Lecture 14 – Arches

An arch is an extremely efficient structural element suitable for spanning almost any distance. It was probably first used by the Egyptians as early as 2500 BC and was used widely in ancient buildings and structures in Greece and Rome. Arches do not necessarily have to take the stereotypical “barrel” form. Examples of arches are shown below:

Lecture 14 - Page 1 of 14

Lecture 14 .Page 2 of 14 .

Lecture 14 .Page 3 of 14 .

Lecture 14 .Page 4 of 14 .

1.Types of Arches: All arches are characterized by a horizontal “thrust” at the base which is inevitable. Masonry “Voussoir” Arch This type of arch makes use of wedge-shaped “voussoirs” that are fitted together to form a curved profile as shown below (also in the 2nd photo above): Thrust Thrust Lecture 14 .Page 5 of 14 . The following are various types of arches used in architecture.

Page 6 of 14 .2. Masonry “Corbeled” Arch This arch-building technique consists of successive courses of masonry lapped and extending closer and closer to the center until they meet as shown below: Thrust Thrust Lecture 14 .

It is typical of arches that are built into wall openings. As the draped string is in pure tension – the funicular arch is in pure compression. Fixed base Thrust Thrust Lecture 14 . Zero-Hinged Arch (Fixed Arch) This type of arch is fixed at the base. It is statically indeterminate. Louis. Funicular Arch A funicular arch takes the shape of an inverted draped string. 4.3. thereby carrying moment. or free-standing arches such as the Gateway Arch in St.Page 7 of 14 .

It is also statically indeterminate. It is commonly used for semi-circular framed members (see McDonalds arch photo above). Pinned at base Thrust 6. Pin (hinge) Pin (hinge) Thrust Pinned at base Lecture 14 . It is typical of A-frames.5. Two-Hinged Arch A two-hinged arch is pinned at the supports. and pre-engineered rigid steel and glulam building frames. which means that there is no moment. It is statically determinate.Page 8 of 14 . Three-Hinged Arch A three-hinged arch is pinned at the supports as well as the apex.

if a 3-hinged arch were to take the shape of a rigid-frame steel building: Joint “C” Joint “A” The forces in the 3 pinned joints are then: Cx Cx Cy Cy Joint “B” Ax Bx Ay By Lecture 14 .Page 9 of 14 . the analysis is similar.Analysis of 3-Hinged Arch Regardless of the shape or loading of a 3-hinged arch. For example.

The analysis of a 3-hinged arch involves these steps: 1. REQUIRED: Determine the vertical & horizontal reactions at the supports.D. By. Split the frame at Joint C into two isolated halves and pick one of the two halves to sum moments at Joint C to determine the horizontal reaction at the support 5. Bx. Make F.e. Ax. Sum moments at one of the supports (either Joint A or Joint B) to find the vertical reaction at the opposite support 3. Snow = 40 PSF Snow = 25 PSF Wind = 18 PSF 5’-0” Ax Bx Ay 30’-0” By Lecture 14 . Sum forces horizontally to find horizontal reaction at other support Example GIVEN: The symmetric pre-engineered steel building frame below has unbalanced snow and wind loads as shown. of frame and break all of the external loads into vertical & horizontal point loads 2. Each frame is spaced at 20’-0” apart.Page 10 of 14 16’-0” 21’-0” . Sum forces vertically to find vertical reaction at other support 4.. i. Ay.B.

P2 = 20’(25 PSF)(15’) = 7500 lbs.D.Page 11 of 14 . P2 = 7500 lbs.Step 1 – Make F. of frame and break all of the external loads into vertical & horizontal point loads: P1 = 12000 lbs. Lecture 14 . P3 = 20’(18 PSF)(21’) = 7560 lbs.B. 7’-6” 18’-6” 10’-6” Ax Bx Ay 30’-0” By P1 = 20’(40 PSF)(15’) = 12000 lbs. C 7’-6” P3 = 7560 lbs.

Sum moments at Joint A to find vertical reaction By ΣMA = 0 = 7560 lbs(10.Step 2 . 10’-6” Ax Ay = 8229 lbs.Split the frame at Joint C into two isolated halves and pick one of the two halves to sum moments at Joint C to determine the horizontal reaction Ax P1 = 12000 lbs. ΣMC = 0 = 12000 lbs(7. Lecture 14 . Step 3 .5’) – 8229 lbs(15’) – Ax(21’) = 0 Ax = 2188 lbs.5’) – By(30’) = 0 By = 11271 lbs. + 7500 lbs.Page 12 of 14 .5’) + 12000 lbs(7. = 11271 lbs + Ay Ay = 8229 lbs.Sum forces vertically to find vertical reaction Ay ΣFv = 0 Forces down = Forces up 12000 lbs. C 7’-6” P3 = 7560 lbs. Step 4 .5’) + 7500 lbs(22.5’) + 7560 lbs(10.

Page 13 of 14 . Bx = 5372 lbs. anchor bolts and tension rods (or “hairpins”) is based on the largest loads obtained from the analyses. The results of the analysis from each load combination are then tabulated. The design of the base structural elements such as footings. Usually. Lecture 14 . By = 11271 lbs. + Bx Bx = 5372 lbs. Ay = 8229 lbs.Step 5 . Summary: Ax = 2188 lbs. multiple analyses are performed on a 3-hinged rigid steel frame such as the one in this example for various LOAD COMBINATIONS as obtained from the International Building Code.Sum forces horizontally to find horizontal reaction Bx ΣFh = 0 Forces from left = Forces from right 7560 lbs = 2188 lbs.

Page 14 of 14 .A typical metal building baseplate and foundation system is shown below. Lecture 14 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful