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6 Gf.JV
A dissertation for the degrec of DOClor of Philosophy
University of Ume 1991
Department of Archaeo1ogy
5-901 87 Umt:, 5weden
Margarela Nocken
The Hgom find
and other Migration Period
textiles and costumes in Scandinavia
The present work deals with the rich lextile lind from the l\'ligration Period warrior's
grave at Hgorn, :\1edelpad, and discusses the questions ,,hkh the lind raises in a
comparative conlext.
The excavalion ofmound 2 at Hgom 1949 and 1951 resuhed in the hitherto
largesl single find oftexliles in Sweden. paru of the costume have been
preselVed. Of the lunie, thc: greater part of the baek sur....ivcs, togethe:r with part of the
front, thc: uPI>er pan ofone: sleeve and pan ofboth Small fragments oflrouscrs, doak
and a lUnk Jaid ahove the man's head are also extant. No less important lhan the (IUantit)'
of fiods was the fact of the grave being unlOuched.
A detailed description is gi\'en of the diITnent fragments and caslllme: cornponents in
terms of textile technique, materials, CUl and position. The lextiles al Hgom as weJl as in
other finds are usually found in contact with dasps, due 10 the dfect oflhe copper salts.
The dasps in men's graves are found at the "'Tists and ankles. In Hgorn they are also
found jusl below the belt on bolh sides. The clasps are faslened to lablet-woven bands
patlerned with individual turns or in a technique using horsehair as weflS.
The last memioned type has SO far not been found ouuide Scandinavia and is presumably
a Scandina\.jan produet inspired by orienlal or Roman tapeslry weaves and silk. There is
animal ornamentation on the bands oflhe same kind as on the metal objecls. The colours
are comparali\'dy weil prcser....ed. Weld has been used as a rellow drestulf, mudder and
Polish cochineal as red and woad as a blue. The male eoslume consists of a long-slceved
lunk reaching 10-20 cm below the bell wilh talllet-woven horders along the lower edge
and as cuITs. The cuffs are hc:ld together wilh clasps, as are Ihe side slits oflhe lunk. The
lrousers were dosc:-r.ning at the ankles, had tablet-\\'Oven horders and were hcld logeiher
by dasps. A rCClangular e10ak \>ith lab!et-woHn barders alse belonged to the caslUme.
The ceslUme is a Scandinavian product and, in the case of Ihe trousers, was originally
adopled from ,.\siatic riding cosrumc. The costumes from alleast Ihe richesl of the
warrior's graves were probably full of symbols, considering wlh lhe: colours and Ihe
ornamentalion of Ihe bands.
Key ""ords: e1asps, omamemalion, bands, wool, fl3-'l:, horschair, dyestuffs,
stilches, tfOUsers, lunies, e1oal:s.
J!argartla NIKtat, Dtparlmtlll !if ArchatQlogy, Unil!miry of Umtd, 5-90187 Umtd, Su:tdtfl.
Ume 1991 ISBN 91-7174-616-1
ISSN 02815877 VIII+158 pp.
To }ohanna and Mille
This study was financed by the Coundl for Research in the Iiumanilics
and Social Sciences, the Svea Order and the Central Board of .\'alional Antiquities.
Published with grants from:
The Royal Patriotic Society
The Royal Swedish Academy of Leuers. HistOry and Anliquilies
The Cenlra! Board of :'l'ational Antiquities
The- Ikril Wallenberg Foundation
The Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg rund
PhOtographs are by Gabrid Hildebrand, ATA, except where othe......':isc indicatcd.
Translation: Roger Tanner
La}' out and co\"er design: Inger Klxrg. The :>'Iuseum of Nalional Antiquities, Stockholm.
ISBX 91-7174-616-1
C Margareta Nocker!
Risbergs Tryckeri, Uddevalla
The foundations ofrhis work \'\IeTe laid in the begin-
ning of the 1970s at Slockholm University and in the
Textile Department oflhc Swedish Central Board of
:\'ationai Antiquities. Dr phil. Dagmar Selling, who
was jointly in charge, with Dr phil. Sverker Janson,
of the invesligalion of grave 2 at H6gom, dcli\crcd
the lexti!e material from il but, un[Orlunately, we
weTe oeveT able to spaTe the lime needed for slUdying
the results of the excavalion.
Arter several years in fallow, work rcvived when,
in thc mid-1980s, the Department of Archaeology at
Ume University initiatcd a research projccl. which
il is now dirccling, concerning the H6gom sitc. The
present dissertalion is the seeond of four imended
studies of the Hgom buriai ground. The other parts
are being writlen by the leader of the project, Dr
phil. Per H. Ramqvist, and by Professor Dr Michael
\\"ork was financiallysupponed by the Council for
Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. A
grant for the completion of the manuscript was
received from the Svea Order. My employers, the
Central Board of National Anfiquities, and, not
least, the Director-General of the Board,
Bimstad, have furthered my cfforts by arranging
financial support and enabling me to take time off
from my regular duties.
The manuscript was scrutinised by Dr phil.
Hoffman, Oslo, and by Inger Estham, Head
of the Textile Department at the Central Board of
National Antiquities.
The translation is by Roger Tanner, M.A., Stock-
Grants towards printing this study were received
The Royal Patriotic Society
The Royal Swedish Academy ofLettcrs, HislOl)' and
The Central Board of National Antiquities
The Berit Wallenberg foundation
The and Amalia Wallenberg
Sincere thanks are ofTered to the above persons and
institutions and also to colleagues from near and far
who, in various ways, have helped to achieve the
completion of this study.
finally, a very special word of thanks must go 10
Professor Evert Baudou of the Department of
Archaeology, Ume University, for his encourage-
ment, hdp and support. I am full of admiration for
the patience he has shown with this, a subjcct which
is somcwhat removed from his regular domain.
Sadly, my mentor in thc field oflextile history, Dr
phil. Agnes Geijer, is no longer with us. Her tre-
mendous knowlcdge of and commitment to textile
research were a great stimulus to me as her disciple,
and indeed 10 everyonc who had the privilege of
working with her. Il would be impossible to over-
state her contribution to te.xtile historiography or to
Swedish and international research.
Liding, September 1991
Margareta Nocken
1.1. Synopsis o
1.2. Thestateofrc:scarch .
2. THE O ~ f GRAVE .
3.1. Reviewofthcfinds . .
3.\.\. Thctunic .
3.1.2. Thetrousers .
3.1.3. Textiles and c1asps at or above the head .
3.1.4. Olher lextiles .
3.1.5. Fur .
3.2. Interpretation . .
3.2.1. The tunic . .
3.2.2. The trousers . .
3.2.3. Textiles and dasps above the head .
3.2.4. Thecloak ..
3.2.5. Other items .
3.2.6. Fur .
4.\. Sweden . .
4.1.1. Borg, Norrala, Hlsingland .
4.1.2. Skynberg, Timrn, :\1edelpad .
4.1.3. Salby, Toresund, Srmland .
4.1.4. Danmarksby, Danmark, Uppland .
4.2. NOf',\lay . .
4.2.1. Desen, Os, Hordaland .. . ..
4.2.2. Vdem, Grong, Nord-Trendelag . .
4.2.3. EvebelEide, Gloppen, Sagn & Fjordane .
4.2.4. Ugulen, Luster ,Sagn & Fjordane .
4.2.5. Snartemo, Haegeboslad, Vest-Agcler . .
4.2.6. 0,'re Berge, Lyngdal, Vest-Agdcr . .
4.3. Denmark .
4.3.1. Sejiflod, 1borg amt . .
4.3.2. Vognsild,Alborgamt .
5.1. Fla.x and linen .
5.2. \\'001 and woollen rabric .
5.3. Horschair . .
14.1. Tcxcilecraft .
14.2. Coscumc. . .
14.2.1. Tunics .
14.2.2. Trousers ..
14.2.3. Cloaks .
14.2.4. The Hgom Costume .
7.1. joiningofbandsandfabrics 76
7.2. Hems in side and sleeve slits 78
7.3. Fabricjoins 79
7.4. Sinewthreadembroidery 80
7.5. Summa!")' 80
8.1. Introduction 81
8.2. Tablet \\ in the Nordic area during the Roman Iron Age and
the Migration Period 82
8.2.1. Tabletweavingandfabricinonepiecc 82
8.2.2. Waqrtwined bands with brocadcd patterns 83
8.2.3. Warp-twined bands with patterns in different kinds of weft wrapping
and a tapcstry-like tcchniquc 83
8.2.4. Bands pauerned with individual turns 89
8.3. Occurrence ofbands patterned with individual tums and tapestry-like technique. 91
8.4. Tablec-woven bands in Swedish finds from the Migration Period 92
9.1. Bands patterned with individual tums.. 94
9.2. Bands with patterns in weft wrappingand tapestry-like cechnique 96
9.3. Summary 103
lO. FUR 106
13.1. Introduction 115
13.2. Surv:h-inggarmcnts 116
13.2.1. Oriental tunics and trousers 116
13.2.2.. Torlhern European tunicsand trousers 120
13.2.3. NonhernEuropeancloaks 122
15. CATALOGUE . 131
15.1. Swedcn .. . 131
15.1.1. Roman Iron Age tcxtiles 131
15.1.2. :\1igration Period textiles 134
15.2. Norway 140
15.2.1. Migration Period textiles in connection with clasps 140
1.1. SY:,,/OPSIS
The purpose Oflhis aCCQunt is to publish the textiles
from the rich flods of the Hgarn Grave, to present
materials for comparison and 10 discuss thc ques-
tions \\'hich thc Hgorn textiles raise in a compara-
live contexl.
Investigation ofmound 2 al Hgarn bctween 1949
and 1951 resulted in the hithcrto greatest single
grave flod of textiles in Swedcn. The Norrland
(Xorlhern Swedish) chicnain buricd in this impres-
sive mound was equipped nOl only with fine
weapons and horse furniturc etc. but was wearing a
lavish costumc fillcd with alargeT number of clasps
than had eVl.':r been round berore in one and thc same
grave. Archacological textile fiods seldarn comprise
more than a couplc of square centimetres, but this
time extensive parts of the costume had been prc-
scncd. Of the tunic there remains thc greater part of
thc back, part of the front, the upper part of one
sleeve and the lower part of both sleeves. Small
fragmcnts of trousers, doak and a tunk laid above
the man's head are also cxtan\. No Icss importam
than the quantity of linds was the fact of the grave
bcing unlouched.
In the following pages, arter a short review of the
gravc itscJf (Chap. 2), a detailed dcscription will lirst
begiven of the different fragments and costume com-
IXmcnts, in terms oftextilc teehnique, materials, cut
and position (Chap. 3). This is followcd by a presen-
tation of the Xordie material for eomparison (Chap.
4). Hgom is the grave ofa well-equippcd warrior.
Aeeordingly, the rest of the inquiry will eoneentratc
on men's, and above all on those in which
dasps induded in personal equipmem. Some
women's gra\'es have induded in the inquiry,
as weil as a fe\\' burials of indetenninate sex. This
approach was adopted mainly in order for the
inquiry, as regards Swedish linds, 10 eover the whole
of Ihe existing texlile malerial from the :\ligration
Period, whieh is limited to 26 grave finds, two settle-
ment finds and a st ray flnd. To expand the limited
material as mueh as possible, and to test for gender-
relalcd characters. this aecount has been made ro
include all the Non\'egian material from in
whkh dasps have been found, Unfoftunately the
Danish textile material has only been available to a
limited extent.
With a few exceptions, the dcscriptions are based
on my own examination and analysis of the textiles.
Under the hcading and Fabrics (Chap_
S), a conspectus is givcn of the aeeounts of thc vari-
ous lexIiIe materials in Ihe Swedish linds from the
Roman Iron Age and Migration Period. The ques-
tion ofwhethcr flax existed in the Nordie area during
the Iron Age has been diseussed by various writers,
and it has been qucricd whcther any na" was grown
in $weden at all allhat time. This question is raised
in connection with surviving lextile fragments and
flnds of na" secds from settlements and bogs.
Another prehistorie lextile material, nOl prcviously
established in a woven context, is horsehair used as a
pallefll WcCl in a group of bands. "'001 is the domin-
ant material and the quality and bindings of the
wooJlen fabrics are discussed. as weil as the qucstion
of native or foreign production.
The oolours ofprehistorie textile material are usu-
ally limited, not to say non-existelll. This does not
always mean that the materials were never dyed in
the first place. Above all it is due to the dye being
degraded or othen\'ise transformed during centuries
in the soiL Colours rarely sun>ive in Swedish Viking
linds, whaccvcr the material. The Migration Period
linds present a rare abundance of dyes by
archaeologicai standards. The various garments or
paris of garments still retaining oolours afe
described in Chap. 6, Colour and Dyeing. A
of dye specimens have been analysed, and in some
cases results have been oblained which tcslify 10 a
high levd of proficiency in the an of dycing. The
circumSlances attending the \tigration Period finds
cannot ha\'c bttn consistently morc fa,"ourable to
the preservation orcolour [han, forexample, circurn-
st3nces in the Viking era. The oval broaches oflhc
'"iking era are an unusually favourable environment
for textile preservation and ought 10 ha,-c yielded
examplcs ofcolours. slill noticeable, if the tcchnique
had bttn as good as in the \'Iigration Did
colours of special
or do merely reflcct a desire 10 dress up?
One is slruck by the high standard of craftsman-
ship evident in various aspecls and
work. The same goo for needlework (Chap. 7). Dif-
ferent parts of the Hgom COSlUme present a great
variety ofslitches, paralleIs tO which have dis-
covered in se"eral other finds. The stilches are small
and even and needlework of such quality has
beforc from times.
Thc tablcl-woven bands an imporlant pari of
the textile craft of Migration period (Chap. 8).
The firm bands are all essentiai in order for
Ihe dasps to serve Iheir purpose as part of the cos-
tume. During this period the technique is so ad-
vanced that Olle can hardly find anything 10 equal it.
The ornamentation of the bands too is advanced
(Chap. 9). The Norwegian textile scholar Hans
Dedekam caJJed the band from Eveb0 in Sogn &
Fjordane the first surviving cxamples of Nordie tex-
tile dcpiction, the later developmcnt of which is
found in the wallhangings from Oseberg, verhog-
dal (Hrjedalen) and Skog (Hlsingland).
An unusuaJJy large quanlity orrur hair is extant in
the Hgom Grave (Chap. lO). Some ofit cornes from
bcarskins which, here as in many other Iron Age
graves, formed part of the grave furniture. The hairs
also come from a number ofother animals. Attempts
have been made tO analyse the different kinds. Prc-
sumably the man had a number of fur garmenlS.
The dasps playan important part in the finds
(Chap. I l). For one thing, Ihe textiles are usuaJly
found in contaCI with them, due 10 the preservalive
effccts of the copper salts, and Ihen again the dasps
con"cy somelhing of the form of the COSIume.
In one scction, depictions ofpeople in :\'ordic art
are described and evaluated as a source for the his-
tory of (Chap. 12).
Source material both from the Nordic countries
and from further afidd is presented in the section
Camparalive Costume Malerials (Chap. 13). The
100al flnd material is limiled. There are clearconnec-
lions between costumes for different categories. A
horseman, for exampie, has the same costume
requirements regardless of time and place. It may
Iherefore be deemedjustifiable, when dealing with a
horseman's grave, also to consider flnds from other
equestrian peoples. Different parts of the costume
are described and rclated tO the Nordic finds.
Lastiy, in Chap. 14, Ihe resuhs of the "arious
ill\-estigations are summarised and a concise
description is given of the Hgom Costume itself.
\'arious possible variants ofmen's costume are pre-
sented. When and where doo Ihe fashion yielding
such a wealth of textile material anse? Is it reserved
for a privi1eged few or can one demonstrate atleast a
ccnain spread in social terms? In the case of
medieval costume, the cut is employed by several
social dasses, while il is above all the material which
confers social identity. Can anything similar be
established for the Period?
A catalogue lists all Swedish flnds
from the Roman Iron Age and Migration Period.
The NOf'\vegian textile material relevant for com-
pansan with the Swedish is alsa presented in a
The book ends with a brief glossary of Ihe textile
terms employed. For more cxtensive explanations
the reader is referred to Nordisk textilteknisk ter-
minologi by Geijer, Hoffmann & Strmberg (1979).
Il was in 1938 that Agnes Geijer presellted her Birka
I I I. Die Texlilfunde aus den Grbern, the first Ph.D.
thesis ever dcvoted 10 archaeological textile mate-
rials. Xow ofclassic status, it rcmains one ofthe most
important works 10 havc appeared in thc field of
textile archaeology. hs mai n purpose was 10 analyse
the textile finds in the context of textile hislOry, but
its concluding chapter deals with costume at Birka.
Inga Hgg pursucd further studies of the material
from women's graves and in 1974 presented a doc-
toral thesis entitled Kvinnodrkten i Birka (Die
Frauentracht in Birka). In subsequent works (1982
and 1984), Hgg has shown that the s<realled orien-
tal elements of dccoration occurring in the richest
Birka gra,es bc10nged to high-ranking men and
women weanng typical costumes of the ruling dass
of the lime.
The textiles from the harbour at Hedeby were
published by Hgg in 1984. As a resuh of that
inquiry, alarge corpusofsettlement material was for
the finn time added tO discussions of prehistoric
textile production. The Hedeby textiles contain
remains of both men's and women's costume, the
former in panicular having been sparsdy re-
presented in previous \'iking finds.
In 1986 Lise Bender Jergensen published Forhis-
tOriske textiler i Skandinavien (Prehistoric Scan-
dinavian Textiles), containing an extensive catalo-
gue of textile finds from the Scandinavian countries.
In this as in previous works, Bender Jorgensen
devotes herseIf among other things to Z- and S-spun
yam in woven fabrics from various periods, which
she regards as a chronological critcrion. This and
other questions are debated in a number of polemi-
cal articJes by Hgg (1985 and 1986) BenderJorgen-
sen (1986 and 19.88) and \\'ild (1988).
There are additional Nordic theses offundamen-
tal importance to textile research generally and tex-
tile archaeology in particular which should be men-
tioned in this context. In 1950 Margarcthe Hald
presented a Ph.D. thesis entitled Olddanske Tek-
stiler (Eng. ed. 1980 Anciem Danish Textiles from
Bogs and Burials. A Comparativc SlUdy ofCostume
and Iron Age Textiles), a work bearing witness to a
knowlOOge of textiles which, regrettably, is uncom-
mon nowadays. Marta Hoffmann's thesis in 1964,
The Warp-Wcighted Loom, was the first thesis deal-
ing with textile implements and provides a
background to much textilc production during boch
prehistoric and medieval times.
Sweden - cspecialJy through the Birka finds - and
l orway - through the Oseberg finds - are the coun-
tries having most textile linds from the Viking era. In
both these countrics, however, there is also astriking
prOOominance of finds from the .\Iigration Period.
The individual gra"e finds from that period are, as a
rule, bigger than anything from the \ 'iking era, with
the exception of the Oseberg find, In the Norwegian
graves, which were often Iined at the bouom with
birch bark, largc pieccs of shrouding measured by
the square metre have sometimes preserved,
but the actual costumes have not ah"ays fared so
weil. Unfortunately some of the textile-rich graves
have been inexpertly retrieved and important infor-
mation lost in the process. If some of these graves
had mct with a differem fate, our knowicdgc of Mig-
ration Period cosmme would be appreciably greatcr
and more certain.
The textiles from the Norwegian graves at Evebo
and Snartcmo II were publishcd in 1924125 by Hans
Dedekam, The investigation of Snartemo V was
followOO by Bjern Hougen's book Snartemofunnene
(1935), which oontains a large section on the Norwe-
gian textile finds from the Migration Period. Both
these \,'orks ooncentrated mainly on lextile techni-
que. Dedekam was the first scholar tO address him-
seiflo thecomplicated bands, and Hougen continues
along the same lines but also deals with the fabrics
included in the finds, During the 1970s Bente Mag-
nus took an interesl in the E"ebe find, and this
resuhed in a number of articles wrilten conjointly
with Inger Raknes Pedersen and dealing maini)"
with costume (1978,1982 and 1983).
Hiigom today. Photo 5riren Hal/gm 198$.
Betwecn 1949 and 1960 the Swedish Central Board
of National Antiquities carricd out archaeoiogical
investigations at Hgorn in the Parish of Sclnger,
oear Sundsvall. Thc investigations concerned three
of the great mounds there and a number of smaller
What was to pfOve the mOst iOlcresting of the
investigations, that of mound no. 2, look place
already betwecn 1949 and 1951, under the leader-
ship of Sverker Janson and Dagmar Sdling.
Togeiher they published, in 1953, an anic1e on the
investigalion which until 1988 remained thc onl}'
separate work dC\'oted 10 this sensationallind, apart
from an articlc on thc sword, publishcd by Dagmar
Selling in 1952. Hgom, howc\'cr, has been touched
on in a succession ofworks, e.g. Birnstad 1984 and
Arrhenius )988. The intention was for Ihe abundam
find material to be analysed and published by Dag-
mar Selling, hut she left this great task unfinished
and, in the mid-1980s, the Department of Archaeol-
ogy, Ume University, initiated a research project
on the Hgom sitc, under Ihe direction of Per H.
Ramqvist. So far the projecl has generated the
following publications: Ramqvist, 1988 and 1990,
Ramqvist & :\1iiller-Willc 1988. The Hgom graves
are to be published by Ramqvist and i i l l e r ~ W i l l e
The following description oflhe grave and linds is
based on Dagmar Selling's unpublished, very
exhaustive lis{ of materials and on Ihe works men-
tioned ahav('.
Mound 2
The mound was ahoul 40 m('tres in diameter and .l
metres high. Lik(' the rest ofthe burial gTound il had
been gT('atly damaged by recenl sett!cm('nl and
farming. For example, a building had been erected
on the cclge of the gravc. During the investigation a
shaft was dug on the worst-damaged side of the
mound until the central part of the grave was
reached. This consisted ofa 19-mctrc cairn about3
metres high. The mound and cairn had been buih
over a wooden burial chamber measuring 5 x 2
Under the weight ofstones and earth, the whole of
this SlruCture had now been compressed inta a layer
roughly one decimeue thick. It proved impossible lO
carry out an adequale invcstigation in Ihe field, and
so il was decided to encase the large burial chamber
in plaster of Paris and eonvey the ....,hole thing to
Stockholm for examination.
Before excavation began, the emire burial
ehamber was X-ray pholOgraphed, and so the
metallic eontent of the chamber was known in ad-
vanee. The grave was inverted and the \\'hole exca-
vation eondueted through the side previously under-
neath. This investigation was carried out in 1951 by
Dagmar Selling at the Museum of National Anti-
quitics in Stockholm.
The ehambcr was found to contain the richly fur-
nishcd grave of a man, with \,'capons, horse furni-
ture, implcments, dishes, plates and vessels of vari-
ous kinds as weil as personal equipmeot, induding
the costume which is an important part of the subject
of this thesis, fig. I.
The dead man was probably place<! on a bed-like
underlay wilh a number of siats positioned eross-
wise. On this faundation, bearskins were spread oU!
with the hair side upwards and with at least one
layer of fabrie 00 !op of them.
The dcad man was given a full set of \"capons,
consisting of a sword, shieId, spear, lanee, dagger,
arrows and probably also a how, as weil as {WO axcs.

Fig. I. Plan of the lJurial ,hamhn in mound 2.
Drau'ing by D. StlJing. NumfJIn "fn lo IM
origiMllisl by &lIin8. Ano/hlT somewhat dif-
Jaent numbtring also IXis/s. Set Ramqvisl
I. Rivets
2. Casket hanclie
3-4 Axes
.j. Clasps
6. WhelStone
7. Clasps
8. Shield mountings
9. Too!
10. Tool
II. Knife
12. Bronze ring
13. A pair of shears in a wooden ~
14. Knifc:
15. Twogold pendants
16. Caulking ring
17. Glass beaker wilh r ~ t c u t s
18. Glass beaker with roW! of oval CUts
19. Caulking ring
20. Coin-like gald roundel
21. Shield mountings
22. Shield boss
23. Wood
24. Awl?
25. Birch bark obj:t
26. Sword
27. Apairorshears
28. Arrowheads in a quivcr
29. Gald "sticks"
30. Brom:e mountings for strike-a-light
31. Bronze mounting for strike-a-light
32. Dagger
33. Hazelnuts
34. Silver tweezers
35. Fire tool
36. Bronze mounting
37. Comb
38. Clasps
39. Lower bandtrimmed edge of the moie
40. Two gold rings
41. Clasps
42. Clasps
43. RivelS
44. Iron moumings
45. Lance head
46. Spearhead
47. Caulking ring
48. Caulking ring
49, Pottery vessel
SO. Caulking ring
51. Caulking ring
52. Ring bit
53. Caulking ring
54. Wooden platc
55. Wooden platc
56. Pottel")' vesse!
57, VesIland call1dron
58. Bronze dish
59. Comb
60. Fragment ofwooden plate
61. Iron knob
62. Curb bit
63. Rivets
64. Call1king ring
65. Call1king ring
66. Call1king ring
6i. Wooden bucket with iron mountings
68. Saddle with mountings
69. Wood
iD. Part of wooden bar
il. Rivet
72. Iron mounting
The sword, 95 cm long, was on the dead man's left
side. The blade and scabbard have been fused by
corrosion. The hilt is of horn and the pommel of
silver gilt with spiral ornamentation. The scabbard
has silver gill mountings at the opening, edge
mountings for the baldrick strap and a U-shaped
silver ferrule. The edge mountings are of relatively
simple prolile. The mounting at the opening is richly
decorated. The front ofil consists OflwO rectangular
fidds, the upper one of which has three triangular
garnets set in gold foil. A symmetrical panern of
spiral filigree is inlaid round the garnets. The lower
field, which is cast, depiets two four-footed animals
opening their jaws at a human face or mask, Fig. 2.
This scene is gilded. The animals are in Stvle r. The
sword was not attached to the belt but was ~ r r i e in
a baldrick over the right shoulder. Traces ofa leather
strap could be observed obliquely abovc the point of
the scabbard where the baldrick was attached; the
belt was abour lO cm further down (Selling
Of the shicld there remained the boss, some edge
trimmings and the handlcwilh its bronu rivets. The
handle and rivets bear traces ofwood and leather,
showing that the shield was aboul I cm thick and
leather-clad. It was not quite 90 cm in diameter.
Of the lance and spear only the iron points
remain. The spearhead is barbed, while the lance
has a smooth point with a star-shaped cross-section.
The dagger was stuck in the belt, in front. hs
scabbard is ofleather, with a U-shaped silver ferrule.
Three dozen iron arrowheads were eollected in a
quiver by the dead man's left side,just on the outside
of the sword. Fragments of arrow shafts show the
arrows to have been 80 cm long and painted red.
No traees remained of a bow, but we may assume
that the grave gifts originally included one.
Two iron axes lay above the dead man's head.
The "horse furniture" category includes two bits
and a saddle with four bronze rings, probably for the
girths. Il is unlikcly that a horse was buried with the
dead man.
The bits may originally have been hung on the
wall of the budal chamber, one on each side.
The curb-bit of iron has S-shaped check pieces
ending in two bronle cases adorned with birds of
prey. One end of the rcin mouming takes the form of
an animal head ofgill bronze, CQvered with stamped
ornamentation. Bridle divider, bridle course and
bridle mountings are of branze, somctimes with
stamped silver foil.
The ring bit is of iron and of much mare simple
design, with no decoration.
The saddle is of the Iype known as a ring saddle,
consisting of front and rear arches which were for-
merly attached to a pair ofiengthwise saddle trees at
an angle to each other, which would have Jain flush
with the horsc's back. The lower parts of the saddle
bows formerly had staut bronze mountings resem-
bling two-headed beasts.
The grave eontains a large number ofimplements,
but the functions ofseverat ofthem are very hard to
detcrmine, owing to the extensive corrosion damage.
To the left ofthe dead man's head was a whetstone of
quanzite, three knivcs and a woodcn case containing
Fig. 2. Mountingfrom the scabbard. In the upptTfield, triangu-
lar gamets stI in agold mounling. Round the gamets a patum of
spiral filigru. The {owerJuld, with two quadrlpeds, Ope71-
m()utkd, confronting a human faet or a human mask, if east and
the motifgildtd. Af/tT &mqviSl 1990.
a pair of iron shears. Another pair of shears, wrap-
pe<! in dorn, lay 10 the ler1 ofthc sword. Thc woodcn
case of one pair of shears is dccoralcd on al leasl
thrcc sides. Faint traces ofStyle I omamentation, of
the same kind as on the sword and thc dasp bultens,
are present on the top; see bele\\'. Thc case is also
carved with running dog motifs and parallel lines
dose logether. This case \,'35 originally painted red
and joined togethcr with gilded silver rivets.
To the right ofrhc dead man were 1WO iron objccls
of indcterminatc character.
The belt, which should have been positioned
roughly at thc waist, was equipped with personal
accessories ofvarious kinds (Ramqvisl 1991, :\'(5).
Judging by the wiclth of the hean-shaped bronze
buckle. the actual belt, which is oflcather, was about
2.5 cm wide. It was deroraled with three open-work
belt mountings of bronze and a strap lag. In Ihe
middle al the back was a helt-stone ofpale quarrzite,
poimed oval in shape and mounted in bronze. Vari-
ous objects hung from bronze mounlings with rings.
To Ihe Ieft of the helt-stone was an appurtenant fire-
making device ofiron wilh a shafl ofbroadleafwood,
a pair of silver tweezers and a handlc eomb with a
bone ease. The dagger and a leather pouch contain-
ing 25-30 hazelnuts hung from the right-hand side
of the bdt. Also on Ihis side was a purse measuring
aOOut 14x3 cm, probably ofleather and altached
with eight small rivels. Three small silver buckles
with appurtenant strap ends also ofsilver, sho\\' that
it could be opencd and closed. Two poimed gold
"sticks", 6.4 cm long, were kept in this liule bag.
The flnd indudes an unusually large number of
clasps. Clasps with 3+3 large gilt chip-carved
bUIIOns were found at each cuff. JUSt helow the belt
on each side there were c1asps with 3+3 flat silver
bUllans. Al each ankle joint there were \wo e1asps,
the lower set with 3+3 flat silver buttons and Ihe
upper with 3+ 3gilt chip-carved bUltans. In the area
around or aOOve the head, two c1asps wilh 3+3 flat
silver butlOns werc found, and two more with 2+2
gill chip-carved bullons. The buttons are described
more c1ose!y in the section on the grave textiles.
