Section A – Crime, Punishment and Protest Through Time

Answer Question 1, 2, 3 and EITHER 4 or 5. Study Sources A, B and C Source A :Proclamation by Elizabeth I, July 1596. "Her Majesty understanding that several blackamoors have lately been brought into this realm, of which kind of people there are already too many here… Her Majesty's pleasure therefore is that those kind of people should be expelled from the land." Source B: A cucking-stool or ducking-stool in the seventeenth Century

Source C: Equal Opportunities Statement of the Metropolitan Police, 2005 The Metropolitan Police Service seeks to employ a workforce which reflects the diversity of background and culture within which we operate and to provide a working environment free from any form of harassment, intimidation, victimisation or unjustifiable discrimination. All members of the Service will demonstrate their commitment to these principles and will challenge behaviour which is unacceptable, in particular on the grounds of nationality, gender, race, colour, ethnic or national origin, disability, sexual orientation or marital status. 1. Study sources A, B and C. How have approaches to discrimination changed between the sixteenth century and the present day? Explain your answer using these sources and your own knowledge. (8)

2. Why was transportation introduced as a punishment? (8)

Study Source D Source D The modern police force is an example of rapid change. In the 1870s, the constable patrolled his beat on foot. Police records were made and kept locally. The constable's means of communication was a whistle to call for help. At the end of the twentieth century, police records are kept on a computer. The police national computer system holds records of fingerprints, vehicles, etc. Most police constables now do their jobs from patrol cars. As crime has become more complicated, so has crime prevention and detection. From a history textbook published in 1997.

3. Choose ONE of the boxes below. Explain its impact on crime and law enforcement. Use Source D and your own knowledge in your answer. (10) COMPUTERS AND THE MOTOR CAR TELECOMMUNICATION

Answer ONE of the following questions. EITHER: 4. Why did the treatment of conscientious objectors change between the First and the Second World Wars? You could include the following in your answer and any other information of your own. • Many conscientious objectors acted as stretcher carriers on the battlefield in the First World War • In the Second World War the government tried to give conscientious objectors jobs in farming and industry. • In both wars special courts, known as tribunals, decided whether conscientious objectors should be excused from the fighting. (12)

OR: 5. Why was the seventeenth century a time of the witch craze? You could include the following in your answer and any other information of your own. • In 1590 King James VI of Scotland wrote an important book on witchcraft. • At least 50 people were executed in Essex in 1645 because of the work of Matthew Hopkins. • In 1717 the last trial for witchcraft took place in England. (12) Total 38 marks

Section B – The American West

Study Sources E, F and G and then answer question 6.

Source E: A nineteenth century painting by George Catlin depicting a buffalo hunt:

Source F: A nineteenth-century description of the way of life of the Plains Indians. ‘The lodges are taken down in a few minutes by the squaws and easily transported to any part of the country where they wish to camp. They generally move six to eight times in the summer, following the large herds of buffalo. I saw a Sioux encampment of six hundred lodges taken down and all things packed an on the move in a very few minutes. The chief sends his runners through the encampment a few hours before they are to start. At the time announced, the lodge of the chief is seen flapping in the wind. This was the signal, and in one minute six hundred lodges were flat upon the ground.

Source G: A painting from the 1880’s by a Kiowa Indian: Wohaw. It is called ‘The Red Man’s Dilemma’*. It shows the Indian looking away from the buffalo and towards the cow and the farm.

* Dilemma = difficult choice

6. ‘By stripping many Indians of their available resources, the slaughter of the buffalo severely reduced the Indians' capacity to continue an armed struggle against the United States.’ Use sources E, F, G and your own knowledge to explain whether you agree with this view. (12) Total 12 marks Exam Total 50 marks

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