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# 274 MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW SYSTEMS

639 Water enters a centrifugal pump axially at atmospheric pressure at a rate of 0.12 m3/s and at a velocity of 7 m/s, and leaves in the normal direction along the pump casing, as shown in Fig. P639. Determine the force acting on the shaft (which is also the force acting on the bearing of the shaft) in the axial direction.

## Blade Impeller shroud n Shaft

642 Water (r 998.2 kg/m3 and m 1.003 103 kg/m s) flows through the 180 curved duct of Prob. 640. A1 A2 0.025 m2. The inlet flow is nearly uniform with b1 1.005, but b2 1.03. Run FlowLab with the template Curved_duct_velocity, specifying inlet velocity in the range of 1 to 40 m/s. For each case, record the inlet velocity, P1,gage, P2,gage, and the net horizontal force Fx of the water on the duct walls, as calculated by FlowLab. Using these pressures and the conservation laws, calculate Fx analytically for each case and compare with the CFD results. Discuss. 643 Water (r 998.2 kg/m3 and m 1.003 3 10 kg/m s) flows through the 180 curved duct of Prob. 641. A1 0.025 m2 and inlet velocity V1 1.0 m/s. The inlet flow is nearly uniform with b1 1.01, but b2 1.03. Run FlowLab with the template Curved_duct_area, specifying area ratios A2 / A1 ranging from 0.4 to 2.0. For each case, record A2 / A1, P1,gage, P2,gage, and the net horizontal force Fx of the water on the duct walls, as calculated by FlowLab. Using these pressures and the conservation laws, calculate Fx analytically for each case and compare with the CFD results. Discuss. 644 As a follow-up to Prob. 640, notice that for a large enough area ratio, the inlet pressure is actually smaller than the outlet pressure! Explain how this can be true in light of the fact that the CFD calculations model friction and other irreversibilities due to turbulence, and pressure must be lost along the axis of the duct to overcome these irreversibilities. 645 An incompressible fluid of density r and viscosity m flows through a curved duct that turns the flow through angle u. The cross-sectional area also changes. The average velocity, momentum flux correction factor, gage pressure, and area are known at the inlet (1) and outlet (2), as in Fig. P645. (a) Write an expression for the horizontal force Fx of the fluid on the walls of the duct in terms of the given variables. (b) Verify your expression by plugging in the following values: u 135, r 998.2 kg/m3, m 1.003 103 kg/m s, A1 0.025 m2, A2 0.050 m2, b1 1.01, b2 1.03, V1 10 m/s, P1,gage 78.47 kPa, and P2,gage 65.23 kPa. (Hint: You will first need to solve for V2.) (c) At what turning angle is the force maximized? Answers: (b) Fx 7700 N to the right, (c) 180
V1 1 P1,gage A1

0.12 m3/S

FIGURE P639
640 An incompressible fluid of density r and viscosity m flows through a curved duct that turns the flow 180. The duct cross-sectional area remains constant. The average velocity, momentum flux correction factor, and gage pressure are known at the inlet (1) and outlet (2), as in Fig. P640. (a) Write an expression for the horizontal force Fx of the fluid on the walls of the duct in terms of the given variables. (b) Verify your expression by plugging in the following values: r 998.2 kg/m3, m 1.003 103 kg/m s, A1 A2 0.025 m2, b1 1.01, b2 1.03, V1 10 m/s, P1,gage 78.47 kPa, and P2,gage 65.23 kPa. Answer: (b) Fx 8680 N to the right
V1 1 P1,gage

A1

Fx

V2 2 P2,gage

A2

FIGURE P640
641 Consider the curved duct of Prob. 640, except allow A2). the cross-sectional area to vary along the duct (A1 (a) Write an expression for the horizontal force Fx of the fluid on the walls of the duct in terms of the given variables. (b) Verify your expression by plugging in the following values: r 998.2 kg/m3, A1 0.025 m2, A2 0.015 m2, b1 1.02, b2 1.04, V1 20 m/s, P1,gage 88.34 kPa, and P2,gage 67.48 kPa. Answer: (b) Fx 30,700 N to the right