Along Ihe south side of thr- chamhcr and in its
easlem part, aOOm Iwr-nty vessels and dishes ofdiffe-
renl kinds have been deposited. Here Ihere were two
conical glass bcakers wilh oval cuts and faCr't-cuts.
Both are about IS cm high and ha\e a measured
diameter of 10 cm. The heakers have a very small,
flat bollom and. therefore, cannot have stOod with-
OUI support. Accompanying each glass is a cylindri-
cal birch bark vesse! which may have served as a
container and, possibly, as a suppor!. Thr- beakers
had been mended wilh gilt silver foil on the outside
and plainr-r bronze foil on Ihe inside, and the twO
joined IOgether with silver rivets.
A Vestland cauldron and a bronze dish, like the
glasses, belong ta the imponed goods.
The vcsscls also included a flattened wooclen buc-
ket with an iron handle.
Two well-preserved ceramic vessds were also dis-
covered in Ihe chambcr. One of them is a bucket-
shaped pot and the other is a black-burnished pol.
A half-presen'ed wooden plale and impressions of
thrtt more hear wimess ta a bardy encountered type
of household Ulensil.
\Iost of the containers were wrapped birch bark
vessds. Ofthese only the resin caulking remains. II
has been possible to discem ten of the vessds. They
were round and bctwecn 7 and 25 cm in diameter.
An iron handle and a line ofrivels abovc Ihe dead
man's head sugges! that one or two wooden caskets
had been placed there.
Apart from giJding on mountings and c1asp
buttons, there are seven gold objects in the grave.
The t\"O gold "sticks" in thc purse at the man's belt
have already been mentioned. At his right shoulder,
two spoon-like pendants were found which may have
hung from Ihe baldrick or may possibly have heen
used as some other kind ofornament. The pcndants,
like the gold strips, ha\'e no counterpart in knov,'Il
finds from eilher the ~ o r i area or the Continen!. A
coin-like gold roundd lay just above Ihe dead man's
heart. This, probably, had the same funclion as
Charon's coin. Thc man had two gold rings on his
left hand.
Apart from the above mentioned, relativdy casily
identifiable finds in the burial chamber, there are
fragments of several iron and wooden objects, the
function and significance of which are unclear.
Thesc inc1ude, for example, the iron-shocl end of a
pole car...ed with the head of an animal.
The grave is dated 10 c. 500 or slightly earlier. This
daling is based on the animal ornamentalion of the
youngest finds in the grave, viz Ihe bUllons on the
cuffs and the scabbard mounting.
There is no written account describing where and
how the textiles were round in the gravt: or how they
were removed and subsequently In'atcd. On the
other hand there are a Rumber ofpholOgraphs sho\\'-
ing the parts oflhe grave where textiles were round in
special abundance. Positions have been ploned on
the basis of radiographs and photographs.
The largesl conlinuous pieces offabric werc round
on the upper body, from the shoulders to about 10
cm belew the helt, Fig. 3. They belonged to a IUT/ie.
Of the back, which is best preserved, a largc part of
the lower band trimmed edge remains, as weil as the
left side up to the shoulcler, whereas very linle
remains of the upper right side.
Oflhe front piece there femains a narraw piece on
the man's left side, from the lower edge and side slit
up to the shoulder. This part of thc front is still
united with the back. In addition there is a large
detached piece which, with the aid of an impression
from the bronze mountings of the belt, can be fitted
in at the front. Two loose fragments from the side slit
on the man's right side are also extant, as weil as a
number of small fragments from the lower edge of
the garmenl.
Ofthe sleeves there remain variausly sized parts of
both cuffs, Figs. 3, 4. The left sleeve is best preserved.
Here part of the sleeve slit rcmains and enough
fabric to measure the widthjust above the slit. The
Upper pan of the left sleeve is united to the front and
back of the garment. Unfonunatdv no textiles sur-
";ve round the neck. '
Connected with the c1asps, at the ankle joints,
small textile fragments were found which belonged
to the Jroustrs.
Round the head there were a number of small
fragments together with the c1asps found Ihere.
Some fragments of a tablet-woven band found on
the man's left side belonged to a doak
Large pieces of at lcast one coarser fabric, in sev-
eral layers, are reponed as being found below the
waist in connection with the lower edge of the mnic.
The same or a similar quality was also found at
several points above the tunic.
On tap of the bearskin, an almost black, very
coarsc fabric was found which was probably used as
a blanktJ.
Textile fragments have been found auached, by
corrosion, tO some of the iron objeclS.
3.1.1. Tbe tunic
AboUl 10 cm below the bdt, on each side, there were
found 3+3 round, fiat silver buttons, 1.3 cm in
diameter, originally with concenrric ornamentation.
These buttons are auached tO silver c1asp-plates, 3.6
cm in length and 0.9 cm wide, forming a hook-and-
eye. The buttons were found attached 10 variausly
sized pieces of fabric trimrned with tablct-woven
bands which shows Ihat they were the lower edgeofa
gannent which extended same way below the waste
and was hooked tOgether at the sides. The c1asps in
the grave were unhooked on both sides.
The four fragments with butians attached are
described separate1y below and have been num-
bered 1-1\'. Fragments V-VI, like those already
mentionecl, are bandtrimmed and bclonged to the
lower edge of the garment, but their ell:act positions
are unknown. The textile fragments dcscribcd are
Fig. 3. The itfl side of Ihe thL hack, andthe
itfl sim". TJu hdt. with stnke-a-Irght. and s/lI/tr twtt::.ns lTl
silu. Bdau Ihe stme-a-light. part af IhL dasp fram the lejt side
af tJu tun;e and thefalded edge af Ihe hand. as lull as the {tft
""if u:i/k dasp. Tht band U'hieh is stu'n (//'lla tht inside af tht
tunu ufalded /Quards Ihe aulside. tl1 makt the pattern eame IJu
right 11.'0) round. Photo: An. ({tft)
Fig. 4. Right cujJui/h tlasp iII si/u. Pho/Q: .4 T.'L
parts of agarment having definite upper and Jower
eclgcs with horizontaJ and vcnical dimensions, i.e.
wiclth and height.
Fragment I
This fragment lay juSt below the hazclnuts, which
were originaJly in a pouch attached at the rear, on
the right side of the belt. As can be seen from Fig. 5,
the band was visible at the rear. The fabric of the
lower edge of the band is reveaJed by creases.
Because of one crease right across the band, the
buttons have been tumed against the inside of the
garment and therefore cannot be seen in Fig. 5. This
heavy crease has caused a break right across the
band. Straightened out, the fragment is 15 cm wide
and 9.5 cm high, Fig. 6. It consists ofa piece offabric
with a tablet-woven band along the lower edge and
buttons on the left side. The band follows the selvage
of the fabric. II is attached with elose tailor's stitch
with 2-pJy S-twisted yam across the upper band
edge and whip stitch in the lower. The cut end of the
band is folded 1.3 cm round the fabric and sewn
down with double running stitch under the buttons.
Fig. 5. Part ajt/u l/mu. Cmtre right, the u'huh had kmsusperukd in a pout:hfram the helt, rear right. In t/u lau'u right-hatul
Jrnerajt/upK/ure, the batulr:iewedjrom the right on the lau:tredgeafthe Iwlu,joldtd /Qu-artb t!leoutside. the blltkle, tOPleft, if JNlrt
lift/ufron/ pltU oft/u IUllie. Pho/Q: ATA.
Fil, 6. FrDgrrunls I (right) atul /Ifrom tllt tllni. T"gtlktr IMJ make /lP IM sidt Jlit miM malt S "Ahl sidt. Salt lhal IMjNJlkm an IM
IXl/uJ of FrQgmmt I is Ilpsidt dou"n.
Fil. 7. Fragments I (lift) and 11 rW.t:tdfrom IM"tJur sidt.
The band cdge is entirely conccalcd hyaline of
slitchcs, probably stem stitch, Fig. 7. The fahric is
cut diagonaJly above the band to form the side slit.
The diagonal-cut edge of the fabric is folded away
from the bandtrimmed side and sewn do.....n with
double rows of tailor's stitch. Probably onc line of
stitches was ~ on the open edgc and the Olher line
holds down thc fold of the hem against the fahric
through each loop in the previous line. Along the
edge of the hem there are threc lines of Slem stilch
sewn from the folded side. They appearon the band-
lrimmed side as backstilches. The slitches are pullcd
so lightly Ihat lhe seam on this side looks almosllike
hemSlitch. Of this seam, 2.5 cm survive.
The tablet-woven band is 4 cm wide. II has a 2 cm
wide pauemed central section with a shiny surface of
quite dilTerent appearance.from the ~ s t of the band.
The pattem is in horsehair (analysls by T. Gabra-
Sanders, Edinburgh. and E. Lundwall, Stockholm),
nlike the rest of the band, which is of ....'001. The
~ t t m sC1:tion is .....o\'en with 30 four-hale tablets. 15
tablets, threadcd altcmately in pairs, form an edge
on one side and 14 on the other; that is, the band is
woven ....'ith a total of 59 tablets. AJI the tablets are
threaded with four 2-ply, S-twistcd woollen threads.
The pattem consists of a worshipper on both sides
surrounded by a recumbent animal; funher tO this,
see Chap. 9.2. The colours in the patlern appear now
to be red, yellow and blue; see Chap. 6. The pattern
section begins 1.8 cm inside the fold and narrows
after 8 cm by live tablets on each side, continuing
after that for another 4 cm, after which it is con-
cluded and the band is woven with quaner-turns
throughout its width. The pauern weaving begins
with a horsehair weft passing over all the threads
from two tablets, without passing through a shed
down at the back and round the threads from one
tablel and back up on the obverse side, o\'er the
threads from two tablets and so on. This is repeated
throughout the width of the pattern. This type of
weft .....npping is synonymous with soumak; see also
Chap. 8.2.3. About fifty wefts are made in this way
and the wraps are aU the time laid in the same
direction, which gives a smooth, shiny surface.
The figurati\'e pauerning begins after 1.3 cm. The
pattcm weft changes from soumak to a broken 2/2
weft-faced twill which forms the background for the
pauern ligures. The background is now red all along
the band. In the COntours of the pallern ligures,
which are now yellow, weft wrappings have been
made many times round the same group ofthreads,
forming vcnical gaps in the warp direction. The
pattem areas are now a paJer red than the
background, but with the same broken 2/2 weft-
faced twill. The eyes of the various figures are blue.
The paueming ends 1.3 cm before the field narrows
olT and the conclusion, like the beginning, is in
soumak, with the wraps in paralId rows. This sec-
tian is directly fol1owed by the panemed
part, which is so wom Ihat no paltern can be distin-
A main weft of2-ply S-twisted woalIen yam lies in
an Open shed with no tums all the way in the pallem
section. Only the tablets of the edge borders are
turned, ....ith quarter-tums. In this dense weave it is
hard to distinguish the number of horsehair wefts
hetween the woollen wefts.
The fabric which the band is sewn on to is a plain
2/2 twill with Z-spun yarn in both the warp and weft
directions (Z/Z), thread count 21 x 20/cm. AJong the
lower edge of the band, and of the garment, rons the
sclvage of the fabric, which is reinforced with about
six threads. The weft makes an extra wrapping
round these threads, to form a firm edge; Figs. 8, 9.
The threads in the reinforced se1vage are partly
twisted round each other, Fig, 10. The band is sewn
on to the fabric in such a way as to invert the pallem
Fragment Il
This fragment is 9x9 cm large, trimmed with tablet-
woven band along the lower edge and with buttons
in the right side, Figs. 6, 7. The band is sewn on to a
plain 2/2 (wilt and the cut edge is folded round the
twill and secured with (WO rows of running stitch
beneath the buttons. The band edge is sewn down on
10 the fabric with Stem stitch, which completely con-
eeals the open edge. Along the upper edge the band
is sewn on with elose tailor's stitch round the outer
tablet twist of the band. The lower edge is torn.
Abo\'e the band the fabric is cut at an angle 10 the
band, outwards. The fabric is folded away from the
band-trimmed side to make an 0.6 cm wide hem,
sewn down with two rows oftaiJor's stitch. Along the
edge of the hem fold there are three lines of stem
stitch, sewn from theopposite side towards the band.
From "the band side", the stitches appear as
backstitch, 3 cm survive,
The \vidth ofthe tablet-woven band is incomplete,
3.5-3.6 cm. The width of the pattemed section is 2.3
cm, woven with 30 tablets. The upper edge is prob-
ably woven with 15 tablets. The lower edge is torn.
Thread count: 16 mai n wefts/cm, 2-ply S-twisted
yarn. The pattern section Starts about 2 cm from the
fold with 2.3 cm unpattcrned soumak, the wraps first
lying in the same direction. Approximately in the
middle there are same wraps in herring-bone
pattem, after which all the wraps are onee again laid
in the same direetion up to the heginning of the
figurative panern. In the background the wcflS are
in broken 2/2 weft-faeed {will. Of the pattern, only
minor fragments remain.
The band is sewn on \O a 2/2 twill, 20 x 18 threads/
cm, Z-spun in both directions. Since both band and
fabrie are tom at the edge, il is impossible here
to see what kind ofborder the fabrie originally had.
A loose fragment, 6x3.5 cm, with 2/2 twill and
tablet weave, is the continuation of this fragment,
The patlerned section of the band is woven with 30
tablets and thc sole surviving edge, up towards the
Fil. 8. 77u S t ~ g t aiDTlg lM 1"ZT rigt of Ftalma/II.
Fig. 9. 17Il uh-agt ir rnnf"rud uith ah"lI' fix /huah around
wuh lke wtfi makn an ulra WTapping. Dfawing hy E. Lund-
Fig. 10. 77u thrtads in tk sdrott au paTt'.! inltrlwiMd.
fabric, is WQven with IS tablets. The fragment fits
fragment II, and the iength and breadth of the
pattemed seeIIan rally with the pancrned seclion of
fragmcm 1. Unforrunatdy the band is wom and the
paltcrn very indistinct, bUI possibly il is similarly
composed to fragment I. Thc tOlal lcngth of the
paHcrned scellan is 8.5 cm; Fig. ] I.
There are no partieulars concerning the position
orrragment I I. However, the radiograph plan shows
the buttaDs on the man's right side, helaw his belt.
Fragment III
This is the largcst continuous pieee of fabric in the
fiod, 55 cm wide and 88 cm high when fully
extcnded, Fig. 12. In photographs from the exca-
vation - which, it will be rcmcmbered, was from the
undemcath side - the band at the lower edge is
visible against the outside of the garmenl. The exca
vation phmograph also shows the flat buttons on the
back at thc bollOm of the left side of thc garment.
\Vhen this large piece was removed, it was round to
Fig. Il. Fragrvnt 1I ami (ufi) IM '-jragmml Df HM ":hitit MI""I! 1L-iy, il.
consist not only of the back but also of parts which
had bdonged to the front. Il also inc1uded pan of the
shoulder section. The fabne is folded over the
shoulder and continucs some wa)' down along the
upper arm. Scvcral scams are extant. Above the
clasp there is a 7.5 cm long side slit, and the side
scam is raggcd for another 4 cm. The slit hem is
foldcd againsl the side on whieh the band is
auachcd, and there are (WO lines ofblankel stitching
l o n ~ the cclgc. Two lines ofstem stitch are sewn on
the hem rold from the opposite side. The tablcr.woven
band. as previously, is allaehed to the fabric with
tai10r'5 stitch at the upper eclge and whip stitch on
the lower eclgc. The cut edge, as in thc previous
fragmenls. is folded round the fabric and secured
wilh double running stitches under the bultons and
probably .....ith a linc ofstem stitch on Ihe open edge
al the back.
T.he tablel weave is 4 cm wide. The patterned
s ~ t o n of horsehair occupies 2.1 cm and is wovcn
....'Jlh 30 lablets. The edges are woven with 15 tablelS
(possibly 14+ 15) each, i.c. 59 or 60 tablelS
altogelher. The pattern section begins I cm on the
inside of the buttons with 1.5 cm unpancrned
soumak having Ihe wraps in thc samedireclion, afler
which Ihe figurative weavc takes over. Here as previ.
ously, Ihe weft is broken 2/2 wefl-faced twill in both
pattern and ground. The pattern contaurs are weft-
wrapped man)' times round the same group ofwarp
thrcads. The pattern consisis of a worshipper
flankcd by two rccumbent animals, but differently
designed from fragment I; see also Chap. 9.2. This
pattern is followed by a picce woven in weft wrap-
ping with the wraps in alternatc directions. The
pancrn square narrows off after 8 cm by five tablels
on each side. The patlern in Ihc narro\\'ing square
then starlS wilhoul being preceded by \Vdt wrap-
ping, but is cxtremdy fragmentary. The narrowing
pauerned scction is 4 cm long, followed by 0.6 cm
woven wilh quarler-Iurns throughoul the width of
Ihe band. This is followed by four horsehair-
patterned squares about 4 cm long over 20 tablelS,
i.e. of the same width as the narrow pari oflhc first
square. Each square dcpictS an animal, and no twO
animals are alike; see chapter9.2. The squares begin
and end with about I cm wefl wrapping with the
Fig. 12. Fragmmls lU and n"oftJu 11UIU:
IUIfoltkd. rUu-tdfrom tJu inside, with fJalld
a{ollg IJu lou"tr edgt alld a slit wilh a dasp
from Iht mall 's {tji sidt. To tht right oftlu
slit, a pit of tht frollt wilh tht gumt {et illlo
it. 111 tJu II.pptr jNlrt oftht picturt, tht showd"
St<I1rl and II SonJlJl pitct of Ilufront, togtlluT
uith lIu II./JPV pari of IJu s/.ulY. AlllJu stanu
in this g l l ~ t Iht inridt, as do tJu /Jand
ond tht cJasp on lbi {ou-tt edgt. Blind Stul/l 011
with IM u'Orshipptr motif upsidt dou;ll. {ufl}
Fig. 13. A stll.'Ogt, WOUII with 1u.'O toMtls,
nms alollg lIu IorL" tdgt of Frllg1rltnl Il/.
wraps in altemaring directions. Between each
square there is 0.6 cm woven with quarter-tums
throughout the width of the band.
The band is sewn Onto the same kind of2/2 {will as
the previous fragment. The fabric is smooth and fine
and appears to have the same thread coum through-
out. Nine measurements were laken at different
points, with Ihe following results 24x23, 21 x 19,
21 x22, 20x 19, 20X21, 20x20, 21 x 22, 24x 19 and
16x24.threads/cm nearcst the edge. Along the
bandtnmmed loweredge runs aselvage .....oven with
two tablets threaded ahemately in pairs, Fig. 13.
The garmem has been rejoined al the side wilh a
46 cm long gusset inserled in the from, partly of
:a:serqUalilY than the rest ofthe fabric. The gussel
. glOS at the lower edge of the garment and con.
tmues right up 10 the "sleeve hole". It consists of
three paris, the UppermOSI of which is of the same
quaiity as the resl of the garmem, while the twO
lower pariS are somewhat coarser, 19x 17 threads/
cm, Z-spun in both directions. The side seam has
been unpicked all the way for the insertion of the
gusset and ofthe original seam nOlhing remains. The
seam allowances are \'ery narrow, 0.2-0.3 cm, and
the edges are open. Probably Ihe seam was whip-
stilched from the reverse side, 4 stitches/cm. The
bonomjoin in the gusset is differem from Ihe othcrs.
Here the seam allowance has been sewn down
against the back of the fabric with widely spaced
b1anket stitch. The slit on Ihe inserled part has an
0.4-0.5 cm wide hem folded against Ihe band-edged
side and sewn down with blankel stitch. Against Ihe
obverse side ofthe garment, a line ofbackstitch rons
along the edge of the slit.
All the originaljoins in thc garment, where fabric
has been sewn on tO fabric, employ complicated and
decorative seams turned towards the inside of Ihe
garment. The very narrow seam allowance of each
pie<:e is sewn down with a line oftailor's stitches, at
the same time as the stilches oontinue imo Ihe
adjoining picce of fabric. Thus, across the join, Ihe
stitches lic alternately from onc piece of fabric and
from the other. Thc hem is thcn sewn down with
blanket stitch through each loop in the previous line.
One exception [Q Ihis rule is the shoulder seam and
1.5 cm oflhe seam belween Ihe slecve and thc upper
fronl piece, just in front of the shoulder scam. Here
instead the hem is sewn down with double lines of
tailor's stiteh; see also Chap. 7.3.
The overalllcngth of the tabletwoven band in the
lower edge of the back is 33 cm. The greatcst surviv
ing "idth of the back is 38 cm.
The band is sewn on tO the reverse side of Ihe
gannem, with Ihe result that the pattern in the out
ermOSI square is im'ertcd. If, howcver, the band is
turned against the outside of the garment, as it lay in
the grave, the pattcrn comcs right.
This fragment is 8 cm "ide and 3.5 cm high, trim
med ",ith tablclwoven band and with buttons on
the 1cft side, Figs. 14, IS. A 1.5 cm wide silver mounl
ing has been riveted across the band, 5.3 cm inside
the band fold, to conceal and reinforce ajoin which
had to be madc in connenion with the insertion ofa
side gosset descTibcd above. The bands are whip
stilched with faidy long and \\'idely spaced stilches.
The edge foldcd in under the buttons is whip stitched
on an open edge, not discretely hidden bencath a
seam as in the other clasps. The band width is
incomplete, 3.3 cm. The continuation of the upper
edge of the band is to be found on the inserted gusset
Fig. 15. Fragmmi IVfrom Ilufrontlif llu lunic is fJOrt offilt
slit all tlu lifi siik. To the right can bt SUI. TnnaUu of IIu siluf
mtJunl which CD_kd tJi, bandjqin. ""ok Milt llu t ~ b4ndJ
haut {(Jim, d,t fJrmuTs ofdiffmnl wiJlhs.
Fig. 14. A/In IMjahm OfYr the bdf, in Fig. j had bun
removtd, IM band tdgt 011 thefront oflire garment btcamt tuiblt
helaw til, bucik. The t'r'l)'jrogmtfllary silur hulloru ofthe dasp
on the lift sidt ofIM garmenl, and the sill/tt mount cOflctoling
tlnd rtin/amng Il ]q,n in tht band, art luf1/.td uJU:ardJ tht iMiat
aftlu ,annml. P/wlfJ: .4n.
offragmenl I II. The widlh oflhe pauerned seetlon is
2 cm, \Voven with 30 lablcts. There are 19 tablels
threaclecl alternately in pairs in onc cdge, while in thc
other, attached 10 fragment III, there are 18. The
band has roughly the same wiclth as theolhers but is
woven with 67 tablcls, which means that the band
has a higher density 18-19 tabletslem, as against 15
tablers for the orhers. The panerning goes in undcr-
ncath the bultons and cominucs down the back. The
transition between the panerncd square and the
border wirh quartcr-turns throughout the width is in
front, bencath the sil\"er mounting, 0.3 cm from the
whip stitchcd scam. Altogerhcr aboul 6.S cm of
pattern weave survive. The parterned seClion begins
with a 1 cm wide soumak section with all the wraps
laid in thc same direction. When the figurative
patrerning begins, the wefts change ro broken 2/2
wdr-faced twill. This pattern is fragmentarily
extam. The joined-on band is auached 10 a some-
what coarser212 twill, 19x 17 threads/cm, Z/Z. The
fabric is sewn with blankct stitch at the lowcr cdge
and the band is whipped round the outer lablct t\\list
and every blankel slitch. Thcre is no selvage or
starting border on this piece offabric. The same goes
for thc small picce of212 lwill al thc silver mounting,
which bclonged tO the original garment. The band
11111 11"1
on this piece. which is thus the original of
the garment. has 30 tablets in the
which bee;ins with 1.2 cm soumak wuh the wraps In
the same direction. :"othing rcmains of Ihe pallern.
Before Ihe patlem square begins there is 0.2 cm
throughoul the width oflhe band with
ter-tums. 1\0 trace remains oftheongmal bmtomng.
Probably, when the gusset was inserted in the side,
the fabric \\as cm offclose tO the bunons, the laller
were delached from the underlay and Ihen riveled to
the joined-on band and the fabric.
Fragment V
This fragment is 9.7 cm wide and 12 cm high, Fig.
16. The accompanying docket states Ihat it was
found by the dagger. which mcans thai il should
have ban roughly in Ihe middlc. The band trim-
ming of the lower edge is fragmemary, with a lotal
lengthof7.5 cm. There remains 2.5 cm ofa rectangu-
lar horsehair pattern unit, but apart from about 0.9
cm of the initial section in weft wrapping, no pattern-
ing is discemible. 0.8 cm woven ....'ith quarter-turns
from band edge to t.and erlge is extam. As in earlier
fragments, the band is sewn at the upper erlge wilh
c10sely worked tailor's stitch, and in the lower edge
with whip stitch round the outer tablct twist. The
selvage of the fabric, reinforced with 6 threads, runs
along Ihe lowcr edge.
Fragmtllt VI
This fragment is 6.5 cm wide and 7.5 cm high, Fig.
17. l'\o is stated for il. Along Ihe lower edge
the fabric is trimmed wilh a lablet-wo\'en band, 4 cm
wide, of whieh only the amer edgcs, woven with
tablets, thrcaded alternatcly in pairs, are eXlant.
The upper edgc, as previously, is sewn on to the
fahric with closcly workcd tailor's stitchcs, and the
lower with whip stitchcs round the omermost tablet
twist. Traecs of the fulling remain on Ihe fabric
under the band. The se1vage ofthe fabric, reinforced
with six threads, runs along the lower edge.
Fil, 17. Fragmmi VI
from IM wwer edgt ofIM lunk.

The front of the tunic

The largest cominuous pieee of fabrie whieh must
have bclongcd to the front part of the tunic is 45x45
cm. There are impressions from belt mountings and
their rivets 19 cm from one edge. The positioning of
the mountings and thewidth of the fabricshows that
this garmem was probably not open at the from.
Therc are no seams on the fragment. It filS togethcr
with Fragment III, Le. the fragment mainly consisl-
ing ofthe back of the garmCnl, the inserted gusset on
the len side and a small part of the front. Together
with this last mentioned picee, the largest sunliving
width of the front is 51 cm, Fig. 18.
AbO\e the belt impressions there is a quanlity of
hair whieh was found to have come from the man's
ehest (analysis by E. Lundwall, Central Office of
National Amiquities, Stockholm).
Fil /6. Fr"<-'_I I" I"-- .L ,_ .
-S"-" J'um <lIC wU:tf td,t l1j the lUIII'.
The slttr:es
The upper part of the left sleeve is joined on tO
Fragment III, as can be scen in Fig. 3. The strueture
Fig. 18. Thtfront of IJu lunicjils lugt/ha with Fragments !Il!IV. lmpmsions mode bJ' tht hron?t mountJ ofthe lull go nghl OCTOSJ Iht
of ,his slccvc is deal! with in greatcr dClail belaw, in
At thc OOUom the sleeves end with 6 cm wide
bands which form the cuffs, Figs.
19-22. The circumferenee 16 cm. In order for
these narrow sleeves to be put on and off, thcy had
been given slits which are closed by mcans of c1asps.
Thc c1asp at each cuff consiSl$ of 3+3 gilt com'ex
bultons, diam. 2 cm, h. 1.3 cm. Each bunon is
divided inlO three vcrtical pattcrn fields. Every 5uch
field is surrounded by flat, vcrtical ridges, on the top
ofwhich there runs a zig-zag line in niello. In the tOP
is a cylindrical fecess 0.5 cm in diameter which may
possibly have held a precious stone or some other
organicmaterial. AStyle I animal is depicled in each
field, Figs. 23. The depiclions in these fidds are
virtually identical. The animal is portrayed from the
side, with front and rear legs and a ribbon-shaped
body. The eye, in a Ushapcd frame, is immediately
in front of the front thigh. .\liello has also been used
to emphasise the animal's elevated hip section. The
buttons are attached tO ribbon-shaped bronze
Fig. /9. /...,(mff pari oftk kfl lim:.. tlJUi CIlJf. "l'M lhu/JdI of
tiufahrK dr.. pardikl to the IfI.bkl iL'Ol:nl band lm tJu righl sid..
of the slit and didgMlIl fln tIu kft Wh.
plates, 6 cm long and about 1.4 cm wide, forming
The sleevc fabric is edged with blanket stilch at
the bonom. The band is whipstitchcd \O approxi-
mately e\"cry other blanket stitch and the next.outcr-
most tablct twist on the band. The band, in other
words, rcaches a short way outsidc the fabric. Unlike
the itcms already described from the lowcr edge of
the garmcnt, there is no sign of any seam along the
upper edge of the band.
At the slit the band is folded round the fabric and
sewn down with small running stitches right under
the buTtons. On thc back of the right sleeve the
o ~ d d band edge is blanket-stitched and whip
sutched to the Cabric round the blanket slitch on the
:ide w ~ e r e Cut straight, cf. below. On (he
ther SIde the band IS not fastened to the Cabric. On
the left slee\"e. both bands are loose at the back.
Th r .
e s Il contlnues at leaSI 5 cm above the band.
Thc Cabri'" . r Id d O .
"" IS 10 e In .4 cm aKalllSt the reverse
Fig. 20. /...,(m," porl tif the kft 5ha.. 5UTljrom IJu o/Jur 5id...
side. On the obverse side, which here means Ihe
band-Irimmed side, there are {WO rows of stem
stitching along the cdge. Thc slit hcm is sewn on the
rcvcrsc side, first with a line of tailor's stilehes, prob
ably with yellow Ihread, and then with a line of
blanket stitches, probably using red thread, so that
the "ornamental scarn", in stem stileh, is partly
concealcd on the revcrse side. The width ofthe slceve
can be mcasured 18 cm from the lower edgcofthe left
s1eeve, where it is 24 cm.
The skeves are cut in such away that one edge is
cut straight on the grain of the fabric and the other
on the bias. The oblique cut caused problems when
the ",ide, stiffband had tO ~ sewn on to the fabric.
This, probably, is the reason why the bands are only
sewn on along Ihe lower edge.
