2000 Ω of XC at the following four frequencies – 1 MHz. Clearly.2 MHz and 0. if two capacitors are connected in series. We take the equation for capacitive reactance: XC = 1/2πfC and rearrange it to give: 56 (10) . Now. you cannot have a continuous flow of water because the circuit is blocked by the diaphragm. then the current will also be sinusoidal. gradually increasing the pressure.

(e) If the frequency of the applied voltage is 1600 kHz.6 pF At f = 0.1 × 1062000 = 1/1256.5 MHz: C = 1/2π0.637061436 × 106 = 796 pF Problem 8 Four capacitive reactances of 100.274122872 × 106 = 399 pF At f = 0. Problem 8a The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 4.5 × 1062000 = 1/6283 × 106 = 159 pF At f = 0.2 × 1062000 = 1/2513.1 MHz: C = 1/2π0. (a) Draw the schematic diagram.ENG1021 Electronic Principles C = 1/2πfXC The four solutions to this question are obtained by substitution into the rearranged equation. 100Ω 200Ω 300Ω 400Ω Figure 4 Circuit diagram for Problem 8a Problem 8b 40 57 .37061436 × 106 = 79. Solution This problem introduces series combinations of capacitors and the calculation of their reactance. (b) How much is the total XCT? (c) Calculate I. (d) Calculate the voltages across each capacitance. Therefore: C = 1/2π1 × 1062000 = 1/12566. 300 and 400 Ω each are connected in series across a 40 V rms source. 200. When frequency we are told that XC = 2000 Ω. calculate the required value of each capacitance.2 MHz: C = 1/2π0.

4 + 8 + 12 + 16 = 40 volts = the supply voltage of 40 volts Problem 8e If the frequency of the AC source is 1600 kHz = 1.995 × 10−9 = 0.6 × 106 × 200) = 0. We have four reactances of 100.6 MHz we use the rearranged equation for reactance Equation 25 substituting for reactance in each case.497 × 10−9 = 0.995 nF For the next capacitor (XC2 = 200 Ω) the capacitance is: C2 = 1/(2π1.6 × 106 × 100) = 0. the total reactance is: XT = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 = 100 + 200 + 300 + 400 = 1000 Ω Problem 8c The current is given by Ohm‟s law: I = V/XT = 40/1000 = 40 mA rms Problem 8d To find the voltage across each capacitor we use Ohm‟s law and the fact that the same current I flows in all parts of a series circuit. The capacitance is: C1 = 1/(2π1. So.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The equivalent (or total) reactance of a series combination of reactances is found using the same rules as for series resistors. For the first capacitor (X C1 = 100 Ω).497 nF For the next capacitor (XC3 = 300 Ω) the capacitance is: 58 . 200. 300 and 400Ω in series. Therefore. the voltage across the first capacitor (XC1 = 100 Ω) is: VC1 = 40 × 10−3 × 100 = 4 volts The voltage across the next capacitor (XC2 = 200 Ω) VC2 = 40 × 10−3 × 200 = 8 volts The voltage across the next capacitor (XC3 = 300 Ω) is VC3 = 40 × 10−3 × 300 = 12 volts The voltage across the last capacitor (XC4 = 200 Ω) is VC4 = 40 × 10−3 × 400 = 16 volts We can check our results because for purely capacitive reactance the individual voltage drops should add up to the supply voltage. Note. that this is not true for finding the equivalent capacitance for a series combination of capacitors.

and dt means a small change in time. In other words the alternating voltage across a capacitor rises at falls at different times from the alternating current through the capacitor. as shown in Figure 5. Calculate C. The current rises before the voltage and the current is said to “lead” the voltage.249 × 10−9 = 0.6 × 106 × 300) = 0.249 nF 3. dv/dt represents the rate at which the voltage is changing with time. Please attempt Problem 9. Figure 5 Voltage and current in a capacitor (current is dashed) The rate of voltage change with time operator is introduced and related to the current i=C dv dt Here we see the notation for differentiation again.4 Relative phase Unlike in a resistor. So.332 nF For the last capacitor (XC4 = 400 Ω) the capacitance is: C4 = 1/(2π1.ENG1021 Electronic Principles C3 = 1/(2π1.6 × 106 × 400) = 0. the alternating current in a capacitor is not in phase with the alternating voltage across it. Problem 9 A capacitor has a discharge current ic of 15 mA when the voltage across its plates decreases at the rate of 150 V/µs.332 × 10−9 = 0. where dv means a small change in voltage. The phase angle between the voltage and current in a capacitor is 90º and is the same as the difference between a cosine wave and a sine wave. 59 (11) .

b) parallel circuit In Figure 6a). Figure 6 a) series circuit. a resistor is in series with a capacitor. Figure 6 shows both cases. 3. 60 . and the associated “phasor triangle”. Let us rearrange Equation 11: I C = dV dt and substitute our values into it to find C: C = −15×10−3 = 1×10−3 = 10−9 =10−10 =100pF −150 10 10 10−6 10−6 Note that I have used minus signs in front of the current and the decreasing voltage. it is good practice to include them. I. so the current flowing through the capacitor must be the same as the current flowing through the resistor. We know from earlier discussions that in a series circuit the current is the same through each component. because in larger problems they become important. because the current is a discharge current and the voltage is decreasing.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Solution This problem exercises your understanding of rates of voltage change and the capacitor charge/discharge cycle. We also know that the current through the capacitor leads the voltage across the capacitor by 90 degrees. Although the minus signs cancel out. We are told that a capacitor is subject to a discharge current of 15 mA and that the rate of change of voltage is 150 V/µs.4 Capacitive (RC) circuits We will now have a look at circuits containing a resistor and a capacitor in either series or in parallel.

Keep going until it is pointing downwards and that corresponds to +270 degrees. Similarly. Figure 8Vector distance The distance from your house is shown as the diagonal line from the home to the journey‟s end. a phasor is shown pointing to the left. When we add two phasors we have to take into account not only their magnitude but also their direction. How far have you walked? That‟s easy. if I asked you to start at your house. This distance. Alternatively. walk east for 3 miles. The other phasor is shown relative to this first one. Figure 7 illustrates this. that is 0 degrees. either as a clockwise (negative) rotation or an anticlockwise (positive) rotation. then when it is pointing to the right. the voltage across the resistor is Vr = IR. We can represent these two voltages using a phasor triangle. that is +90 degrees. 3 plus 4 equals 7 miles. and that‟s +180 degrees. 61 . Now rotate it anticlockwise. For example. then north for 4 miles. You think of a phasor diagram as a rotating arrow. Keep going until it is pointing to the right. rotate until the arrow is pointing downwards and this corresponds to -90 degrees. then you have to take the direction into account. then from zero degrees. The vertical arrow shows the voltage across the capacitor which is 90 degrees behind the current through the capacitor. is calculated using Pythagoras‟s theorem. pivoted at the centre of a circle. if you rotate clockwise. If I asked you how far would be as the crow flies from your house.ENG1021 Electronic Principles If the reactance of the capacitor is Xc. d. Figure 7 Phasor diagrams In Figure 7. then by Ohm‟s law the voltage across the c apacitor is Vc = IXc. When it‟s point upwards. where the horizontal arrow shows the voltage across the resistor which is in phase with the current through the resistor. you just add the miles.

This is shown as the hypotenuse of the triangle. Impedance is the combination of resistance and reactance. We can either say that the current leads the voltage in a capacitor by 90 degrees. This means that the total impedance is: 62 . You can see that to find the value of Z you have to take the square root of the resistance squared plus the reactance squared. between the voltage and the current. From trigonometry we can see that: Tanθ =− IXc =− Xc (13) IR R So the phase is the ratio of the reactance and the resistance. The other value that we can calculate is the relative phase.ENG1021 Electronic Principles d2 = 32 + 42 = 25 d = 25 = 5 So the distance is 5 miles. the reactance is: Xc = 1/2πfC = 1/2x 3. the term Z is the total impedance of the circuit. Using the values in the circuit of Figure 6. it is negative. the resistive voltage is at 0 degrees. when represented in a phasor diagram they point in different directions.79 Ω ≈ 40 Ω. Now we know that the supply voltage should equal the sum of the resistive voltage and the capacitive voltage. It amounts to the same thing. or that the voltage lags behind the current by -90 degrees. and the resistive voltage Vr. θ. therefore the angle between these two voltages is the same as the angle between the voltage and the current. But because they are out of phase. Since the capacitive reactance is pointing downwards. You have to bear this in mind when calculating the phase.142 x 40 x 100 x 10-6 = 39. E. and the capacitive voltage is at -90 degrees. We there fore have to use Pythagoras‟s theorem to find the sum. In our phasor triangle. This is because Vr is in phase with the current. In Figure 6a) this is shown as the angle between the supply voltage. The sum is therefore: 2 2 E = Vr +Vc 2 2 E = ( IR) + ( IX c ) 2 2 2 2 E = I R +I Xc 2 2 2 E = I (R + X c ) 2 2 E = I R +Xc E = IZ (12) In the last line. and is also measured in ohms.

8o Now for parallel circuits. If the resistive current is drawn horizontally. from the phasor triangle of Figure 6b) it can be seen that: Tanθ = Ic = E ÷ E Ir Tanθ = E × Xc R = R R 63 . we use the triangle again and Pythagoras‟s theorem. then the capacitive current leads by 90 degrees.7Ω The phase is: Tanθ =− Xc R θ =−21.4 100 1 I=E + R I E 11 R 1 1 Xc Xc Z So this is the same as any parallel circuit. The total current must equal the sum of the two individual branch currents.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Z = R2 + Xc2 = 1002 + 402 Z = 10000+1600 = 11600 =107. As they are phasor values with direction as well as size. As we know from previous Learning Packages the voltage across each parallel branch is the same. Similarly. as in the phasor triangle of Figure 6b). The current in the resistive branch is therefore Ir = E/R and is in phase with the voltage. This gives the total current as: I = Ir + Ic = E + E R Xc =− 40 =−0. So in the parallel circuit of Figure 6b) the voltage across the resistor and the capacitor is equal to E. The current in the capacitive branch is Ic = E/Xc and is 90 degrees ahead of the voltage. where the reciprocal of the total impedance equals the sum of the reciprocal of the resistance and the reciprocal of the reactance.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles Xc E Xc Using the values in Figure 6.5 Xc θ = 68. (a) Draw the schematic diagram. and 12. (c) Calculate I. we can find the impedance and relative phase. 64 . Problem 10 This problem exercises your understanding of impedance and phase relationships in a series capacitive circuit. Problem 10a A 40 Ω R in series with a 30 Ω Xc across a 100 V sinewave AC source. (b) Calculate ZT. Please attempt Problem 10. 1 = Z Z= R R 1 + Xc 1 = 100 1 + 40 1 = 4000 140 = 28.57Ω 100 Tanθ = = = 2.2o 40 You should now have a good idea about the phase relationship between the current and voltage in a capacitive circuit and be able to construct a phasor triangle (often called a phasor diagram). (e) What is the phase angle of the circuit? Solution The schematic diagram is shown in Figure 9. 11. (d) Calculate the voltage across R and C.

The voltages across the resistor and the capacitor must add up to the source voltage (at any given time). which is equal to the current I multiplied by the total impedance ZT. The voltage across the capacitor is: VC = IXC = 2 × 30 = 60 volts The voltage across the resistor 65 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 9 Diagram for Problem 10a Problem 10b To calculate ZT it is useful (but not essential) to draw a phasor diagram. Consider the phasor triangle. given by Ohm‟s law. By Pythagoras‟ theorem: Figure 10 Phasor diagram for Problem 10 100 = IZT = (IXC )2 +(IR)2 The I‟s cancel giving: ZT = (XC)2 +(R)2 Problem 10c The current I may be found from Ohm‟s law by using the previously obtained value for the total impedance ZT and the knowledge that the source voltage is 100V. but because these voltages are out of phase we must add the voltage across the capacitor phasor (VC = IXC) to the voltage across the resistor phasor (VR = IR). the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the source voltage (100 volts). I = V/ZT = 100/50 = 2 amperes Problem 10d The individual voltages across R and C are. Doing this forms the phasor triangle shown in Figure 10. again.

