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Salita, Patrick Johnry M. BA-1H Introduction to Computer Technology Evaluation Questions (pg.

69)

1. Hardware is a physical device or the tangible components that is used by the computer. Hardware components: a. Input Devices hardware devices that input/insert data/commands in a computer system. Converts human language to a language that a computer can understand. b. Output Devices hardware devices used to view the information produced by the computer. Converts machine language to a language that human can understand. c. System Unit/CPU part of the computer which is responsible for accepting and processing brought in by the input devices. It is also responsible for passing the resulting information to the users via the output devices. d. Primary Storage generally is used to describe where the computer holds data and instructions before and after they are processed. e. Secondary Storage this is where your files and other important documents are stored or saved for future use. 2. Four types of input a. Data is a collection of unorganized facts that can include words, numbers, pictures, sounds, and videos. A computer manipulates and process data into information, which is useful. Although technically speaking, a single item of data should be called a datum; the term data is commonly used and accepted as both singular and plural form of the word. b. Program is a series of instructions that tells a computer how to perform the tasks necessary to process data into information. Programs are kept on storage media such as a floppy disk, hard disk, CD-ROM, or DVD-ROM. Programs respond to commands issued by a user. c. Command is an instruction given to a computer program. Typing keywords or pressing special keys on the keyboard can issue commands. A keyword is a specific word, phrase, or code that a program understands as an instruction. Some keyboards include keys that send a command to a program when you press them. d. User Response is an instruction you issue to the computer by replying to a question posed by a computer program, such as Do you want to save the changes you made? Based on your respond, the program performs certain actions. 3. Optical vs. Mechanical Mouse Mechanical Mouse uses a ball inside the mouse to operate which suffers from poor performance and dust while Optical Mouse uses light to track the movements instead of a ball. 4. Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is a technology which uses radio signals to communicate with a tag that is placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person. RFID tags are as small as a grain of sand; others are the size of a luggage tag. RFID Readers reads information via radio waves. They can be handheld or are mounted on a stationary object such as a doorway.

Patrick Johnry M. Salita BA-1H

3 examples of how RFID is used: a. Animal tracking tags, inserted beneath the skin, can be rice-sized. b. Tags can be screw-shaped to identify trees or wooden items. c. Credit-card shaped for use in access applications. 5. Four basic step in speech recognition: a. Say the word. b. Digitize the word. c. Match the word. d. Display the word or perform the command. 6. Hard copy vs. Soft copy output Hard copy is an output which you can hold in your hands while a soft copy is an output which cannot be held by our physical body such as audio, video, or a PowerPoint presentation. 7. Impact vs. Non-impact printers Impact Printers produce output by a mechanism that presses against an inked ribbon on paper. Non-Impact Printers use a photocopier like process to transfer ink to a piece of paper. The quality of output from a non-impact printer is normally excellent and much better than the output of an impact printer. 8. Different Flat Panel Displays a. Liquid-Crystal Display or LCD it is a display technology that creates characters by means of reflected light and is commonly used in digital watches and laptop computers. LCDs are difficult to read in a strong light, because they do not emit their own light unlike LEDs (Light-emitting diode). b. Electroluminescent (EL) Display a flat panel display technology that actively emits light at each pixel when it is electronically charged. This provides sharp, clear image and wide viewing angle. The EL displays type of flat panel display is better than LCD. c. Gas Plasma Displays also called a gas panel or plasma panel, is another flat panel screen technology that contains a grid of electrodes in a flat, gas filled panel. The image can persist for a long time without refreshing in this panel. The disadvantages of the gas plasma displays are that they must use AC power and cannot show sharp contrast. 9. A Modem is short for Modulation and demodulation. 10. Machine Cycle Instruction Time Fetch instruction. The next machine language instruction to be executed is retrieved, or fetched from RAM or cache memory and loaded to the instructions register in the control unit. Decode instruction. The instruction is decoded and interpreted.