At the back, 1.3 cm from Ihe lower edge, there is a
line of long running stitches, Fig. 22. These do not
appear 10 have any function. Possibly they are con-
nec{ed with a lining, ofwhich no traces whatsocver
Fig. 21. Right ctlJJ IU/ftldedfrfml IM IIbNru JUft.
Fig.22. Right cuffjrIJm IM m:mt Iia, with the dasp PWft still in si/u,
ha,e surdved.
The tablct-woven band is best preserved on the
right slceve. Fig. 21. hs. present :"'idlh is 6 cm, of
\,hich the pauerned sectlon occuples .4.8 ~ A bar-
der \,'ilh tab1ctS threaded altemately In pau"S occurs
onl\- along the lower edge of Ihe slee\'c. I t is woven
with 19 13blets. The entirc band is h'oven with 86
tablcts. The patterned sectian, as in the bands
described earlier, is woven with horse hair. Here,
howcver, only red and ycllow appear to have been
used. The patterned section begins, respeclively, I
and 1.6 cm from the folde<:! edge with 5-6 wefts,
where the wraps are tumed in the same direclian,
after hhich there are the same uumber of wefls
tumed in the opposite direction. This is repcated S
times before the figurative paucrning begins and
occupies 0.5 cm. The pattern ground consisls of a
broken 2/2 weftfaced twill. The pattern contours, as
previausly. are in weft-wrapping and the ground of
the paltern figures is in broken 2/2 weft-face<! twill.
Soumak weflS occur as paltern details. A main weft
of 2-ply, S-twisted woalIen yam crosses the full
width of the band. This is in an open shed in the
patterned senion and only at one edge is it bound by
tablet tums. The woaIlen wen appcars to be much
paler than the warp. The horsehair weft somelimes
appears 10 enter the innermOSI edge tablet, in which
ease il is bound by a quarter-tuffi.
Fig. 23. elasp bll/umsjrom l1u sliCN.!. Afla Ro.mpi.f/ 1990.
According 10 Selling's notes the length of the
sleeve was 56 cm. The length of the tunic from
shoulder section to lower edge was 54 cm and it was
40 cm wide at thc lower edge. '
A fra;:-ment of a radius or ulna was found inside
the rill;hl cuff.
3.1.2. The trousers
Four clasps, two on cach leg, were found al the ankle
joints, rigs. 24, 2S. The distance from the upper edge
of the upper c1asp tO the lower cdge of Ihe lower one
is II cm on the right leg and 13 cm on the len.
The two UppWTlOJt dasps have 2 (3+ 3) gill bronze
buttons with niello in the horseshoe pattern on IOp,
diameter US cm, height 0.6S cm, Fig. 26. The
length of the plates is S.l cm and their width 1.3 cm.
The buttons were partly conccaled by fur haie From
thc left leg buttoning thcreare tCli:tile fragments from
Fig. 24_ Radiograph oflAt aTla inclllding lAt dasps at lhefUl.
Ro.dwgraph: Tttni.fka RiintgtrlUnlTaUn, Stockhu[m.
Fig. 25. PartD' Ihe samt arta as in Fig. 24, lJul with onlj' lhe
u p ~ r dasps uisib/t. Tht butlol1S aTt conualtd by haiTjTum l1u
animal hidt lhl man was f.Jing on_ PIw/o; A7:4..
Fi!. 26. Gill broll.{t buuon ocitil niello inuyfrom tik uppa
clQSps dl/IuJUI. Aj/tT Ramqcisl lfllXJ.
both parts of the clasp, Figs. 27, 28. The buttans
were attachcd to a tabletwovcn band, the presCnI
width of which is 5.5 cm. J(S original width was
probably ahout 6.5 cm. The band is pattcrned with
individual tums in 3/1 Iwill, but no figurative
pauern is cxtant. The patterned section is aOOm 4.5
cm wide. One cdge has 16 ta bIets threadcd alter-
nately in pairs, the other is fragmcntary. Thc quaiity
is fine with 18 tablcls/cm. The band is sewn on to a
plain 2/2 twill, 20x20 threads/cm, Z/Z. The fahric
at the clasp follows the direction of the thrcads in
relation to the hand, at least on one side. The band
survives for 1.5 cm on the ohverse side and folded 1.2
cm againsl the hack. Under the bUllans, 0.8 cm from
the edge, Ihe band is sewn down with running Stilch,
2piy, Srwisted yarn.
FiA. 27. FiA, 28.
FiA, 27-28. Fragmmt of /xJtui with indiridllfJl
IlIms atuijiM 2/2 tu:illfrom IJu II/JPU ciaJp 011 Iht kft kg.
From tlte (Fig. 27) and rroerst (FiA. 28) sides.
Next 10 Ihe bUllans there were fragmentsofa stam
2/2 twill, thread count 5x5/cm, S/S.
Over Ihe buttons at sevcral points there 'A'as 2/2
Iwill with a thread count of l6x 16/cm, Z/Z.
The diSlance from the hell - in the middle of the
buckle - to the middle of the dasp, as measured on
Ihe radiograph plan, is 82 cm.
The IWO lownclasps consist of2 (3+ 3) disc-shaped
silver buttons with a groove in the middle of the
FiA. 29. OMluJljof IJu UJWU "aspfrom Ihe lift Ilg
wilh dise.shfJpM si/u' DI/lums a/ltJdltd 10 lfJbltf-
waUII DfJnd alldfiM 2/2 !will.
vertical sidc, Fig. 29. The top ornamentation is now
obliterated. The buttons havc silvcr rivets at the
plates, 0.7 wide and 3.3 cm long. Thc lert dasp is
attachcd to a 5 cm wide tablet-wovcn band
patterned with indh'idual turns in 3/1 twill, but with
no distinctive figurative patterning prescrved. This
band is appreciably wider than the plate, Fig. 30. On
one edgc there are 10 tablels threaded ahematdy in
pairs, and possibly Ihere are Ihesame numberon the
other cdge. Thc band is a good deal coarser than for
the other pair of dasps, 12 tablets/cm. It is sewn on
to a 2/2 twill, 20-24 x 20-22 threads/cm, Z/Z, along
one sehrage woven \\'ith two lablets threaded alter-
natcly in pairs, Fig. 31. The fine nvill also QCcurs
heneath the band, and SO presumabl)' this fabric is
joined along lhe tableH\'o\,en selvage and Ihe upper
band edge. Beneath the fine twill can be secn a
coarserone with about 14 x 12 threads/cm. From the
kft dasp, reportedly undernealh the dasp and
above the hearskin, there are two heavily comprcs
Fig. 30. Thl dasp from Fig. 29, t;lludfrom bIM"d,
SO" lhallhl dasp plow is a good dlal narro:tr than
IM band.
FIg. 3/. of labltt-<I:fJ7l band from tlu
fou"" das, ...'ll -'- fl b . ,_
, vu aWll;g II II ru _rdtr WOO'tn u;ilh
IU'O I4hltls.
sed layers of fabric, 2/2 twill, 22x 18 and 14x 14
threads/cm, ZIZ. Thcre is also the coarse 2/2 qual-
ity,.) x 5 threads/cm, S/S. The finest quality is now a
reddish colour.
From the left leg too there are compacted textile
layers consisting ofa small piece from the finer band
lying crosswise over a picee of the coarser band from
the lower clasp. The bands from the twO clasps must
originally have been close IOgether, possibly right
next to each other.
The distance from the helt - the middle of the
beh-SlOne-1O the middle oflower clasp is 97 cm.
3.1.3. Textiles and c1asps at or above the head
Near the head were found 3+3+3 round, disc-
shaped silver bultons of the same type as at the lowcr
edge of the tunic and 1.3 cm in diameter. Any
ornamentation is impossible to distinguish, Figs. 32,
33. Near the bUllons are remains of the man's hair
(analysis by E. Lundwall). The buttons are auached
to plates ofbronze, 3.5 cm in Icngth (according to the
radiograph plan) and of indeterminate width. The
bUllons are stilljoined together. Two parts ofa clasp
with 3+3 bUllons are juxtaposed "'ith band cdgcs
foldcd inwards. The band from one halfoflhe dasp
is folded some distance away from me dasp. This
band is patterned with horsehair and is probably of
the same type as on the lower edge of the tunic. The
pattern square begins \,,;th soumak wraps in the
same dircetion. \\-idth 4 cm approx. There are 14
tablcts thrcaded alternately in pairs on one edge.
The otheredge is fragmentary. The bands are folded
round and sewn on to what is now a black, originally
perhaps green, 2/2 twill, 11-12x 10 threads/cm,
Z/Z. The band from the halfofthe das p lying next to
that previously mentioned is also paucrncd with
Three flat silver buttens are now loose but,
according to the X-ray photograph, probably belong
togcther with those mentioned above. The buttons
are riveted on rablct-woven band about 3.8 cm wide.
The band is folded round what is no"' a black,
originally perhaps green, 2/2 [will, 11-12 x 10
threads/cm, Z/Z and sewn down with double run-
ning stitches under the buttons. The band has no
visible pauerning. Thread count: 15 tablets/cm.
On top of the buttons, and with impressions from
them, is the same, now black 2/2 [will, folded in
The docket accompan)'ing the buttons reads "at
the shoulder". The distance from the of the
collection of bUllons to the middle of the belt is 75
IIjl 11111 I
Fig. 32. IJu lIlad, 3+3+3 Si/NT bul/ons I.urt
jlJlln4, ofIM SQ1m as DI! titt {(lIC" tdg, ofiM lunit and IM
iouVf dasps tltllufut. 71u bulU"U (lr, altlKhed ID
POl/mu', uzbltt-u-"Oren fJDnd and lo a 2/2 tu:i/l (XN2rsu than tM/
oj/Ju lllnk
cm. Sclling has slated that the lenglh of the lUoie
from shoulder seclion to lowcr cclgc, measured in the
grave, is,)4 cm. This being so, 75 cm abo\'c thc helt
shoulcl beslightly abovc what can be called the neckl
shouldcr. Under the bUllens, bUI above a layer of
coarse 2/2 twill, 5x 5 Ihrcads/cm S/S, is a large lock
of(he man's hair. Thc haiT is preserved to a length of
about 10 cm belew the dasps. The dasps can hardly
have lain further down Ihan on a lc\"cl with the cars.
Considering ,heiT dislancc from thc beh, il is oon-
ceivable lhat the)' la)' slightly rUTther up still.
Above the nat silver buttons, 2 (2+2) gilded silver
buttons werc found with a chip-carved triskelion
ornament in the countcrsunk centre field, Fig. 34.
There is a niello linc on the upper edgc. The edge is
Fig. 33. al1d fNlow the butlQ1IJ iII Fig. 32 is a lIKA:
cif l1u mal1's !uJir.
profiled. The butlOns are of slightly different sizes,
\'iz diam. 1.3 cm, height 1.2 cm, and diam. lA.
heighl 1.4 cm. The buttons are attachcd to a bronze
plate, which according 10 the radiograph plan is 3.3
cm long and 1.3 cm wide.
The butlons are rivctcd on 4.5 cm wide tablet-
woven bands paucrncd with individual turns in 311
twill, fig. 35. Probably there are ten tablets threaded
ahcrnatdy in pairs on each edge. The patterncd
section width is aOOm 2.5 cm, thread count 14 tab-
lets/cm. The band is foldcd round what is no"' a
black 2/2 twili, l2x 10 thrcads/cm, Z/Z, and sewn
on with 2-ply yarn and runningstitch right under (he
bullans. One fragmenl of band with impressions of
two butlons is loosc, while other band fragments
Fig, 34. Abol't IJu Illall 's htod.four gifdtd alld dlip-<an:td
bul/OlU u:trt foulld. a//acJud to labltl-u;Ol:t1I balldfIdltW1td u;ilh
indh:ialUlllums and 2/2 tu'ili ofIII, SOlllt quality tU at tJu
bul/allS iII Fig. 32. Two hulwllS iII situ.
~ ..35. Balla olldfahritfrom a sira)" ha1j-closp from IJu clasPs
/Il Flg. 34.
with im . f
. pressIons o bultans and two bUllons in sim
afre still extant. lt is evident from the loose fragment
o band that th 'b h
e la nc IS cut eavil\' on Ihe diagonal
where the band was sewn on. '
3.1.4. Other textiles
To the lefl of Ih bel
., e t. several compactcd la)'cl"5 of
extl cs \\-ere r d .
loun rcsllng on wood. This lump is
still inlaet, fig. 36. Next tO Ihc wood is a 2/2 twill,
12-14>< 10-13 Ihrcads/cm, Z/Z. Along onc sidt: of
the lump can be seen the lowcr edgc of [ht: tunic
trimrned with horsehair-pauerned tablet weave and
2/2 twill with two tablcts threaded alternatcly in
pairs on the selvage. I n addition, scveral thick tassels
can be scen Iying in various directions, IOgcther with
a tablet-woven band. A now reddishbrown, lightly
fulled 2/2 t\\'ilI lies directly against these fringes.
There are scveral fragments of twill in the lump,
both 20><20 and 12-14>< 10-13 thrcads /cm, Z/Z.
Loose fragments of tassels of the same type are
visible in photographs of the lefl side of the costume
viewed from the hack, Fig. 3. The tassels are quite
high up on Ihe left sideoflhe tunic, where the "sleeve
scarn" begins.
Loose fragmenls of the band probably bclonging
togclher with the tassels have been found at two
points. One ofthese fragments can be seen in Fig. 37.
It layJUSl below Ihe lefr cufTand at right anglcs lOit,
with the cdge border paralle1 to the body. This frag-
mt:nt is 7.5 cm long. Its widlh is incomplt:lc, 1.9 cm,
of which thc edge border with 18 or 19 tablels
threaded alternately in pairsoceupies 1.4em, thread
eount 14 lablets/cm. The band is patterned with
individual tums in 3/1 twilL
Fig. 36. To thl kjl oflhe bdl, m ~ r (okeJ laJ'm of Itxlile
wtrtjountJ rul;ng 0/1 fLwd. AIIM lower edge can be snn !Ju fin,
2/2 twill/rom IM lunk, with a lablel-u!(Jwl! bordn and, on till
olh(1 side, /I /wTUMir pal/mled w.bUI-wo'Xn band lfWn 011. TIJ
tM left In bt JU1l srrmd thule uuuls Iogt/her u:ilil oftagmm.
uny I4.bltl-u-,oVtn bam/.
Fig. 37. II siray fragmmt riftlu band u"kid! blltmgtd u:ilh tIu
kJmu in tkPTtriOflS PU:UlTt ('(In IN um fHlow IMaln; lift of
titT'. Phol4: ."TA.
The other fragment round hy the head is now in
{WO parts, fig. 38. It is S cm wide. The middle pan,
25 cm wide, is panemcd with individual turns. '0
pallern figures are extant in the small fragments.
One edge is woven with 18 or 19 tableis, the other
with 20 tablets. There are uaces of stitching in one
edge. The hand is \\'O\"CO with aOOUI 8S lablets.
The tassels are made in away nOl previouslv
described. The lhreads from eight lablets togethe'r
fonn one lassel. The two tablets in the middle face
each other and are quarter-turned, whilc the Ihrce
lablcts on each sidc are passivc, Fig. 39. Onc \'cft
Fig. 38. Fropunl riftlu UJme btmd tlS in Fig. 37, bill jolUtd
7)(6 cm piece of heavily compacted textile layers,
Fig. 40. The compressed textiles are slightly arched
as if the)' had been moulded by an object of some
kind. Thcre are minute bronze fragments, probably
from a mounting, in the centre of the fragment.
Viewed from the hollowed side, the sequencc of
strata is as follows:
(1) Coarse 2/2 Iwill, 5)( 5 threads/cm, SIS. The
fabric is in three layers and partly interpenetrates
the layers which follow. The largest continuous frag-
ment is 8)(4 cm.
(2) A 1.1 cm wide tablct-wovcn band with a
horsehair pancm in reclangular 0.8 cm long fields
0.7 cm apan, Fig. 41. This band is foldcd double or
triple. lts conlinuous length is about 7 cm. There is
also a loose fragment. Possibly there may be traces of
stitches along at \east one eclge. The panern squares
begin with soumak and then cominuc with a
diagonal paltern in weft-wrapping over tWO tablets.
(3) Tablet-woven band pauemcd ....'ith indi-
,.jdual turns. One edge border is 1.4 cm wide and
woven with 20 labletS Ihreaded alrernate1y in pairs,
Fig. 40. Calwi lops of IIxli/u, wuliolitm unsptdjUd. Al
Fig.39. ifo IflOSt tomlfrom lhe dod:. IM /QP can fu um o aJO.fSt 2/2 /"d:iJJ, ptobohly o hlaMtl. To IM
leJt o 1UJfTOW wbltt-wolitfl bond uitb Sfl/lmok patllTn;lIl. On IM
Ur'f dge o fine 2/2 /".JJill, the some as ill Iht tunic. /11 oddilioll,
ot lht bark, a lab!tl-wolJ(1l balldfrom the eloak.
goes round all the threads from the thrcc edge tab-
lets, through the shed formed bv the middle tablets
and round all the threads from 'the three tablets on
the other edge. The middle tablets arc quarter-
and the weave cominucs in the same way
untl\ the tassel has achieved the length required
after which it is finished oIT with a knot. All in all:
tassels survive over a width of about 3 cm in a line
near the left part of the bell. The tassels on the above
mentioned lump show that thev were the conc\usion
of two lablel-woven bands at righl anglcs
and WO\'en ulgether into a corner, after which the
conclude the bands. The warp of one band
to be the .....arp of the corncr square, while
he other warp turns into a weft. Probably the four
t from one tablet were put in the same shed
W"tch gives a L '
L. muc" coarser texture than the band
had .' h . I
L . \\11 a slllg e wefl. Extremely linle of
tlle corner IS extant b .
L ' UIIt seems to have been \...oven
W1l" quarter-tur . h
Afi ns. WII out any extra pauerning.
ler the square h d b
. . a een woven the warps of the
two ongmal ba d '
ner d 'h n Swere used for tassels, in thc man-
eSCn ed above
Regrenablv th '. '!
. , crc IS no exact location given for a ;.;. .:.
Fig. 42. Along the cdgc there are traces of stitchcs
wilh 2-ply S-twisted yarn. Of the patterned scelian
there remain 1.7 cm in whieh traces era blue pattcrn
on a red ground call be distinguished. The band may
possibly have been about 4.5 cm wide. It probably
belongs to the cloak.
(4) 212 twill, 15x 14 threads/cm, Z/Z. This fabfic
may possibly belong logcther with the tablel-woven
band from the doak.
(S) Fine 2/2 lwill, 22 x 20 tbrcads/cm, Z/Z, prob-
ably from the !Unic or pcrhaps from the trousers.
I II 11111 II
Fig. 41. 1.1 cm wide tabltl-woven band with horst-hai, pOl/tm in
rtctangu!ar fidds from thc cokd lu)u! in Fig. 40.
Fig. 42. Fragment ojthe cloak band/rom the cakd laj'tfS of Fig.
Fig. 43. lArge pilers of elo/h in stV4rol {aJ"crs. &porltdl;' found be/I)w the waisl. Aleasuremenls: 50)(27 cm.
flaveTS in thc fragment is no! quite
The sequcncc , . d
fabrics have [ain hC3vIly crcasc ,
elear bcC3use t c [h ..
[c3ch other. Knowledge o t c ongl-
J.rIh on top o l
. ..' 'ould be orgreat ,alue, nOl east on
nat poSllLOmng .
arra\\' lablet-,\'ovcn band, WhlCh has
account o t e n
, ...o\'crcd 3m-where clse in the flod.
not en "" . d27'd
A cake offabric. 50 cm an cm Wl e,
h -poncdh la\ next toand bela\\' the bdt,
w le r... " [ h h .
Fie:. 43. consisb of fabrics on tOP o cae Ol .er In
Two lan'rs 3re of the same qualllY. a
I re<: 3\ ,, .
now reddish-bro\, n. ful1ed {\"iII. Thread coum
13-16x 10-12 lhrcads/cm. Z/Z. This is probably
the same as was round near thc c10ak tassel and,
could weil belonl{ to th: doak. The
(hird laver is of the same quaiu)' bUI prob-
abh- nO"1 fulle<!. The colour shifls over the surface
\'dlo\\Ish-brown 10 blackishbrown. 11 is
10 say with compkle certainty Ihat this is
anotherfabric. but ifit is it may. for example, bclong
tO an c\'lra blankc!.
On Ihe axe.jusl abo\e the man's head, Ihere were
rust-saturated of 2/2 twill, II x II
3.1.5. Fur
All unusuall) large quantil)" of fur hair has been
preserved in Ihe Hgom Gra\e, but the surviving
fragments of the actual skin are minute.
of the linds come from the area on, around
and underneath the man. CnfortunaleJy the lind
data are not always sufficiently detailed tO show
whelher the fur hairs were found above or bencath
the different articles thcy \\Iere preserved in contact
with. Earlier the fur hairs were believed to come
from bearskin spread Out in thc burial chamber. An
examination has now been made of several fur
sam?les from different poinls in the grave (analyses
by E. Lundwall of the Cemral Board of National
Anliquities). Apart from bear fur hairs from
reindeerlroc deer, beaver, sable, polecat
and pinniped or mllsquash have been found.
Apan from more inexact locations at the head
from thc throat seetian and above the shield boss'
thereisha" hb' '
Ir ,rom t e earskms over the bell and
sword and under thc saddle. Finds of bear hair
cannoI be cslablished from the enlire grave but
probabh' th", , be k' . '
. .' .. ven: ars ms covenng the whole of
ilS floor B h'
. ear air above the bell and sword
moreover sug h h '
1._ .' gesls t at t e man too may have had a
ucarskm Over him.
Findsofrei d I d .
n eer roe eer halr come only from the
man. frOm the a .
rea surroundmg the beh and up 10
the throat. The same is true of beavcr and manen,
but these fur hairs have also been found 300ve and
round the head.
3.2.1. The tunic
On the upper part ofhis body the man wore a sleeved
tunic extcnding about 10-20 cm belo\\' his waist.
This garment was in one piece al the front and was
presumably qllilc close-fiuing, because on each side
there was a slit, originally 7.5 cm long, closed by
means of clasps. On all(: side in front, Ihe garment
has a gosset, 5 cm wide at the bonom, let into it.
The were full-Iength, narrow at the ""riSts,
16 cm in circumferenee, and with slils which were at
leasl 6.5 cm long and dosed by means ofdasps. One
side of the sleeve was cul heavily on the diagonal.
Side seams and slee\e were scwn ....o1th com-
plicated and decorative seams turned tQwards the
inside of thc garment. The seams are invariably so
weil made that, if preferred, Ihe}' could have been
lUrned lowards the outside of the garment withoUI
spoiling its appearance. The lowcr edge of Ihe gar-
ment is decoratcd ...o1lh a tablet-wovcn band sewn
onto the rcversc side. Along the cdges of the side slit
there are lines ofstem stitching on Ihe obverse side of
thegarmcnt. Thc daspofthe side slit, like the bands,
is attached in such away that the bultans face the
inside. \"hen the slil was buttoned, the bands were
lUrned to face theobverse side, so that the patterns in
the sides were turncd the right way round and Ihe
bultons came on the outside. The tablet-woven
bands adorning the cuffs are sewn on against thc
obverse sidc. The Slem stitching on the slits of the
cuffs is done from the obverse side. On the reverse
side of the slecves, ncar Ihc band, is a line of running
stiteh, possibly slIggesting that the sleeve was origi-
nally lined.
Thc cuffs can never have been intended to be seen
from more than one side. The needlework here is less
weil done than in the lower edge of the garment. The
folded edges of thc bands against the back are open
and thc blankel stitchcs along Ihe lower edge are
faidy long. The sleeves havc the widest tabletwoven
borders and the largesl and most elaborately
ornamented buttons.
The belt is 45 cm long mcasured double on the
radiograph plan. Ifthe bell was al the waisl, then the
man's waist measuremenl was abouI 90 cm. The
tunic ends about JO cm below the beh on the back of
the garment and 15 cm on the front.
" -.-
Fig. 44. Rrconslnutiofl drawing ojthUlJ,1 of/!u tIlnic. ContinQU,J lil1l-prtUnl s / ) ~ DashtdliM- rmmslruClion. 171m dashld IiN-m.-
pression ltJI b)' btll aIldbandallou't1tdgt offront and bacA:. DothdliM- probab/tposiI;l)1/ ofFragmmt l. Arrows dtntJlt l/rmuJ dirtiQ/uj
fabri. Drtw:;"g: E. LuuJu:6Il.
The tunic is Cut in the following \Va}', Fig. 44. The
front and back pilX:cs consiSI ofvirtually rcclangular
picces offabric. Al thc slits thc fabric is cut slightly
off centre, but othcrwisc the side seams were paral-
leJ. The back piccc has a selvage along thc lowereclgc
of the garmcnt. The side seam is in the direction of
thc threads above the slit, nearly all the way up to the
sIceve gusset. When lhe lablcH\'Oven band is
slraightened OUt, i.e. visible on the reverse side, the
height of this piece is 46 cm. The impression of the
lowcrcdge of the belt begins aOOut IS cm aOOve the
lower edge of the garmen!. Of the lowcr bandtrim-
med edge of the garment, a total lenglh of 34 cm
survives. According to Selling's notes, the width at
the lower edge was 4{) cm. A gro\'m man, of course,
could not possibly have put on agarment which was
aOOm 4{)+40 cm wide at the lower edge. Possibly
Selling meant thal 40 cm of the original width was
visible. Fragment I, as can be scen from Fig. 6,
comes from the right side of the back, with the band
folded up to"'ards the outside. There are 15 cm of
band on this fragment. There is a pieee missing
ben,'ecn Fragment I and Fragment III, but it is
unclear how mueh. In bolh fragments the bands are
sewn on in such a \Vay that the pauerned figures in
thc first square stand on theiT hcads if the band is not
folded up towards the obverse side of the garment.
The paltern squares nearest the buttons have the
same motif: a worshipper belween two animals. The
positioning of Fragment J, however, presents a pro-
blem. In fragment III, the fabric along the
edge has a sclvage with twO tablets threaded alter-
nately in pairs, Fig. 13. Along the lower edgc of
fragment I is an edgc whieh, right at thc end, is
rcinforced with 6 threads round which the weft
turns, Fig. 8! Therc arc no signs of the garmcnt
having had any scams except side seams and the
gussct in one side. Iffragments I-IV did not belong
to the same garment, would the man instcad have
been wearing two garments ofroughly equalleng
one outside the other, bultoned respectively on the
right and left sides, sewn from the same kind of
, ' h ,h" ,arne band decoration and the same
fabnc, Wlt <-
" ,h, bands There is, however, only one
patlcrns " .
sel ofc1asps ",hieh can have belonged to sleeves, and
so ln Ihis case thc garment must have had sleeves of
another type. BOlh the cuffs, however, lack traces of
any addilional pair of sleeves. .
Is il inconccivable, then, that the fabnc from
Fragments I and III can have belonge.d to the
picee despitc thc discrepancy lh:
edges? Il is possible that th.c was InItially
woven with a selvage conSlsttng of (WO tablets
threarlerl ahernaiely in pairs. For some rcason this
did not work and thc tablets weTe removed, whieh is
casily done in a warp-weightcd 100m, and the uncn-
Icred threacls IOgcther werc then made to form a
reinforced sclvage. Of coursc, one cannot prave that
this aClUally happened, uniess the fragment of cloth
incorporating the transition fram one type of edge to
the other has survived. The piece should be between
Fragmenls I and III, but has nOl been discovercd.
Vet despite the problem of the fabric edge, it is
probable that fragments I and III belonged togeiher
and formed the loweredge ofthe back piece. Another
fragment of clOlh trimmed with a tablet-woven
band, 4.5 cm long, may passibly have belonged to
the back piece of the garment (Fragment \Tj. 1fthese
three fragments are inserted and the rectangular
pattern unilS of the band made up to complete
squares, the width of the garment at the lowcr edgc
beeomes 58-59 cm. This measurement could
gesl a fairl)' straighl-fining garment. The position of
the large fragment from the back piece in the grave
also suggests a narraw garmenl. il may, however,
have been wider than the 2 x 58-59 cm now
mated (plus the gusset, 5 cm), corresponding tO one
or marc panern squares on the tablel-woven band.
The reeonstruetion drawing of the garment here is
on what is likcly to have been the minimum
wldlh of the back picce, Le. 58-59 cm
F '
19. 3 shows the slee\"e seam, the fold over the
and the upper part ofthe slecve. The slecve
IS sewn on in h h'
sue a way l at lt extends a long way
over the front a d b k '
n ac pteces respectivclv and eov-
the whole of the shoulder seeiian' er the drawing
mFig44016 ' "
. . n y cm remalll of the aClUal shouldoc
seam h h
,w IC begins roughly in the middle of the
soulder Th ...
. e poSltlOnlllg of the shoulder scam
s Ows that th h . h f
. e elg t o the shoulder sectian was 23
cm slUg ,h' d'
. IS lmension we can calculate the full
ength of the g' 23
of h rment, +46 cm, which is the height
t e rectangula b k '
was abou r ac plece. The garment, then,
extend d cm long when the band was fullv
wer" e rest of the pieee - or pieces, if
get er lIlIfant - at the top between
the sIeeve seams of the back and front pieces respec-
tively is not cut in the direction of the threads like the
large rectangular pieces but slightly on the diagonal.
The width of these pieees can only be calculated
from the original width of the garment, which we
have already calculated al 58-59 cm. Subtracling
the sleeve parts, i.e. 2 x23 cm, from this, wc are left
with a width of only abom 18 cm. The greatest
surviving width is 8 cm. Nothing remains whieh can
be said with certainty to belong to the area clasest to
the neck.
To be ablc tO put this garment on, an opening is
needed along the shoulder seams or at right angles to
lhem, or clse a large or small neck opening with or
without slits. 1fthere were slits - or at least one long
one - there should also have been somcthing to
fasten with. No brooch or pin for [his purpose has
been discovered. The clasps by the man's head are
on fabrie of a different qualilY and colour and,
moreover, are too high up to be considered. A slil can
have been tied up, but no traces of band or lacing
have been discovcred dther. A neck slit is unlikcly lO
have extcnded over the sleevc part of one shoulder
when it demonstrably does not do so on the other.