The current through the resistor is: IR = V/R = 100/40 = 2. Solution This problem is similar to Problem 10. (c) How much is I T? (d) Calculate ZEQ. we know that the current and voltage in a resistor are always in phase. Although this phasor diagram does not show the current. The phase angle θ in this circuit is the angle between the generator voltage and the voltage across the resistor. (a) Draw the schematic diagram. (b) Calculate each branch current. If you were to add these instantaneous voltages they would add up to the supply voltage at that instant. If we looked at the voltages at any instant in time.86o Problem 11 A 40 Ω R and a 30 Ω Xc are in parallel across a 100 V sinewave AC source. This is because the two voltages are out of phase. From the phasor diagram shown in Figure 10: tan θ = IXC/IR = XC/R = 3/4 = 0. but we are dealing with a parallel circuit. (e) What is the phase angle of the circuit? (f) Compare the phase angle of the voltage across R and Xc. one voltage will be rising when the other is at its peak. Problem 11a The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 11. Figure 11 Circuit diagram for Problem 11a Problem 11b Since the supply voltage appears across capacitor C and resistor R the current flowing though each of them are the branch currents and are given by Ohm‟s law. Problem 10e The phase angle θ is the angle between the generator voltage and the series current or equivalently the generator voltage and current.75 θ = 36.ENG1021 Electronic Principles VR = I × 40 = 80 volts Note that the algebraic addition of the voltages across the resistor and the capacitor is greater than the supply voltage.5 amperes 66 .

The phase of the current is in the direction of vector IT.33 A Problem 11c The total current IT is found by adding the branch currents.52 +3. again using Pythagoras‟ theorem: IT = (IR)2 +(IC )2 = 2. A phasor diagram would be helpful now.14 = 24.5 = 1.14 amperes Problem 11d The equivalent impedance ZEQ is given by Ohm‟s law: ZEQ = V/I = 100/4.332 = 4. as in Figure 12: Figure 12 Phasor diagram for Problem 11c From the diagram we can see that IT is the phasor addition of ITR and IR. but because the currents are out of phase we must add their phasors. The phase of the voltage is the same as the phase of the current through the resistor vector IR. It is marked as current on Figure 12.15 Ω Problem 11e The phase angle can be found from the phasor diagram.1o 67 . The phase angle is the angle between the voltage and current as “seen” by the voltage supply. On Figure 12 the angle between these two vectors is marked as θ.33/2.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The current through the resistor is: IC = V/XC = 100/30 = 3.332 θ = 53. tan θ = IC/IR = 3. since the resistor is directly connected across the voltage supply. since this is the current we calculated as the total current supplied to the circuit.

Remember that positive angles are in the anticlockwise direction. This is a series circuit so the same current I flows in all parts of the circuit. we can say that the current leads the voltage in an RC circuit and so the phase angle of the current with respect to the voltage will be positive. Alternatively. Problem 11f The phase of the voltage is the same in all parts of the parallel circuit. Problem 12 Draw a schematic diagram of a capacitor in series with a 20 kΩ resistance acros s a 10 V ac source. The voltage will always lag the current in an RC circuit and so the phase angle of the voltage with respect to the current will be negative. Verify this to yourself using the phasor diagram and try turning the phasor diagram around to that the current is the reference phasor and checking that the phase of the voltage (which is the same as the current through the resistor IR) now lags the current. it depends only on whether you take the current or the voltage as a reference.ENG1021 Electronic Principles If you are wondering if this angle should be positive or negative. What size C is needed for equal voltages across R and Xc at frequencies of 100 Hz and 100 kHz? Solution The circuit diagram for the first part of this problem is given in Figure 13. We are then asked what value of capacitor will result in equal voltages existing across the resistor and the capacitor. The voltage across the resistor (by Ohm‟s law) is: VR = IR The voltage across the capacitor is: VC = IXC Figure 13 Circuit diagram for Problem 12 We are told that: VC = V R So: IR = IXC 68 . so the phase angle across the resistor is equal to the phase angle across the capacitor. while negative angles are the clockwise direction.

so that the voltages across the resistor and the capacitor are equal when: R = XC XC = 1/2πfC = R We can rearrange this equation to get a value for C. ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 8 Inductance and Transformers 69 . C = 1/2πfR = 1/2π × 100 × 20 × 103 = 0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles we can cancel the I‟s.08 µF Now for R = 20 kΩ and f = 100 kHz C = 1/2πfR = 1/2π × 100 × 103 × 20 × 103 = 80 pF 4 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. The relevant sections are “DC” and the sub-section called “Capacitors””. but be warned. under the section “AC”. Also. Have a look at all the parts. so let‟s substitute our values of R = 20 kΩ and f = 100 Hz into our equation for C first. sub-section “Reactance and impedance – capacitive” there is relevant information. Where next? The next suggested learning package in entitled “Inductance and Transformers”. C = 1/2πfR We are asked to find the value of C for two different values of frequency f. This book starts using both complex notation (or j notation) and polar notation rather than using a phasor diagram. where all parts could be read.

If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. If not. please read on. please read on. Figure 1 shows a simple AC circuit with a magnetic coil. as you saw in Learning Package 6. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. The frequency of the alternating current also affects the size of the induced voltage. If not. In an AC circuit. This property of mutual inductance is put to use in transformers where AC voltages can be “stepped-up” or “stepped-down” to other voltages. The voltage is induced if the conductor is moving or if the magnetic field is moving or changing. and also changes size in proportion to the size of the current. In particular we will see how inductors produce an electromagnetic field and that two inductors can interact to produce mutual inductance. 2 Introduction In this Learning Package you will learn about inductors and the property inductance. it must be remembered that it is the change in current that is inducing a voltage. is defined as: L= v (1) di/dt 70 . a conductor produces a magnetic flux which alternates in direction as the current alternates. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. A current that is large but doesn‟t change would not induce a voltage. L.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Inductance 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. 3 What is inductance? When a magnetic flux cuts across a conductor a voltage is induced. So. This changing flux induces a voltage. Figure 1 Circuit with magnetic coil The inductance. as a higher frequency means that the current is changing ore quickly.

Now attempt Problem 1. we need to calculate the change of current with respect to time. dI/dt = (50 × 10-3)/(5 × 10-6) = 104As-1 The voltage is: vL = LdI/dt = 5 × 10-3 × 104 = 50 V 71 . dI/dt = 3/2 = 1. (a) zero to 3 A in 2 s.5 As-1 The voltage vL = LdI/dt = 5 × 10-3 × 1. a voltage can be induced by any change in current. dI/dt . Therefore: Change in current 3 . (c) 100 to 150 mA in 5 µs.ENG1021 Electronic Principles In this equation. v is the voltage that is induced in the coil and di/dt is the rate of change of current in amperes per second.0 mA = 50 mA Change in time = 5 µs seconds. Problem 1 Calculate the values of vL across a 5 mH inductance for the following current variations. (b) zero to 50 mA in 5 µs. (d) 150 to 100 mA in 5 µs. Returning to our problem.5 = 7.0 = 3A Change in time = 2 seconds. For all parts of this problem we will use the Equation 2. Rearranging we get: v=L di (2) dt In AC circuits the current is continuously changing. Therefore: Change in current 50 . However. Solution Problem 1a We are asked for the voltage across a 5 mH inductor subject to different current variations. measured in Henries. as the following problem indicates.5 mV Problem 1b In this part we have a current which changes form 0 to 50 mA in 5 µs seconds. L is the inductance. In this part we have a current which changes form 0 to 3 A in 2 seconds.

26×10−6H L l 72 (3) . A. even though the current is higher.1 Inductance in coils The value of the inductance of a coil depends on a number of factors. These include: The number of turns. dI/dt = (50 × 10-3)/(5 × 10-6) = 104As-1 This is the same value for dI/dt as in part (b).150 = -50 mA.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 1c In this part we have a current which changes from 100 to 150 mA in 5 µs.100 = 50 mA Change in time = 5 µs seconds. The minus sign signifies the decrease in current. because it is the change in current that is important and not the absolute value. The voltage is: vL = LdI/dt = 5 × 10-3 × 104 = 50 V Problem 1d In this part we have a current which changes form 150 to 100 mA in 5 µs Therefore: Change in current 100 . Therefore: Change in current 150 . l. dI/dt = (-50 × 10-3)/(5 × 10-6) = -104As-1 The voltage is: vL = LdI/dt = 5 × 10-3 × -104 = -50 V 3. N. The length of the coil. The inductance can be calculated as: =µr × N2× A×1. Change in time = 5 µs seconds. µr. The area enclosed by the coil. The permeability of the core.

All the other values are given for substitution into Equation 3. This tells us that the relative permeability µr = 1. (e) air core. 20 turns.14 cm2 = 3. length 25 cm. (d) air core. We are given: The number of turns N = 20 The area of the coil A = 3. length 50 cm. area 3.14 × 10-4 m2 The length of the coil l = 25 cm = 25 × 10-2 m The same values are used as in Part (a). but remember that the equation requires that area A is in square metres and that length l is in metres. We are given: The number of turns N = 20 The area of the coil A = 3.14 cm2. 20 turns.26 × 10-6 = 1 × (202 × 3. length 50 cm.663 µH Problem 2b This inductor has a ferrite iron core.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Now try Problem 2. and 1 cm2 = 10-4 m2.14 cm 2.14 × 10-4 m2 The length of the coil l = 25 cm = 25 × 10-2 m Substituting these values into Equation 3 with µr = 1: L = µr(N2 × A)/l × 1.33 × 10-7 = 0. The problem illustrates the impact of changing each of the values in Equation 3. Problem 2a This inductor has an air core. length 25 cm. (b) same coil as (a) with a ferrite core having µ r of 5000.26 × 10-6 73 . 20 turns. diameter 4 cm. (c) air core.14 cm 2. Problem 2 Calculate the inductance L for the following long coils: (a) air core. (Note 1 cm = 10-2 m. area 3. Substituting these values into Equation 3 with µ r = 5000: L = µr(N2 × A)/l × 1.14 × 10-4)/(25 × 10-2) × 1.) Solution Here we are asked to calculate the inductance for coils of wire of differing dimensions and cores. 200 turns. area 3. We are told that that the relative permeability of the ferrite core µ r = 5000.26 × 10-6 = 6.14 cm2 = 3.

14 × 22 cm2 = 12.14 × 10-4)/(25 × 10-2) × 1.14 × 10-4)/(50 × 10-2) × 1.33 × 10-5 = 66.14 cm2 = 3. The other values given are: The number of turns N = 200 The area of the coil A = 3.3165 µH Problem 2e This inductor has an air core so µr = 1.ENG1021 Electronic Principles = 5000 × (202 × 3.r2 = 3.57 × 10-4 m2 The length of the coil l = 50 cm = 50 × 10-2 m Substituting these values into Equation with µr = 1: 74 .26 × 10-6 = 1 × (202 × 3. but we are given the diameter d = 4 cm. The other values given are: The number of turns N = 20 We are not given the area.26 × 10-6 = 1 × (2002 × 3.3 µH Problem 2d This inductor has an air core so µr = 1. the area of the coil A = π. The other values given are: The number of turns N = 20 The area of the coil A = 3.26 × 10-6 = 3.165 mH Problem 2c This inductor has an air core so µr = 1.14 × 10-4 m2 The length of the coil l = 50 cm = 50 × 10-2 m Substituting these values into Equation with µr = 1: L = µr(N2 × A)/l × 1. therefore the radius of the coil r = 2 cm and assuming that the coil is circular.14 cm2 = 3.165 × 10-3 = 3.14 × 10-4)/(25 × 10-2) × 1.26 × 10-6 = 6.14 × 10-4 m2 The length of the coil l = 25 cm = 25 × 10-2 m Substituting these values into Equation 3.26 × 10-6 = 3.165 × 10-7 = 0.with µr = 1: L = µr(N2 × A)/l × 1.

