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RETENTION (MOYERS): Maintaining newly moved teeth in position, long enough to aid in stabilizing their correction.

Retention is planned to antagonize the movement of the teeth in the direction of their tendency, and to allow the teeth freedom of movement in every direction except that toward which they tend to return.

1. It should restrain each tooth in its direction of relapse 2. It should permit the forces associated with the functional activity to act freely on the teeth, permitting them to respond in as nearly a physiologic manner as possible 3. It should be as self-cleansing as possible and should be reasonable easy to maintain optimal hygiene 4. Should be as inconspicuous as possible, esthetically good. 5. Strong enough to bear the rigors of day to day usage.

They are generally cemented or bonded to the tooth, used in the situation were intra arch instability is anticipated and prolonged retention is planned.

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Maintenance of lower incisor position during late mandibular growth. Following closure of diastema. Maintenance of bridge-pontic space.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Compromised periodontal conditions with the potential for post orthodontic teeth migration. Prevention of rotational relapse. Prevention of relapse after correction of palatally rotated canines. Prevention of opening up of closed extraction space.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reduced need for patient co-operation. Can be used when conventional retainers cannot provide same degree of stability. Bonded retainers are more esthetic. No tissue irritation. Tolerated by patient. Does not affect speech.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

More cumbersome to insert. Increased chair side time More expensive Banded variety may interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. More prone to breakage.

These include essentially combination of amalgam or wire and acrylic or composite restorative material. They are not usually used in day today practice because of its disadvantages such as following: Loss of healthy tooth material Tend to discolor Potential sights of sensitivity and caries. Maintenance of oral hygiene might get compromised.

Easy to place Less chair side time is required

Breakage of adhesive Less esthetic Less hygienic More difficult to remove.

Banded -0.036/0.04 wire Bonded -0.036 mesh on canine. Bonded mesh throughout the length

Completely invisible from the front. Reduced caries risk Reduced need for long-term patient cooperation. Can be placed even before debonding of brackets. Can be bonded directly/indirectly.

Lack of esthetics Buildup of debris and plaque around bands and the connecting wire. More susceptible to caries

1. Thick wire (0.032) 2. Thin wire (0.02)

Cheapest Adequate retention due to twist in the wire. Allow slight movement of teeth which is required for functional movements. No occlusal interference Can be used along with other removable retainers/appliances.

Good oral hygiene is mandatory May result in movement of teeth if wire is not passive prior to bonding.

A wire mesh pad is directly bonded to the lingual or palatal aspect of the teeth.

The rotated tooth is banded using anterior band material and spurs are soldered on to band. These labially placed spurs prevent movement of tooth which was palatally blocked.

Single tooth rotation.

Very Conventional Design. Good Oral Hygiene maintenance.


They are passive appliances that can be removed and reinserted by the patient.

Good retention Prevents anterior teeth from rotating or developing gaps. Prevents the opening up of extraction spaces. Capable of closing minor spacing in the anterior segment.

The retainer consists of a labial bow extending from canine to canine with retentive clasps on molars.

Modification of Hawleys appliance where the labial bow has U-loops on the premolar distal to canine. This allows the closure of spaces distal to the canine.

A modification of Hawleys retainer, the labial bow is contoured to the anterior teeth.

Control over the canine is still sufficient for retention. Closure of space in anterior segment is not possible.

This allows the space closure in anterior as well as pre molar region, also prevent opening up of spaces.

Labial bow extending distally posterior to last erupted molar.

Use of elastics in the anterior region.

Modifications of Beggs retainer, used in case of partially erupted molars.

Used commonly in anteriors, used for aligning as well as retaining

Made up of thermoplastic rubber material and covers the upper and lower clinical crown and a part of gingiva

These are made up of thin thermoplastic sheets. Material fully covers the clinical crown and extends partly on to the adjacent gingiva; it is well accepted by the patient.

Essix thermoplastic copolyester retainers are a thinner, but stronger, cuspid to cuspid version of the full arch, vacuum formed device. This retainer does not slip easily over the teeth, but requires a reasonable amount of pressure to flex over the interproximal undercuts gingival to the contact points. Essix retainers have proven quite versatile. Their flexibility and positioner effect make them an alternative to spring retainers in correcting minor tooth movements.

1. Grabers A textbook of Orthodontics 2. Gurkeerat Singh Textbook of Orthodontics 3. S.M Balaji Text of Orthodontics