This lcaves, for a neck arrangement, the twO 23 cm
high and passibly 18 cm wide rectangular pitees at
lhe neek, front and back. As stated earlier, of the
shoulder seam there remains 6 cm on one side which
extends over this piece. If thc neck opening was
symmctrical, there rcmains only 18 - 2x6, i.e. 6 cm,
which is definitely too little. Becausc so little remains
from which to reconstruct the neck opening, any
suggeslions are bound to be hypothelical. A con-
struction possible without bunoning and a large
neck slit is based on the existence of a reetangular
scction in front, consisting of double pieces offabric.
If a side seam is left open in the upper layer and the
seam oftheopposite side in the lower layer, then this,
tagether with an opening in the shoulder seam will
give a large enough opening for the head, an opening
which will elose effeetivdy without brooches being
needed. A lace at the neck on one side may be a
suitablc complcment.
An 8 x 4 cm fragment, from an unspecified posi-
tion, with a slit seam along one side might possibly
belong tO the neek, Fig. 45. This slit is ofsueh a shapc
in relation to the dircetion oflhe threads in the doth
that it does not fit in wilh the side or sleeve slit. It is
4.5 cm long. Two lines of baekstileh run along the
cdge on the obverse side, which means stem stitch on
the reverse side. The hem is sewn down with a line of
tailor's slitchcs and, on the outside of this, a line of
blanket sdtehes taking in each loop from the tailor's
stitches. The laner rows of stitches conceal the
Fig. 45. Fragment rif slit stam Of sorruc o/her htm, position uno
backslilching/slcm stitching and, consequently,
werc sewn arter lhem. Another small fragment,
4.5 x3.5 cm, may possibly have come from the ncck,
Fig. 46. In the middle orthis fragment there is a seam
sewn with double lines of lai10r'5 stitchcs. Al right
angles to this seam is a hem sewn down with double
lines of tailor's stitches, and, inside {hese, slem
slitching scen from the rcverse side of the fragment.
One piece offabric is in thc direction of thc thrcads,
whilc the other is on thc diagonal. Other conccivablc
positions orthis fragment WQuld be right allhe tOp of
a slit. Considering that thc fabric is in thcdircetion of
the threads on onc side of the seam and on the
diagonal on Iheother, a position al the top ofa sleeve
1111' 11111 II' II
Fig.46. FragmtfU (position un
known) ofa stam, Ol/e pieu ofwhich
is in lhe dirulion ofIM timads and
Hu othtr at an al/gle UJ lhem. In ad-
di/wl/, remains ofa slit scam lLith
sinn slitch.
seam would be coneeivable. No sleeve sea m has
sur\"ived, however, which can show whelher this was
sewn with double lines of lailor's slitches. and
moreover the Slem stitch at the sleeve slil is lurned
towards lhe outside of the garmcnl. No original side
seam is eXlam either, but the stem stitches in the slit
are turncd towards the reverse side of the garmem,
and so the fragment does not fit in here dlher. If the
fragmem belonged tO a side seamjust abo"e a slit. il
must have come from the right side of the garmeOl.
The problem is, howevcr, that one side of the frag_
ment is on the diagonal, which can nOt be the case in
a side seam. Thus the original position of the frag-
ment cannot be established.
The sleeves are cut in sueh il way that the fahric
which comes from the front pari of the ske'-e is eut
straight on the grain of the fabric. while that coming
from the back is cut on the bias. A CUl like this causts
the sleeve seam, which starts at the top under the
sleeve, \O swing and end up on the outside ofthe arm.
which also tallies with the position of the bUllans in
the grave. To give the slee\e a straight lower edge.
the fabric has 10 be CUl in a light bend. As remarked
earlier. this CUl oflhe slcevc musl have caused prob-
lems when sewing on the stiff, wide tabkt-wO\-en
Under the sleeve a gusset has been inserted. This
begins 4 cm into the back piece and ought, for the
sake of the fil, to havc extended 14 cm do....'n into IM
skeve scam. 12 cm of this gusset survive.
The gusset inserted on the left side is probably due
tO the man havingput onginh.Judging by the bands
at the lower edge, there was onl)' one gusset on onc
side. Evidently the same type of band was available
but not the same son, nor was there enough doth.
because Ihe lower part of the side gussel is of a
coarser qualit)'. The needlcwork of the gusseting is
nOl of the same class as the other scams.
3.2.2. The trousers
The c1asps at the ankles show that the man was
wcaring long trousers whieh were c1ose-fitting at the
bottom. Two pairs of c1asps with differenl lablet-
woven band borders were found by each ankJcjoint.
BOlh bands are probably attached to the same kind
of fabric, which also appears \O be Ihe same as was
uscd for the lunk. The fabric was probably joined
betwecn the bands. It is impossible to tell whether
this is the original arrangement or whether the lower
c1asp is a laler edition. Long bultoning on the leg.
however, is nOt a new phenomcnon; see b c ~ \
Chap. Il. The fabric in thejoin follows the directl
3.2.5. Other ilems
same side. II is impossible to calculate the original
size of the c1oak, but judging by the position of the
fragments it should have been a large one, like the
Nonh German c1oaks; cf. below, Chap. 13.2.3.
The narra....., 1.1 cm wide band with horsehair
pauerning cannot at present he re1ated to the cos-
IUrne or any detail of equipmelll. Nor can any direCl
conneclion wilh fabric be established. The presence
oftraees of stitching along one, possibly both edges
need not imply thai it was attachcd tO any fabric. It
is aJso possible Ihat the band was originally lined
with lealher.
II , I
he lowcr part of the (rousers, trim-
of the t rca s.
lTled with tab1et-woven bands, was probabl)' 11.5 cm
.d B ,h etasps wcrc turned against the back orthe
Wl e. o
leg. , b h . h
It is unlikcly thai the man wort a ne s ocs \\ Il
tablet-wo\'en bands and clasps. as suggested by SeI-
line; and Ramq\'isl (1990:5-1). are .the
below the lower band tooontmuc mta a pair of
fei'l. On this point. see Chap. \4-.2.2. .\'0 traces of
[ootwear are extant. Probably this was of leather
which. like the skins and any fur garmcnts that may
ha,"c been. has completely vanished.
3.2.3. Textiles and c1asps above the head
The bunons. which acoording to thc list offinds and
thc plan.lay by the shoulder and head respectivdy,
are all locatcd so high up that they are unlikdy to
have had anything 10 do ..... ith the tunic the man was
.....earing:. The distance from the helt to the flat silver
buttons is aboul 7S cm. The triskdion-patterned
buttons .....erea little fUrlher up in the grave, aboul 90
cm abo\c the bell. This puts Ihem, probably, just
abo\e the man's head, or perhaps, at the lowest, nexl
to his ear. All buttons appear to be attached to the
same kind of 2/2 t..... il1, now greenish-black .....ith a
thread count of aboUI 12x 10 cm. The clasps are
attachcd 10 tablet-wo\"Cn bands and twill in the same
.....ay as at other points on the costume and must have
had a similar function. An arlic1e of headgear with
the clasps, as suggestcd by Sclling (1953:2) arnong
others for the chip-carycd huttons, does not appear
plausible. lt seems morc likely that Ihese c1asps
bclonged to agarment placed above the man's head.
Perhaps all the buttons bclonged to a lUnk of the
same kind as the man was wcaring, with 3+3 flat
buttons on each side and the high triskelion-
patterned buttons 2(2+ 2) as slecve buttons. On one
of thc last mentioned c1asps, the same diagonal eut observed on the fabrie as in the skeves of the
tUllIe the man was wcaring.
Fig.47. Fragmtlll oj/he blankt/o
3.2.4. Thc cloak
The man's eost b b .
l k ume pro a ly mc1uded a square
c oa . as witnc h bl
.. h ss t c ta el-Woven square comer
Vo It the tassel Th ha
. s. e nd fragments were found in
COntact with b
13-16x 10-' ut not sewn to, a 2/2 twill,
thedoak ..... hich may possibly be
up at th I nc. ThIS quahty ofdoth was round high
e s ee\-e hale and also below the helt on the
Of the other fahrics in the find, lhe coarse twill,
SxS threads/cm, SIS, Fig. 47, probably lay above
the bearskins and was used as a blanket.
In the absence of special characteristics, other
Ihan thread counl, il is hard 10 say whether the
rabrics thoughl tO be different from thase belonging
to the costume we have now described really are
different qualilies.
3.2.6. Fur
Rcgrcnably, the linds Idl us nothing about the fune-
lian of the fur hairs, bUI il seems rcasonablc to
suppase that (he man had onc or morc fur garments.
Beaver hair round by the man's hcad can be assumed
to come from a fur cap. Reindcer/roe decr and olha-
fur hairs can come eilher from different garmerJts or
from different pans of thc same garment. Il is also
possiblc, of course, that fells werc used for laying
over or beneath thc dead man.
From a textile viewpoint, the Hgorn Grave is one of
the most important oflhe :\1igration Period. II isonc
of the few rich gra\'cs 10 ha\"c been competendy
cxca\"ated. il is rcgrenable, howcver, that thc
docurnentation whieh must have been compiled in
connection with the excavation and (real ment oCthe
textiles has nOl been discovcrccl. If these data were
availablc, probably many uncertain ractars rcgard-
ing the relative positions of the objecls could be
diminatcd and the interpretations presented estab-
Ijshed on a firmer basis.
The most imponant Xordic finds of a simiJar.
character ,\ill be presented in the fol1owing pages.
Thc textiles from a fe\\! of the Swedish finds have
been mcntioned previously, c.g. chose from Norrala
in Hlsingland (\'arenius 1961:1311) and Toresund
in Srmland (Ringq\ist 1975:906), but the textiles
ha\'c not been described in detail or svstematicallv
rc\icwed. Thc principal lind are pr;-
sented here, viz in addition to Norrala and
:oresund, Timr in Medelpad and then Danmark
m Uppland, All Swedish Migration Period linds are
in a special calalogue below, 15.1.2,
\orv.-ay has an abundance oftextile matcrial from
Period. As memioncd abovc, in 1924/
,} Hans Dedekam published a seminal on the
mds from Evebo Sog & F'
II \' ,n ' Jordane and Snartemo
"' 'sSt':\gdcr. Bjern Hougen published the linds
rOm narterno II d \,. S
1935 d . an In narternofunnene in
an 111 domg 'o d . .
o<h, . ma e compansons with several
er . orv" fi d Bo h
"d. O' m s. t these works are OUl-
an mg SOurces o h '1
n t e texlI e technique of the Nor-
le coumri d . .
'P es unng the Period. The
pearanCe of COt h '.
ing tre . :; ume, owever, IS gIven only pass
I alment In these works
n recem years th E b'
e ve e lind has been con-
sidered in a series ofessays by Bcnte Magnus (1978,
1982, 1983) and Inger Raknes-Pedersen (1982 and
1983), mainly in an altempt to reconstruet the eos-
Presented belo\\" are somc ofthe major :'\on-,egian
linds, viz Desen in Hordaland, Vdem in Nord-
Trendelag, Evebo and Ugulen in Sogn &
Snartcmo II and Vand 0vre Berge in VestAgder.
A cataloguc section indudes the Xon-,cgian textile
linds which. above all through their combination of
c1asps and bands, are rele\ant to our further discus-
sion Period costume, and male costume
in panicular, 15.2.1. For other Non-,-egian
tian Period textiles, referencc is made to the works
mentioned above and to the cataloguc in Bendel'
Jorgcnsen's ForhislOriske textiler i Norden (Prchis-
tOric Scandinavian Textiles) 1986.
Denmark has a number of grave linds similar in
compositian to those which have now been men-
tioned. There is, for example, a man's grave from
Vognsild in Alborg Amt. Most of the other linds
come from Sejiflod, south-east of Alborg. This mate-
rial is being processed for publicatian and will only
be tOuchcd on here in general terms. Conccrning
other Danish Period textiles, referencc is
made to Hald 1950 (Eng. Ed. 1980) and the cata-
10gue in Bendel' J0rgensen 1986.
4,1.1. Borg, Norrala, Hlsingland
Thc second in ranking order of Swedish Migration
Period linds with textiles presen-'cd comes from Borg
in the Parish of Norrala, Hlsingland. That grave

~ - -----
Fig.48. P/ar! of III, bu.rial d l m ~ r Borg 1:10. Nl)rralo.. Hlringland. Drou:inl by B. Hlld,L Scol, 1_"20.
was invcsligatcd in 1960 under the direction oreJaes
Varenius and Per Lundstrm (Varcnius 1961:13f,
repor! in ATA Dnr 196/61). Like grave 2 at Hgorn,
il was a chamber 10mb. hs dimensions, however,
werc somewhat dilTerent. The original diameter of
the mound \... as about Il meters and ils height 1.2
metres. The buriai chamber was 2.7 mCIres long and
1.5 rnetres wide. In !'."orrala the dead man was
5trCIchcd out on his back with his arms by his sides,
Fig. 48. Thegravc was aligned on a north-south axis.
At the man's lef, side was his sword, in a lealher-
covered wooden sheath, and over his knees ,here was
a shidcl. At the rOOt end, on Ihe right side, there was a
spearhead thrust through the ehamber wall. Prob-
ably the spear h'as positioned diagonaJly over the
grave to make room for the shaft. A knife lay obli-
qucly over the man, roughly at waist heighl. Round
Ihe skelcton there were 20 or so arrowheads. The
Norrala man's weapons, unlike the Hgom man's,
are ofrelativcly simple workmanship and devoid of
deeorativc elements. At his waist, apan from the
knife, there were two bronze buckles, twO bell rings,
a strap tag, tweezers, an ear-scoop, a eomb and a
strikc-a-Iight. Abovc his hcad was a blaek-burnishcd
clay vessd and a box ofbireh bark ofwhieh only the
resin caulking remains. There was also a pair of
shears by his head. At his wrists and anklcjoims and
at his waist on the right la)' clasps with surviving
fragments of textiles.
The man had been Iying on a straw bed. He was
aOOm 180 cm tall and probably bctween 20 and 25
years old.
The grave has been dated 10 c. 500 A.D.
The liXiiii finds
Clasps with 2 (4+4) gill bronzc buttons lay besidc
OOth the man's wrists. The buttons are (lat. The
decoraliOll consists of a punched trianglc with
inward eurved sides. Eaeh point cnds with a paj_
mene-like fonnation, the narrowest part ofwhich is
hcld together by a double are. The transition be-
twecn top and cdgc is dccoratcd all round with
dosel)" spaccd, punched horizomal lines. The-
bUllonsare attached 10 a labletwoven band whichis
foldecl round a woollen fabric woven in 2/2 twill. The
band is sewn on 10 the fabric with small running
stitches in 2-ply S-twisted "'ool1en yam. The seam is
parti)' conccaled underneath the bunons. The text-
iles are bcst preserved on one half of the clasp allm
man's left wrisl, probably bccause thaI lay on lhe
sword. The greatest width of,he band is 7.4cm, Fig
Fig. 49. Ont "alfof IM daJp af tIlL ltfl
wrnt. Norra{a, Hlsingland.
Pholo: AT.4.
. h" ldcd edge the band is woven with
t9 A'\"amst t e 'o .'
. . h d--' ahernalch- 10 pairs and quarler-
lablets t Tca cu - h
l -halfway undcrneath the bullens t e
tUrns. aug
[hd h [
. l._ "os occupying most o t e \VI t o
patternmg ,-",gl , ""d I
The ed"c border. WhlCh IS onc SI e on y,
. ., "dh
. ['our tablels The pattern IS onc 10 orsc-
conSISb o l' . .
. d g,u"'llv il was probably 10 rhree colours.
halT an on ". .
Il starts with weft wrapping in hernng-bone paltern.
The ligurali\"c begins after about ,I cm.
C Ii rtunateh not enoug:h oflhc pattern survIves 10
su;;esl how i; was designed - onl)' both broken
.... eft-faccd 2/2 !will and weft-wrappmg Qecur. The
band is WO\'CO \,-ilh i4- tablets. Threacl couot: 10
tabletslem. Thewarp and wert are of2-ply S-twisted
woollen yarn.
Onl\ ver\' small fragments remain of the 212 twill
"hieh 'the band was sewn on to. Both the warp and
wcft yam are Z-spun and Ihe thread couOl is 11 x II
Over the buttons lay a coarser 2/2 Iwill in double
la\ers. The same fabrie was round the lump from
"hieh the dasp was exca\ated. This fabric is wo\--en
with Z-spun yarn in both the warp and wert direc-
tions. Thread COUOl: 8-JOx8 threads/cm.
The dasp from the right wrist was anached 10
tahlel-wo\en band and Iwill, in the same way as that
alrcady described, but these textiles were less weil-
preserved. Here again, the coarser 2/2 Iwill lay in
double layers above the buttons.
At the man's waist, on his right side, lay a dasp
with 5+5 bUlIons having the same deeor as at the
wrists, Fig. 50. The buttons were IUrned upwards in
the grave. These bunons are also anached to a tab-
let-wo\'en band, but between the buttons and the
hand there is a thin layer of lcather. The tablet-
band is of the same qualit}" as those already
but greatly deeayed. and no pattern is
The width of the dasp, whieh
equals the Wldth of the band, is 10 Cffi. As the plan
shows Fig 48 h .
. .. . , I ere IS a great aceumulation of
m the right pan of the .....aist sections \'lZ 18
IUlIons, eight of\\ hich belong to the cuff, buck-
;s, t".o belt mouOlS with rings and a strap tag,
here IS no equi\"al [h I . - _
cnr o t e c asp wlIh.)+.) buttons
on the man's left side
Onthcehest e" h ,1,
c: J Ig t sma gJ t bronze bUllons were
'Ound div'd el .
.... as ' .. I e JOlO two groups of four. One group
{105ltloned at th . I'
h e man s e.t shoulder oear the
umerus and th h . '
ofh e Ot er Just abo\"e the accumulation
Ullons on the ,. h .
are fai,1 . ., man s ng t SIde, The small buttons
}" Slml ar to Ih h
rated oul .. h h. e Ot ers, hut they are decQ-
\ \\lt onzo I r
lar aren' Tn ma lOes and three semicircu-
ap", O"u h e bunons form a square, 4--4.5 cm
. tema' 'h
n s ng t side the lower button lay
Fig.50. At/Ju man's wais/. 011 his right side,
la}' a ,laJp u'ilh 5+5 bul/oAS. Norrala, Hlsing-
land. Ph%: ATA.
next to a buckle with a fragment ofleather on it and
the upper bunon on a levcl with the strike-a-lighl.
The buttons had originally been on the side of thc
man's ehest. They were riveted through double lay-
ers of tablet-wovcn band of the same quality as thc
above mentioned, with horsehair pattems on both
sides. Underneath (he band is a rivet washer ofiron.
At each ankle joint there were clasps of the same
type and with the same number ofbuttons as at the
wrists, Fig. 51. Thesedasps had been altaehed 10 the
same type ofband and probably also the same qual-
ity offabric as at the wrists. Unlike the laner, ho\\'-
ever, the paneming of the bands begins soon after
thefold towards the buttoned side, whieh means that
the buttons conceal the heginning of the pattern.
The pattern field begins with 0.8 cm soumak with
the wraps laid in the same direction, after ""hich the
figurative pattcrning takes over. \\'eaving with quar-
ter-tums Ihroughout the width of the band is visible
only at the foldingofthe band IOwards the hookand-
eye respectively. Only small fragments of the twill
fabrie sunive, thread eDum II x 11 Ihreads/cm, Z/
Z. The bUltons were partly covered by a brownish-
Fig.51. Tk darpr allhtftel. Norrolo, Hlsingland. Pholo: ATA.
black layer which, presumably, had originally bttn
Apart from occurring in connection with the
buttons, textiles were also found on and near the
following objects:
In the middle of the underside of the knife, five
small fragments oflablet-woven band were found, of
the same quaiity as above.
On thc [ower huckle, i.e. on a levc1 with the upper-
most bunon in the c1aspwith 5+5 buttons, there lay
a fragment ofrwill of the same qualiry as mentioned
above. Under the buckle there was leather and a
double layer of tablet-weave. The tablet-woven
band is oflhe same quaiity as above, with horsehair
Under the helt mounting with a bronze ring there
is a tablet-woven band, as already described, and a
twill whicb defies further analysis.
The point of the SIrap tag mounting was wrapped
in n\fill with a thread count of8-lOx8 threads/cm.
Z/Z. Between the strap tag and the other bultonsof
the clasp bclonging to the right wrist lay a numberof'
we1l-preserved textile remains, both tablet-.....ea
and twill. In quaiity the tablet weaw: appears to
match the specimens airead}' mentioned, but it bas
no pattern. The twill is of quite fine quality, 14x 12
threads/em, Z/Z. Attached tO another belt mouD-
ting with a ring there werc rust-coated laycrs of text-
iles consisting of tablct-woven band and a twill ra-
bric. Round the ring was a loop of kather...\Ja
unidentifiable textile fragment was attacbed tO tbc
upper buckle. Bctwecn the belt mounting, the strap
. hten
tag and the uppermost buttons for the dasp \\Il!
f t bkt-
buttons, there were a number offragments O a
woven band and twill fabric. The ed.
is of the same qualitv as that previously mentlon
- d lan.
l2threa s aU
Z-spun in both directions. Sifting revealed a Sill

\\'ilh textile rcmains adhcring to il
"[ bronlC ut "
" ' " '0 Javers of horsehair.pattcrned tab-
in {hl' forlll v t\\ ,
kl-\\O\l'O band.
, I Grave like Hogom. was untouched.
The :'iorra a, . . . d
. onc at cach ankleJomt and wnSI, an
The clasps ,., Th ']
,'<, on the man s nght Side. e (exIL cs
001' all c -o
, poorersl
(prcservatiOn lhan at Hogom,
are In a f h' ' 'I ' ,
- ',mporlant because o t Cif Slml anlY In
butlC\3h ..
. - design and oomposition. Here agam, Ihe
positiOn. . .
positions of the c1asps suggest a oostumc. conslstmg
f lonl!: trousers and a long-slec,"ed tUmc. Tablet-
bands of thc same wiclth and same type of
panerning occur at the wrisls..and ankle joiots.
bands are wider lhan al Hogom, but coarser In
The woollen faboc in both garments was
probabh of the same quaiity, but cannot be deler-
mined rdiablv duc 10 the smalIness of the fragments.
The c1asp,'with 5+5 buttons at waisl hcight or
slightlv funher down on the man's righl side, was
:lIIaehed to a slightly wider band than those al the
'" rists or ankkjoints but is probably ofthe same Iype
as Ihey are. .'\0 corresponding dasp was found on the
left side, but the possibility ofthere originally having
been one cannOt be discounted. A fragmentary
button on a horsehair-panerned tablet-woven band,
occurring as a slray flnd, may possibly have
10 a c1asp whieh has now been losl. The
position of the c1asp on the right side, just below the
upper buckle suggests a tunie of roughly the same
!ength and shapc as at Hgom. This hypothesis,
howevcr. is frustrated b\" several factors - first and
forem05t. the absenee ofa c1asp in a position on the
left side. and the oceUITence of fragmems ofleather
on the hand. Perhaps there is a connection between
Ihe c1asp and the small gilt bronze buttons which
""ere found by the left shoulder and just above the
c1asp on the right side. Beneath the bUllans both on
the shoulder and at the side. double layers
"'O\'en band to, 'h' h h b ' ,
\' le t e uttons WeTC n\eted. ThiS
PO!.Sibly be the remains ofa baldriek where the
Ullons \<o'ere mo d b "
ro. unte on a and whlch passed over
t e eli shoulder d ' ,
h an conlll1ued diagonally over the
"'hSt and dOwn to the right side, to the broad band
\\ II the clas I
Ihe bal . p. t seems rather odd, however, that
"o d .dnck should go from left to right when the
r IS on the [Ii 'd Th
"'Ove b d e t SI e. e fragments of tablel-
su"'",':, 'h
near the buckle and belt mounting mav
t at the helt I. ] ,
"bl-, a), at east panly, on top or.
'- -"'Oven band b
possibilit\" tn . ' Ut one cannot rule out the
be . at 11 was auached to the hand As can
seen from thi . .
appearance r h s suggested 1I1terpretation, the
o t e lower pan of the tunic is not
unambiguous. And yel perhaps the idea of a IUnic
which, like that at Hgorn, ends a little way below
the waist is the most appealing. The small bunons
may perhaps still have belonged to abaldrick.
ConciCrning the appiC3rance of the trousers, all the
linds have to tell us is that the legs \\Iere long and
probably c1ose-fining at the bonom.
Ahove the buttons by the left wrist, a woollen
fabrie was found which was somewhat eoarser lhan
[hat used for trousers and tunie. The same quaIity
was found, in very fragmentary condition, near the
knife and round the strap [ag. Perhaps these frag-
ments belonged to a cloak. Ofcourse they oouldjus[
as wdl have come from a piece of cloth whieh the
man was shrouded in. The somewha[ finer quaiil)'
found between the strap tag and the c1asp by the
right wrist and the c1asp on the right side is hard to
explain. It mayemanate from another fabrie, but
one cannot rule Out the possibility that it belongs
with the fabric II x Il threads/cm, ZlZ.
Two buckles were found at the waist. It seems
possible that the upper one helongs to strap tag, helt
mounting and bdt rings for the belt worn outside the
mnie. The lower one may perhaps have belonged tO
a helt for Ihe trouscrs (leel. brokabeItc).
4.1.2. Skynherg, Timr, .\ifedelpad
This burial ground was invcsligated in 19S4 hy Carl
Cajmatz (repon in ATA, Dm 3146/56). The
cxcavator obsen'ed textile remains in grave no. II,
and these \Vere delivered 10 the Textile Department
of the Central Board of National Antiquities.
The grave consisted of a long, oval cairn, 5.3 m
long and 2.2 m ....ide, on a WNW-ESE axis, beneath
a mound whieh had been ploughed oompletcly Dal.
Under the cairn a chamber romb measuring
about 2x I m. No skclelaI remains were extant.
In the middle of[he grave were twO gilded, chip-
earved bronze bultans, each with round pieccs of
leather underneath and riveted to a tablct-woven
band, Figs. 52, 53. The middle part of the band is
patterned with horsehair, probably in scveral 001-
ours originally. Thc band is folded round a 2/2 lwill
and sewn on one side with one line, and on the other
side wilh two lines ofrunning stiteh, 2-piy, S-twisted
woollen yarn. Possibly thc folded band edge is blan-
ke[-stitched on the reverse side. The ",idth of the
band, which is incomplete, is 2.3 cm. The patlern
begins with soumak wefts of horsehair in red and
possibly blue, but nOl enough of the band has sur-
vived for the pattern [O be analysed. A fell had lain
over [he bunons.
About 80 cm east oflhe chip-carved huttons la}' 2
(3 +3) fiat, undccoratcd bronzc bUlIons auadltd,
a coarscr, unpanerncd tablcH\'ovcn band, .....idlh
cm, Fig. 54. Thc {will is unidcmifiablc. Thcse t
fragments lie against birch bark.
40-50 cm weSI of thc chip-carvcd l l o ~
bronze ring was round with a convcx und
Againsl thc convcx side the bronze ring has 2/2
12x 10 Ihrcads/cm, Z/Z, and agains! the c
side il has a lablct-wo\'cn band pattcrncd .....ilh
vidual tums rivcted tO il, Fig. 55. The band is
\,ith aboUI 50 tablcts. cight of Ihem Ihreaded
natd)' in pairs on eaeh cdgc. The width. .... hicb
incompiclc, is 2.3 cm.
On a levd with thc chipcarved bunons.
Fig. 55. Tobld-W01't1! fNmd jJolttrntd u:ilh i1!dil idua! tu1IU
2/2 twi/f joulld Iogtiher ,dth Qbrrm.u ring. Timra..l/rdt/1&
Fig.54. G/QSPS Q//ochtd lo labltt-W/1l:tn band. No jJolltrn prturotd. Timr. .Htdt/pad.
Fig.53. Thl! lob!tl-WOl:tn bOllds, Fig. 52, from Ulldunr:olh.
Timr, Mttltlpad.
Fig. 52. Homhair-paUtT"MQ labltl-1L1HXll budsfroM d1ip-
Ul1Ud huolIS. 7/..",1. .\ftdtlptuJ.
. . -erc round with rust-stuincd frag-
,heath lllounlll1gs \, -
. r" 1')( 12 tllrrads/cm, Z/Z.
OIcnb o \\\ 1 .. . ,
Like- Hgom and is a warnor s grave
" -ord shlcld (WO spcarheads,
"ilh il hemcl I ,,\. .
.,. d pooo,bh an arrowhcad. .-\ hear c1aw sug-
kOI.';).n. a,,"
. ,ho' ,he fell:> "CfC bcarskms.
.. -00
Thr ({ran" oughl probably to be datcd to c. ;) or
(O the first half of the 6th ceotur) (Selinge J969,
The e:i1ded. chip-can.-ed bUllons wefC round in the
middlc of the and can have belonged to the
cuffs. Cnlikc !hose in the first twO graves, the chip-
can-ed buttons WCfC not allaehed 10 the dasp plates
but \H:re riH"ted. singly. to bands and Cabric. The
dasp hunons with (heir flat. plain bronze bunons
max-o considering their distance from the chip-
can;ed bUllons. ha\'e belonged to the lrousers. The
lablet-....O\Tn band and the branze ring with the
conca\'c undcrsidc may possibly have belonged to a
baldrick. The fairly coarse twill on the bronze ring
and (hc knifc-shcath mouming may have belonged
tO a doak or blanket.
4.1.3. Sal by, Toresund, Srmland
The Iiht chambcr 10mb in Snnland was discovered
durine; an inve5tigation in 1971 directed by P. O.
Ringq\-isl and Inger Liljequist {repon in ATA, Dnr
.l6.)61il . The investigation was published bv P. O.
Ringq\'ist in 1975. The dimensions of the were
not all that impressive, vi, diam. 7 m and height 0.4
m. The burial chambcr was 1.6x 3.0 m. No sketetal
remains were eXlam.
T\\o flat. gilded and chip-carved buttons were
found. each ofthem attached to lablet-woven band
and twill One f h b .