There is a complication. that cuts across another coil. If there is no coupling.26 × 10-6 = 1. (d) the value of the coefficient of coupling k. This means that for a current flowing through the coils in one direction. the magnetic flux produced in one coil may be in the opposite direction to the magnetic flux in the other. and series opposing.267 µH 4 Mutual inductance When the current in an inductor changes it creates a magnetic flux which may cut across another inductor and so induce a voltage in it. If the magnetic field is in the same direction the coils are said to be “series–aiding”. (c) the LT of L1 and L2 series aiding. If they produce magnetic fluxes in opposite directions then they are called “se riesopposing”.26 × 10-6 = 1 × (202 × 12. is called the coupling and given the letter k. The total inductance of a pair of series coils would be: LT = L1 + L2 + Lm for series aiding (5a) LT = L1 + L2 – Lm for series opposing (5b) Finally.ENG1021 Electronic Principles L = µr(N2 × A)/l × 1. just like resistances.267 × 10-6 = 1.57 × 10-4)/(50 × 10-2) × 1. Solution 75 (6) . The additional inductance is measured as: Lm = k L1L2 (4) When two inductors are in series in a circuit. This process is called mutual induction. calculate: (a) the total inductance LT of L1 and L2 in series without mutual coupling. The fraction of flux produced by one coil. The voltage induced in the second inductor also produces a current which in turn produces a magnetic flux which will also cut across the first inductor and so produce a voltage in that one. However. with 10 µH mutual inductance. their inductances are added. the inductances are simply added. the two inductors or coils could be wound in opposite directions. Lm. L2. For two inductors in parallel (without mutual inductance) the total inductance is: 1/LT = 1/L1 + 1/L2 Please now attempt Problems 3 and 4 Problem 3 For a 100 µH inductance L1 and a 200 µH inductance L2. L 1. if there is any coupling and therefore any mutual inductance. and the effect has to be included in any calculations. However. (b) the combined inductance of L 1 and L2 in parallel without mutual inductance. The value of the coupling is defined as: k = flux linkage between L1 and L2/flux produced by L1 This overall effect is known as mutual inductance. this has to be included. inductors in parallel also follow the same pattern as resistors.

are the same as for resistors. Problem 3d The mutual coupling k is a measure of the amount of flux in one inductor links another (the coupled) inductor. Problem 3c If mutual coupling exists between inductors then Equation 5 is used. The equations for combinations of inductors. Problem 3a The total inductance for inductors in series (in the absence of mutual inductance) is then: LT = L 1 + L 2 Substituting the values given: LT = 100 + 200 µH = 300 µH Problem 3b Inductors in parallel combine in a similar way to resistors in parallel (without mutual inductance). So the total inductance of the given inductors in parallel is: 1/LT = 1/L1 + 1/L2 Or LT = L1 × L2/(L1 + L2) = 100 × 200/(100 + 200) = 20000/300 = 200/3 = 66. It can be found in this case by using the Equation 4 for mutual inductance.2LM Substituting the given values for both cases gives: LT = 100 + 200 + 2 × 10 = 320 µH for series aiding and: LT = 100 + 200 . without considering mutual inductance.2 × 10 = 280 µH for series opposing. with and without mutual inductance. For series aiding: LT = L1 + L2 + 2LM and for series opposing: LT = L1 + L2 . 76 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles This is an exercise in combining inductances.7 µH Notice that the equations for series and parallel inductors are “swapped around” forms of the equations for series and parallel capacitors.

This means that the voltage induced in the secondary coil is created by the same magnetic field that produces the induced voltage in the primary coil. Ns. if there are 500 turns in the primary coil and 50 turns in the secondary.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Lm = k L1L2 Rearranging this equation for k and substituting our values into the equation gives: k = Lm = L1L2 10 = 10 = 0. the turns ratio is 500/50 = 10. Turns ratio = Np/Ns (7) For example. As shown in Figure 2 there is a primary circuit which has a coil and a secondary circuit which has a coil. Figure 2 A transformer The size of the voltage in the secondary circuit depends on the number of turns in the secondary coil. relative to the number of turns in the primary coil.07 100×200 20000 5 Transformers Transformers are a practical application of mutual inductance. the transformer produces an AC voltage in the secondary circuit which causes a current to flow through the load resistor. When the primary coil is connected to an AC voltage source. is in proportion to the number of turns in the coils. The difference between the secondary and primary voltages. so has a value of 1. The turns ratio is the number of turns in the primary coil divided by the number of turns in the secondary coil. This means that: Vp/Vs = Np/Ns 77 (8) . therefore. Np. It is usually assumed in transformers that the coupling between the primary and secondary coils is perfect. so the transformer could be described as a 10:1 transformer.

which means that if you connected the load directly to the source. Figure 3 shows this. as I shall show. In this ca se the efficiency would be defined as: % Efficiency = Ps/Pp x 100 (11) The load resistor in the secondary has a value RL. where Zp is the reflected impedance and Zs is the secondary impedance such as the load resistor. Figure 4 shows a voltage source which delivers a voltage but has its own internal resistance r of 200 Ω. When looking into the circuit from the primary end.85 W of power. The load resistor that it is delivering power to has a resistance of 8 Ω. known is the reflected impedance. Figure 3 Reflected impedance By manipulating the equations that we have already it is found that the reflected impedance is: Zp = (Np/Ns)2 x Zs (12) One of the ways that reflected impedance can be used is for impedance matching. the not all of the power is transmitted. 78 . This could be an amplifier connected to a speaker. which means that: Is/Ip = Np/Ns = turns ratio. and in the secondary circuit is VsIs. so that: VpIp = VsIs This means that Vp/Vs = Is/Ip But earlier we showed that Vp/Vs = Np/Ns. If the transformer is 100% efficient. it would receive 1. all of that power is transferred. for exampl e. (10) (9) If the transformer isn‟t 100% efficient. the resistance (or more accurately impedance in the general case) appears at a different value. For example.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The power in the primary circuit is VpIp. In any circuit the power delivered to the load is maximised if the impedance of the load is equal to the impedance of the source.

5 watts – a big improvement on 1.85 watts.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 4 Impedance matching circuit To match the impedance we want to choose a turns ratio such that Zp = 200Ω. We start with the equation for the reflected impedance: Zp = (Np/Ns)2 x Zs Since it the turns ratio we require we can rearrange the equation: (Np/Ns)2 = Zp/Zs = 200/8 = 25 Np/Ns = 5 So a turns ratio of 5:1 would give the required value for the reflected impedance.5 watts. Alternatively we could show that the secondary voltage is: Vp/Vs = Np/Ns = 5 Vs = Vp/5 = 10 V Is/Ip = Np/Ns = 5 79 (13) . the power delivered to the primary coil would be: Vp = Vr/(r+Zp) = 100x200/(200+200)= 20000/400 = 50 V So half the supply voltage gets to the primary coil. the power reaching the load would be 12. With this value. The power at the primary coil would be: Pp = Vp2/R = 502/200 = 2500/200 = 12. Assuming 100% efficiency for the transformer.

the voltage induced in the secondary winding (by the coupled alternating flux) must also alternate at the same rate.25 Amps. Problem 4a This part of the problem is trivial. Power across RL = Vs x Is = 10 x 1. (a) What is the frequency of the secondary voltage? (b) How much is the secondary voltage? (c) With a load resistance of 10. (Note: The ratio of Np to Ns is 1:8. So. that is. the frequency of the secondary voltage is the same as the primary voltage. Since the alternating current in the primary of the transformer produces an alternating flux (which alternates at the same rate as the primary‟s current).000 = 96 mA Problem 4d 80 .000 Ω is connected across the seco ndary winding of the transformer.25 = 1. Problem 4 A power transformer with a 1:8 turns ratio has 50Hz 120 V across the primary.25 Amps So Is = 5 x 0.5 watts. how much is the secondary cu rrent? (d) How much is the primary current? Assume 100% efficiency. The alternating voltage across the primary produces a current in the primary windings of the transformer of the same frequency. Problem 4b The ratio between the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the turns ratio (assuming that the transformer is 100 % efficient.000 Ω across the secondary. the secondary current is given by Ohm‟s law: IS = VS/R = 960/10. Therefore the voltage ratio must be 1:8. 50 Hz. We are asked for the value of the secondary voltage. We are told that the turns ratio is 1:8.) Solution This problem involves a power transformer and gives us a feel for the current and voltage relationships in the primary and secondary of transformers.25 = 12. Since we have just calculated the secondary voltage.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Is = 5Ip Ip = V/(r + Zp ) = 100/(200+200) = 100/400 = 0. That is: VP/VS = 1/8 Rearranging and substituting in the values gives: VS = VP/1/8 = VP × 8 = 120 × 8 = 960 volts Problem 4c A load resistance of 10.

In the case of this transformer example we are told that if we put 500 watts in to it we can only get 400 watts out of it. Power in primary = PP = IPVP Power in Secondary = PS = ISV S That is: IPVP = ISVS Rearranging and substituting in our values gives the primary current IP = ISVS/VS = 96 × 960/120 = 768 mA Problem 5 (a) A transformer delivers 400 W out with 500 W in. Problem 5a Efficiency. (b) A transformer with an 80 percent efficiency delivers 400 W total secondary power. Efficiency = power in/power out × 100% 81 . relates how much power we can get out of a device compared to how much power we put in. Solution Real transformers are not 100% efficient. but let‟s do it the hard way using the equation for efficiency. We will do it the second way. therefore its efficiency is: power in/power out × 100% = 400/500 × 100% = 80% Problem 5b We know from part (a) that an 80% efficient transformer that delivers 400 watts takes 500 watts. Calculate the primary power. Calculate the efficiency in percent.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The primary current may be found by using the inverse relationship between the primary and secondary current and the turns ratio: IS/IP = turns ratio = 1/8 Alternatively. it may be found by calculating the power dissipated in the secondary and the knowledge that if the transformer is 100 percent efficient that the same power will be dissipated in the primary. generally.

