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COMPUTER NETWORKS

The merging of computers and communications has had a profound influence on the way computer systems are organised. DEFINITION: Collection of autonomous computers interconnecte !" a sin#le tec$nolo#". They can be connected by copper wire, fibre optics, microwave, infra red and communication satellite. USES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS: Resource s$arin#: Eg: Group of office workers sharing the same printer, client server communication. Pro%i e po&erful communication me ium amon# emplo"ees: Eg: Email, video conferencing

NETWORK '(RDW(RE:
C)(SSIFIC(TION OF COMPUTER NETWORKS: *ase on transmission tec$nolo#": Two types of transmission technology: 1) roadcast links: !ingle communication channel shared by all the machines on the network. ") #oint to point links: $any connections between individual pairs of machines. *ase on scale:
1) #ersonal area network 2) %ocal area network 3) $etropolitan area network 4) &ide area network 5) 'nternet

T+PES OF TOPO)O,IES FOR )(N:


1)

us

2) (ing

T"pes of Wireless net&or-s:


1) !ystem interconnection 2) &ireless %)* 3) &ireless &)*

T"pes of 'ome net&or-:


1) +omputers eg: #+,#,) 2) Entertainment eg: T-, ,-, 3) Telecomm eg: telephone, cell phone 4) )ppliances eg: microwave, fridge 5) Telemetry eg: utilitymeter, bulglar alarm

NETWORK SOFTW(RE
PROTOCO) 'IER(RC'IES:

Desi#n issues for la"ers:


1) )ddressing 2) Error control 3) .low control 4) $ultiple/ing 5) (outing

T"pes of ser%ices:
1) +onnection oriented

0reliable message stream 1eg: !e2uence of pages) 0reliable byte stream 1eg: (emote login) 0unreliable connection 1eg: ,igiti3ed voice)

") +onnection less 0unreliable datagram 1eg: Electronic 4unk mail) 0acknowledged datagram 1eg: (egistered mail) 0 (e2uest5reply 1eg: ,atabase 2uery)

SER.ICE PRIMITI.ES:

REFERENCE MODE)S:
OSI reference mo el:

TCP/IP REFERENCE MODE):

( criti0ue of t$e OSI mo el:


1) 2) 3) 4)

ad technology ad implementation ad politics ad timing

( criti0ue of t$e TCP/IP mo el:


1) !ervice, interface, and protocol not distinguished 2) *ot a general model 3) 6ost5to5network 7layer8 not really a layer 4) *o mention of physical and data link layers 5) $inor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace.

'"!ri mo el:

Internet:
Usa#e: email, news, remote login, file transfer. (rc$itecture:

(TM REFERENCE MODE):

ET'ERNET: ) system for connecting a number of computer systems to form a local area network, with protocols to control the passing of information and to avoid simultaneous transmission by two or more systems.

Wireless )(Ns:

NETWORK ST(ND(RDI1(TION:

$ain sectors
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(adiocommunications Telecommunications !tandardi3ation ,evelopment

+lasses of $embers
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*ational governments !ector members )ssociate members (egulatory agencies

P'+SIC() )(+ER
,ui e transmission me ia:
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$agnetic $edia Twisted #air +oa/ial +able .iber :ptics

Wireless transmission:
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The Electromagnetic !pectrum (adio Transmission $icrowave Transmission 'nfrared and $illimeter &aves %ightwave Transmission

Electroma#netic spectrum:

Communication satellites:
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Geostationary !atellites $edium5Earth :rbit !atellites %ow5Earth :rbit !atellites !atellites versus .iber

PU*)IC SWITC'ED TE)EP'ONE S+STEM: Types: 1a) .ully5interconnected network. 1b) +entrali3ed switch. 1c) Two5level hierarchy. Structure of telep$one s"stem:

Ma2or components of telep$one s"stem:

%ocal loops

)nalog twisted pairs going to houses and businesses

Trunks

,igital fiber optics connecting the switching offices

!witching offices

&here calls are moved from one trunk to another

MODEMS:

;#!< ;)$5=>

;)$51=

-.?" for @=AAbps -.?" for 1>,>AAbps T"pes of multiple3in#:


1) .re2uency division 2) Time division 3) &avelength

T"pes of s&itc$in#:
1) +ircuit

2) #acket 3) $essage

T$e mo!ile telep$one s"stem:

.irst5Generation $obile #hones: )nalog -oice !econd5Generation $obile #hones: ,igital -oice Third5Generation $obile #hones: ,igital -oice and ,ata

( %ance mo!ile p$one s"stem: 1a) .re2uencies are not reused in ad4acent cells. 1b) To add more users, smaller cells can be used. C$annel cate#ories: The B?" channels are divided into four categories:
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+ontrol 1base to mobile) to manage the system #aging 1base to mobile) to alert users to calls for them )ccess 1bidirectional) for call setup and channel assignment ,ata 1bidirectional) for voice, fa/, or data

*asic ser%ices an IMT45666 net&or- s$oul pro%i e


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6igh52uality voice transmission $essaging 1replace e5mail, fa/, !$!, chat, etc.) $ultimedia 1music, videos, films, T-, etc.) 'nternet access 1web surfing, wCmultimedia.)

D(T( )INK )(+ER


Desi#n issues:
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!ervices #rovided to the *etwork %ayer .raming Error +ontrol .low +ontrol

Functions of t$e Data lin- la"er:


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#rovide service interface to the network layer ,ealing with transmission errors (egulating data flow !low receivers not swamped by fast senders

Ser%ices pro%i e to t$e Net&or- la"er: 1a) -irtual communication. 1b) )ctual communication. *it stuffin# 1a) The original data. 1b) The data as they appear on the line. 1c) The data as they are stored in receiverDs memory after destuffing

ERROR CORRECTIN, CODE: 7E,: '(MMIN, CODE8

ERROR DETECTIN, CODE: 7E,: PO)+NOMI() C'ECKSUM8

Elementar" ata lin- protocol:

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)n Enrestricted !imple/ #rotocol ) !imple/ !top5and5&ait #rotocol ) !imple/ #rotocol for a *oisy +hannel

Sli in# &in o& protocol:


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) :ne5 it !liding &indow #rotocol ) #rotocol Esing Go ack * ) #rotocol Esing !elective (epeat