. o t c uttons IS decorated with six,
Fig.57. Ba"d ond do/hiram Fig. 56 sunJrom /ht ramt sidt.
Photo: .4TA.
Fig.58. O.a o hmluphnicol bll//4n ltlyJoldtd dOliblt. aJrog-
rTU!n/ oJoJai,!; C(NlTSt /will. TortSund, Srmland. Ph%: A7:..1..
the other with eight, convergcm pairs ofspirals. The
bullans were riveted 10 the band and fabric, Figs. 56,
57. There are no hooks-and-eyes. The band is extant
in its full width, 1.8 cm, woven with 28 tablelS
threaded ahernately in pairs, 14 of them in the
pattcrn section and six and cight respcctiveiy in each
edge. The band has a red, yellow and blue horsehair
pattern. The pattern square starts with herring-bane
soumak, with two wefts in a row ofthe same eolour.
The real palterning then begins in broken 2/2 Iwill
and w'eft-wrapping. The band is sewn on 10 a broken
lozenge twill known as diamond twill. This is thc
linest fabric in the Nordic Migration Period mate-
rial: 50x4{l threads/cm, Z/S. The band is folded
under the fabric, unlike most of Ihe other {jnds, \"here
it is folded round the fabric and is visible on thc
revcrse side. No diagonal cut is observable in the
fabric. The seams are done in red, 2-ply, S-twisted
yarn, but the stitchcs cannot be identified. Origi-
nally the band was probably red.
Another fragment, very line twill, possibly
diamond twill, is on a fragment of iron, 4{l x 25
threads/cm, ZlS. This is the seoond finesl of thc
.Yligration Period fabrics.
On a button the shape of askullcap, dccorated
with three idenlical human masks in Ihree fie1ds,
there was a doublefolded pieee of a fairl)' ooars\': 2/2
twill, 12x 10 threarls/cm, ZIZ, Fig. 58. There was a
leather sirap on the unrlerside of the button.
Other linds are a gilded and foldcd foil, decorated
with oonrenlnc circles and triangles, a coopered
vcssel with vcrtical and horizOnlal hronu: bands,
iined on the inside with a thin sheet of bronze, an
arrowhearl and fragments of a sword blade.
The gra\'c is dau=rl to the stcand halC of the 5th
:\Ione of the linds which belongcd to the costume
were round in their original position. The flat
bUllans probably belongcd 10 cuffs which,
finds from Danmark (see below, 4.1.4.),
buttoned with Jace loops. The coarsc twill folded
double over Ihe skullcap-shapcd button can have
beJonged to a doal: or to a fahric in which the dead
man was
4.1.4. Danmarksby, Danmark, Uppland
During the 1970s ahuriai ground in the village of
Danmark was investigated hy a team from the
Depanment of Archaeology, Uppsala University.
The finds are now being analysed by Astrid Wexell,
who headed the exeavation (WexellI975:117fI). A
manuseripl repon has been prepared.
Texliles were found in eighl graves. Seven of the
graves were wooden cists of the ehamher tomb type.
Sexing of the oecupants is prc!iminary, pending
osteologieal examination.
In fealUre I, four high, gilded and ehip-carved
bulIOns were found seattered in the eist filling. Two
of the bUllans were attadled to tablet-woven bands
with horsehair pallerning. 80lh hands were frag-
mentary, with only a few soumak partern wefls
remaining. The present widlh is 2 cm, and the origi-
nal widlh was probably only a little more. The
bUllans had each been riveled on to a band and had
nOl formed part ofa dasp. The manner ofbulloning
is apparem from Ihe arrangcmems round two ofthe
buttons, Fig. 59. Round each button there werc 4-5
fine 1001'S. Probably the 1001'S went round
buttons whieh belonged aCling as
bUHon 1001'S. oflhe huiIOns was a 2/2 twill,
l4x 14 threads/em, Z/Z.
A helt mounling with a hronu ring was riveted on
Fig. 59. &und tJlt hllDnI lJurt lurt 4-5 u"GOllm nis
/Chicn smvd as buIlD" lDDps. Ftallm /. DlUI1fUlr/;' LpPiDJ..
Fig. 60. fl bell mDunt uilh a brDI/<:t ring 1(..(J.f riotltd ro a'" lab1tl-U'Dtm bal/d. Ftatun " Dal/mark.
10 a lablet-woven band orthe same kind as the
mentioned above, Ihough narrowcr, Fig. 60. II
woven with eight tablels in thc pattCTn
six tablels on one edge. Of the other edgc, whleb
dcfcelive, there rcmain threc lablets. The band
now].3 cm wide and should originally ha\e
about 1.5 cm. lt was probably divided into reet
lar ficlds, only one of which, 1.6 cm long,
rcmains. The patlern was originally done in
hair in three colours, of which red and yell
now be distinguished. The paltern is fragm
preserved. Passibly it consistcd of tWO or
rhombi in a row in weft-wrapping over IWO ta
surrounded on both sides by soumak v"cfts. ()a.2
11 I lC
other side of Ihe mounting was 212 tWI
threads ZlS. Round the pin of an equa!
brooch, same 2/2 Iwill found aS al
bultons. The grave, which \\'as probably a w
is dalcd to the lale :\'Iigralion Period.
. ith
In cist Il in feature 5, twO mounlJngs w
, d as \"dl as a fragmentary bronze
. ""' were ,oun . Il
on,.,_ d mber ofiron fragrnems logether; a
buckle an a nu "/2
" in contaet with fragmentary "-
these o " l
" l" 14 threads/cm Z/Z. There were a so
('.,"111. ::IX , Th"
" f' , hair b\' onc of the bronu nngs. IS
rcmams o 'u. . .
c-bl' a man's grave from the lalc
" pro......
In the centreoffeature 7, about 30 cm apa.n,
...-ere four gildcd and chip-caIvcd buttens In paIrs.
The tablct-woven band to whieh Ihrec oflhe buttens
were riveted have survhed. One of the fragments
rerained a small ri'"cl .....asher on the back.
are ",oven with tablets ,hreaded alternately In pau"S
and sho.... no trace of patterning. The wides! frag-
melll is 0.9 cm wide, woven with 13 tablets. The
bands had been attachcd to 2/2 twill, 20x? threads/
cm. spinning direction unobser'.. able. This was
probably a man'sgra\'e, and it is dated to the second
haJf of the 5th cemur)".
In the cemre of the dst in feature 17 there were
scanered linds which included [WO gilded and chip-
can'cd buttons. These huttons had originally been
riveled to Iablet-wo\en hands, which had geometri-
caJ panems done in individual tums folded round a
2/2 twill. Fig. 61, There had httn a piece ofleather
bctween band and button. The band width is incom-
plete, 1.8 cm, but had been insignificantly greater.
One edge is woven with eight tablets and the other,
which is defecth'e, with four. The pattern in the
middle stttion consists of smalL closely spaced
rbombi, This is WOHO with abom 30 tablets. The
fabric to which the band is sewn has 14 x 12 threads/
Z/Z. The grave has not been sexed. Dating: late
;)th cemury.
Feature 46 was probably plundered before deca)'
m. The flnds \\'ere scattered in away suggesting
dl.loturbance inside the cist while it was still imact.
the back ofa bronze ring with an arched topside
a falrly coarse 2/2 twill, ax 7 threads/cm s/s A
um f I' , .
po c ay bore Impressions from the same kind of
Ig. 6/. Tablll-
b dfi
hatIm!. &ak 2,/ F, an tom a (hi/J-((ltud
'. la/urI /7, DtUmultlr.,
woven fabric. This grave has nOl been sexed. Dating:
probably 5th cemury.
The widest tabletwoven band from Danmark
comes from feature 47. It was found together with a
narrow tin mouming with holes Ieft by three rivets,
and it lay tOgether with a fragment of leather. This
band is 6 cm wide and wo\'en ....ith lifty tablets
threaded alternately in pairs. No pattern survives.
What are probably three different qualitics of 2/2
twill werc found in the grave, viz 24x 20, 16 x 14 and
12x II threads/cm, all ofthem Z/Z. This grave has
not been sexcd. Dating, probably 5th century.
In the centre of feature 124 there were found two
bronze fibulae, one ofthem cruciform, an iron fibula
and a large number of beads. The textiles had been
prepared by Inga Hgg. On all the fibulae there was
a 2/2 twill, JOx 10 threads/cm, Z/Z, bolh at the pin
holders and in several layers at the catch end. In
some of the beads there were traces of a string of
n....isted 2-ply, S-twisted woollen threads. A vege-
table libre, which deficd further analysis, was found
in contact with an amher bead. This was a woman's
grave. Dating: 5th century.
In feature 174- there were a number of small frag-
ments of cloth together with beads. One of them is
probablya 2/2 twill, Z/Z. The thread count in one
direction is 12 per cm, while in the other it is not
quantifiablc. The latter is possibly the remains of a
starting border with the threads forming a ribbed
fabric with 6x 16 threads/cm, Z/Z. In the edge there
are residual stilches oflooscly S-spun yarn. This was
a woman's grave and is dated to the 5th cemur)'.
In three of the eight graves there are tablet-wo\'en
bands with 1+ I button. One of these is probably a
man's grave and one a woman's. The third grave
contains no objccls to indicate the sex of the occup-
ant. Positioning in the graves conveys nothing about
the location of the buttons on the costume. They are
hardly likely, however, to have been positioned any-
where but on the cuffs. The bunons from Danmark,
like those already described from Timr and
Toresund, have been positioned singlyan the bands.
The finds from Danmark show that the isolated
buttons withoU! hook-and-e)'e werc secured with
loaps passing round them. The band with belt
mounting and ring in feature l shows that a tablet-
woven band was also used as a helt, here probably in
a woman's grave. The band was probably tied
together, since no buckle was found.
The graves, which probably belonged to a village
or homestead, were presumably associated with a
wealthy inlcrmcdiatc Stratum of the population.
Finds ofbuttons and bands show thai fashion was a
widcsprcad phenomenon nOl cxduslvely reservcd
for a social SIr3IUm comparable with that of the
Hgorn man. FUrlhermore, the combination of
bands and bUllens occurs in graves ofboth men and
4.2. :\,ORIIAY
4.2.1. Desen, Os, Hordaland
In 1906 Haakon Shcldig excavated six mounds at a
caJled Dosen. Two of the graves, a
wcman's (mound 2,8 6090) and a man's (gravt: 2 in
mound 4, B 6091), contained textiles. Thesc are
described by Shetdig (1912:132f1). The textiles are
deal! with by Hougen in connection with the Snar-
tema flods (1935:790.
The wcman's grave is noonaUy but nOl opulently
furnished (Shetelig 1912:133). The skeleton was
complctdy decayed. In thc northem pari of the
grave, "'here Ihe dead woman's head probably lay,
stood a .....ooden vcssel with resin eauiking. In il was a
spindle-whorl and an awl-tike implemem with a
wooden handle. On Ihe dead woman's breast there
lay a gilt cruciform brooch with a fragment of 2/2
twill, l4x 10 Ihreads/cm, Z/Z and two small fibulae
embedded in fabric, 2/2 twill, 16x 14 threads/cm, Z/
Z. Two dasps, cach with 4+4chip carved and gilded
bronze buttons lay slightly funhcr down, towards
one edge of the grave, Fig. 62. The dasps are
attachcd to 5 cm wide tab1ct-woven bands pattcrncd
Fil. 62. CltJSp tlJJDcM4 ID ttlbld-lL'DUR bDn4 /JDlume4 uiM
iJf4iri4utll tlmlS.from DwtlmDJI i ,rtlu. D.st1l. Hor4t1iDn4.
.'Jflrr Dt4tkDm 1924/25.
with individual turns, six tablets on one "d
.. ge and
three or four on the other. Thc band is auached
2/2 twill which eannot be analysed any
the dasps had tain at the woman's right
Roughly at waist height there was a cake offab'
and inside Ihis a bronze belt ring with t,,o bro:;
keys and a bronze sirap holder with part ofa ri\"("led
strap. Th(" strap holder had cOOlained a small ifOQ
knife with a wooden handle. In Ihe southern pan or
the grave there were a bucket-shaped pot and a lum
of resin. The filling yielded additional objttts.
relation of whieh 10 the gra\'e is unclear.
The grave is datcd to the mid6lh cemury.
The hottom of the man's gra\'e was co\'ered \\ith
birch bark. On this there was a bcarskin. and on top
of thai rolled-up fabric comaining remains of the
costume (Shelelig 1912:139f). A blanket. 150 an
....ide. had been rollcd diagonally round the body.
There was also a mueh larger, but thinner. blankt1:
whieh was too incomplcle 10 be measured. In ad..
tion, another fabric had been spread oUl over these
The gra\'e goods were fairly simple. A knifc anda
pair of iron shears. bronze tweezers and a eylindrical
wooden box eontaining a slrike-a-tight. What made
this grave \'aluabte as regards the textile fiods was
Ihat the sequenee oflayers could be obsen'ed Ixner
than in any oflhe other :\Iigration Period
graves (Hougen 1935:78). Two slee\'e fragments
have survived, one of them 40 and the other 46 cm
long, Figs. 63, 64. Both are torn offat the lOp. sothat
a full length is lacking. The sleevcs arc cut in one
piece with a seam underneath and with, resprc-
tivcly, one and three gussets inserted al the top in the
seam. The fabric retains a sclvage in the seam,
woven wilh 4-5 tablcts. The longer sIceve fragment
ends at the bOllom with a cuff, about 7 cm I,'ide, of
doublc-folded dath. Probably Ihis cuff had a slit.
The sleeve seams have I cm wide seam atlowanet:S.
The seams in the gussets are only 0.5 cm wide. Thert
is blanket stitching in the cdges of all scams, and the
seams were probably done wilh rutlOing stitch. [}ue
toa erease in the fabric, the width of the sleevecan bt'
cstimated at 30 cm about 20 cm from the IOI,eredgt.
The fabric is a 2/2 twill with a thread count ofl4:
Ihreads/em, Z/Z. Therc are se"eral fragmcntSo{
quaiity. Twoofthem, respective1y 22 and 41 c.m 10:
and 24 cm wide with se"eral scams, are descnbed ..
"the bouom fabric in Ihe lower part of the grll\-c,
connected h'ith the skeves. In the seams. the fabriC
has 0.5 cm wide blanket-stitehed seam
There is no direet conncction between the rat'
F;g. 63. Uilh Ihm gortS from a man i gr4u al D.un.
PlwfiJ fli.f/DriJlc .\luuum. Btrgrn.
In a Iumpofcloth at the head, tablel-woven bands
v.ere found v.ith geometrical patterns resembling
Ihose from D\Te Berge. 4.2.6.. and Snartcmo Y,
4.2.5.. bdo\\. One fragment is II cm long, max.
width 4cm. On one edge there are 8 tablets threaded
ahemalely in pairs. This band. whieh is in \'ery poor
condition. is sewn on 10 a 2/2 Iwill whieh seems to be
ofa dilTerent qualilY from the sltt\e fabric. The dOlh
badly "1eeehed'. which makes the quality hard tO
The grave is dated to the 6th eentury.
The linds from the woman's grave show that she had
been wearing " . h .
. . ,garment WII long sleeves endmg
th cuffs and clasps. The band, woven with indi-
\1 ual tUms d bo .
h ' ..., e ges on th Sides wuh tablets
readed ahernately in pairs. The small fibulae
"ound at the shoulders were fastened to c10th of a
uner qualit\" th h
b .' an l e cruciform brooch on the
reast v.'hlch s h
fib I . uggests I al the brooch and the
1 u ae belonged drr.
naleh the 2/2 . to I crent garmems. t.: nfortu-
l\nll on the dasps could nOl be ana-
The finds in the' .
hilheno eme ed s grave from whal has
luo. si . rg., 10 that Iher mdude a Iunic with
tt\ es \\-hlch d
and labl o not end at the bouom with
el-wo\'en bands. Instead thesesleeves
Fig. 64. u;;lh OM gort from D.un.
have a cuff of double fabric. The CUl of the
differs from lhat at Hgom by having a straight
sleeve seam which follows the selvage ofthe fabric on
one side. The c10lh was probably much the same
\\idth all the way, apan from the cuff. Unfortunately
the sl\'es are torn off, and so the upper cut cannot
be studie<.!.
The lablel-wovcn band ",.-jlh geometrical pauem-
ing may possibly have bclonged to a c1oak.
4.2.2. Veiem, Grong, Nord-Trendelag
This burial mound, whieh had been flattcned by
ploughing to a diameter of 18 ro and a hcight of 0.7
m, was investigaled in 1976 b)' Oddmun Farbregd
(1979:20ff). The SlOne tist was 4.2 m long and 0.8 m
wide, on an east-west axis.
Apan from a number of large objecls which pro-
truded upwards and things which had c1carly been
moved by voles to a higher le\'e1, the linds were
concentrated in a layer up 10 5 cm thiek at the
bottom of the tis!. The dead man lay in Ihe western
part of the tist with his head poinling wcstwards.
The grave gifts are dominaled by what is thc mOSI
complete array of weapons discovered in 'orway
hilherto. Thc man's sword la)' at his right side.
the point of Ihe sword la)' a knife. Al the head end
Ihere stood an axe with ilS edge downwards. The
Thcre weTC (','O mountings, with rings and a pair
of Iweezers, belonging 10 Ihe belt.
The easlcrn part oflhe cist was filled with ....aocktI
vessds ofvarious kinds. fOUl'
Accompanying thc costume there
cl.,ps each with 5+5 buttans' {WO orthe oogt
, '""
bunans weTe not round, Fig. 65. The bultons ()IIItJ
two kinds: smallerones of silver gill. and larger _ ...
d' en_,
ofgilt bronze. All of them had the same TU IIll

Fig.65. Four clasps allachtd lo lab!rl-u;ovm band and 212111.;illjrom Vlilm, Nord-TTfllddag. Plzala: l'iltn,1r:apsmusul.
shidd had been positioncd al thc dcad man's feet.
Parallcl to his right side there la)' [WO long spears
with theiT points in the eastern side of the grave.
:\'ear the shafts of the spears lay a longbow and an
A small group ofimplemcms was discovered near
the man's head, viz a quanzite beh-stonc, {Wo awl-
like iron objecls, a pair of iron shears in a wooden
ease, and a knife.
. l d ration in the middle. 11 is hard 10 tell
ClfCU aT tCO ..
,''005 orthe lind how thcv were orJgJ-
from t t con '
on the oostumc. Clasp halves
dh hh
. ,og-,her have not been foun ere, w le
be .
has been laken 10 imply disturbanee by "01'::5.
of the bullons were outside the dead man's body,
I.hich the c"C3\"ator look 10 mean that they had
btlon!{ed 10 agarmen! which the clead man
fftth-ed as a gra,"c gift and had not been weanng.
The butlons are altached 10 horsehair-pallcmed,
lab]c(-.....ovcn bands SCWTI on to 2/2 (will. The bcst-
prcscl"\'ed band (FI49ak: is 7.7 cm wide and woven
.....ilh tablets. There are three cablers threaded
alternaIely in pairs on onc edge, while on the other
the patlern extcncls all the way. The patterned sec-
lion begins with 0.4 cm weft wrapping with the
wraps in altcrnatc directions, after whieh the
pancrning changes to broken 2/2 weft-faced twill
and wcft-wrapping. The paHern is onI)" fragmentar-
il\" preservcd. The band is sewn on tO what is now a
R"r<'('n 2/2 twiJl,just under the buttons, and folded on
the diagonal. so that the pattern begins 0,9 cm from
the by the lower button and 0,4 cm from the
upper one. The band is folded o\'er 1.5 cm against
the back and has a whip stitched edge, The fabric is
preser\"ed a linle wa)" abo"e the IOp edge of the hand.
Her(' th('re is a 1.2 cm long slit seam, sewn with
blan1:('t stitch along the roge and backstitch on the
fold at the seam. Of the other clasp halves, F39 is
anaehed. 10 a now 6.3 cm wid(' tableH....oven band
with a border on one side wo\"('n with two tablets
with red. warp threads. Other tablets threaded in the
sam(' eolour. now ydlow. 2-pl\" S.twisted }'arn
. r. .', .
. aln .... elt red, 2-ply, S-twlsted woollen yarn. The
:u('rned seCtion comprises 71 tablets. Therc is no
.ge horder on the inner edge of the band. The
begins on the hook side 0.7 cm inside the
o ed edge, i.e. exactly below the Outer edge of the
uttons On the e 'd h
d' ye SI e t e pattcrn passes round the
"hand ?own the back. This band also bcIong,
oget er w1th wh .
on u d I al IS now a green 212 twill. Itissewn
I\' Os er .lle buttons with running stitch in red 2-
.' -t\"lsted woolI T
w'av . en yarn. he doth extends a
<d,- bo doUlslde the band on the side which has no
.," r er The . 1
cm I '. lS a so astra)" 2/2 fragmem 1.5
oog, wHh sIn se . '
hackstitch in ,",' . am, I.e. blanket seam and
Other;, F40 h hat IS now red and yellow. Of the
. as a ha d 'd h
tabl('b threaded I n ...., t of 7.3 cm and three
The pattern . a tematel)" in pairs on one roge.
...tlon h..-:
. h . r. . ,
t (' wt'ap 1 ......5' .....,t ..... elt wrappmg wnh
Slnatern d' ,
....ith tablell. h ate IreCllOns. F50 has no edges
nn ..... ide Th' "h
altematelv in pairs and is 7 2
. eot erb d' .
in a \\'idth an s are fragmemary and none
greater than 4.8 cm. All bands
are probably allached 10 the same green 212 twilI.
Under the sword were a rust-impregnated frag-
ment of tablet-woven band, eight layeTS of rust
impregnated 212 twiII and, on the outside, fur.
At F 147 there were two qualities ofrustimpreg-
nated 212 t.....ill, respectively IOx6 and 14x 12
threads/cm, ZIZ.
By the shears and knife there were twO or three
layers of 212 twill, IOx6 threads/cm.
A band-shaped bronze foil is folded in the middle
round a tablet-woven band 10 reinforce a join, Fig.
66. The band is 4.6 cm wide and patterned with
individual turns. The centre section is woven with
about 60 tablets in at least three colours, the original
colours probably being yellow (or .....hite), red and
blue (or green). The diagonal tums a few times -
that is, a number of tablets are threaded from one
dircction and then the threading direction tums,
possibly in connection with changes of colour. The
111111111111111[1111111111111111111111111111'1111111111I 11
Fig.66. Ribboll-shapd brow.efoil, origina/ly
falded round ajoillt in Iht labltlwovtn band
palltrntds with indit'iduallurns. Vtirlll, l'lord-
Tr.ndtlag. /'how: !'iltns!apslllusul, Trondhtim
"srripes" var)' a linle in width. Of the pauerning,
formed by the changes of oolour, only insignificam
traces remain. This band has three or four tablets
threaded ahernately in pairs on eaeh edge. On hoth
edges Ihere are traces ofstitching of2-ply, S-t.....istro
)"am, but no traces of fabric.
This grave is datro to c. 500.
As stated earlier, the position of the c1asps in the
grave tells us nothing aOOm [hcir position on the
COSIumc. Thc hand togethcr \\"ith F39 is 6.3 cm wide
and has [WO tablets on one edge. None of the other
fragments can rdiah!y connectcd .....ilh this band.
In F149 the hand is 7.7 cm wide and has three tablets
on oncedge. The band in f40 is 7.3 cm wide and also
has three tablets on onc edge. The hand in FSO is
incomp!clely prescrved, 7.2 cm. It probably had an
cclgc border with tablets thrcaclcd alternately in
pairs. If.....e are to go by the design or the bands, then
F50, by virtuc of its width, shouJd belang logether
with F40 and 149. Most probably, F40 and F50
belong logether, bccause oflhe similar war in which
the fabric extcnds beyond the c1asp halves and
because oflhc diagonal cut of the doth in relation (O
the band on F4Q. The incompletdy preserved band
.....idthsdo not allowany deductions about Iheolhers.
80th the band widths are attached tO Ihe same,
now green 2/2 I.....ill. Ofcourse, Ihis docs not make il
ccnain thaI Ihey belonged to the same garmem.
The slriped band. with a metal foil over a join,
may perhaps have been used as a baldrick. The
traees of stitching on both edges of Ihe band may
suggesl that it was originally lined maybe with
lcalher since there are no traces of fabric.
The coarse 2/2 twill was probably, as in many
other graves, used as a shroud or merely placed over
or beneath Ihe dead man.
4.2.3. EvebelEide, Gloppen, Sogn & Fjordane
This grave is one of the mosl opulem and beSt-
known from Ihe Norwegian period. The
find has been trealed by many aUIhors. Particularly
imeresting in the textile context are Gustafson
(1889), Dedekam (1924/25), Hougen (1935),
nus (1978,1982,1983) and Raknes Pcdcrsen (1982,
Thc burial mound was 24-25 m in diameter and 4
ffi high. The burial cist was eneased in a cairn 2 m
high and 7 m in diameter. The chamber, on a NW-
SE axis, was4.2 m long, O. 70-0. 75 m wide and 0.8-1
m deep. It was huilt of sixteen up-ended slabs.
Unfortunately, in 1889 the landowner dedded 10
excavate the grave himself. Before the destruction
had progrcssed too far, a land readjuslmcnt official
working in the area was informed and thanks 10 him
the find was rescued for poslerity. The eaSlern part
oflhe grave, in,,-estigalcd firsl, was found to contain
mostly Ihe remains of stOrage vesseIs. The deceased
had lain in the north-western half of the chamber,
probably wilh his head in the centre oflhe chamber
and his feet against the north-wesl wall (Shetclig
1912:112). This part of the grave was dividcd intO
four seclions, which were lifted separalely by means
ofiron sheeling inserted undernealh them. Since tbc
presence of textile remains in thc gra\'e was
immediatcly nOliced, sheel 1 was not lifled With::
same care as Ihe others. The roof slabs could nOl be
lifted clcar, and so Ihe iron sheels had to beexlraeted
through a narrow aperture belween twooflhem. Il
underSlandablc that, in spite of the care laken
great deal was diSlurbed and destroved. ' a
The iron sheets and their contents were packed
and sent on to Bergen for funhcr excavation. The
land readjustment official made a lenglhy rcpon OG
his salvage operation, but it was losl shonl\'
wards (Magnus 1983:295). Consequently ....e DO
longer know how Ihe different iron sheelS with the
finds were placed in relalion 10 each other.
Although the objeelS on cach of the sheets do lIOt
appear crucial to the determinalion oforiginal
ment, and ahhough scveral of !hem ha\'C beca
moved, here, in slightly commented form, is the !iii
campiled hy Gabriel Gustafson during the unpad:-
ing process (l889:7fl).
Sheef l. "Decorated fabric", meaning tableH..o\'CIl;
bands wilh animal figures; first a band wilh three
animal figures and twO other ornaments sewn on 10
fine woollen fabric, and then a small fragment with.
relatively distinct animal figure. Guslafson is rd'tI'-
ring here to the so-called animal frieze.
A larger, still continuous pieee whicb bad bce-
wrapped round the dead man's waist in SC\enI
folds. GUSlafson maintains Ihat Ihis cannot hawe
been ilS original place in Ihe grave, bccausc tbeR
was still belt mountings on tbe fabric and markslt:ft
by olher mountings.
Man)', variouslysized piecesofralberfine ....oolIcD
fabric. On some fragments one can see a green
thread which has been woven in, forming very !arge
squarcs. Somewhat coarser than the fabric from lhe
Buckle with rcmains of the belt, which had beC'II
3.8 cm wide.
Beh mounting.
Fragment of wood. . the
Derorated fragment of wood belonging WIth
Clasps wilh three gilt bronze buttons \,;Ih profiled
. 'on \Oitha
Sides and ooullIersunk Slyle 1ornamen

human head in profile attached 10 tablet-\O'()VClI
bands with horsehair Among Ibe 0rna-
ments one could discern part of a human figure. at
Gustafson also mcntions thaI "of the borders II
right angles to these, only insignificant
survive, but they seem to show thaI these
were of the same kind".
. Possibl\" added later from sheet
. h I,s;appears 10 have stood or at east
1I1.1\here-1 el!;
he fraaments WCTC located.
1111'" Il ",'"
Half a radius.
Two o\"al belt mountings, onc ofthem wilh
\f'N/. I' hbl
" l' h. and a sIrap lag: be oogmg (O l e e t-
a ,m c-a- le; . .
"Eternit\ ring"
FernlIc bclonging 10 thc sword.
Part of a balancc.
Handle maunling from the shielcl.
Small awl-shapcd stick of bane.
L<-ather pouch with wtight.
T'Io onc 2.\ cm. with 2+2 flat, plain
bUllans with textile fragments.
T\\o clasps. one 3.3 cm. with 3+3 huttons as
!Xroratffi fragment of wood from the sword
\'eral insignificanl textile fragments.
Birch bark.
Half an ulna.
511ul 111. Shidd boss.
T"o bronze rings with mountings.
.\ dasp with buttons of silver gilt.
Comer piece of woollen fabric with bands, show
inlt animal figures. on both edges. I n the comer the
band turns inlO a tassel. The square piece where the
cros.s onee hOld an animal omamentation the
fonn ofwhieh cannot now be
This is the so-called doak corner.
Larger pieees of fabric of \'arious qualities.
Innumerable small fragments of glass.
Insil!;nifie:lm fragments of bronze leather wood
etc. ' ,
Animal fells and birch bark
Some finger phalanges. .
Half an ulna.
Silur IV. Insignificant traces of woollen fabric and
insignificant fragments of wood etc.
There is no information ooncerning the positioning
of other finds in the grave.
Shetdig (1912:112f) interprets the grave as
fo11ows, Fig. 67. Beneath the body was a layer of
bireh bark, the ends ofwhich on !)oth sides hOld been
bent upwards and rolled along the wa11s of the grave.
On top of the birch bark was a bear skin, and the
dead man lay on this, wcaring his costume and
passibly also shrouded in a c10ak or same other
fabric. Only fragments of the ske!eton remOlined.
The sword lay at the man's right side and the shidd
boss with its handle mounting at his [highs. Consid-
erable pans of the belt lay right across the grave in a
straight line from the sword. Of the belt there
remained a buckle, a strap tag, a strike-a-Iight in a
sening and corrcsponding bronze mountings with-
out any strikea-light. In addition there were small
rings ofbronze in which there hOld been hung a knife
with a wooden shaft and wooden sheath and an awl.