VP/IP = RP = 500 Ω We know that the turns ratio: NP/NS = VP/VS So rearranging for VP gives: VP = NP VS /NS For current the turns ratio: NP/NS = IS/IP and rearranging for IP gives: IP = NS IS/NP Now if we substitute these expressions for VP and IP we get: VP/IP = (NP/NS)VS/(NS/NP)IS = (NP/NS)2 × VS/IS = RP = 500 The secondary voltages and currents are also given by Ohm‟s law: VS/IS = RS = 4 Ω Therefore: 82 . If the secondary load resistance is RL = 4 Ω what turns ratio Np/Ns will provide the maximum transfer of power from the amplifier to RL? Solution This is a problem in the use of impedance matching. but you are encouraged to try the second way and convince yourself that you arrive at the same result.to the generator or making the generator look like 4 Ω to the load. So we want the load to look like 500 Ω. making the load look like 500 . by Ohm‟s law this means that we want the relationship between the primary voltage and the primary current in the matching transformer. As stated in Grob the maximum power transfer between a voltage generator and a resistive load occurs when the source resistance is equal to the load resistance.ENG1021 Electronic Principles We rearrange the equation to leave power out (the secondary power) on the right-hand side of the equation and substitute our values in: power out = 100 × power in/Efficiency = 100 × 400/80 = 500 W Problem 6 An amplifier can be modelled as an AC voltage source of V G = 100 V. We can solve the matching problem by either. We are given a voltage generator with a 500 Ω resistance and a 4 Ω load. and an internal resistance ri of 500 Ω. We will do it the first way.

where all parts could be read. a 10 H inductor with a 3 A current stores ½ x 10 x 32 = 45 Joules. 8 Where next? You are advised to study the learning package “Inductors and Reactance” next. is very large and the voltage produced as the energy is released will be very high. The energy in an inductor is released by removal of the current through it as (by Lenz‟s law) a back emf (voltage) is produced to oppose the change in current. Problem 7 Calculate the energy in joules stored in the magnetic field of a 60 mH inductor with a current of 90 mA. The relevant sections are “DC” and the sub-section called “Inductors””. dI/dt. Now attempt Problem 7. 7 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. 83 . Solution Remember the equation for the energy stored in a inductor is: E = ½ LI2 The solution to this problem is a simple matter of substitution of the given values into the equation.ENG1021 Electronic Principles 500 = (NP/NS)2¶ × 4 The turns ratio is: NP/NS = 500/4 = 125 = 11. Motor vehicle ignition systems and “switched mode” power supplies work on this principle.7 mJ A word of caution. The amount can be calculated using the following equation: Energy = ½ LI2 (14) For example.18 : 1 6 Stored energy and practical problems The energy that is stored in a coil is stored in the magnetic field. E = ½ LI2 = ½ × 60 × 10-3 × 90 × 10-3 = 2. generating tens of thousands of volts from low voltage batteries. So if an inductor is connected across a small battery and then disconnected. the change in current with respect to time.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 9 Inductance and Reactance 84 .

in many senses inductors can be considered as ”opposites” to capa citors . The equation for reactance is: XL = 2πfL (1) For example. XL. all inductors have reactance. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. Series: XL = XL1 + XL2 + XL3 … etc (3) Parallel: 1/XL = 1/XL1 + 1/XL2 + 1/XL3 … etc (4) Finally. In series reactances are added. if we know the value of the reactance in ohms and the frequency we can find the inductance. If not. please read on. L = XL/2πfL (2) Reactance is dealt with in the same way as resistance when it comes to series and parallel circuits. like capacitors.their phase shift is opposite to that of a capacitor and their reactance increases with frequency rather than decreases. We also use phasor diagrams to add currents and voltages in RL circuits.142 x 60 x 2. The reactance is measured in ohms. please read on. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. in an AC circuits. 85 . 3 Inductive reactance Just as with capacitors.65 = 1000 ohms Similarly. an inductor with an inductance of 2. If not. We can therefore use what we have learnt about capacitors to assist in our understanding of inductors and find a quick route through inductors and inductive properties. and is frequency dependent.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Inductance 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt.65 H at a frequency of 60 Hz has a reactance of: XL = 2πfL = 2 x 3. one of the main differences between reactance and resistance is that the voltage and current are not in phase. However. You will see that the voltage and current properties for capacitors ”swap places” in inductors. as shown in Figure 1. whereas in parallel it the reciprocal of reactance gets added. 2 Introduction Inductors. have reactance and produce phase shifts between current and voltage in AC circuits. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. In the case of inductive reactance the voltage leads the current.

it is very common to find the phase in degrees. Problem 1 Calculate the XL of a 0. When we talk about relative phase. Solution This problem involves the substitution of the inductor and frequency values into the equation for inductive reactance: XL = 2πfL 86 (7) (8) . 2π radians are swept out every 1/f seconds. 2 and 3. They can be written as: v = Vsin(2πft) i = Isin(2πft . However. This is the correct form of these equations as the term 2πft is a measure of the angular frequency times time. We know that 2π radians are equivalent to 360 degrees. So when the phase is -90 degrees.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 1 Voltage and current in a capacitor (voltage is dashed) This means that in a purely inductive reactance the voltage and current are both sine waves. we usually use degrees. 200 and 1000 Hz. and V and I are the amplitudes. we should show it as -π/2 radians. and that 90 degrees would be π/2 radians. so that both terms in the sin function are in radians.5 H inductance at 100.π/2) (5) (6) In these equations v and i are the instantaneous values of voltage and current. but the current lags behind the voltage by 90 degrees or π/2 radians. so it is saying that with a frequency of f. and the equations look like: v = Vsin(2πft) i = Isin(2πft – 90) Now attempt Problems 1.

Solution Problem 2a The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 2. These problems are very similar to their capacitive equivalents.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The problem asks for the reactance of a 0. (d) L1 and L2. (b) current in XL1 and XL2.5 = π × 200 = 628 Ω When f = 100 Hz XL = 2π × 100 × 0. Figure 2 The circuit diagram for Problem 2 The total reactance is: XT = XL1 + XL2 Substituting the given values: 87 .5 H inductor at three different frequencies. When f = 100 Hz XL = 2π × 100 × 0.5 = π × 1000 = 3140 Ω = 3. Problem 2 A 1000 Ω XL1 and a 4000 Ω XL2 are in series across 10 V 60 Hz source.14 kΩ In Problems 2 and 3 we consider inductors in parallel and series. Draw the schematic diagram and calculate the following: (a) total XL.5 = π × 100 = 314 Ω When f = 200 Hz XL = 2π × 200 × 0. (c) voltage across XL1 and across XL2. but we will attempt them to ensure that we understand that similar rules apply to inductors as they do to resistors and capacitors.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles XT = 1000 + 4000 = 5000 Ω Problem 2b The current through XL1 and XL2 is the same since they are in series.61H Problem 3 The same 1000 Ω XL1 and 4000 Ω XL2 are in parallel across the 10 V 60 Hz source. Solution 88 . The voltage across XL1 is: V1 = IXL1 = 2 × 10-3 × 1000 = 2 V The voltage across XL2 is: V2 = IXL2 = 2 × 10-3 × 4000 = 8 V Problem 2d The inductance is found by rearranging XL = 2πfL to give: L = XL/2πf and substituting our values into it. For L1: L1 = 1000/(2π × 60) = 2. Draw the schematic diagram and calculate the following: (a) branch currents in XL1 and XL2. (b) total current in the generator.65H For L2: L1 = 4000/(2π × 60) = 10. By Ohm‟s law the current is: I = VT/XT = 10/5000 = 2 mA Problem 2c The current through the two inductors produces a voltage drop across the inductors. (d) inductance of L1 and L2. (c) voltage across XL1 and XL2.

and the associated “phasor triangle”.5mA The total current in the generator is the sum of these currents: IT = I1 + I2 = 10 + 2. a resistor is in series with an inductor. 4 Inductive circuits You have seen most of these concepts before in the RC circuit module. 89 . The branch currents are given by Ohm‟s law: IL1 = V/XL1 = 10/1000 = 10mA And: IL2 = V/XL2 = 10/4000 = 2. Figure 4 shows both cases.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 3 The circuit diagram for Problem 3 The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3. We also know that the current through the inductor lags the voltage across the inductor by 90 degrees.5 = 12.61 H respectively. We know from earlier discussions that in a series circuit the current is the same through each component.65 H and 10.5 mA The voltage across both inductors is the same and is equal to the supply voltage of 10V. In Figure 4a). I. so the current flowing through the inductor must be the same as the current flowing through the resistor. The inductance of L1 and L2 as calculated in Problem 2 is 2. The supply voltage of 10 V appears across both inductors since it is a parallel circuit. We will now have a look at circuits containing a resistor and an inductor in either series or in parallel.

between the voltage and the current. The vertical arrow shows the voltage across the inductor which is 90 degrees ahead of the current through the inductor. the resistive voltage is at 0 degrees. In Figure 4a) this is shown as the angle between the supply voltage. and the resistive voltage Vr. We can either say that the current lags the voltage in an inductor by 90 degrees. It amounts to the same thing. and is also measured in ohms. This is shown as the hypotenuse of the triangle. the term Z is the total impedance of the circuit. E. the voltage across the resistor is Vr = IR. Now we know that the supply voltage should equal the sum of the resistive voltage and the inductive voltage. 90 . Impedance is the combination of resistance and reactance. and the inductive voltage is at +90 degrees. In this phasor triangle. We therefore have to use Pythagoras‟s theorem to find the sum. But because they are out of phase.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 4 a) series circuit. where the horizontal arrow shows the voltage across the resistor which is in phase with the current through the resistor. then by Ohm‟s law the voltage across the inductor is V L = I XL. The sum is therefore: 2 2 E = Vr +VL 2 2 E = ( IR) + ( IX L ) 2 2 2 2 E = I R +I X L 2 2 2 E = I (R + X L ) 2 2 E =I R +XL E = IZ In the last line. We can represent these two voltages using a phasor triangle. You can see that to find the value of Z you have to take the square root of the resistance squared plus the reactance squared. Similarly. The other value that we can calculate is the relative phase. b) parallel circuit If the reactance of the inductor is XL. when represented in a phasor diagram they point in different directions. θ. or that the voltage leads the current by 90 degrees.

142 x 40 x 100 x 10-3 = 25. This gives the total current as: I = Ir + IL = E + E R 1 I=E + 1 91 XL = 25 = 0. then the capacitive current lags by 90 degrees. The total current must equal the sum of the two individual branch currents. the reactance is: XL = 2πfL = 2x 3. The current in the resistive branch is therefore Ir = E/R and is in phase with the voltage. Using the values in the circuit of Figure 4. As they are phasor values with direction as well as size. This means that the total impedance is: Z = R2 + XL2 = 1002 + 252 Z = 10000+625 = 1625 = 40.ENG1021 Electronic Principles This is because Vr is in phase with the current. From trigonometry we can see that: Tanθ = IX L = X L IR R (9) So the phase is the ratio of the reactance and the resistance. As we know from previous Learning Packages the voltage across each parallel branch is the same. therefore the angle between these two voltages is the same as the angle between the voltage and the current.3Ω The phase is: Tanθ = XL R θ =14o Now for parallel circuits.25 100 . If the resistive current is drawn horizontally. Since the inductive reactance is pointing upwards. as in the phasor triangle of Figure 4b). it is positive. The current in the inductive branch is I L = E/XL and is 90 degrees behind the voltage.13 Ω ≈ 25 Ω. So in the parallel circuit of Figure 4b) the voltage across the resistor and the inductor is equal to E. You have to bear this in mind when calculating the phase. we use the triangle again and Pythagoras‟s theorem.

we can find the impedance and relative phase. The simple mnemonic “civil” may help you remember this: 92 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles R XL I E 11 R 1 XL Z So this is the same as any parallel circuit. Similarly. As far as phase angle and phasor diagrams are concerned. where the reciprocal of the total impedance equals the sum of the reciprocal of the resistance and the reciprocal of the reactance. remember that the current and voltage relationships are “swapped around” so that a sine wave current in an inductor lags the voltage by 90 o. from the phasor triangle of Figure 4b) it can be seen that: Tanθ =− IL =− E ÷ E Ir Tanθ =− E × R XL R R (10) XL =− E XL Using the values in Figure 4. while a sine wave voltage in an inductor lags the current by 90 o. 1 1 1 1 1 125 = + = + = Z Z= R XL 100 25 2500 = 20Ω R 100 Tanθ =− = =4 XL θ =−76o 25 You should now have a good idea about the phase relationship between the current and voltage in a capacitive circuit and be able to construct a phasor triangle (often called a phasor diagram).

it is worthwhile drawing a phasor diagram. except that the voltage leads the current for inductors. 1 Ω XL. 5 and 6. IR. and θ for these values: (a) 100 Ω R. without some significant resistance. 100 Ω XL. IXL. 50 Ω XL. We do not have an equivalent problem with capacitors. For example.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 5 “CIVIL” One new idea that I want to introduce in this Learning Package is the concept of “Q” or quality of an inductor. Problem 4a The problem is to find ZT. From the phasor diagram: (IZT )2 = (IR)2 + (IXL)2 Figure 6 The circuit diagram for Problem 4 93 . a coil with a reactance of 500 ohm has an internal resistance of 5 ohms. Solution Whenever there is a need to examine different phase angles. (v) 1 Ω R. The Q of a coil is defined as: Q = XL/ri = 2πfL/ri (11) In this equation L is the inductance of the coil and ri is the resistance of the coil. (c) 50 Ω R. Its quality is then: Q = 500/5 = 100 Now attempt the Problems 4. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 6. Calculate ZT. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 7. The phasor diagram for inductors is very similar to the phasor diagram for capacitors. We only have “Q” for inductors because it is difficult to make a “good” inductor. that is. Problem 4 Draw the schematic diagram of a circuit with XL and R in series across a 100 V source. It will help you to deal with the concept of vector addition (adding of phasors of different angles) more easily. I.

Problem 4b The problem is to find ZT. θ = 0.004 Ω Note that this is very close to 100 Ω.ENG1021 Electronic Principles We can cancel the current term I to leave: ZT2 = R2 + XL2 Substituting our values of R = 100 Ω and XL = 1 Ω gives: ZT2 = R2 + XL2 = 1002 + 12 = 10001 Taking the square roots: ZT = 10001 = 100. The current is given by: I = V/ZT = 100/100. From the same phasor diagram (IZT )2 = (IR)2 + (IXL)2 We can cancel the current term I to leave ZT2 = R2 + XL2 Substituting our values of R = 1 Ω and XL = 100 Ω gives: 94 .057o ≈ 0o This low value of phase angle tells us that the impedance ZT is nearly purely resistive.004 ≈ 1 A IR = 1 × 100 = 100 volts IXL = 1 × 1 = 1 volt Figure 7 The phasor diagram for Problem 4 The phase angle θ is given by: tan-1 θ = IXL/IR = 1/100.

θ = 90o Problem 5 A 200 Ω R is in series with L across a 141 V 60 Hz generator VT.414 × 35.ENG1021 Electronic Principles ZT2 = R2 + XL2 = 12 + 1002 = 10001 Taking the square roots: ZT = 10001 = 100.36 volts The phase angle θ is given by tan-1 θ = IXL/IR = 50/50. 95 . From the same phasor diagram: (IZT )2 = (IR)2 + (IXL)2 We can cancel the current term I to leave: ZT2 = R2 + XL2 Substituting our values of R = 50 Ω and XL = 50 Ω in gives: ZT2 = R2 + XL2 = 502 + 502 = 5000 Taking the square roots: ZT = 5000 = 70. θ = 89.36 = 1 volts IXL = 1.414 A IR = 1.4o ≈ 90o This high value of phase angle tells us that the impedance ZT is nearly purely inductive.414 × 50 = 35.004 Ω Note that this is very close to 100 Ω. The VR is 100V. The current is given by: I = V/ZT = 100/100.7 = 1. Problem 4c The problem is to find ZT.7 Ω The current is given by: I = V/ZT = 100/70.004 ≈ 1 A IXL = 1 × 100 = 100 volt IR = 1 × 1 = 1 volts The phase angle θ is given by tan-1 θ = IXL/IR = 100/1.

They are shown in Figure 1 To find L we must first find XL. we can find the current I from the voltage in the resistor. Then we can see the relationships between the voltages and currents in the circuit. I.1002 = 19881 . the phasor diagram is helpful here. That is VT2 = VL2 + VR2 Figure 8 The circuit and phasor diagrams for Problem 5 Rearranging for V L and taking square roots gives: VL = VT2 −VR2 Substituting in our values gives: VL = 1412 . then we can find X L by Ohm‟s law. Examination of the phasor diagram shows that VT is the vector addition of VL and VR. (Hint: VL2 = VT2 – VR2. If we find VL.10000 = 9881 = 99. We know that the V R phasor and the VL phasor must add up (by vector addition) to the total voltage or supply voltage phasor V T. The current in the inductor is then equal to the current flowing in the resistor.) Solution Again. I would suggest that the first step in solving this problem is to draw a circuit diagram and phasor diagram.4 volts The same current. I = VR/R 96 . flows in all part of the series circuit.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Find L.

8 = 0.2Ω 7 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Substituting our values in gives I = 100/200 = 0. Rearranging the equation for Ri: Ri = XL/Q XL = 2πfL.4/0. and the lower its Q will be.5 MHz.14 × 1.528 H Problem 6 A 350 µH L has a Q of 35 at 1. 8 Where next? You are advised to study the learning package “Time constants and LCR circuits” next. This book uses both complex notation (or j notation) and polar notation rather than using a phasor diagram. The relevant sections are “AC”. so we can substitute this expression for XL in the equation for Ri and then enter our values to gives: Ri = 2πfL/Q = 2 × 3. The more resistance the coil has.5 × 106 × 350 × 10-6/35 = 30 × 3. ENG1021 Electronic Principles 97 . In other words we cannot determine or state a value of Q without knowing or stating the frequency. Solution This problem introduces “Q”. sub-section “Reactance and impedance – inductive” there is relevant information.14 × 60) = 199/376. Q = XL/Ri Note that since XL is dependant on frequency (for any given L) that Q must also be dependant on frequency. Rearranging for L and substituting in our values gives: L = XL/2πf = 199/(2 × 3. the quality of the coil (or inductor).5 = 199Ω Now XL = 2πfL. Have a look at all the parts. calculate the internal resistance Ri of the coil. the less it behaves as a pure inductor.5 By Ohms law XL = Vl/I so we substitute in our values for I and VL to give: XL = 99. but be warned. We are given a value for the frequency in this problem.14 = 94.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 10 Time constants and LCR circuits 98 .

The second section introduces the combinations of inductors. When this happens we get what are known as transient effects. If not. and resistors together in series and parallel AC circuits. or AC with a sinusoidal voltage supply as you get from a generator. 2 Introduction The first section of this Learning Package takes a closer look at the time dependant behaviour of capacitors and inductors. which is the current drawn from the power source multiplied by the voltage of the power source. please read on. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. • The real power consumed in any reactive circuit differs from the apparent power. Two very significant points are made here: • Capacitive and inductive reactance cancel out.1 Time constants So far we‟ve considered circuits to be either DC with a fixed voltage suppl y like a battery. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. 3 Study Guide 3. please read on. 99 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles Time constants and LCR circuits 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. If not. capacitors. What we haven‟t discussed are the effects that are seen when a voltage is switched in and out of a circuit. in particular the time taken for the voltage to rise and fall in a capacitor (current in an inductor) and the shape of the rise and fall curves.

It is assumed that the circuit is in the steady state before the switch is opened. the back emf falls and the current increases until it reaches a steady value.5 seconds. In the diagram of Figure 1.6 0. the resistance is 10 ohms and the inductance is 5 H.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 2 Current as switch opens Initially the current is at 1 amp. no current flows. Initially the coil produces a “back emf” which is a voltage that opposes the voltage that is producing the magnetic field.5 seconds. So. in the circuit shown in Figure 1. In this instance the current drops by 63% in one time constant. T. the time constant is: T = L/R = 5/10 = 0. starting at 1 amp. As the field collapses. For a circuit with a resistor and an inductor. The steady state current is V/R = 10/10 = 1 amp. all of the voltage is dropped across the resistor and the coil is effectively a short circuit. In this final steady state.63 amps after 0. after one time constant the current has dropped to 1 – 0. so there is no voltage across the coil. if the battery is 10V. The graph in Figure 1 shows the value of the current. and hence the current is small. is equal to: T = L/R (1) Generally. it reaches a value of 0. when the switch is open. Figure 2 shows the current when the switch is opened.2 1 0. In general. At this point I only want you to look at the shape of the curve and not worry too much about the values.4 0. as 1 amp. Also. this sort of curve reaches a value that is 63% of the final value after one time constant. The important points are that it rises sharply at the beginning.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 1 Transient response when the switch is closed For example. and flattens off towards the end. When the switch opens the current drops to zero.63 = 0. For the same circuit as in Figure 1. it is assumed that the current reaches its steady state value after 5 time constants.8 0.37 amps. I. In this example I have given it a steady state value of the current. suddenly there is a voltage across the resistor and the coil. When the switch closes. The current starts to increase as the coil sets up a magnetic field. the time constant. 100 . 1.

(b) L is 20 µH and R is 400 Ω. the time constant this time is: T = CR (2) As before. However. to check that you can use remember the formula and to give you some idea of what sorts of values of L and R components. Figure 3 RC circuit This time the voltage across the capacitor increases to a steady state value over a period of time. 2 and 3. Solution Here is a set of simple time constant calculations for inductor. Again.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Figure 3 shows a capacitive circuit. This time the voltage is shown as the switch is closed. In the steady state the voltage across the capacitor equals the battery voltage and no current flows. give you certain time constants.05 s Problem 1b 101 . when the switch is opened again. Please attempt Problems 1. (c) L is 50 mH and R is 50 Ω. The equation to use is: T = L/R Using this equation the time constants are: Problem 1a L = 20 H. Problem 1 Calculate the time constants of the following inductive circuits: (a) L is 20 H and R is 400 Ω. or an RC circuit. R = 400 Ω T = L/R = 20/400 = 0. the voltage will fall just as in Figure 2. (d) L is 40 µH and R is 2 Ω. the voltage rises to 63% of its steady state value in one time constant. with a switch.

R = 1 M Ω The M and the µ cancel out when multiplied together therefore: T = CR = 0. Problem 2a C = 0. (b) C is 1 µF and R is 1000 Ω. R = 1000 Ω T = CR = 1 × 10-6 × 1000 = 0.05 µs Problem 1c L = 50 mH. The equation to use is T = CR Using this equation the time constants are calculated as follows. R = 50 Ω t =L/R = 50 × 10-3/50 = 1 ms Problem 1d L = 40 µH.ENG1021 Electronic Principles L = 20 µH. R = 250 k Ω T = CR = 0. (d) C is 100 pF and R is 10 kΩ.05 µF and R is 250 kΩ.05 µF.05 × 10-6 × 250 × 103 = 0.001 s Problem 2c C = 0. Solution This problem is similar to Problem 1.001 µF. (c) C is 0.001 µF and R is 1 MΩ.001 × 1 = 0. but for capacitors. R = 400 Ω T = L/R = 20 × 10-6/400 = 0.001 s Problem 2b C = 1 µF. R = 2 Ω T = L/R = 40 × 10-6/2 = 20 µs Problem 2 Calculate the time constants of the following capacitive circuits: (a) C is 0.0125 s Problem 2d 102 .

ENG1021 Electronic Principles C = 100 pF, R = 10 k Ω T = CR = 100 × 10-12 × 10 × 103 = 1 µs Problem 3 A 100 V source is in series with a 2 MΩ R and a 2 µF C. (a) How much time is required for vc to be 63 V? (b) How much is vc after 20 s? Solution This problem allows us to determine charging times and voltages without the use of extensive calculation. Problem 3a 63 V is 63% of 100 V and we have learnt that an RC circuit charges to 63% of the supply voltage in the time of one time constant. So we calculate the time constant (C = 2 µF, R = 2 M Ω) and this is our answer. T = CR = 2 × 2 = 4 s (The M and the µ cancel out when multiplied together.) Problem 3b The “rule of thumb” for RC and L/R time constants is that they reach their final voltage (or current for inductors) after 5 times their time constants time. 20 s is 5 times the time constant of 4 s and so the voltage after 20 s is the final voltage (supply voltage), that is 100 V.

**3.2 Calculation of charging voltages, effect on square waves
**

If we want to know the value of the rising or falling voltages or currents in circuits then we have to use the equation that defines the way that they change. For a rising value (current in L/R circuits, voltage in CR circuits) the equation is: v = Vs(1-e-t/CR) or (3a) i = Is(1-e-t/L/R) (3b)

In these equations Vs and Is are the steady state values, and v and I are the instantaneous values. The “e” term is the exponential, which has a value of 2.718. On a calculator it may appear as “e” or else you use the inverse of the natural logarithm which is usually shown as “ln”. The natural logarithm is the logarithm to the base of “e”.