Patrick Johnry M. Salita BA-1H

Execution Time Execute instruction. Using whatever processor resources are needed, the instruction is executed Place result in memory. The results are placed in the appropriate memory position or the accumulator. 11. How the CPU works. In the CPU, inputs enter and are stored until needed. When needed, they are retrieved and processed, and the output is stored and then delivered somewhere. The inputs consist of data and brief instructions about what to do with the data. These instruction come from software in other parts of the computer. Data might be entered by the user through the keyboard, for example, or read from a data file in another part of the computer. The inputs are stored in registers until they are sent to the next step in the processing. Data and instructions are travel in the chip via electrical pathways called buses. The size of the bus = analogous to the width of a highway determines how much information can flow at any time. The control unit directs the flow of data and instructions within the chip. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) receives the data and instructions from the registers and makes the desired computation. These data and instructions have been translated into binary form, that is, only 0s and 1s. The data in their original form and the instructions are sent to storage registers and then are sent back to a storage place outside the chip, such as the computers hard drive. Meanwhile, the transformed data go to another register and then on to other parts of the computer. 12. Four Types of Primary storage a. Registers are part of the CPU. They have the least capacity, storing extremely limited amounts of instructions and data only immediately before and after processing. b. Random Access Memory or RAM is a primary storage that holds a software program and small amounts of data for processing. It is the memory area in which all programs and data must reside before programs can be executed or data manipulated. RAM refreshes or deletes all of its stored processes after the computer has been turned off or restarted. c. Cache Memory is a type of high-speed memory that enables the computer to temporarily store blocks of data that are used more often and that a processer can process more rapidly than the main memory (RAM). d. Random Access Memory or ROM a type of chip where certain critical instructions are safeguarded. ROM is non-volatile, means the instructions will remain even if the power has been turned off unlike the RAM. 13. Capacity. Is the capability of how many a storage device can store in it. For example, a hard disk drive has a capacity of 80GB, means you cant copy files to this device exceeding from 80GB. Read. You can also call it view, because it is viewing your files or documents in a storage device. You can only read and copy it but you cant edit or delete it. Write. This means editing, overwriting, moving, or deleting in your storage.

Patrick Johnry M. Salita BA-1H

14. DVD Media Digital Video/Versatile Disc or DVD is an upgrade of CD. This can store up to 6x more data than the standard CD format. This DVD, just like CD also has versions of Recordable/Rewritable, or DVD-R and DVD-RW. 15. Application Software Consists of programs that help users solve particular computing programs. It helps the user carry out a task. System Software Is a set of programs designed to coordinate the activities and functions of the hardware and various programs throughout the computer system. 16. Desktop Operating System Is also referred to as a client operating system. It is designed for single-user microcomputer Examples of Operating System a. Windows XP Windows operating system, providing quicker startup, better performance, increased security, and a simpler look than previous Windows versions. This OS is commonly used in computer shops with low or average specd computers. b. Windows 7 An upgrade from Windows Vista. This version gives you features plus eye-candy looks, but requires higher specs than XP and Vista. This is commonly used in the computer shops with average or high specd computers. c. Linux An open-source operating system, means you can download it or create your own using sources you can download from the official website. This is for those who cant afford to buy a genuine copy of Windows or dont want to use an illegal copy of Windows. This OS is also commonly used by developers. Linux-based operating systems cant be attacked by viruses. Cool enough huh? :) 17. Application Software is a set of computer instructions, written in a programming language that directs computer hardware to perform specific processing activities. Categories of application software a. Productivity software is designed to help you work more effectively. The most popular types include word processing, spreadsheets, and data management. b. Office suite refers to a number of applications that are packaged together and sold as a unit. c. Groupware provides a way for more than one person to collaborate on a project. It facilitates group documentation production, scheduling and communication. Often it maintains a pool of data that can be shared by members of a workgroup. 18. Horizontal market software is any generic software package that can be used by many different kinds of businesses. Much of this software comes from other software comes from other software categories such as accounting and finance. Vertical market software is designed to in a specific market or business, such as construction, health insurance, or used car sales.

Patrick Johnry M. Salita BA-1H

19. Systems Analysis. Refers to the work done on tracing the flow of a certain system with the end in view of making it more efficient. This requires a theoretical dismantling of the system to segregate component parts, steps, or phrases so that their interrelationship can be studied. 20. Categories of which computer system personnel are engaged in: a. Identifying and developing the system or systems for the company; b. Designing programs for applications in the line of business/or of the company; and c. Operating on a daily basis the said programs and system/s. To manage their computers and operations, businesses and government organizations need employees to fill a variety of computer-related jobs. Most medium and large organizations have IT department and it is manned by people in computer related jobs. Employees in the IT department work as a team to meet the information requirements of their organizations and are responsible for keeping all the computer operations and networks running smoothly. They also determine the hardware and software requirements of the company. 21. I want to be in the position of systems programmer because I like maintaining a computers system software and supporting other programmers. It was just like a habit to me. 22. Cloud storage. It is a storage were you store in a virtual storage device. You store them directly to the internet and not to your computer.

Patrick Johnry M. Salita BA-1H