The so-called etemity ring lay in thc middle of the
belt. Other objeets possibly connceted with the eos-
tume cannot be reliably localiscd in the grave, for
lack of data.
There has been much discussion aOOm clating.
Shete1ig suggests (1912: II 7) the sccond half of the
5th century.
T7u In:tillS
Best-known among thc textile finds are the bands,
and among them the so-called animal fricze, Fig. 68.
The ooloursofthis band, as with so many ofthe other
textiles, are faidy well-preserved. The edges, with
respectivcly 8 and 9 tablets threaded alternately in
pairs, are now bluish-green. The pattern of the mi d-
die seetlon, woven with 23 tablets, is yellowish-red
on one side against a ground and vice
versa on the other side. The band is 2.4 cm widc. Thc
pattern is done in individual tums and has apattern
of animal ornamentation; see aJso Chaps. 8.2.4. and
9.1. The band is sewn on to a fulled, now brown 2/2
twill, 16-18x 16-18 thrcads/cm. The fabric isjoincd
with a 12 cm long seam at right angles to the band.
Thc pieces of cloth have been taken in different
directions. Viewing from the back, the right piece
has a tubular waven selvage along 7 cm of the scam.
The seam is only 0.5 cm wide. According to a recent
analysis by Inger Rakncs Pedersen (per. corn. 1991),
the procedure is as follows. First the pieces of cloth
are placed edge 10 edge and sewn together with small
running stitches, 3-4 per half cm. The seam is then
Fig. 68 il and b. 50-called Gllimalfrin:.e from EiJt
The "animal fric<:.e' fahric is joined loge/luT hy a wmplicalld
seam. The edge is stwn in Mankel s/ilch and Ihe band u'kip
slilched in Ihe Mankel stam. DetaU ahoN. Photo: Svein Skart,
Historisk .Museum, Bergen.
"pressed" apart and a line of blanket stitches sewD
over the seam allowances from the middle of the
seam across the seam allowance. Lastly, the OUtefo
most line of blanket stitches is sewn in lhe loops fl
[he previous line. Sti[ch count 7-g/cm. The inner
line is sewn in red the other in "ellow 2-ply, S-
twisted yam. The stitch is sewn with
3-ply yam. Thus the previous analysis, reproduccd
in Raknes Pedersen 1933:3] 2, no longer holds good
The fabric has a sparse blankel stitch in the edge.
sewn with red 2-ply, S-twisted wooilen yarn.
band is whip stitched round the ollter tablet twist
and round approximately every other blanket stil:
in. t?e fabric. It is hard to tell whether the sDathe
ongmally tumed spontaneously lip toward
obverse side of the fabric as it does noW, or hat
"fallen out" of the fabric. The scam, however, is SO
"loose" that the band could possibly aIso be all
extension of the fabric. me
On a 9 cm long band of the same kind, and on 'tb
same type oftwill as lh;t previously mentiolJed. Wl ....
. the s
the seam bctween band and fabric done m
FI.S:. 69. G/oak (emu sho . h h b d .
f b lEd '. wltlg aw I t all s W(re wovtn Igller In the comlr and tht warp IlIrtads (lid wIth tassrLJ. Scal, 1:1.
_lt. 1 t. Pila/o: HIS/on"sk MuStum, Btrgn!.
.... .ly. the band fall r. '.
dffi s out lrom the fabnc wIthout any
l ICult\' whatsoe . p bl.
lh' \er. OS51 \" il was the position in
(" {t"ra\'C which Ii d h b .
. Ixe l e and In relation to thc
a ne.
The fragment rer. ed
Sish of'>!? "Il err 10 as the c10ak romer coo-
- - 1W1 and IVo'
_l F" o crOSS\\lSe bands cnding in
lo, Ig.69 Th' ro b .
lOarpand' Z IS a nc has a 2-ply. S-lwisted
lhn'ad I a -Spunw
s cm. The side . h h
band has b Wl( t e mare fragmentarv
. a tu ular WOve l . .
sld(' has a {"bl n se vage, Whlle the other
d .. C1-
oven bo d Th
I ("ntified b . r er. IS fabric is easily
,ecausensl' . 2
....('fl Z-spun J' \arp IS -ply, S-twisled and its
. IlS now reddish-brown and probably
fulled. Sevcral fragments show that i{ was a check of
alleast {WO ooiours, now green and yeJlowish-
brown. The squares were about 12x 12 cm large and
Ihe stripes oonsislcd somelimes of four green
Ihreads, somclimes of four green, four yellow and
four green. Thc band is whip Slitehed to the fabric
round the outer tablel t ....'ist.
The corner has been farmed by wcaving the bands
togeiher. The warp of one band is also the warp of
the continuation. The warp from the olher band was
divided inta groups and servcd as a wef!. The tab-
lets, as previously, wcrc lurned individually (er.
Chap. 8.2.4.) and the patterns eonsisl of animal
ornamentation (er. Chap. 9.2.). :\ccording 10 Gus-
lafson (!889; 15) the square piece forming the romer
had an animal U) ornament. the original form of
which could not be idcmifiecl. A paltern is still visi-
ble, but il is too incomplclc for any doser determina-
tioll. \Vhen the corner was fully woveR, the threads
were divided into groups for tassels. Now only fivc
remain on cach side, whcrcas originalJy there were
six. The tassels are made with cablers in the same
war as at Hgorn, ef. Chap. 3.1.4. The lassds from
the "warp tableIS" end with a knot. Those from thc
weft tablets" are now rcpealt'd on the outside.
The bands in the romer fragment are 2.7 cm wide.
Like those in the animal frieze. Ihey are woven with
40 tablcls, the edge border next 10 the fabric with 12
tablcts threaded alternately in pairs.
The "doak corner" and the "animal frieze"
belonged to different garments. The bands are rela-
tively similar in colour and width, except that the
doak corner has 12 lablets on the edge and the
animal frieze eighl and nine respeclively. The
number of tablets on the edge may ha\'e changed
somewhat as ..,,'ork progressed but hardly as much as
from eight to twelve. The decisiYc argument in
favour of the two bands belonging 10 different gar-
ments, however, is the fabrics they are anached 10.
The fabric of the doak corncr is now reddish-brown
and fulled, ",ovcn with a 2-ply, S-twisted warp and it
is chequercd. The fabricofthe animal friczc is woven
with Z-spun yarn in both directions and is fulled.
This fabric is unevenly coloured, varying belween
brownish-yellow, brownish-green and almost black,
and originally il was probably blue. h is of coufSt
possible for a, garment {Q be made up of dilfertndy
colourcd fabncs, er. 0ne Berge 4.2.6., but hardl\ as
in th,e pres:nl case, Nor does it secm likdy thai a'red
fabnc havmg yellow and green squares would ha
been joinecl lOgethcr with a blue one to makc somve
thing like a cloak. to
There are scvcral small fragments of band \o\hich
belonged to one or other of the two bands wida
animal ornamentation.
The .foll?wing w ~ bands have wefHnapped
pattemmg m horsehalr. One ofthem is Il cm Ioac
and 3.3 cm wide wilh edge horders on both sides.
each with 12 lablets and a 1.7 cm wide pattma
section woven with 26 tablets, Figs. 70, il. Tbc
patterned section is divided inlO reclangular lieldsof
whieh two complctc remain, 2.6 and 3.0 cm long
Betwccn the pattcrned sections there are 0.7-0.8 an
wide sections woven with qual"ler-turns. The bandis
sc,...n on 10 a reddish-brown, fulled 2/2 lwill,
20-24 x 20-24 threads/em, Z/Z. One edge of the
band is sewn to an edge of the fabric wo\"Cn with four
tablets. The band is whip slitched round the OU1CI'
tablet lwist with 2-ply, S-twislCd woollen yarn. 0Dly
minor fragments of twill remain. Traces of2-ply, So
twisted thread in the ollter eclge twist show that the
band was also sewn on at the other edge. There are
several smallcr fragments extant of this band and
The other horsehair-patterned band is attached to
high bUllons of gilt bronze with Slyle I ornamenta-
tion. Fig. 72. The band is 3.7 cm wide \\ilh an edge
Figs. 70, 71. Band u;ilh IwruMir palkmillg, cwyJjrom tht m:mniJt andfrom tlre oIJurst. Eub./Eidt. &altl: l. Phato.
lIf/lStlim, Btrgt1l.
F.,. il, C"r;
flo1l/ IlIt lunie -Ib L - ,_. fi ..
a'Uf 3+3 b I .. Ims. c.....p bulwmjOr IM stamdIlmv rlt.up, and band and/abne rrJm lk ebups frlth, ruptcllf.vly,
u tOns. Eub.1Eidt. &ak I: J. PIuJIo: Historisk JflUrom, 8"grn.
Fig. iJ. "lM lDrgatpil()ffahric is63mi u:idt.foldtddOllbftand /L-i/b an indmlatwn uft by ~ hII. "lMfabrit is tht J(l11itas
and tlu Iilbkl-lL'Ul't1I band In Figs. iO, il. Enb./Eiu. Scak /:5. PIw/o: HisUJTisk MllStwn, BtTg"'.
horder on one side woven with 15 tablels and a
patterncd seclion woven with 50 ta biets. Thc band is
sewn on to 2/2 {will oflhc same quaIity as the prcvi-
DUS band. The fabric is edgcd with blanke! slitch
alang the lower edge. The band is then whipslilched
10 Ihe rabric round la the auter tablet (wist and the
loopsoflhe blanke! slitchcs. Il is foldcd 1.4 cm round
the back and sewn down with quite large blanke!
stitches. At the upper end of the band the fabric
changes 10 what is now a 4.5 cm long slil seam. This
scam is 0.4 cm ","ide. It is sewn in a similar "'ay to
that round at Hgern, first wilh {WO lines ofblankcl
slitching and then, on the oUIside, a line of tailor's
stitchcs. On the seam allowance there are (WO lines
ofback stilching vicwed from the band-trimmed side
(analysis I. Raknes Pedersen 8th ~ l a r c h 1991). The
cloth is cut in such away that at one halfofthe clasp
its threads are paralIeI to the band, whiJeat the other
half they are heavily angled.
The largest surviving piece ofcloth in the flnd is of
thc same quality as the above menlioned red 2/2
twill. It was found heavily creased and folded to a
height of about 21 cm, Fig 73. Unfolded and fully
cXlcnded il is 63 cm wide and 42 cm high.
Gustafson (1889: 17) mentions a number of plain
silver clasps which were still attached to small pieces
of fabric but were in very bad condition and had
partly crumbled away. The buttons are now gone,
but the bands and fabrics to which the)' were
attached remain, Fig. 72. The cJasps, originally with
2(3+3) bUllons, was attachcd to a horsehair-
pauerncd band. This band is 3,8 cm wide and is
wo\'en with 58-60 tablets, i.e. different ly from the
previous one. The fabric to which the band belonged
cannot be analysed more closely, but clearly it
not the red, futled c10th to which the other
the same kind were attached.
The c1asps, originally with 2(2+2) but
attached tO a band paucrned with indi\idualtoGl,
Like the animal frieze and the c10ak band that
is now reddishyellow and bluish'green.' Tbc
width and number of tablets tally fairly weB
those previously mentioned, but the edges are
rent, with five tablets on one edge and nine OD.
other. The fabric has a thread coum ofaboutl6x
cm. One fragmem shows that the c10th was
angJed al Ihe band. lt was probab!y fulled lDlI
quitc dark. Here again, the fine, red, fulled
from the mnic is excluded. Too lillle ma
remains, howe\"er, for a more exaCl determiJUlQ
be possible.
Hougen (1935:82) mentions a \'cry fra
fabric of212 twill, the thread count of which
be measurcd but which has an interesting coleur
describes this fabric as pale ycllowish-brewn wiIb
threacled, greenish-blue Stripes in both the...-arp
weft directions. This is probably the same rabric
discussed by Raknes Pedersen (1983:304). givu.
thread count as 14x 11 lem, Z/Z. She puts the
tance bctween the slripcs in one direetioll at 15.5-
cm. 11 is impossible to tell whethcr the "sq
were acmally square or rectangular.
Thc find also indudes another chequerro
Threadcount16-18x16-18/cm,Z/Z. Thisfa
now reddish-brown, with 15-16 cm squares fl
by six green, six brownish-yellow and four
In addition to the fabrics mentioned abo"c,
As Dedekam already assumed (1924/25:21) the
coarser fabric which had lain next to the bcarskin
bclonged 10 a blanke!.
Thc SQo-called c10ak corner is probably just that,
but it is impossibk to gauge the full size of the c1oak.
The largest piece offabric, 63 x42 cm, is identical
v.-ith that described by Gustafson (1889: 14) as "part
of the costume which went round the dead man's
waist". The buckle was still Iying on the faboc,
which borc the marks of seveT31 mountings. Dede-
kam (1924/25:19) believes thatthis fabric belonged
together with the doak. Hougen (1935:82) objccted
that this did nOl tally and that the fabric belonged
instead with the two hOTSehair-pauerned bands,
which is probably correCL The large fragmem sug-
gests agarmcnt which had a whole front, was at lcast
63 cm wide and was worn with a beh. The fabric has
no seams on any side, and so the lenglh, as weU as the
width of the garment, cannot be measured. The
fragmem should have reached about 25-30 cm
below the belt. The garmem had been dccoratcd
with two different kinds of band. The widest band
belongs together with the finest buttons in the find
and probably, as at Hgom, belongs tO the cuffs. In
both cases thc bands have no inner edge barder and
the fabric is heavily angled at one c1asp halr. Gustaf-
son mentions (1889: 15) that therc werc insignificant
traees of borders at right angles in relation to the
border to whieh thc c1asp was attaehed. Dedekam
(1924/25:34) was unable to find this. Gustafson was
eoneeivably rcfcrring 10 one of the small horsehair-
patterned fragments of band mentioned above.
Thesc bands might have been sewn on 10 the lower
edge of the garment. The cuffs may have been
positioned so as to be at right angles to the lower
cdge border of the garmenl.
Magnus (1983:300) mentions a piece ofhorsehair
panerned band and fabrie found IOgether with a
knee cap, from whieh she eondudes that the mnie
was knee-Iength. Closer investigation has cast doubt
on the identification of the skdetal fragment as a
knee cap. On the other hand, a fragment of the red
fabrieofthe mnie has been found on a vertebra. This
is probably a lumbar vertebra, no. 4-6. (Analysis by
Rolf\\". Lie, First Conservator, Museum ofZoology,
the man. The thread had been twistcd, but thc mate-
rial it was once twisted with is now lost; see Fig. 74.
There are sevcral squarc and rectangular fidds
cdgcd with this thread, and also a considerablc
numbcr of stray fragments of thread indicating an
irregular pattern, Fig. 75.
F,t. :"4 offw ltalhn f11 filt. ttigtd u:i/h sinnc.' Muad,
il,""jOJmti tlllluzirfrom IM mall. Eub,/ Eidt. PIwIlJ: HisllJrisk
is aho a coarsc. now dark brown faboc, 9-lOx 7-8
thn-ads/cm. z.:Z. of these fragments ha\"e
hair. sho\\ing thai the c10th lar next to bcaT
fdb Raknl's Pcdersen 1983:305).
. uart'S of fine katheT or feh sUTrounded b\" a
sinr.... thread. were found lyinf( coarse hair
Bergen University.) The fabric has scveral crcases
and the edge border of a tablct-woven band is sewn
on to ir. The band cdgc has eleven tablets, but no
tracts of pattcrning survive. Possibly thc fragment
belongcd together with the horschair-pattcrned
band on the Jower edge ofrhc maie, but il is not sewn
on to the fabric in thc same wa)'. The band is whip
stitchecl to thc fabric with what is now bluish-grecn
yam round the outer tablet twist, but not round a
sclvagc or starting border on a fabric or against a
blanket-stitchecl eclge, but instcad againsl a foJded
edge offahric about l cm wide. ICthe larger fragment
with reetangular patterned sections on thc band
comes from the front of the garmcnt, this might
possibly belong to thc back of the tunic. The position
with a finishing edge on a lumbar vertebra suggests
that the garment was not all that long. It is not
ineoneeivable, however, that the back was creased
more than the front.
Unfortunately no dctails ofcutting survive, except
for the lowcr pan of one sleeve. This being con-
stnlCted in the same \Vayas at Hogom, we can
probably assume that the sleeves wcre cut in a simi-
lar manner. Both the minimum width of the gar-
ment, 63 cm, and its minimum length, 25-30 cm
below the belt, are somewhat greater than at
Hgom, but otherwise they tell us nothing about the
appearance of the garment.
The clasps with 2(3 +3) buttons are attaehed to
wider horsehair-patterned band than the two on the
fine red fabric. The cloth cannot be analysed any
marc clasely, but, as stated earlier, the red fabric can
be excluded.
II has been possiblc to determine the sequenee of
the layers of cloth next to a number of rib banes
(Rakncs Pedersen 1983:304). Next 10 the banes
eomes the fine red cloth, then the animal-frieze cloth
followed by the doak cloth and the blanket. This is
not proof, but it is an indication that the animal
frieze belonged 10 agarment wom on top of the red
The clasps with 2 (2+2) buttons are attached to a
band of same type and colour as the "animalfrieu"
and the "cloak corner". The number oftabIets in the
edge barders, however, does not agree with either of
these. This fabric is aba hard 10 analyse, but the fine
red fabrie can, as stated eadier, be excluded. The
quaIity reminds one of the "animal frieze" fabric,
but itneed not necessarily be the same. From one of
the fragments one can see that the cloth was heavily
angled in relation to the band. This may passibly
mean that the dasps bclonged to a pair of sleeves. If
so, perhaps this is the second tunie whieh was
already suggested by Dedekam (1924125:35) but has
also been suggested, more recently bv
an attractlve hypothesls, but 1l cannot be p
The belt was on the outside of the red tunie. If
garment with the animal frieze was
. . v,,, O\'er
belt, 1\ oughtto have been dl/ferent in shape from
firSl garment.
\hgnus (1983:301) and Raknes Ped
(1984:313) suggest that the reddish-brown ra
with the large squares may have belonged lO
man's trousers, considering t he position of the fa
in relation to same small skcletal fragments. II
not been possible 10 verify this point.
The clasp with 2(3+3) bultans might
bclonged to the trousers, butthis again is impossi
to verify.
The yellowish-brown fabric with greenish.bJ
squares cannot be located in relation 10 anr obj
The small traces of decayed leather and twis
sinew thread found on the man's hair may possi
have bclonged to head gear offett or skin with in
sia work, Fig. 74. Simi1ar objeets oceur in the
ian finds (Rudenko 1970, Plate Ij5). There art
parallels, however, in the :\Iordie Migration P ,
material or in any other material, earlier or lata:
from this region.
The flnd also includes hare fur (Raknes Pede
1983:3] 3). [t has not been made elear what this
have been used for.
4.2.4. Ugulen, Luster, Sagn & Fjordane
The textile finds come from grave 1in mound I.
mound was 16 m in diameter and 2 m high, Ihe cist:
m long and O. 74-0.8S m wide. Part of the grave
inexpenly excavated, and so the positions
the finds are uncertain. The supplementary In
gation was carried out by Eyvind de Lange in I
(] 909:3 fI). Like several of the graves already .
tioned, this is a warrior's grave with a sword, .
boss three spearheads arrowheads and four knl
, , IS
The find includes four clasps. One set COOSIS.
2(3+3) large gilt bronze bultans \Vit. .
ornamentation. These buttons are 2.5 cm In di
ter and 1.2 cm high. Thc bul10ns for one dasP
torn olTthe bronze plate. The ot er e as
in siw. lt was roughlv in the middle of the
near one of the side walls and aecording to de
. '" . '[he bu
lt may have been on the lelt wnst.
. d tablet-
been al1ached to a horsehalr-patterne l
band. The band is defective on both sides. IS
, , 'th 80 13
sent wldth tS 7.2 cm woven \VI" .
, 'Il 'hclose
Thc band is sewn on 10 a 212 t\Vl \Vlt
FIl, 76. O"" oj /ht cllllpJ aUadltd lo a Iwmhair-/XJtltrntd band
ft-l."p/t1!. Sog" & Fjordal!t. Scalt 1:1. PM/o: HistoriJk
mg. also with bacKstilching. under Ihe
bullons_ Th(' patlern begins just under the bunons.
The direetion of Ihe wraps ,-aries with changes of
coIour. The panem begins with four wefts in red (?),
thrtt \\cfts of rellow and finally one of red.
The seeond sel ofclasps consists of2 (4+4) flat,
undttorale<! bronze bunons. Fig. 76. These were
I'IOt found in silU. They 100 are attached to a horse-
hairpaucrncd band. The width is incomplete 7cm
wO\en with alleast 75 tablets. of which :ix
Ptobablr tablets threaded ahernately in pairs at onc
Ige. The warp is yellow and the woollen wert red.
The band is SCwn with running stitch on to 2/2 twill
under the b tl .
II ons, IISlllg red 2ply, S.twisted
woollcn ,'arn O l h
h If . none c asp t e pallern begins on one
a under thc hunons. and on the other half after
I cm. The P" d .
temc seClion begms with 3><4 diffe
d . r..
bo i. re \\e'ts \\l\h the wraps changing direc-
n or eaeh newcol Tl b . .
wha . our. le and IS sull auached to
no\\ 2/2twill. 12>< 12 thrcads/cm Z/Z.
_, c Rra\e is dated to thc second half of 51h

One of th(' c1asps . h I
toughh in. . ."1{ arge gih bronze bUllons la)'
T1.._. POSlllOn ro d
....,."1. rrcspon mg to the lefl wrist.
sps probabl . bel
tion of the pI' fl r onged to cuffs. The posi-
am. at bUllons is unknown.
4.2.5. Snartemo, Haegebostad, Vest-Agdcr
Graves II and \. from Snartemo rank, togeIher wilh
Evebo, as the mOSI abundant texlile finds from the
Norwegian :\ligration period.
The finds from grave II camc 10 Stavanger
:\luseum through a buyer in 1878 and are now in
Oldsaksamlingen, Oslo. Xothing is kno.....n about the
original positions of the indi...ridual items in the
gra",e. The lexliles ha\'e pre,iously been dealt with
in delail by Dedekam (1924125:36fl) and Hougen
Like most of the gra\'es already mentioned, Snar-
temo II is a warrior's grave with a sword, shicld, no
fewer than four spearheads and an axe. The social
context is also indicatcd by glass bcakers, aVestland
cauidron, bronze dishes and three gale! currency
Several c1asps are included in the lind, but only
two of them are still attached to band and fabric.
Originally there were 2 (4+4) kidneyshaped silver
buttonson a 6.5 cm wide tablet-woven band, Fig. n.
Only one edge has a border, of tablets threaded
alternately in pairs. The panerncd section is in red
woollen yarn, passing under (he threads from two
tablcts, over the lhreads from two tablets and so on,
next to the bunons and afler that horsehair soumak;
further to this, see Chap. 8.2.3. The band is sewn on
to 2/2 twill with closdy spaced running stitches. The
cut end is folded 1.5 cm round the back and sewn
down with blanket stitch. The twill is no..... green,
thread eaunt l6x 16/cm, Z/Z. Above Ihe band edge,
which does nOl have tablets thrcadcd alternately in
pairs. there is a slit seam of the same kind as at
Hgom and Evebo, with a maximum length of 1.7
cm. The lower edgeofthe fabric is sewn with blankel
stitch and the band is scwn on with whip stitch
round the outer tablet twist.
There are five large silver gilt buttons, uncon-
nected with the fabrics. They are high, with profiled
sides and have countersunk Stylc I ornamentation
on {Op. Three smaller silver gilt butwns have pro-
filed sides and a countersunk {OP side with simple
loap ornamentation. There is also a fragmentary
bulton ofsilver gilt with a cruciform ornament. Thus
Ihere may have been another three setS of clasps.
According 10 the description ofthe find, the five large
bUllons were anachcd to the edge of a 13x 13 cm
large piece of 2/2 t\\--1I1, with a thread count of
16x 12/cm, Z/Z, Fig. 78, probably nOt of the same
quality as the clasps mentioned abo"e. The fabric
has an 11.5 cm long blanket-se.....n seam along one
side. The seam is deflectcd and has a line of bach
stitches along the edge, and so it is probably one side
ora slit. 0.5 cm inside the folded cdge is a line o(
hales. The distance between the first fi\"c hales
cm and thai thc [ifth and sixth I .)
the three uppermost holes there afe
with traces ?fa 4 cm clasp. By
holes there afe ImpressIons ofa clasp bUI no lfaCQ
bronze. Thcre is nothing to suggest [hat th
originally a band togclhcr with the fabric, bUI
is a picce oft"'i11 with a broken, reversed diagonal
one direction which has bOlh a crease and tw0holea
which fit thc first piece of doth.
The find indudes IWO lablel-wo\"cn
loose. Oneofthem is ';.8 cm wide with
done using individuallUms, fig. i9; see also Chap.
8.2.4. The othcr band, onl)' 0_8 cm ""'ide. is
patterned with individual tums, bUl gcometricaD,
arranged; see Chap. 8.2.4.
Il is hard tO tell how man)' qualities of r"iD
find originally induded. Dedekam made it
(192412';:45 f) and Hougan five (1935:69). Ik-ndcr
J0rgensen gives 23 different qualitics in her cala)o.
gue (1986:250). Possibly there are about tcn.
rcnt fabrics in....olved. SC\'cral of the
faidy similar, which makes it hard 10 gi\-e an
number. The direction of spinning is oonsis\ent
for both warp and weft. The following qualilies
relatively certain:
(I) Coarsc, now dark brown 212 twill. The
Iighter than the weft. 8-9x8-9 threads/cm.
(2) A 212 t\"'ill, now pale brown, ""ilh d
brown 1.5 cm wide stripes in both directions
squarcs, 12 x II threads/cm.
(3) A broken lozenge twill. Tubular-""'o\"en
agc, 18x9 thrcads/cm. 011(: fragment has a 3.5
long slit, but no seam above il. This fragment is
wom and no slit seams are discernible.
(4) t\ now reddish-brown Iwill wilh a brolcl.
rcversed diagonal in onc direction, 20x 18 thrtadsl
cm. This fragment has a crease and hales
togethcr ""ith the long slit seam \,ith imprS10as
(5) Red, fulled 2/2 twill, 20x 15 thrcads/cm.Oae
fragmcnt has a sparscly whip stitched seam.
. h thC'
(6) A now green 2/2 twill togcther \\1t
nev-sha.....d bUllans 16 x 16 threads/cm.
..-, h <hi
(7) A now brown 212 (will, 16x 12 t
with a slit seam and marks from twO dasps m a-
Therc are several 212 twill fragments with se
One fragment measuring 12x 16 cm has
. . h double lind
.6---0.8 cm WIde seams sewn \\'1t .
blankel slitching (possibly one row of milor s s
and one row of blankel stitch) on each hem I
Thread coum 14x 13 Icm. Z/Z. A 12x 15 cm
. ' ". h sal5
plece, probably of the same qua a
Fig. 77. TIu 1::id7l'Y'-sha/Hd bu/lons wm (lngina/ly atl(lthed lo
labltl-wovm bOlid and 2/2/will. Snar/lml) Il. Scol, 1: l, Ph%;
Oldsak1amling, OS(Q.
Fig. 78. 2/2 tu:ill with inlprtssioJU offmi Of roL"O d(J.Sps alld II
lwill wilh brokm ru'trstd diagonal in OM direeliM also with
imprusions of a dasp. Snarlnno II. Scol, 1:2. Pno/Q: UnivtT-
sihuls OltislJkJamling, Oslo.
Fil 79. TlJ.:o labltl-wot'cn bands with individuiJ/lurns. Snarltmo l/. Scal, 1:1. Ph%: Ullil:trsiltltts Oldsaksamling, Oslo.
seam which can be a continuation from the previous
fragment. Thesc fragmcllIs possibly belong togethcr
l'Iith (7), above.
A somewhat coarscr fabric 12x 11 thrcads/cm
Z ' ,
Il. has a 29 cm long whip stitched seam between a
fragmeOl with a selvage and a fragment with a l cm
folded-over edge.
Dating: c. 500.
The65c "d
. . ffi Wl C tablct-woven band on green 2/2
twlll and the kOd h
". l ncy-s apcd buttons are the fines!
COm lnatlon d
. an were most probably cutTs of a
Dcdekam (1924/25:36) and Haugen
in "'h: hJbo
obscrvcd. Thesc are the onlv bands
nIe thh h" .
pat. orse ::ur and wool have been used for
al the same time.
The eoarsest 2/2 'Il
belonged tWI , no. I above, probably
to a blanket . h" h
shroud d In w le the dead man was
, "
Dedekam (1924/25
abo'OC m' :48) has suggested plaeing ,h,
ent10ned fr .
"am h I agmellt with a blanket-slitehed
, o es along th .
bronze traecs l": e seam and Impressions and
.rom dasp, "h "
Ofonadoak . 101 eneekslltofthetunie
, SInce there .
were no matchmg clasps.
He notes that the fahric quality is not the same as
with the kidney-shaped hunons, and he therefore
suggeSlS a position on the cloak. Hougan (1935:6B)
finds Dedekam's surmise about the neek slit of a
tu nie reasonable and dther fails to notiee or ignores
the differenees in qualit)'. The impressions show that
twO clasps were placed one after the other on the
fahric. Thcre is nothing 10 suggest that the fahric was
folded and that the impressions should come from
the same c1asp. As has alrcady been pointed out, no
hand is extant in connection with the fabric. It seems
unlikcly that the c1asps should have been attachcd !O
a plain fahric with no hands. This 1caves the possibil-
ity of the ahove mentioned fragmenl with the fold
and hales, no. 4, originally having belonged here. If
so, this would mean that the garrnent was double or
lined. Securing a c10ak with a dasp the way Decle-
kam suggests is not funCliona1. A dasp of this kind
would mean that the c10ak could onl)' be worn in one
way, which would rather spoil the point of il. If
instead we investigate the connections in which sev-
eral c1asps can occur taget her in the same place on
the costume, wc are likelier to fiod a plausible loca-
tion. At Hgorn, double c1asps occur at the feet. No
other Migration Period grave has c1asps in a position
c1oak. The finds show that he had one O'
, more
garmcnls of unknown shape and function.