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ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Figure 4 Calculator showing the value if “e” In Figure 4 I put in the value 1, then selected “inverse” and clicked on “ln”. The display shows the value of e1 = 2.718. For example, if the value of the inductor is L = 5 H and the resistor is 10 ohms, and the steady state voltage is 10 volts, then: T = L/R = 0.5 seconds i = Is(1-e-t/L/R) = 10/10 (1 - e-t/0.5) = 1 - e-t/0.5 After 0.1 seconds, the current would be: i = Is(1-e-t/L/R) = 1 - e-t/0.5 = 1 – e-0.1/0.5 = 1 – e-0.2 = 1 – 0.82 = 0.18 amps Similarly, the equations for the change when the switch is open, so the value decreases to zero, is: v = Vs(e-t/CR) or (4a)

i = Is(e-t/L/R) (4b) For example, if the voltage in a RC circuit is 10 V, the resistance is 5 kΩ and the capacitance is 100 µF, what is the value of the voltage after 0.1 seconds when the switch is opened? T = CR = 5 x 1000 x 100 x 10-6 = 0.5 s

v = Vs(e-t/CR) = 10(e-t/0.5) = 10(e-0.1/0.5) = 10(e-0.2) = 10 x 0.82 = 8.2 V

R = 10 kΩ

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ENG1021 Electronic Principles

+10 V Vi 0V Vi 30 ms

C = 0.01 µF

25 ms

Figure 5 Square wave input to an RC circuit Figure 5 shows a square wave as an input to an RC circuit. You can imagine this as a switch being quickly and repeatedly opened and then closed. In this instance the switch is closed for 25 ms so that a voltage of 10 V is applied, and then opened for 5 ms so that the voltage drops to zero again. With the values given, the time constant is T = 10 x 10 3 x 0.01 x 10-6 = 0.1 ms, so the time constant is short or small compared to the times of the waveform. This means that the output voltage will rise to 10 V in around 0.5 ms and later will fall in around 0.5 ms. The output voltage therefore looks like the lower waveform in Figure 5. Even in this waveform I‟ve exaggerated the time it takes for the voltage to rise and fall so that you can see these effects. Now attempt Problems 4, 5 and 6. Problem 4 An RC circuit consists of a 0.01 µF capacitor in series with 10 kΩ resistor. The circuit is supplied with a 15 V battery and a switch. What will the value of the voltage across the capacitor be 150 µs after the switch has been closed, assuming that the capacitor is completely discharged before at the start Solution The time constant T is: T = CR = 10 x 103 x 0.01 x 10-6 = 10-4 s or 0.1 ms or 100 µs. After 150 µs, the voltage will be: v = Vs(1-e-t/CR) = 15 x (1 - e-150/100) = 15 x (1 - e-1.5) = 15 x 0.223 = 3.345 V Problem 5 105

e-t/RC ) Where V is the maximum voltage to which the capacitor is charged.5) = .386 ms Problem 6 In Figure 6.693 × 40 × 103 × 0.) R = 10 kΩ +10 V 106 . draw the waveform you would expect to measure across the 0. e is the base of natural logarithms and is equal to 2.05 × 10-6 = 0.05 × 10-6) ln(0. noting that since e is the base of natural logarithms ln(ex) = x.ENG1021 Electronic Principles A 0. which in this case is 264 V .05 × 10-6 If we take natural logarithms (“ln” on our calculator) of both sides of the above equation. How much is the time for v c to charge to 132 V? Solution In this problem we are asked for voltages after charge times which are not either equal to the time constant or five times the time constant.05 × 10-6) Divide both sides of the equation by 264 and then subtract 1 from both sides: -0.01 µF capacitor.693 = -t/(40 × 103 × 0.05 µF C is charged to 264 V through a 40 kΩ resistor.05 × 10-6) Rearranging: t = 0.e-t/40 × 103× 0.5 = e-t/40 × 103× 0.001386 s = 1. Draw the Vc waveform in the proper time relationship with respect to Vin.05 × 10-6 Multiply both sides by -1: 0. Therefore: -0.693. (C is initially uncharged. Indicate the capacitor voltage Vc at the beginning and end of each 25 ms pulse interval. Substitute the values we are into the equation: 132 = 264(1 . so we need to use the charge and discharge equations (or the time constant graph) to arrive at our answer.5 = -e-t/40 × 103× 0.5) = -t/(40 × 103 × 0. The equation for the voltage after t seconds of charge is: vC = V (1 .0. we have: ln(0.718.

The consequence of this is that the voltage across the inductor is 180 degrees ahead of the voltage across the capacitor. and then fall in 5 ms which exactly equals the short part of the square wave. The resulting waveform is shown below.3 LCR circuits We‟ve already seen AC circuits with resistances and capacitors (RC circuits) and AC circuits with inductors and resistors (LR circuits). Thus the total voltage across the inductor and the capacitor is: Vtot = VL . and 180 degrees is equivalent to a change in sign.1 µF. the same current flows through them. Figure 7 Resulting waveform across the capacitor in Figure 6 3. but the voltage across the inductor leads the current by 90 degrees. whereas the voltage across the capacitor lags the current by 90 degrees. The values of R and C 10 kΩ and 0. which is shorter than the 25 ms of the wide part of the square wave.1 µF 25 ms Figure 6 Circuit for Problem 6 Solution Before we can progress we need to calculate the time constant.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Vi 0V Vi 35 ms C = 0. and so the time constant T = RC is 1 ms.Vc = IXL – IXc = I(XL – Xc) = IXeq This means that the equivalent reactance to an inductor and a capacitor in series is: Xeq = XL – Xc Similarly. In this section we will look at circuits with all three components in – the so called LCR circuits. This means that the voltage will rise to 10 V in 5 ms. When an inductor and a capacitor are in series. the reactance of an inductor in parallel with a capacitor is: 107 (5) .

Xc /( XL – Xc) (6) So for pure reactance. This means that the current leads the voltage by 37 degrees. in the example above. if we know the value of the voltage source. where the magnitude is: Z = R2 + X 2 And the phase is: φz = tan−1 X R For example. which combine to give a total impedance. having found the total impedance of a circuit. Z. then a series combination of resistance and reactance would result in an impedance. for example. the voltage source had been 100 V AC. a circuit which contains a resistance of 40 ohms.75) =−37o (7) (8) R 40 In all of these circuits. which may be inductive. When resistance is introduced we have a combination of resistance and reactance. If we call the reactance X. Ohm‟s law still applies. then we can calculate the current using: V = IZ (9) If.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Xeq = XL . then the current leads this by 37 degrees. So. capacitive or both. So the phase of the current is: φ = +37 degrees 108 .2 A We know that the impedance is capacitive (because of the minus sign) which means that the voltage lags behind the current by 37 degrees. the inductive and capacitive inductance are combined using Equations 5 and 6. The impedance would be: Z = R2 + X 2 = 402 +(−30)2 = 1600+900 = 2500 = 500ohms And the phase is: φz = tan−1 X = tan−1 −30 = tan−1(−0. then the current would be: I = V/Z = 100/500 = 0. an inductor with a reactance of 60 ohms and a capacitor with a reactance of 90 ohms would produce a total reactance of 60 – 90 = -30 ohms. So if we take the supply voltage as the zero phase reference point.

2/(-280 .122. calculate ZT.2 Ω Xlpar = 300 × 200/(300 + 200) = 60000/500 = 120 Ω Xlpar is an inductive reactance and will cancel out 120 Ω of the capacitive reactance in the same branch.2 = -122. I.2 Ω. then: XCT = -280 × -122. and the equivalent combination of XL1 XL2 Xlpar Xcpar = 500 × 400/(500 + 400) = 200000/900 = 222. I will call the equivalent reactance XCT. We need to break the circuit into equivalent reactances and resistances.2) = 34216/-402.07 Ω This equivalent capacitor is connected to the voltage source by two resistors in series. R1=47Ω R2=68Ω Xc2=500Ω Xc1=400Ω VT=100V XL1=300Ω XL2=200Ω Xc3=400Ω XL3=100Ω Figure 8 Circuit for Problem 7 Solution The first part of the problem asked for the total impedance Z T. luckily they are both capacitive and can be treated as two capacitive reactances in parallel. 109 .2 = -85. That is the XC2 XC3 combination and the XL1 XL2 combination.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Now attempt Problem 7. The total reactance in the left hand branch (which we can call X left is 120 . I will call the equivalent combination of XC2 XC3 Xcpar. so in order to find the total impedance ZT we need to add the values of these resistances to give a total resistance RT. Problem 7 For the circuit shown in Figure 8. I would start this problem by finding the equivalent reactance of the parallel combination of components in the branches. Now we need to calculate the parallel impedance of the left and right hand side branches together. Similarly Xcpar is cancelled out by 100 Ω of XL3 giving the total reactance of the right hand branch Xright to be 100 . XC1. φZ and φ. that is.400 = 280 Ω.222.

That is φZ is the angle of the voltage phasor V with respect to the current phasor. The voltage across ZT is VT The angle φZ is given by tan-1 IXCT/IRT. So. Figure 9 Phasor diagram showing voltage with respect to current We can now proceed to find φZ by asking. “What is the angle of the voltage applied to impedance ZT with respect to the current in flowing into impedance Z T ?”. the angle of the current phasor I with respect to the voltage phasor V. we can also think of Ohm‟s law as saying that we have twist the current I through the angle φZ to give the angle of V.07/115 = -36. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 9. The current in the resistors is in the same phase as the voltage drop IR across the resistors and this is the current which flows into ZT since the equivalent circuit breaks down into a series circuit. Since the circuit phase angle is defined as being the reverse of this. φZ = -φ.072 = 20462 =143Ω 2 CT .699 A Using Ohm‟s law as follows: V = IZ Just as we can think of Ohm‟s law as saying that we have to multiply the value I by the value Z to give the value of V . The I‟s cancel and we get: tan-1 XCT/RT = -85. that is. ZT.5 degrees 110 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles RT = R1 + R2 = 47 + 68 = 115 Ω Then find the total impedance from ZT = RT2 + X get: ZT = RT2 + X CT2 = 1152 +85. I = Vs/ZT = 100/143 = 0. I. substituting our values into the equation we The current I is now easily found by using Ohm‟s law with the total impedance.

The angle can be found as above to be: tan -1 XCT/RT = 85.1 Real Power In an AC circuit with reactance there is a relative phase angle between the voltage and the current. As we move from the voltage phasor towards the current phasor (or the IR phasor since the voltage in the resistance in phase with the current through it) we move in an anticlockwise or positive direction. Figure 10 Rotated phasor diagram showing current with respect to the voltage. if we want to use voltage and current we have to take the phase into account. The real power is the apparent power multiplied by the power factor.3.07/115 = 36. In fact the value of VI is termed the “apparent power”. This can be seen by rotating the phasor diagram as shown in Figure 10. The real power can be calculated using the following equation as it only contains one variable.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Similarly we find φ the circuit phase by asking “What is the angle of the current flowing in impedance ZT with respect to the voltage applied to impedance Z T?”. the current: P = I2R (10) Alternatively. In series circuits the power factor is: PF = Cosφ = R/Z In parallel circuits the power factor is: PF = cosφ = IR/IT (13) Where IT is the total current and IR is the current flowing through the resistive part of the circuit. 111 (12) . and can write the real power as: P = VICosφ (11) The cosine term in the equation is often referred to as the “power factor”.5 degrees 3. This means that the product of VI does not represent the real power in the circuit since V and I represent the RMS values of the voltage and current which may at any one time be in a different part of the sine wave.