Fx

V2, 2, P2,gage,

A2

FIGURE P645

275 CHAPTER 6

646 Water (r 998.2 kg/m3 and m 1.003 3 10 kg/m s) flows through the curved duct of Prob. 645. In this case, V1 1 m/s and A1 A2 0.025 m2. The inlet flow is nearly uniform with b1 1.00, but b2 1.04. Run FlowLab with the template Curved_duct_angle, specifying duct angle u in the of range 30 to 225. For each case, record the turning angle, P1,gage, P2,gage, and the net horizontal force Fx of the water on the duct walls, as calculated by FlowLab. Using these pressures and the conservation laws, calculate Fx analytically for each case and compare with the CFD results. Discuss. At what turning angle does the force reach a maximum? 647 Water of density r 998.2 kg/m3 flows through a firemans nozzlea converging section of pipe that accelerates the flow. The inlet diameter is d1 0.100 m, and the outlet diameter is d2 0.050 m. The average velocity, momentum flux correction factor, and gage pressure are known at the inlet (1) and outlet (2), as in Fig. P647. (a) Write an expression for the horizontal force Fx of the fluid on the walls of the nozzle in terms of the given variables. (b) Verify your expression by plugging in the following values: b1 1.03, b2 1.02, V1 4 m/s, P1,gage 123,000 kPa, and P2,gage 0 kPa. Answer: (b) Fx 583 N to the right
A1 V1 P1 d1 F r x A2 V2 P2

of the bend is 50 cm above the exit. Neglecting any frictional and gravitational effects, determine the net resultant force exerted on the reducer by the water. Take the momentum-flux correction factor to be 1.04. Commercially available large wind turbines have blade span diameters as large as 100 m and generate over 3 MW of electric power at peak design conditions. Consider a wind turbine with a 90-m blade span subjected to 25-km/h steady winds. If the combined turbinegenerator efficiency of the wind turbine is 32 percent, determine (a) the power generated by the turbine and (b) the horizontal force exerted by the wind on the supporting mast of the turbine. Take the density of air to be 1.25 kg/m3, and disregard frictional effects.
25 km/h

651

90 m

FIGURE P651

## Angular Momentum Equation FIGURE P647

648 Consider the firemans nozzle of Prob. 647. Assume b1 1.03 and b2 1.01. Run FlowLab with the template Fireman_nozzle_velocity, specifying inlet velocity V1 in the range of 1 to 15 m/s. For each case, record V1, P1,gage, P2,gage, and the net horizontal force Fx of the water on the nozzle walls, as calculated by FlowLab. Using these pressures and the conservation laws, calculate Fx analytically for each case and compare with the CFD results. Discuss. 649 Consider the firemans nozzle of Prob. 647. Assume b1 1.03 and b2 1.01. Run FlowLab with the template Fireman_nozzle_diameter. In this template, inlet diameter d1 0.100 m and inlet velocity V1 1 m/s, but vary the diameter ratio d2/d1 from 0.2 to 0.8. For each case, record d2/d1, P1,gage, P2,gage, and the net horizontal force Fx of the water on the nozzle walls, as calculated by FlowLab. Using these pressures and the conservation laws, calculate Fx analytically for each case and compare with the CFD results. Discuss. 650 Water flowing in a horizontal 25-cm-diameter pipe at 8 m/s and 300 kPa gage enters a 90 bend reducing section, which connects to a 15-cm-diameter vertical pipe. The inlet 652C Consider two rigid bodies having the same mass and angular speed. Do you think these two bodies must have the same angular momentum? Explain. 653C Express the angular momentum equation in scalar form about a specified axis of rotation for a fixed control volume for steady and uniform flow. 654C Express the unsteady angular momentum equation in vector form for a control volume that has a constant moment of inertia I, no external moments applied, one outgo . ing uniform flow stream of velocity V , and mass flow rate m. 655C How is the angular momentum equation obtained from Reynolds transport equations? 656 Water enters vertically and steadily at a rate of 35 L/s into the sprinkler shown in Fig. P656 with unequal arms and unequal discharge areas. The smaller jet has a discharge area of 3 cm2 and a normal distance of 50 cm from the axis of rotation. The larger jet has a discharge area of 5 cm2 and a normal distance of 35 cm from the axis of rotation. Disregarding any frictional effects, determine (a) the rotational speed of the sprinkler in rpm and (b) the torque required to prevent the sprinkler from rotating.