Snarterno \. was discovered in 1933 1>-" .
. IK' )re I
competently in\"esligatcd. a brOllze cauldron
fragments of shears. parts of a lablel-Wo\cn'
considerable traces oflwill. birch bark and c
had been relrieHd (Hougen 1935:5m. HI':
plemenlary inv{'Stigation was carried Out b\
Smedstad. Hougen has dealt with thc
detail in SnartemOfllnnene 1935.
The dead man had lain on a bearskin. The
is a warrior's grave wilh sword, shicld, spcarheadl,
arrowheads, axe and knives. Other flnds ind
glass beakers, a Vesl1and cau1dron, bronze di
gold currency bars and wcights.
\Vhen the grave was investigatcd. twO compr
lumps of textiles remained in it, one at the upper
of the sword and thc other roughly at the saml'" h
but somewhat further to one side. Uncif'r thl:' s
wcrc five layers of a reddish 212 twill with 2-p1v
twisled yarn in bolh the warp and weft dire<:
13x 15 threads/cm. This fabric has a tubu1ar-",
selvage and two tableH\'oven edges. one \\ith
and the olher wilh six tablets. Along one
with a lablet-woven edge a band ....ith a ho
pattern had been sewn on, Fig. 80. This band
not have any edges .....o\'eo with tablcts thrtadal
alternately in pairs. hs area is divided inlO rI':CtaDP"
lar pauerned fidds, about 6 cm long. with 0.-
cm wide sections in between, ""-O\'CO with quarta"
turns. In the innermost layer there was dta)'CII
bone subSlance which had penetrated the doth.
Two coarse fabrics of 212 twill. 1-8><7-8
8-9 ><6-1 threads/cm, Z/Z, lay over the dead
Thc finest 212 twill in the find has 20x 18 thrtadll
cm, Z/Z. On one edge it has a tablctwovcn horder
with six tab1cls thrcadcd alternately in pairs.
the outer twist of the tablet edge are traces ofw
stitch, sewn with 2-ply, S-twisted \\'oollen yarn
fragment, probably of the same quaIity. has a IU
lar,wQven selvage, a150 with traces of stilching
The olher 212 fragments are all about thl':
quaiity, approximate1y 12-14x 10-12
Z/Z. It is hard to tell whelher thcy repres
more fabrics. Several of these fragments ha\'t
straight, whip stitched seams. H-
ane fragment with a thread counl of 12-
" hoRt
em has an 0.8 cm wide, 4 cm long seam "'lt, beS
of tai10r's stilch{'S and one line ofblanket stll
each seam allowance. , f;
A now pale brov,,", sornewhat a
12>< 10-12 threacls/cm. has whip stttche
with open edges on several fragments.
Fil, (j(). A/umtMi1-patkT1ud band u:as al/MlIld ro cloth U'ONll
u'ith l-plyJam in bOlh thL wa1p and u:tft dirliollS, Snar/eno
V. Salle 1:1. Photo: ljnivasiteltts O/dsaksamling, Osfu.
indicating 5uch a location. In a couplc from
the LalC Roman Iron Age, hO\\'c\,cr, ,here are a line
of hooksand.cycs on thc lower legs; ef. Chap. l L
Judging by these fe\\' examples Ihe dasps might
possibly have been mounted lo\\' down on the (rouser
legs. Other occasions nOl cxcluclcd, but there are
no examplcs of them. Declehm painls out (1924/
25:4i) thai Ihe bunons are costly and should have
occupicd a conspicuous position. A collcclion of
buttans this large will conspicuous wherc\"cr
positioned, and thc Hgarn man's trousers had bolh
clecorated and plain buttons. II is nOl entirely clear
which bUlIons wcrc fastened in the !WO clasps.
Perhaps one pair consislcd of the largc, profiled
buttons and the other of some of thc small ones.
Sc"eral fragments with seams probably bclonged
together with this fragment, but doser examination
is needed in order, ifpossible, to aseertain thc con-
None of the Olher fragments is ofsuch a shape that
it can immediateiy be rc1ated to Ihe costume. The
no....' pale brown twill with dark brown squares, no, 2
abo\'e, may possibly have belonged 10 another blan-
kel. The fabric in broken lozenge twill, no. 3 above,
was probably a c101hing fabric. like the red fulled
fabric, no. 5 above. :\lany of the other fabrics have
several seams, suggesting that lhese tOO bdonged to
the actual costume.
At Hgom and E\"Coo. the doak was edged with
band panerned ....'ith indi\'idual tums. The 5.8 cm
wide band with animal ornamentation may possibly
have had Ihis posilion. This ornate band cOllld also
conceivably have been used as abaidrid:.
The Snartemo II man's COSlume can be summed
up as follows. A green mnic ofunknown length with
sleeves ending in wide bands patterned in red,
among other colours, and bultoned with kidney-
shaped silver buttons. The trousers, possibly of dou-
ble fabric (one fabric probably bcing red), bultoned
al the bottom with twO clasps on each leg. Probably a
Fil 81. Tilbkt-;('owl btIJtd/JtIttnrud :cilh indiridlUll tllnu,
".,1 cn.f,M!/y il hcJdrid. Sllarlrmtl Sal/t 1:2. PhoiiI:
r"U'flIItttIJ OldsdSiDIIling. OJIo.
.There are also four stra}' fragments of a 4.8 cm
\IIldt wo\'en band with geomelrical patterns,
;O\'en ':"uh indh'idual turns. Fig. 81, see 8.2.4. and
.1. T,:,o of the fragments, probably the beginning
and tnd of the band respcctiw:ly. have the warp
thrcads !l;alhcred to 9 and 18 "cords" O5-0 8 .
lenglh. . . cm In
Daling: c. 500.
Aeeordinl!: to H (19
' . oU{!;en 3::1:71). four different twill
tlles 3re d I' . h
IS IngUls able; therc were probablv a
no. more. .
80th Ihe coars r: b .
Ino$tla . . a ncs constituting the upper-
\erLnlhtlrse\'e 1 .. .
probabi\ bl . ra poSlllons In thegra\'e h'ere
of [ b lald O\'er the dead man. Xo traces
' "des '>erc found in the bonom layer The
.......u (Jure bl k .
The rtd r: b .an was possibly folded double.
a ne \\1th 2-pl - . bo
) )arn In th the wup
IrtttlOns ro d
st'\tralpo" oun at the bottom laver at
lUts 1rllhe '
gra\'e and is belie\'ed by Hougen
(1935:il) tO have bdonged 10 the doak, but he also
points out that it may have bclonged 10 another
gannent. The fact of deeayed bone substanee being
round in a fold in the fabric eorroborates this.
Hougen feels that the horschair-patterned band
should have belonged (Q Ihe doak (1935:il). The
fact of the band being sewn on along one edge onl)',
how(',,'er, docs not preclude its having been attached
10 same other part of the eostume. Horsehair-
pattcrned bands have yet to bc found in connection
with a doak. However, Ihe material for comparison
is limited. The red fabric may have bee:n used as both
tunic and doak. Horsehair-patterned bands lacking
edge borders with lablets threaded alternaiely in
pairs have nOl occurred in any other (jnd.
The pale brown fabric with 12x 10-12 threads/
cm is taken by Hougen (1935: 71 f) to have bc10nged
lO the Irousers. There are severallarge fragments of
this fabric. The largesl oflhcm all is 57 cm long and
30 cm wide. Thcre are severallong, straight scams,
bul only one sea.m on eaeh fragment. Possibly these
fragments bdonged to a pair of trousers. Renewed
investigation may seule thc re1ationship between
Hougen suggests (1935:25) that the geometrieall)'
pauerned tableH\'oven bands bclonged [O a bal
drick. The twist-like pansoflhe band ends make this
marc likely than the bands having been auaehed 10
an anide of c1othing. The band fragments have
\Videly spaeed stiteh holes at the edge. If Ihey
beJonged to abaldrick, then Iher were eonccivably
lined with thin kather, for example.
!\o c1asps are extanl.
4.2.6. 0vre Berge, Lyngdal, Vesl-Agdcr
This flnd is very fragmentary and there is little infor-
mation to be had on it (Hougen 1935:771). It is a
warrior's grave with a sword, spcarhead, two axes
and a shic1d boss. The grave was eovcred with ani-
mal skin, birch bark and doth.
The (jnd includes two fragments ofcostume made
up of two different qualities offabrie and wilh slits.
The smaller pieee has a slit seam with back stilch
and the seam in the extension ofthe slit unites a pieee
of what is now reddishbrown 2/2 twill, 24 x 24
threads/cm. Z/Z, ....'ith a coarser 2/2 twill, I4x 14
threads/cm, Z/Z, gi\'ing a chequered coloured effeet
ahcmating between twO pale and twO dark threads,
Fig. 82. The luger fragment, 2Ox20 cm approx.,
also has a stitched slit seam, but Ihe seam in Ihe
extension of the fabric uniles fabrics of the same
qualit)'. A small gusset ofthe reddish-brown fabrie is
inserled 10 Ihe right ofthe slit in the larger pieee. One
Fi,S. 82, 83. Mam u:ith llit 011 ,am/nu mad, up of tu:o diffn-tnt kinds ofJahrit. ObrtNl and Ttum sidu. Ot:Tt &,gt. list
P/u)tQ: U"iuniUlds OldlaA:umlilll, Oslo.
Fig.84. Tabltl-woun band, JNlllmtd u'iM
sro:n as a bord" on to a 2/2 udll. (}O!re Brrgr_ I(SI-."g
Seall 1:2. Phot4: Uniursiltltl$ Oldsaksamling, Oslo.
appcarancc as the fine red one and the coaner
wilh colour effecl pOl togcthcr in one garmt'Dt.
Thc tablct-woven band wilh gcometrical patuJ80
ing woven wilh indi\idual tums was probabty
cdging ofa c1oak. Same fragments ofa Slout 212
JOx8 threads/cm, ZIS, probably belong 10
slit is marked with back stitch all round, thcOlhcr on
one side only. In the smalJer fragment the red clOlh
has a IUhular-woven selvage and thc "chequered"
c10lh an opcn edgc in the scam, Fig. 83. Originally
the slits were probably at leasl 8 cm long.
A fc\\' other fragments also have seams. All of
them are plain, probably sewn with backstitch and
with a sclvagc 01\ one side ofrhc fahric, an open edge
on thc other. Two such fragments, sewn logcther,
also have a hem sewn with back stitch as in the slits.
There may be an additional quali!y of 2/2 twill.
Thc best-known item from this flod is a tablet-
WQven band with gcometrical pallems, wovcn with
individual tums; Fig. 84. This band is .5 cm wide,
woven with 52 tablets, of which eleven form each
ige. Originally it was ofthree colours: blue, yellow
and red. This band has been scwn on with whip
stitch along the tubular ,,'oven sclvage ofa 2/2 twill,
?x 12 threads/cm, Z/Z.
Thc gra\'c is dalcd to the 61h ccnlury.
The two fragments slits probably belonged 10 a
lunk. No other find presents fabries so differenl in
4.3.1. SejHlod, lborg amt
f De mark's Jargest burial grounds, at
of t lborg. was invesligated bc-
. J 19-9 od 1985 (:\ielsen & Rasmussen 1986).
,,,,(to ,a 00 Th
,,-ves dale from shordv arter 3 . e
'u .
-mai ned continuously in use for a couple
place t en "" .
ofhundred years. :\10$1 oflhe graves occur In the
middkofthe burial ground, Whlleon Ihe, edges Ihere
art a number of graves \\;Ih few and Simple grave
The costumc accessories inc.Jude both hooks-
... ....-ith spiralled ends, plam round bunans
...ilh hook-and-eye and c1asps wilh small, round, flat
buttons .\"ielsen & Rasmussen 1986:25). Tablet-
"'0\ en band. ""-0\-(0 with inclidclual tums and also in
... d'H.. rapping with horsehair. occur togcther with
boobfC"vts and clasps. Some of the textile linds are
in Bender jorgensen 1986. Xote, howe\'er,
that Fill;S. 100a and b. said to he "braided twill" and
"paw:mcd repp" respcclively, are both tablet-
",o\"en bands with individual tums. The entire
burial ground is being analyscd for publication.
-1.3.2. \'ognsild, lborg amt
The was in\"estigatcd in 1936 after the land-
owncrhad found a spearhead heneath a caim. At the
loamelime the \'csthimmerland Museum carried out
an inn,:stigalion of the area. The feature was on a
"'CSt-east a.''(is and there was a spear in the western
pan of the gra\e. On the north side, JUSt off centre,
.... as a shield boss. ;\lear the shield were traces of
"'ood with a thin, square bronze foil. Towards the
castcm end were two clasps with textile traces
attached. A little rurther east, up in the topsoil
stratum, was a !arge piece of charcoal in which there
were mountings with small, round bronze rivets.
Burned bancs were found here and there, as well as
some scattered charcoaJ. This grave stands apart in
terms ofboth form and equipment. il is imerpreted
as a cremation patch partly covered br a stone cairn.
The clasps and textiles hear no trace of buming, at
least not the dasp with the bronze bunons. No other
cremation burials with "'eapons are known from this
period (Ringtved 1986:163).
The dasps consist of3+3 crescent-shaped bronze
buttons with a very small aperture facing the bunon-
ing edge, 0.9-1.0 cm in diameter. The buttons are
attached tO 3.2 cm wide tablet-woven bands, woven
with 44 tablcts. The band is folded round a 212 twi.l1
and sewn down with small back stitches, about five
stitches/cm, 0.2-0.3 cm from the edge. The thread is
Stout, a paler brown and probably S-twistcd, pas-
sible a \-egetable fibre. Along the folded edge of the
band there runs a blanket seam sewn wilh fine,
tightly Stwisted Ihread. Originally the band was
probably red. Surviving length 1.2 cm. 80th thread
systems in the twill are Z-spun, with probably 14-
threads/cm in one direction. (Originally this fabric
may possibly have been green.) On one half of the
clasp, the Cabric extends beyond the band on one
side, Ihough not sumciently for a thread roum. No
traces of slit seam are observable.
Originally there were two more c1asps, each with
4+4 plain flat bronze buttons 0.6 cm in diameter.
The textile remains are completely impregnated
with iron salts and in very bad eondilion. One tablet-
woven band is woven with tablels threaded alter-
nately in pairs, about 14/cm being discernible.
Width 3.4 cm.
Practically all the textile material extam from thc
Norclic Period comcs from graves. Conse-
qucntiy, mosl of the malerial is associated with cos-
IUmc. The thiek, coarsc fabrics using for shrouding
the dead are a possible exception and can ariginally
have belonged to bed accessories. In all probability
this material convcys only an incomplelc picture of
the textile eraft of thc period. Hgg has pointed out
(1985:265) {hat the rrcqucncy orthc different types of
binding varies a great deal, depcnding on whcther
the material comes from settlemems or graves. It
seems plausible (hat linds from settlement investiga-
tions should have a wider span. Since, however, the
present work dcals almost exclusively witb grave
material, Hgg's theory cannot either confirmed
or denied.
The spread oftcchniqucs and materials depends,
not least, on the degradatian properties of different
materials, c( below. \'lost surviving textiles in
graves ha\'e preserved in contact with metal
objects. The size and positioning of costume
accessories make a big difference to both the quan-
tity and type of the surviving material.
80th wool and flax or other plant fibre material
are included in textile finds from the Migration
Period. As shown in the review of finds, horsehair,
has been used in the patterning of tablet woven
5.1. FLAX AND LI.'IE!\
Linen is one of the rarities of archaeology, whatever
the period. Like other vegetable fibres, flax is more
vulnerable lO bacterial dccay, fungus allack and
suchlike than animal fibrcs. Onlv outs
fa\'ourable circumst3nces, such thc
aridit)" of desen regions or deep freezing in an
climate can yield finds oflinen on any ca .
scale. Thus the oldest European linen finds
Swiss pile dwcllings were discovered in vcry
conditions. They probably owe their SUrvlVai
oxygen-free cnvironment in the lake-bed day
1939:43f, Helback 1959:119).
The oldest Nordie finds of linen
Denmark. Earliest of them is a mineralised fl
on a sword from Slusegrd, on the island m
holm, dated to the Ist eentury A.D. (Mu
1980:8). Another was found in agra\'e at Hi
in Zealand and is datcd 10 the 3rd century
(Hald 1950:89, \Iunksgaard 19i6:16). Two
Bronu Age (c. j()() B.C.) imprintsofseeds.aho
Bornholm, show that flax was bcing grown
earlier (Helbaek 1959: 115). Therc is indim:t
ish e\.idence of flax growing from about the
time. At the Hallunda settlement in S
dated lO per. IV-V Bronze Age, CamtlinasJ
wecd whieh grows in flax fields. is recordt<! for
first time Uaanussoll 1981:21).
A post hale from a settlement fealureal T
Hlsingland Swedcn vielded 21 flax
gren 1980:550. The have bcell radio
datcd to c. 200 A.D. and are the 0ldcs1 knowa
Sweden. Sccds in a bog near the
thai flax was being cultivated and dl
300 A.O. In connection .....ith the in\CSUra-
d.....elling site at forsa onl\" a fe.... kilom
,. ,
Tragsta and datcd to the Roman Iron.
tian Period a large numbcr of soil sampJcs
, d' tosrt'
taken from two house faun atlo
. I l
they contained macro fossils, survlvmg P an
. h thr senlement (Yiklund
led wil __ ..I
connC'C. . 31ion showed that the sccu
-' The ln,"('Sug l
, l t roportions bctwccl\ the pants
m.tlcn31 ;Ind liC .r"l 'o T,ogsta and flax grow-
-en ar ,
llfO"n \. fi -d at Forsa. Thc Norrland
abo be con [rID"
ran. . bl 'or the cuilh-ation ofoil plants.
notSul!3 e ..
maJ(' ,e dCnI'nclable \i6ld. and so IhlS
ant has a mo r- '. . .
" bl. h snrdes cultl\'ated. ThiS 15
U ",",uma I e r-
p b ha,"in" been round both allhe
rorrooorated \ SlTU,., b
. . . d 'fl a bog \.'here the Ilax was pro -
dVlrlhm; slle an l
.1bh rcm"d. 'fi . l . d f
L" .' ."', ." Halland the saCfl lela pena o
-\t n,aTwI!;SJO '
c __ dated b\ means of poltcry fiods, 10
Vlharh as "
lM d and ,hird ccnturics .-\.0.. linds have
1=: roupkofbundles orOax and a club whieh
:, h,)\C' bttn used for threshing or dressing the flax
'\rbmall 1945:9-l- and 133). Kringsjn is believed
10 ha\'(" b...en a IDeal cult centre used by the people
from a fev, hOnJestcads closc by. If only the seeds
,,"Crt u .-d. these should have been sacriliccd and nOl
tht bundb of fia.x.
Aa,..ctds in the western world have been credited
"tb prutcctiv'e and healing powers. They were
bcing used during the Early Iron Age for
prol('t1ion against all manner of misfortune, as is
ho",n b\ a runic inscriplion on a bone knife from
\"ordhordaland. dated to the 4th century
:\.0. 1975:56f, Tillhagen 1986:16).
Lnc-n rardy occur.. in Scandinavian finds. When
tdoM., it on iron pinsofbrooches, where iron
salu ha\c penetrated the textile fibres and mineral-
tht fabric. Linen thread is usually Z-spun, this
thc natural twist of the fibres. Its smooth,
hiny surface is best for fabrics with points ofbinding
clow Le, above all for tabbv. To bring OUl
mr sh",n oflhc flax, span;e binding'points are pre-
frnblt as in Iwill and salin. As textiles for the most
pan .af(' !{fave linds. which in tum for the most part
"""E1S1 of clothing fabrics, it is tabb)' that occurs
"en toda\ Ii bb .
" nen ta y IS thc only type used for
The ft'" linds of]" , h
_o" '" lIlen rom t e Roman Iron Age
...... . 11e:ratlon P"oo
Z ... n are WO\'en in labby wilh
-spun \Jrn in both h
. I e warp and weft directions.
'uu.a h a larve p . f
no ..f) ropofllon o the mineralised fab-
,rom dlffere 00
Z-spun \arn' pen s woven in tabby with
linm.' In th thc warp and weft dircctions are
T"u 5Wlish '
Ont of Ih ,gra\e linds comain linen labb,.
rom Full ... U
trut betWtt era III ppland. is dated to
Ptrilld Th 'b Roman Iron Age and
. 1Sanch h
"O\Cn .... ith2 asat read count of16 x 16/
, yarn in both directions. The
, rOm Aug, . B
rum lO lekinge, is dated to the
transition between the Migration and :\Iero"ingian
periods. This lind indudes twO different qualities,
one ofwhich has 16x 14 threads/cm, Z-spun in both
directions, whi1c thc other is somewhat finer
(Arrhcnius 1960: 172).
A fragment of linen occurrcd as a Stray lind
logether wilh a fibula in Ihe Parish of . Hoby,
Skne. This fabric is fairly coarse, 12x 11 threads/
cm, Z/Z.
The lack oflinen finds from thc Migration Period
is due more to few metal accessories with iron pins
having been positioned on costume so as to come
inlO oontact with the linen, than to linen nOl having
been used.
Finds are dominated by woollen fabrics. WooI can
be both Z- and S-spun. Possibly people span in a
particular direction in a eertain area during a more
or less definite period. It is also possible Ihat Iheyarn
was spun in differentdirections dependingon what it
was going tO be used for. The spinning direction
affects the appearance of the fabric. If, for examp1c,
one desires a fabric with a dearly apparent twill
diagonal, then Ihe spinning direclion of the warp
and weft yarn should go in the opposite direclion to
the twill diagonal. A fabric with a Zdiagonal should
then have an S-spun warp and a Zspun wefl. If,
instead, onc wants a faint indication of the diagonal,
then spin direction and diagonal should go in the
same direction. One eas)' way ofpaueming Ihe fab
ric is by varying the direclion ofspinning, e.g. lening
the warp alternale between Z-spun and S-spun in
stripes. Thus there are various reasons for spinning
yarn in one or the other direction, those given here
being just a few examples.
Arter thc introduction of twill, probably during
the Late Bronze Age or Iron Age,
woollen tabby fabrics become unusual in the finds.
Xone ha....e been found in Swcden from either the
Roman Iron Age or the Migration Period. There are
just a few examples from the :\terovingian Period
(Nocken, MS). From the Viking era there are a
small group of very fine wooIlen tabby fabrics, of
quaIides virtually comparable with the fine broken
lozenge Iwill fabrics of Ihe same period (Geijer
1938:34f, Nockert 1988:99).
In Sweden's ease, twill also dominates the greater
pan of the medieval period, but now it is no longer
2/2 twill but, above all, 211 twill.
A woalIen fabric with Ihin points of binding, like
Swedish finds of woollmfabrics from the Roma/! I".
b)' technique and spinning dirt(/ion.
5 10
z/z l/S SIS
Plain 2/2 twill
Broken lozenge twill
Chevron twill
Table l.
chcvron tW,iII, or broken lozenge twill. Tht'
the author s anal)'sis of the sam" .
. .. matena!
tally wnh Bender jo'gcnscn'c "'h
right, this lestiflcs to the uncenainh' of
based on such fragmentary material. '
For the present survey, 31 different q
twill from 20 graves dated ro the Roman
have been analyscd, see Table l. The fabria
wider variety during the Roman Iron than
ing the ensuing period, was already obsMVtd
Hougen (1935:60 fl) in his study of the
textile finds.
From what has now been said, it follo\O that
limited numberoffinds should not bl': usoo asa
for general assumptions concerning the
various phenomena such as bindings, dirtetioal
spinning and so on. Special groups which ma
manufactured here or there can hardly be dttDKd
exist the material only comprises a fe- 6Dda
each t"pe.
In \;arious connections, the possibilit\ has
discussed of thc fine twill fabrics. especiaJly dIlIIC
broken lozenge twill, in Nordic graves frolD
Roman Iron Age being imports from R
Empirc' see for cxamp1e, Bender J
1988: i I'. Pan reason for this assumptiOD
same of the fabrics ha\'e been found
imported Roman glass or bronze objt"C{S \Il
refuted this hypothesis (1988:85lI).
things, he poinrs out that the graves In qH
ducts le
mostly contain first-c!ass Nor le pro d
asks what sort of textiles the Romans ha 10
, h " d' c arisu)Craer
whlch could appeal tO t e _,or I
, ' fE land for
before the Roman lOvaslOn o .ng 'Ie:and
a British ruler was presented WIth a purp kiod
tapestry, probably something of the
, db l' ' nwiththeta
Iscusse e ow LO connectlO_1
. Cen
bands with tapestry-hke patlcrns. -ooJ
, Ch' 'lk c
" Roman ...
tnbes bartered lOese SI ",
UOollmJabria from tJu Roman Iron Agt
Beoder J0rgensen states that the Swedish textile
material from the Roman Iron Age coosists of 31
textile fragments with identifiable wcaving
ques from 18 graves (1986:50). Two fabrics are
WQven in labby, i.e. 7.1 %,15 in plain 2/2 Iwill, i.e.
53.6%, Il in broken lounge t\\ill, i.e. 39.3 %, and
,hree in tablet we3vc.
Oflhe tabby fabrics rcferred to, that from fullcr
is linen, see above, and the second from Simris is
mineralised, but possibly also of lincn.
Of the 31 textiles clealt with, seven are stated to
come from the remlla find (1986:234). One of the
scven exampks is said to bl': tabkt weave, twO 2/2
twill and four broken lozenge twill.
The Oremlla find consists of alarge number of
small fragments, hardly any ofthem larger than 2 >< 2
cm, the majorit)' 0.5 ><0.5 cm and loose threads. Thc
material is invariably wool. The largest fragments
consist of tabkt-woven bands with tablets threadcd
ahernately in pairs and no panerning e.xtant. Other
fragments consist of broken lounge twill with a
thread count of 30--32 x 26-30/cm, Z/S-spun, and a
few fragments of a cord made of four 2-ply woollen
threads. A cenain uncvenness can be obscr\'cd in
one and the same of the "larger" fragments. Same
fragments are folded and drawn. and occasianal
flaws in the wea\'ing are also observablc, but all the
broken lozenge twill fragments probably helong to
the same fabric. There may possibly bl': a plain 2/2
twill as weil, but this is a \'el'Y uncertain guess, due 10
thc limited size of the fragments.
Thus, apan from the tablet weaves, the seven
textiles from remlla referrcd to by BenderJergen-
sen helong to one or, at most, twO qualitics of cloth
and the above stated pcrcentage breakdown ofbind-
ings during the Roman Iron Age rapidly changes.
One may query the usefulness of this method when
the foundations for it are so fragile. One can also
wonder whether there is any point in measuring
thread counts of fragments of less than 0.5 cm and
then doubling this imrinsically uncertain figure for
use in statistical calculations of the frequency of
different thread counts. :\Iost ofthe textile finds from
the eleven graves at Simris included by Bender
Jorgenscn are of this sizl':. It must be terrned hazard-
aus, if not impossible, \O decide whethcr the binding
in these small fragments really is plain 2/2 twill,
twill, is warmer chan a woollen fabric waven in
tabhy. A twill-\\'ovcn woollcn fahric is aIso morc
suitable for fulling than a tabby one. In the Nordie
climatc, these were probably no trivial considera-
"II 'bries even if they are fine, are
fine t....) a, . dh
"' '" ,'""Id ara dass WhlCh woul ave
rdmg to l .
, acCO h mo<tg the interesting import com-
1 em a
Itlfllmjahriajrom Ihr J/igration Prnod .
. 23 S\"edish gra\'cs from the
Twill occurs m . ..' Sk
tion Period and in a depot flod In ..n:,
II as in IWO dwelling sitt linds. V1Z at Helga In
.... ""J d
f.kt'r. and Konungsund. . an '. .
Thr rommonest \"ariety IS plam 2/2 t\VdL There IS
abo broken lozenge [will.
AllOgether [hese flods have yieldcd nearly fort y
different fabrics. The number offragments analysed
IS much trrtaler. but in each inclividual grave the
bgmenl.5 presumably belonging 10 the same cloth
MU been amalgamatecl. Threacl coum can val)'
consiclerabh- in onc and the same fabric. I t is of
courst tO tell for sure whether two frag-
mnlls originally belonged tO the same faboc, but if
kw tumple the twill from twO halves of Ihe same
dup has a lhread count varying by one or twO
thrrads/cm. then ther probably belongcd to the
same fabric. espccially iCthe spinning intcnsity and
the quaIity ofthe threads agree. There are, ofcourse,
occasions ",hen a garment can be made up of diffe-
renl quality rabrics. bU! c10se examination usuaJly
makes this deaT. A fabric can varr quite consider-
abl)" in colour, depending not least on the objccts
nexl to il. The laner can also result in the fabric
a different appearance due to impregna-
boD "'lUt metallie sahs. whieh causes the threads 10
h,.d.I. In caS(! where large continuous pieces occur
for example in the Hgom flnd these
1n0 d h '
Thene an t e same piece of doth are observable.
thread ooum of the Cahric from the Hag"om
tunlC whieh's f h" h "
. I o techmcal qualitv varies be-
i9-2h 19-23 h "'
L_ t reads/cm. The same thing
can lK obsen'ed' h' b "
Who h In t e a TIC of the Evebe mnic.
fab' fragments can have bclonged to the same
nc IS a maner to h d "d d
e eCI e ad hoc taking into
Unt the fa. '
Iknd J ctors have now mentioned. If. like
er 0TRensen (1986)
"'''>I' . one coums each indi-
ragmem as a ..,
!ng the unn 10 urther analysis rcgard-
OCCurrence of d'ffi .
SPinning d" l erent techmques, qualities
lreetlons and' '
'"""g '0,,1 . so on, thiS can lead [Q the

Mlgntion P 'od' more exaet figure for Ihe Swedish
en Isduet '.
gTa,es. as t h o uneerlalnty, In a numheT
Graveo ,0\\ many qualities existed. In the
""r , Or cxampi< th
OIIUIerent q",I" " T ,ere are alleast five
u IIles h h
Ibtnts .....hieh . ent ereare a numberoffrag_
. . can belo
t h "
ltles bUt """ I oget er wuh Ihese five
.....n a so be d'ffi
I erent. A colour analysis
might possibly help us here losegregate the different
fabries. Only the faidy "certain" qualities have been
induded in the Table 2. All the "uncertain" oncs
exdudcd are plain 2/2 twill, Z/Z.