IT. Figure 12 The phasor diagram 112 . VT=12Vac R=150Ω Xc=100Ω XL=200Ω Figure 11 Solution This is another problem involving phasors. ZEQ. IR. The individual branch currents are all simply given by Ohm‟s law. The capacitive current is greater therefore the resultant reactive current is capacitive and will lead the applied voltage VT by 900. IL = VT/XL = 12/200 = 60 mA IC = VT/XC = 12/100 = 120 mA IR = VT/R = 12/150 = 80 mA The total reactive current (current due to capacitors and inductors) is: IC . θI.IL = 120 . Problem 8 In Figure 11. but this time power factor is introduced. real power.60 = 60 mA The capacitive and inductive currents are in opposite phase and therefore subtract from one other. calculate IL. since they are all connected across the 12 volt source.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Now try Problem 8. apparent power. IC. and power factor.

8 We could have arrived at this figure by taking cos φ I (cos 36. because phase angle is meaningless.150 = 0. Therefore. This will work for reactive circuits. The real power in the circuit is the power dissipated in the resistor: P = I2R = (80 × 10-3)2. if you always think of power factor as realpower/apparentpower you will not be “caught out”. 5 Where next? You are advised to study the learning package entitled “Resonance” next.2 = 0. under the section “AC”. The power factor in these cases is still realpower/apparentpower. L and C” there is relevant information. We can draw a phasor diagram. Have a look at all the parts.96/1.87o The angle is positive because we move anticlockwise as we move from the resistive current phasor to the total current phasor.87 = 0. The relevant sections are “DC” and the sub-section called “RC and L/R time constants””.2 VAR The power factor is: Realpower/apparentpower = 0. 113 . sub -section “Reactance and impedance – R. there are other electronic circuits in which the apparent power is not equal to the real power times the cosine of the phase. where all parts could be read. From the diagram: IT = I R2 + (IC − I L )2 = 802 + 602 = 10000 =100mA The equivalent impedance of the circuit is given by Ohm‟s law: ZT = VT/IT = 12/(100 × 10-3) = 120 Ω The phase angle between the current in the resistor (or the applied voltage) and the total current IT is given by: φI = tan-1 60/80 = tan-1 0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The resistive current is 80 mA which is in phase with the applied voltage V T.75 = 36. Also. However. 4 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. see Figure 12.96W The apparent power VI V I = VT IT = 12(100 × 10-3) = 1.8). This book uses both complex notation (or j notation) and polar notation rather than using a phasor diagram. but again be warned.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 11 Resonance 114 .

2 Introduction This section introduces electrical resonance and shows that when inductors and capacitors have the same reactance value. capacitor and inductor in series would have a resistance R. it is sometimes possible to find a frequency at which the capacitive and inductive reactance have the same value and therefore cancel out. Assuming there is some resistance in the circuit. If not.1 Series and parallel resonance In a circuit with capacitors and inductors we have already seen that the reactances are subtracted. and a reactance which is XL – Xc. as they are 180 degrees out of phase. resonance occurs in both series and parallel circuits. A circuit in which there is a resistor. This phenomenon is called resonance. please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. please read on. and a circuit resonates when the reactance is zero. 2. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Resonance 1 Do you know all this already? If in doubt. Since both capacitive and inductive reactance are functions of frequency. at resonance the total impedance would equal the total resistance only. 115 . We know that the reactances are: X L = 1πfL Xc = 1 2πfC If these are equal and opposite in sign then: X L − Xc = 0 X L= X 2πfr L = fr 2 = 12 1 4π LC 1 πfrC Rearranging this equation we can find the value of f.

it equals the supply voltage. In reality every inductor has a small internal resistance. and the voltage just equals the supply.64 pF. If we were measuring the voltage across the resistance. So no current flows. At resonance. then at other frequencies it would be some fraction of the supply voltage.64×10−12 −6 1 + XL 1 = Xc 1 + XL 1 = −X L 1 − XL 1 =0 X L 116 . We use the equation: 1 fr = 2π LC Simply substituting our values for L and C gives fr = 1 2π 5×10 ×202. At resonance. the total reactance is infinite. the reactances are equal and opposite in sign. Please now attempt Problems 1. Solution We are asked to calculate the resonant frequency f r of a series LC circuit when L = 5 µH and C = 202. like an open circuit. Problem 1 Calculate fr for a series LC circuit with L = 5 µH and C = 202. an inductance would be in parallel with a capacitor. 2 and 3.64 pF. and is in phase with the supply voltage. so is the maximum possible value.ENG1021 Electronic Principles (1) fr = 1 2π LC This is the resonant frequency. so the current is a maximum value. This means that the total reactance is: 1 = X X At resonance. In an ideal parallel circuit. The impedance at this frequency is just equal to the resistance. so the impedance would be some very large value.

129 × 10-7) = 1.41 MHz Although we used Equation 1 directly to solve this problem. This is a parallel circuit. L=20µH Rs =12. Problem 3 In Figure 1. ZT. I.48×101−6 ×500×10−12 = 1 2π 1. calculate the following values at fr: XL.48 µH and C = 500 pF. but the above equation still applies.18 × 10-8) = 5 MHz Problem 2 Calculate fr for a parallel LC circuit with L = 25. VI.274×10−14 = 1/(2π × 1. This is true of both series and parallel circuits. Solution Here we have L = 25.8 µH and C = 500 pF. We simply substitute in our values for L and C.ENG1021 Electronic Principles = 1 2π 1. VC and φZ. fr = 2π 25.56Ω VT=1mV C=50. it is important to remember that resonance only occurs when XC = XL.0132×10−15 = 1/(2π × 3. XC.67 pF (40-400 pF) Figure 1 117 .

Let‟s prove that to ourselves.18 × 10-8) = 5 MHz We find XL by using XL = 2πfL and substitution of our values: XL = 2π × 5 × 106 × 20 × 10-6 = 628 Ω At resonance XC will have the same magnitude as XL. This means that the whole conductor is not used to carry the current and the AC resistance r S is higher than the dc resistance RS where the whole conductor carries the current. In order to calculate XL and XC at the resonant frequency we must find the resonant frequency f r first. but with the opposite sign. The voltage across the capacitor VC = IXC = 79. XC = 1/2πfC: XC = 1/(2π × 5 × 106 × 50.0134×10−15 = 1/(2π × 3.56 = 79.6 µA The voltage across the inductor is: VL = IXL = 79.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Solution This problem highlights the features of series resonance.6 × 10-6 × 628 = 50 000µV = 50 mV The voltage across the capacitor will be equal and opposite. fr = 1 2π LC Substitute our values for L and C into it. At high frequencies current flows only near to the surface of a conductor (this is called the skin effect).6 × 10-6 × -628 = -50 000µV = -50 mV 118 . fr = 2π 20×10−61×50. Let us prove it. The current I = VT/RT = 1 × 10-3/12. Notice the use of rS rather than RS to signify that this resistance is the AC resistance.67×10−12 = 1 2π 1.57 × 10-12) = 628 Ω At resonance the reactive components cancel out.56 Ω.6 × 10-6 = 79. and so ZT = rS = 12.

(b) detail of the resonance peak The symbol we use to denote the bandwidth is ∆f = f2 – f1. fr.e. that is φZ = tan-1 XT/R. Figure 2 (a) Resonance peak in current. It is a measure of the sharpness of the resonance i.7% of the maximum response. For example. then the Q magnification factor is 1500/10 = 150. a resistance of 10 ohms. Although we have defined resonance as a single frequency. We define the band of frequencies as the bandwidth. XT = 0. if the inductive reactance at resonance is 1500 ohms. at which the reactances of the capacitive and inductive parts of the circuit are equal. XT/R = 0 and φZ = tan-1 0 = 0 2. tuning. Q is defined as follows: Q = XL/rs (2) Remember that at resonance. In this case it means the difference between the edge frequencies f2 and f1. We define the edge frequency f1 as the frequency below the resonance frequency at which the response is 70. if we measure the voltage across a resistor at the resonance frequency f r. XL = -Xc. The bandwidth is found to be: 119 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles The impedance phase angle is the angle between the resistive component of the impedance and the total impedance. and an edge frequency f2 above the resonance frequency at which the response is 70. At frequencies close to the resonant frequency. Therefore.7% of the maximum. The triangle is the Greek character capital delta and usually means “the difference between”. it is usual to talk of a band of frequencies centred on the resonance frequency as producing resonance. so that absolute value of either the inductive or capacitive reactance can be used. and it is centred on the resonance frequency. This is shown in Figure 2. the circuit still produces a relatively high voltage response. an inductor of 1 H. how quickly does that voltage fall away as the frequency is increased or decreased. and a supply voltage of 10 V. damping and bandwidth In a resonant circuit we define the quality or “figure of merit” of the circuit as the Q magnification factor. and the AC resistance is 10 ohms.2 Q of resonant circuits. In a resonant circuit the inductive and capacitive reactances have cancelled out. This shows the current for a series resonance circuit with a capacitor of 1 µF.

So f1 = 159 – 0.½∆f and f2 = fr + ½∆f. The Q magnification factor is 100. f1 = 5 × 106 . That is f1 = fr . 8 and 9.707 amps.5 x 1.59 Hz.05 MHz The following problems examine a tank (parallel) resonant circuit and consider bandwidth.795= 158. calculate Q. and the edge frequencies f 1 and f2. At resonance the current is 1 amp. ∆f.59 = 0. Problem 5 120 . 5. 6. spaced by the bandwidth ∆f. and the bandwidth is 1.95 MHz f2 = 5 × 106 + ½ 105 = 5. Solution The Q of the circuit is given by : Q = XL/rS Substituting in our values for XL (from Problem 3 above) and rS gives: Q = 628/12.½ 105 = 4. Now attempt Problems 4. 7. Q.ENG1021 Electronic Principles =f ∆f r Q (3) The resonant frequency is 159 Hz.795 Hz either side of 159 Hz the value of the current has dropped to 0.56 = 50 To find the bandwidth we use: ∆f = fr/Q = 5 × 106/50 = 100 kHz The edge frequencies are situated either side of the resonance frequency.795 Hz. Problem 4 In Figure 1 again. This means that at 0.205 Hz and f2 = 159. and damping. as shown in the detail of Figure 2(b).

Solution The resonance frequency is given by substitution into the equation: fr = 1 2π LC L = 100 µH and C = 162.11×10−12 = 1/(2π × 1.27 × 10-7) = 1.11 × 10-12) = 785. XC and Q.4/7.4 Ω We could have stated that XC = XL at resonance. Q is given by the equation: Q = XL/rS = 785.11 pF (100-1000 pF) rs =7. Solution Now we know fr we can calculate XL using XL = 2πfL = 2π × 1.4 Ω Similarly we calculate XC using: XC = 1/2πfC = 1/(2π × 1.85Ω Figure 3 Circuit for problems 5 to 7 Calculate fr in Figure 3.25 × 106 × 162. calculate the following at fr: XL.85 = 100 121 .11 pF so: 1 fr = 2π 100×10−6 ×162.ENG1021 Electronic Principles L=100µH VA=1Vpp C=162.25 MHz Problem 6 In Figure 3.25 × 106 × 100 × 10-6 = 785. but doing it the long way checks that we have not made any mistakes.

f1 = 1.5kHz The edge frequencies are given by f1 = fr .29 pF (30-300 pF) Figure 4 Circuit for Problem 8 Solution Since Q determines the bandwidth: ∆f = fr/Q To double the bandwidth we must halve Q. Note that we did not have to 122 .25 × 106 + ½ × 12.243750 MHz f2 = 1. what value of series resistance RS must be added to double the bandwidth ∆f when C = 56.256250 MHz Problem 8 In Figure 4.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 7 In Figure 3. calculate ∆f. Q/2 = XL/2rS The equation shows that a series resistance of 2rS will halve Q and hence double the bandwidth.29 pF? L=50µH rs =18.25 × 106/100 = 12.5 × 103 = 1.½∆f and f2 = fr + ½∆f.85 Ω to double the bandwidth.85Ω VT=50µV C=56. fi and f2.25 × 106 – ½ × 12.25 MHz and a Q of 100. As before (Problem 3): ∆f = fr/Q = 1. Therefore we must add another rS = 18.5 × 103 = 1. Solution We have a resonance frequency of 1.

Have a look at all the parts. ENG1021 Electronic Principles Learning Package 12 Filters 123 . 4 Where next? You are advised to study the last learning package entitled “Filters” next. but again be warned. Doubling the series resistance in any series resonant circuit will double the bandwidth. This book uses both complex notation (or j notation) and polar notation rather than using a phasor diagram. 3 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. where all parts could be read.ENG1021 Electronic Principles consider the resonant frequency or the value of C in this calculation. The relevant sections are “AC” and the sub-section called “Resonance”.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Filters

1 Do you know all this already?

If in doubt, please attempt the self assessment questions in this Learning Package. If you can answer all of the questions correctly you may omit this section. If not, please read on.

2 Introduction

This section introduces the idea that signals can contain components at different frequencies, and that filter circuits can remove some of these components.

**2.1 Filtering AC and DC signals
**

As we saw in the previous Learning Package, the reactance of a circuit varies with frequency. This means that at some frequencies the voltage or current in the circuit is larger than at other frequencies. This property can be used to “filter out” certain frequencies or bands of frequencies. Most signals in electronics will consist of a range of frequencies. For example, an audio signal will contain signals in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Radio uses frequencies in bands such as VHF (very high frequency) is in the range 30 – 300 MHz. In order to let these frequencies through and get rid of any signals at other frequencies you use electronic filter circuits. The most common are: Low pass filter – this allows signals with frequencies from 0 up to some cut-off frequency through, and blocks any signals with frequencies higher than this; High pass filter – this allows all signals with frequencies above the cut-off frequency through and blocks signals with low frequencies; Band-pass filter – this allows signals through with frequencies that lie between a lower and an upper cut-off frequency, and blocks all other signals; Band-stop filter – this blocks signals with frequencies between a lower and an upper cut-off frequency and allows all other signals through. This is sometimes referred to as a “notch” filter. Many signals found in electronics will consist of a DC voltage, or a bias, in addition to an AC signal. Very often we want to remove the DC component, and to do this we either use a transformer or a coupling capacitor as a high-pass filter. Figure 1 shows an input voltage which is a combination of a DC voltage of E2 plus an AC voltage with an amplitude of E1. The coupling capacitor block the DC voltage from getting through, so that the output voltage is just the AC component.

124

ENG1021 Electronic Principles

Figure 1 RC coupling circuit We know that the reactance of the capacitor is Xc, and therefore the output voltage is: vo = viR R2 + Xc2 (1)

When the frequency is zero, the reactance of the capacitor is 1/0 = infinity, which is an open circuit. So, from the point of view of a signal with a frequency of zero, which is how we might describe a DC signal, the capacitor is an open circuit and no voltage gets through. If we write the reactance as 1/2πfC then the equation becomes: vo = R +

2

viR 1 2π fC

2

=

vi 2πfRC

2 (2π fRC ) +1

This circuit has a cut-off frequency, fc, which equals 1/2πRC. fc = 1/2πRC At this frequency the equation becomes: vo = vi = vi 2 (1) +1 2 This is the “half-power” point or -3 dB point that has been mentioned before, where the output has fallen to 70.7% of it‟s maximum value. If we use an RC coupled circuit to block a DC component, we would usually choose the values of R and C such that the cut-off frequency is 1/10th of the frequency of the AC component. This achieves 125 (2)

ENG1021 Electronic Principles the goal of having the reactance equal to 1/10 th of the resistance at the frequency of the AC component. For example, if the AC component is 100 Hz, then the cut-off frequency would be chosen as 10 Hz. Assuming that a 1 uF capacitor is used, the resistor value should be: fc = 1/2πRC R = 1/2πfcC = 1/(2 x 3.142 x 10 x 0.000001) = 15.915 kΩ = 16 kΩ (approx) Please now attempt Problem 1. Problem 1 Calculate the minimum coupling capacitance Cc in series with a 10 kΩ R if the frequency of the applied voltage ranges from (a) 100 Hz to 10 kHz; (b) 15 kHz to 300 kHz. Solution Generally, for coupling capacitors, we require that the reactance XC of the coupling capacitor is less than a tenth of the value of the resistance at the frequencies that we want to allow through. In this problem we are given ranges of frequencies. The capacitor will have its highest reactance at the lower of these frequencies, therefore if we ensure that the reactance of the capacitor is less than a tenth of the resistance at the lower frequency of the range, then the capacitor must have a reactance which is less than a tenth of the input resistance for any of the higher frequencies. Problem 1a Let‟s take the first range 100 Hz to 10 KHz we need to find the minimum coupling capacitance. So we make sure that at 100 Hz the reactance of the capacitor Cc is less than or equal to a tenth of the input resistance of 10 kΩ. XC = 1/2πfCc ·= 10 kΩ/10 = 1 kΩ Rearranging: 1/2πf ≤ Cc × 103 Dividing both sides by 103 and substituting for f gives: 1/(2π × 100 × 103) = 1.59 µF ≤ Cc So providing that Cc ≥ 1.59 µF it will be a suitable coupling capacitor for this frequency range. Problem 1b Similarly we take the lower end of the frequency range 15 kHz to 300 kHz and make sure that at 15 kHz that the reactance of the capacitor Cc is less than or equal to a tenth of the input resistance of 10 kΩ. XC = 1/2πfCc ·= 10 kΩ/10 = 1 kΩ 126

In each case the circuit represents a potential divider. However. These sections describe how you can design filter circuits by choosing appropriate values for resistors and capacitors and inductors. Figure 2 shows the simplest examples of low-pass and high-pass filters made out of resistors.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Rearranging: 1/2πf ≤ Cc × 103 Dividing both sides by 103 and substituting for f gives: 1/(2π × 15 × 103 × 103) = 10. 2.6 nF it will be a suitable coupling capacitor for this frequency range. For all of these circuits the cut-off frequency is given by either: fc = 1/2πRC or fc = R/2πL (4) (3) We can make more sophisticated filters with more components and in particular with the inclusion of amplifiers. where the output voltage is divided between a resistance and a reactance.6 nF ≤ Cc So providing that Cc ≥ 10. 127 . inductors and capacitors. that goes beyond the scope of this module.2 Filter circuits Figure 2 (a) RC low-pass (b) RL low-pass (c) RL high-pass (d) RC high-pass The RC coupling is an example of a high pass filter.

Figure 3 shows an example of an RC band-pass filter which is effectively a high-pass filter followed by a low-pass filter. you effectively combine a lowpass and a high-pass filter. an alternative is the notch filter shown in Figure 4. but it is a bit more complicated that simply taking a low pass filter followed by a high pass filter. Problem 2 (5) 128 . It is fairly clear from this circuit that the low cut-off frequency is 1/2πR1C1 an d the high cut-off frequency is 1/2πR2C2. which is the frequency which you want to remove. This frequency is defined as: fN = 1/4πRC Now attempt Problems 2 and 3.ENG1021 Electronic Principles In order to build a band-pass or a band-stop filter. For this circuit the rather than the cut-off frequency. the notch frequency is defined. It still only uses a combination of resistors and capacitors. Figure 3 An RC band-pass filter A band-pass filter allows signals through which have frequencies that lie between the low cut-off frequency and the high cut-off frequency. However. Figure 4 An RC notch filter An RC band-stop filter could be constructed the same way.

2×103×0.ENG1021 Electronic Principles R =2.022×10−6 fc = 3.8kΩ L=100 Figure 5(c) Circuit for problem 2(c). (d) Circuit for problem 2(d) Calculate the cut-off frequency. (b) Circuit for problem 2(b) C=0.3kHz 129 .5kΩ R =1. for the filter in: (a) The RC low-pass filter in Figure 5(a). (b) the RL low-pass filter in Figure 5(b). Solution Problem 2a The cut-off frequency is found using the formula: fc = 1 2πRC Substituting the value for R and C: 1 1 fc = 2πRC = 2π×2. (c) the RC high-pass filter in Figure 5(c).022 µF Figure 5(a) Circuit for problem 2(a). (d) the RL high-pass filter in Figure 5(d).047 µF R =1. fc.2kΩ L=30 mH R =1kΩ C=0.

5×103 fc = 2πL = 2π×100×10−3 fc = 2.047×10−6 fc =1.4kHz 130 .9kHz Problem 2d The cut-off frequency is found using the formula: fc = R 2πL Substituting the value for R and L: R 1.3kHz 3 Problem 2c The cut-off frequency is found using the formula: fc = 1 2πRC Substituting the value for R and C: fc = 2π1RC = 2π×1.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 2b The cut-off frequency is found using the formula: fc = R 2πL Substituting the value for R and L: fc = 2πRL = 2π×1×3010× 10−3 fc = 5.8×1031×0.

fN.3 Filter circuit gain We often define the gain of a filter circuit as the value of the output voltage divided by the value of the input voltage. These are called “active filters” as they contian “active” components suchg as transisters of operational amplifiers which have their own power supply.001 µF.ENG1021 Electronic Principles Problem 3 In Figure 6. because the circuits are effectively voltage dividers.4kHz 2. calculate the notch frequency f N if R = 18kΩ and C = 0. is given by the formula: fN = 1 4πRC Substituting fro R1 and C1 gives: fN = 4π1RC = 4π×18×1031×0. 2R 2R 2C Vin C C Vout RL R Figure 6 Circuit for Problem 3 Solution The notch frequency. For all the filters that we‟ve looked at so far. 131 .001×10−6 fN = 4. In more complex filters may find amplifiers included. and are therefore “active”. that gain will always be less than 1. In tese circuits the output voltage can be greater than the input voltage.

N = 10log(Pout/Pin) in decibels or dBs (6) Finally. we have to define the unit of powwer ratio. It is therefore convenient to substitute the voltage into the equation to get: N = 10log(V2out/V2in) dB However. but one way is as: P = V2/R Therefore the power is proportional to the square of the voltage.ENG1021 Electronic Principles The gain of the filter is usually stated in decibels. the bel. N = log(Pout/Pin) in bels It was found tha the bel is actually very large. in electronic circuits the power is defined in a number of ways. one of the properties of logarithms is that log (x2) = 2log(x). Calculate the gain in decibels for the values of the output power shown in the following table: (7) Input Power Output Power Gain in dB 1W 1W 1W 1W 1W 2W 10 W 20 W 100 W 1 kW 1W 2 kW Table 1: Table for Problem 4 Solution The gain in dB is given by the following equation: 132 . So the equation becomes: N = 20log(Vout/Vin) dB Problem 4 The input power to an amplifier is 1 watt. so it is divided into tenths of a bel. called decibels. then take logarithms to the base 10. So 1 bel = 10 decibels. Essentially. if you measure the power of the output. and divide by the poweer of the input. To explain this. The decibel is abbreviated to dB. you get the power ratio in bels. To state th egain in decibels you multiply the logarithm by 10.

when the input power is 1 W and the output power is 10 W. in the section called “Semiconductors”. in the sub-section called “Amplifiers and Active Devices”. I don‟t want you to read most of this section as it goes beyond this module.01dB Similarly. where all parts could be read. In addition. the gain is: NdB =10log =10dB The complete table looks like this: Input Power Output Power Gain in dB 1W 1W 1W 1W 1W 2W 10 W 20 W 100 W 1 kW 3 10 13 20 30 1W 2 kW 33 Table 2: Solution for Problem 4 3 Further reading For further reading you may want to look at Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. 4 Where next? That‟s the end of the module. there is a section called “Decibels” which is worth a read. The relevant sections are “AC” and the sub-section called “Filters”. the gain is: NdB =10log = 3. However. Make sure you‟ve handed in all of the assignments and then have a well-earned rest! 133 .ENG1021 Electronic Principles Pout NdB =10log Pin If the input power is 1 W and the output power is 2 W.

ENG1021 Electronic Principles 134 .