Table 2.
Swldishfinds oJu:oollmfabriafrom the Migration Period,
b.J ttchnique and spinning direction.
Plain 2/2 twill 28 I 2 3
Broken lozenge twill l 2(3)
Of the Z/Z spun fabrics, the fines t have 24 x 20
threads/cm (Hgom and Danmark) and the coarsest
8 x 7 threads/cm (Hemsj).
Two of the broken lounge twill fabrics, from
Toresund in Srmland, ha\'c the highest thread
counts ofall the Migration Period fabries, viz 50 x40
and 40x25 per cm respeclivcly.
Both thc fabrics with S-spun yam in both direc-
lions are coarse.':>x,:> (Hgom) and 8x 7 thrcads/cm
The fine lwill from Hgom has IWO different sur-
viving sclvages. One of them is woven with two
ta biets. Similar narrow tablet-woven sel vages exist
from finds, e.g. Snartemo \. (Hougen
1935 PL XIII:7) and Evebe (Hougen 1935 Pl
X\'lI:I). In the other selvage the outer thread is
rcinforced with 6 threads Iying together. The weft
does an extra tum round this group ofthrcads beCore
returning in the next shed. Passibly both edges origi-
nally bclonged tO the same selvage, c[ abovc. Chap.
3.2.1., which was first lablet-woven and then for
some reason ended with this.
A small fragmenl of ribbed fabric Crom Feature
174 in Danmark, Uppland, may possibly be part ofa
starting border. For this reason it has not been
treated as an cxample of tabb)'.
The Swedish twill material is very limited in
quantity and can only convey an approximatc idea
of the original proportions of the total production.
Most oflhe items are in plain 2/2 tw;lI and a few in
broken lozenge The majority have Z-spun yam
in bolh warp and weft dire<::tions, but Z/S and SIS
also occur. The two fabries with SIS spinning arc
coarse and probably not inlended for dething.
None of the twill fragments from the Early Iron
Age shows any great difference between warp and
weft thread counlS per cm, excepl the find from
Fig.85. Brokro lo<:mge twillfrom Birta, graN 825. Sca/e as
Fig. 86. PhIJIo: A. 7:4..
Fig.86. Brokt" lo<.mge tu:illfrom nmr, Jltdel/Jl1d.
Gatu, 0stfold, which has 34 x 10 threads per cm,
Z/Z (Hougen 1935:77). This find is clatecl to thc
transition bctween Roman Iron Age and Migration
Period. A reJativeiy big difference is round in the
ahove mentioned fragments from Toresund, with
50x40 and 40x25 threads/cm, ZIS, the former -
and perhaps also the lattcr - in broken lounge twill.
Broken lozenge {will woollen fabrics are known
from the Viking era, occurring for example in many
of the Birka graves. These fabrics are so uniform as
10 be termed "standard fahrics", Fig. 85. One of
thdr distinClive fealUres is the great difference be-
(ween warp and ......eft threacl coums, ",hich is often
2: l or 3: I. This typc offabric is known in the Xordic
countries for a period ofabout 400 years, from c. 600
tO the late 10th century. bU! above all during the
Viking era. The broken lozcnge twill discovered
from the Roman Iron Agc and \1igration Period is
not of the "standard type", but has re1atively equal
thread coums in the warp and wcft dirttt
86..Thc brokcn.lozenge Iwills from thl'
Penod are of high qualit\ but a,-
. . ,,"not S
SImilar to be treated as a special "'O
"I .., up.
. .....oo analvses hal-e been peJ
. . . 'lf)nntd
SwedLsh matenaI. but this hOU; b<-en d
. ed be o",
Imll num r of flnds
1988: 147 f). The tablcl-wo"en fabric fi
Bergc, Yesl-Agder. fabric and tablet ....rom
\'eiem, Nord-Trendelag, and fabric from
II and \. contain hairy medium "001. \Ie(b
occurs in thc tablet weave from 0\'fe
weavc and fabric from \'ciem and fabric from
temo V. BOlh these types ofwooJ are deemC'd
native Norwegian. The generalised medium
type is taken to have evolved from the hairv
and also occurs in fabric from 0\"re Berge", 'Sna
II and Vand Veiem. (Il is uncertain which
havc been analyscd.) Thc wool analyses donat
an)' firm conc1usion as to where the fabrics
bands rcspcctively were manufactured.
nothing to suggesl that the linds mentioncd
were made outside Norway. Xeither .....001.
nor quality are of such a kind as to ha
nccessarily importcd. Not all coar:;e fabric
nccessarily home-woven, and not all fine ooes
necessarily imported. Only when a producl
large quamities of a standardised CaJII
presume that one is deaJing "ith an "iod
product (Hoffmann 1964:248). The
invoh-ed here is so smaJl thai one cannot spcak
terms of standardised qualitics. In any case,
craftsmcn can producc indiddual specimens
quaJity work in different pJaccs.
Horsehair or cow hair has a wide range of ap
tians. It insulates, is resistant 10 heat and cold
waterproof. " has been used for reins. rope
cordage and for caulking boais. It has bnd
inta straining doths used in sie\CS for flour
These applications are confinned from the-
rian society 1<,;6<;011'
During Ihe mcdle,ai penod. shlrts
made from horsehair werc uscd
. O h' of lup
as a sign of penance. ne air .
attributed to St. Bridget, is now in the
House in Rome (Andersson & Franzen r
A hairnct of horsehairs cO\'ered the B l
Bronze Agc woman from SkrydstTUP
Hald 1940:99). \\'hen the nel was ma e
. h hi The ends oflhe horse-
ed ullO r om .
. I d . '110 a cord ofwoollcn (hreads.
r<' \lee O" 11 I
ballS"/' .\gc hoard discovcred 10 Arma)',
lale Bron/c. k h
. . I (olllains part oCa blac orse-
Anmm m re.. . - r'I

19061"3fand Dunlen 1989:b.,.
bdt u('\
))rh is in (henan (will and allhe boltoffi
".. I '''. -el in which the warp threads have
bas a oog .... . .
been tkrti out with [oosc hors,ehalf and dosely Inl,er-
twined ',h horschair inta tlllck lasseIs, eaeh cndmg
a szr:;:l knol. The transition between fahric and
..-els is concealed by a hand. also of harsehair.
III W Cehic Princc"S of oear
StuttPn. harsehair was dlSCO\"Cred In (WO connec-
bODS Krber-Grohne 1988:i4f1). One 0.4xO.5 cm
fngmentwas wo\'cn from spun taken. from
body. T..... isled horsehalr was round lied tO
ewo &sh books. In this case harsehair from the (ai!
blid bena us!. Animallibres. in addition tO sheep's
wooIand horsehair. also included bea\'er wool. This
occurred nOl onlyas fur hair bUI also as spun and
twlSted Ihread.
A 'NOrd hill. from Bo in Steigen. datecl by -"ord
laDd 10 the 3rd cemuT')'. is completcly co\ered ,,;(h
bandWr whirh is heJd in position by three narrow
rings. According tO -"ordland Ihis
ma)' ba\e afforded prolection against the se"ere co!d
oCthe northern region.
When horsehair crops up as a patterning material
m the Period bands, Ihis is Ihe firsl and
hilheno only lime Ihat the material is established in
a \Voven textile contexl during Scandinavian prehis-
tory. The smoolh, shiny horsehair weaves make a
highly decorative COnIrast to the "Iustrcless" wool
framing the patterned sections. Horsehair has been
used one by onc in Ihe pattern wens. The likelihood
seems 10 be Ihal it was threaded on a nc:c:dle and Ihe
wefts "scwn" and pickcd with Ihe needle. Norwc
gian kelim bands arc slill made this way (Noss
i966:!29f). It is hard to bclicve that patterns were
execuled without some form of aid,
Horsehairvaries in colour from while via grey and
brown tO black. In all thc above mentioned applica.
tions excepl for the ;vligration Period bands, the
horsehair used was ofa natural colour. In the bands
it is dyed, and the cotours yellow, blue and red are
now dislinguishablc. II is ofcourse only Ihe very pale
horsehairs whieh can be used for dycing. Horsehair
prodUCIS from the old agrarian society (O be
undyed, which can be duc 10 glossy libres having
same difficulty in absorbing dye. The aUIhor, how-
ever. has expc:rimenlcd with macldcr dyeing ofatum-
mordanled horsehair, with entirdy satisfaclOry
rcsuhs. The only wrillen reference to dyed horsehair
known 10 Ihe aUIhor is in Torben Bergman's nOles
on SchelTer's "Chemiske fore1sningar" from !775.
Under CoccUJ polonicUJ he .....rites: "said to be used a Iot
in Turkcy for dyeing wool, silk, horsehair, nails etc."
Tt:::o;:tilcs recovcred from ,he $Oil in our Nordie envi-
ronmem usually lack dye and traccs of dye.
This should nOt be taken 10 mean thaI dyed fahrics
were not used or dyeing tcchniques were unknawn
during prehislOric times and the early medieval
period. The [act is ,hat the dycslUffs available were
vegclable dyes, organic compounds, all of which
degrade easily in the environment the}' are exposed
to. After some lime in the grouncl, the dye has for Ihe
most part been broken down, orlen 10 such an cxtcnt
that an analysis will yicld no information. Other
environments, such as deserts or permafrost regions
like Siberia, have hclped to preserve dyes.
The Danish Lenne-Hede flod from the firSI cen-
tury A.D. includcs, amongothcr things, blue and red
fahrics and tablct-woven bands pallerned in blue
and red (Nordquisl & 0rsnes 1971 :9, Munksgaard
& 0slergaard 1988:S3fT). The blue dye is indigolin,
whieh in all probability comes from woad, [satis
linetoria (Wallon 1990:153). A vesse! containing
woad seeds has been found at an early Roman Iron
Age set dement site in Ginderup (Hald 1950:138).
Woad seeds werc also included in the Oseberg lind.
It has not yet been possible to identify the red dye-
stut]' in the Lenne-Hecle lind.
The oldest Swedish textile objecl with demonstr-
able colouring - other Ihan pattcrning using the
natural colours of the wool - is a knotless nening
glove from sle Bog in Vstergdand. This has been
dated by pollen analysis to the 4th or 5th century
A.D. (Arbman & Strmberg 1934:67). The glovc
itself, whieh may originally have been white, is now
the shade of brown usually associated with textiles
found in soil or bogs, but the wrist extension has a
tassel which is now red, green and the same brown
colour as the rest of the glove.
An unusually large number of
have been found in :\Iigralion Period IClIlh
ments or parts ofgarments with colouring ocx:w
number of gra\es. Colours mentioncd beIow
dcseribed as the}' appear now, which is nOl
ily thc same as their original appearantt.
Probablv red IUnic with dccoroftabltt
bands in twO shades ofrtd, as
as vellow and blue. The tOO
probablY red. The garment abo\'c the
head is green Wilh red and yello,",
woven bands.
Band from the culTof thc lUnic. patterned
red and perhaps also blue.
A band, probably red, from the
tunie, patterned in red, yellow and u
with traces of red SIiIching.
Tablel-woven band used as a belt. pa
in red veIlO\\' and a third eolo
, .
c than ooe.
Green garment, pcrhaps mor 11'-
_..I d W" o..
bands pauerncd in n;u an .
Idrick? - pa
ban -:- a a n and yd]oW;
In yellowlsh-red, blmsh-g
stitehes in red and ycllo'\.

Grrcn garment adorned with what was prob-
ablya red tablet-woven band

with a yellow tablel-
WO\cn band patlcmecl in al !east {WO and
probably thret colours. Another tablct-wovcn
band pancrned in red and ydlo
or the excaVat d .
-..eor bro....n d e textIles are now one or other
"'db ,Uetothe'fl
UlIlus acid Th' 10 uence of ferrous salts
lIeaect the . IS secondary staining has also
. es In the :\ligration Period graves,
but the question is what the eflect has been and how
Dye analyses have been performed on five speci-
mens from Hgom. Fourofthe specimens come from
the tunic the man was wearing, both from the fabric
ofthis garment and from what are now two shades of
red and one of yellow in the tablet-woven band on
the lower edge of the garment. The !ifth specimen
comes from the fabric in the garmcnt which was
above the man's head. Thc examination was per-
formed at Centraal LaboratOrium voor Onderzoek
van Yoorwerpcn van Kunst en \\'etenschap/Central
Research LaboratOr)' for Objects of Art and Science
in Amsterdam (Repan 90/147), which has had long
and comprehensive experience of colour analysis of
textile materials.
The present yellow of the tablet weave was found
to contain no dycsluff, and so the colour as we now
see it was either the nawral colour of the fibre or e1se
the colour acquired in the soH. The colour now seen
as pale red contained luteolin and apigenin and is
dyed with weld, RMtda Luko/a, which is a yeUow
dycsmff. The now darker shade of red containing
luteolin and apigenin as weil as alizarin and purpu-
rin oomes from a mixture ofweld and madder, &hia
(indona. The lUnic fabric contains luteolin and
apigenin as weU as kermesic acid and carminic acid
and is dyed with a mixture of Polish oochineal, prob-
ably from Porph)'Tophora p%ni&a, and weld. Ocular
inspection showed the colour of the garment abovc
the man's head to be greenish. Analysis revealed
that the fabric contained both indigotin, which is a
blue dyeslUff, and apigenin, which is a yellowone. In
other words, this garment \\'as dyed green to begin
with and had not acquired its eolour from the influ-
enee of the soil. The indigotin comes from an indigo-
producing plant, c.g. lsalis linclona (woad). Many
plants eontain apigenin, and in this instance the
source plant has not been identifiable. Weld, for
examplc, contains luteolin and apigenin, but
luteolin is the main component, and so in this case
the apigenin probably comes from a different plant.
\\'eld is extracted with hot water from the leaves of
Reseda lutcola. il is one of the oldestknown yellow
dyestuffs in Europe, but very little is known about its
early use (Hofenk de Graff 1981:31). The yellow
cross in the Swedish flag used formerly to be dycd weld. Nowadays the plant is rare in Sweden.
:\hdder is also one of the oldest and mosl widcly
used dyestuffs in Europe. It is extracted from Ihe
rOets of Rubia tinctoria. 11 was cultivaled in largc
parts ofthc Roman Empire. During the 9th cemury,
it was grown at Saint Denis near Paris and, somc-
what later, in England. 11 is very uncertain whcther
of tablel-
(and other
Gtn tunic with decor
I'oo,-en bands pam:rned in red
Green ga .
rment with tablct-woven decor.
Tablet-woven b d .
wcli. an with yellow warp and red
of a gannen! consisting of reddish-
ro... n fabric and check fabric in colour elfeet
ahernaling b .
h ctween Iwo bnght and two dark
, 'd"bdI
' Tablctwoven band in red yellow
an ue. '
Red 2/2 1\,;11 \"ith tablet-woven band
patlcrnw with horschair of, original ly, at least
1....0 colours. TableH\o"en fragment, prob-
ably abaldrick. patterned in yellow, red, green
and blue.
. ,h ,ab1cI-WOVCn decor pattcrned
Red IUnIC \\1 . h
, II blue. Cloak fabr!c. reddls -
in reu. V(" 01\ ..
.. h arrow green stripes and table t-
brol,n. ,\11 II . h
in bluishgreen and reddls -
an d
" 'ddidon onc vcllowish-brown an
1(' O", .... ..:.
h brown rabnc with narrow green
Olle f t l:> - .
big squares. The aOlma]
slnr --' .. h d d
. .. ',. bl"ish-O'reen and VCllOW1S -fe an
nrzl.":> ,
SC'wn on 10 a fabric.
madder existed in Sweden as carlyas the Migration
Period. The plant can be grown at least in the south
ofSweclen. In his Scanianjourney (1749), Linnacus
mcmions il growing without beiog covued over in
winter; "as far as I could see, il grcw as abundandy
here as l have ever seen il do in France or Flanclcrs"
(p. 191). Probably, though, the dye was imported
during the Period.
Polish cochineal was extracled from an insect,
PorphJTopllOra polon/ca, which lives on the (001S of
Sderonthus ptTtnnis: Ihis grows in sandy regions of the
Ukrainc, Poland and Lithuania, for cxamplc. This
dyeslUffhas been idcntified on textiles from Palmyra
(Prister 1936:15fi). It rarcly occurs in early Euro--
pean textiles. The dyestuff is importcd.
Thc blue colour comes from indigotin extracted
from woad, Isatis tinctoris. \Voad grows on the
coasts ofSweden from Skne to Gstrikland and on
the Baltic islands. As we began by memioning, \\"oad
seeds have alrcad)' been idemified from the early
Roman Iron Age.
Curious tO note, there is no vegetable dye for
green. Toobtain different shadesofgreen onealways
has tO mix yellow and blue. The material is first dyed
with a blue dyestuff and then with a yellow one,
which usually means first woad and then weld.
The results of the colour analyses performed on
the Hgom material are interesling in \;ew of the
early dating. :\hdder and weld are common dye-
stuffs in 1 onhern Europe as weil. The)" have been
used since Roman times, but the practice ofmixing
dyestufTs like weld and madder, Polish cochineal and
weld, woad and a yellow dyeslufT leslifies lo an ad-
vanced knowlcdge of dyeing lechniques. The pre-
sence of Polish cochineal is remarkable in a Scan-
dinavian find from this period.
Of the Nonvegian finds, materials from 0vre
Berge, Vcicm, Dosen, Eveboand Snanemo II and V
have been analysed at the Textile Research Associa-
tion in York (\Valton 1990:148).
At 0vre Berge, indigmin has been idemified in the
blue warp threads of the tablet-woven band.
Another colour from the band tcsted negative. A
number of specimens from one or more fabrics,
though it is uncertain which or how man)', have all
yielded indigotin.
The now green fabric at "dem is dycd with indi-
gotin and a hitheno unidentified yellow dycstuff.
The red of the tablet-woven band is dyed with mad-
der. This dye comcs either from the twO outermost
tablets of the band or e1se from Ihe mai n weft. The
other lablets are threaded wilh whal are now yellow
The fabric woven wilh 2-ply yam from Snanemo
is dyed madder. Indigotin has bttn
111 one fabnc. and also in a tablet-\\-Ovcn
Six fabrics the Evcoo find have bee:a
ysed, bUI no SpecImen has been taken from
let-wo\'en bands..-\11 the fabries except
the coarse weave the man was Iying on. ha\"t
result. In the now yellowish-bro.... n fabric
blg squares formed by narrow, nowgrttn nri
ground is dyed with madder and an UN"det..,
yellow dyestuf[ the Stripes with indil(OtUL
ground of the c10ak fabrie is dyed with maddcr
the now green stripes with indigotin
the tunic is dyed with kermes or Polish
The fabric to which the animal frieze is at
dyed with indigotill. A now
fabric has a maddcr-dyed ground, while the
stripes are dyed with indigotin.
The analyses from D0sen and Snarlemo Il
yielded negative results.
In the Norwegian flnds, madder has Ixm
tified in flve specimens from threc gra\es. I
has been identified eight times. In the now
fabric from Veicm, the specimen is said to
not only indigotin but also an unidemifJed
dycstuf[ This has not been found in any of the
indigotin-dyed fabrics. ofwhal are now
of green may thus originally have 1xen bl
green colour now \'isible in se\'eral plac
have been intended as green and nothinlit"dse.
it has not been possible 10 disco\-er the \dkJW
ponent. Another possibility is that the
blue fabric has acquired its present green asa
ofsecondary staining in the soil. The
demonsIrably a mixture of eolours, JUSI
Hgorn. The now yelIowish-brown fabric al E
dyed with madder and an unidentified
stuff is also the resuh of
TI)c fabric of the Evebo man's !Unie is said
dyed either with kermes or with Polish
" d" t"ff
Kcrmcs was an expcnSlve }es
Eastern Mediterrancan region and lhe :'J.ear
and used for textiles of the highest quaIJtY
. el CDtt'S
dyestufT is extracted from an 1I1se .
which lives on the kermes oak. Kermes was
' . wri'es thal
known to the Romans an 111} S
used for the military doaks of I.
XXII ii-iii). il is rare in
, - P 'bh' u. ...
Europe (\\'ahon 1990:156). .
Hgom, we are dealing with PohshCOC
with kermes. \\"hen these analyses ... ert
',ed Vo
the lahoraton' had had only ,mi, '_.1
, " 990'1561 aJIU
insecl dyestufTs (\\ ahon I . . !d
. firmcr
analvsis may perhaps glve a d
has now been made deal', lhe
. the anah'ses art: relatively fe..... in
In dd . d Polish cochineal for red,
. ma eran
umbrr. \11: "d"n,,"fied plant for vellow, and
d other unt .. '
wrld an , . The Danish Sejiflod material, like
,_.I" un for b uc. . 'd
IJ)UJgO h d teria! mentioned above, mc u es
tbt Lanor- "dc e Tcd which is not madder (Wal-
unt enli l.. .
.. ,__ Possibh'one oflhe Galium speae5 has
1990. :;)j . L d '
bII instcad. e.g. :\"orlhem Ys

pulverised roots ofwhlch glve a
Bedslraw. t c cu.
mi oolouT- .
DisrtRarding thc ycllowish-brown supenmposcd,
uamuJt ofsecondary staining in the soil, on all the
coIours present. onc probably. doser to the
origirW aplXarance oflhe ThlS would mean
thaI somt ofwhat is now yellowlsh.brO'wn may have
brm ",hitt or peThaps red and peThaps that some of
",hal is now green was onee blue.
The original appearance of the Hgom tunic
di/ftrro somewhat from what we see now. The fab-
nc ilS pre... iously. has been presumed to be red. It is
IZDJlO6Sible 10 lell how much the yellow from weld
ha\(, changed the red. The band was quite
difl"trmt in appearance from what we see now. The
paUUIl contours ,,"ere undyed, i.e. probably more or
The figures wereycllowand the
gJ'OUnd rcd or yellowish-red.
Tht colour analyses show that Eveoo, like Ihe
Hgom COSlume_ was brighdy coloured. The lunic
rtd. The eloal also red, with Ihin blue
stnpe5 fooning squares and cdged with blue and red
tabki-wo\'cn bands. The animal frieze border was
also blue and red and was attached to a blue fabric.
In addition there is a red fabric wilh widdy spaced
squares and a yellowish (?) red fabric with
spaced blue squares. The colours of the
borvhair-paltemed hands ha\'e not been anahsed
lIld so here a colourful decor is added. "
The man\, s '.
IatiJ . un"lVlRg colours of Period
luffser. and ou.r knowledge of the way in which dye-
.... cre mIxed in,, h h
Iechn' lCate a Ig levd of dyeing
KJue. Durable colours are difficult to achieve
and from hislOric times one can see examples ofboth
good and bad periods of dyeing. This was probably
the caseearlier as weil. There is no rcason tO suppose
that thc circumstances of the finds are any different
for the i'vligration Period than for other periods of
prehistory. Nor does it scem likdy that fabrics \Vere
dyed less in the ensuing periods, even if only a small
number of colours survivc.
An examination of93 samples from York, daled to
the 10th and 11 th ccnturies, reveal30% traces ofdye
and another 1% likeJy traces (Taylor 1983:158). A
funher 27 % had suggestions ofcolour, which would
mean Ihat easily haIf the samples had been dyed.
oflhe samples appear to have been dyed wilh
indigolin and madder. Probably yellow dyes were
also used, derived for example from weld, bUllhese
could not be proved in the analysis.
Of the dyestuffs mentioned here, all except indigo-
tin are of the mordant type. This means that, 10
make a fast colour on the yam, one tirst has 10 add a
melallic salt. The main mordants are salts of
aluminium, capper, chromium, tin and iron.
mordant dyes can be used with a variety of mor-
dams, so as 10 obtain various colours from the same
dyestuff. Alum, the commonest mordant, brings out
the "true" colour of the dyestufl: There was no
native alum in prehistoric limes, and so the question
is what mordant was used inslcad. Archaeological
textiles are often coniaminaled with Ihe very metals
concerned, and so in most of the colour analyses it
has nOt been possible tO idemify the mordant.
Some plants, c.g. club mosses, are biological
accumulators of aluminium and have been used as
mordanis m Scandinavia (Larsson 1959:23).
Dipluzsium complorwtum has been found IOgether with
dye plants in Anglo-Scandinavian conte..x!S in York.
Taylor finds it reasonablc to suppose thai mordants
wcre used to produce clear colours without using
importcd alum, even though imports of this kind
may have occurred (1990:40f).
Sewing can be divided inw {WO main categories -
mi lit)' and decorative. By ulility wc mean, on the
whok, needlework for clothing, whilc decorative
needlcwork usuaJly means cmbroidery. Somctimes
during thc Migration Period, necdlework can serve
both purposes at onee.
The Hgarn costume includes several different
types ofscam and man)' kinds of stilching. All nct:d-
lework in the costume is done with 2.ply, S-twistcd
yam, with a "ery high standard of workmanship.
The simples! type of seam sewn in single or double
lines ofrunning stiuh, Figs. 87, 88, is uscd for securing
the band when il is folded round the fabric againsl
the rcverse side of the garmcnt underneath the
clasps. Running stitch is used al corresponding
points in praetically all other finds. Sometimes the
seam is positioned only a few mm from the folded
edge but for the most part it is exactly underneath
the buttons.
The bands folded over on to the revcrsc side can be
attached tO the fabric in a variet)' of wars. At
Hgorn, in the side slit of the tunic, there is very fine
stitching, probably JUm Jlitch, which entirety eon-
eeals lhe open edge of lhe band, Figs. 89, 90. The
bands are nOt sewn down on theslccvcs. On thc right
skeve the band is blanket-Jtildudand then u:hip Jtitclud
10 thc fabric in the blanket-stiteh loops on
where thc fabrie is cut straight on the gram
fabric, while on the other side the band is
both sides. On the lef! sleevc thc bands arc I
ha\'e open cdges. Fig. 22. In Timra. \Iedelpad,
bands are probably sewn down on to thc r(VtI'X
with lailor'J Jlitch. The band from "stra R\
land, is merely whip stitchcd on to the fa
same procedure oceurs in one of the bands
"eiem, :\'ord-Trendelag. Al hebo. Eide do' b1",Jl)
by the dasp is sewn down with blanket so
this is probably also the ease in I
band from Torcsund, Srmland, is foldffi ID
neath the fabric whieh thus cxtcnds all lhe
the folded edge, rd
The tablct-woven band on the lo\\"er bo
Hgom tunie is whip stitehed tO
fabrie round the outer tablet twist. "hik'
, "" d b tailors sO
upper edge II IS secure nktt
The fabrie in the s!ee\'es is With bia.
ing at the bouom and the bands are ...hl'
round everv other blanket stitch and .1
" " h band flg.
outermost tablel tWist on t e .
band is not scwn down at the upper
"d "Hgom. art
sleeves at Eveb0/EI e, as <il h"
I band\\" lP
stitehed at the bottom an t lC . f the
round thc blanket stitches. The fabn
..... The other
edge has nOt surVI\'CU. d
" h' 'tched roun
paucrned band IS w lp Sil h
"" I ->g" whilc t e
tablet tWISI m the ower (,."u ....
Fi Ii_ SiJ,r ilil jrtPrI lM Hiip", llUlu. 1M band is]otdd
-'... fUnt: atu! JrJ:II 1UJu.71 u:i1Jl IDU:S ifrwming
aMT INIIJtl14/1S. 7k uPfJn ofIMbmui is SfU.71 lo
J-I'nt 4 -m rWt Ill;!",s sli/(lIing. .-l/ong IM stiljobi
__ fl! kel: sti/(h.
Fig.89. 1M Slil as iJI Fig. 87, IM rtl.""U
T1u CUL md ifIht bond is ronaaltd b.J a row ojSlm! m
sti/(II. T1u slilJum is SlU71 down u:;III doublt rows ojlailor's
sli/(II. The stiLCIw a/ong Iht slil tdgt aTt on IIIis silk as
sinn sIiIch.
Fig. 90_ Duudng UJ illuslra/t IM difltTml siileMS in Fig 89.
DTawing: M. Ttirnb{om.
Fig. 92. Tht sluu slil al Hgom is sm:n twu:n uiJi"
Ulil"r's slikh and, oultmlost. tJ row afh!a,wl slild.
tdgt art roJ.,YJ rows ofslilchn.isihlt from IM Ilbttrrt DM
slitdl andfrom Iht 1n:trSt sidt as !Nu! sw. Tht jlikirs
ttN1U sidt aupartiy amua!td h) IM lailot's sljuAn.
'Il dOIJ.'n lriM
Fig. 93. The s{twe slil from EN o IS mi lit till
of h/ankel sli/ch and one of lailor's s/iICk. A/on
' ;,.a.JJ
. "hlfl hh'ndolldparlJ
rows oifsttm sil/ck vw e rom t I >. _
, . Rnkru ptarrs...
IM hlankt/ stikht!. DrawlIlg h) 1. s
Fig.91. Int s/rn:tJ Oft tt/gd u;itk Manh! slitth al IM botlom
and the band u iI-'hlP stittJud 1011nd alhnuJh humid Jlitdlu and
llu /lUt olltnmosl loblet mist. 11Inr il OM rllW ojuw!T sjJtutd
nmning stikh I QIl alwvt IM tdg,.
Thcre are somc graves in which largcr or smaller
parts orthe sJecvc slits ha\'c survi\'ed. At Hgorn the
hem fold is sewn down first with tailor's sritch and
then with blanke! sIiICh, and ncarest the rold in the
fabric there are \Wo lines ofstcm stilch sewn from thc
side to which the bands are attached, Fig. 92. The
same type of slit seam oecurs in a stray fragment of
twill from Veiem, Nord-Trondclag, with one line of
stem stitch scwn in red and thc OIher with ycllow
yarn. There is also a similar seam, 1.2 cm long,
above one of the bands at the dasps. At Eveoo/Eide,
the slit seam on the sleeve is sewn down with two
lines ofblanket stitching and a line oftailor's stitch,
and next to the fold there are twO lines of hru!stitch
sewn from the side to which (he bands are attached,
fig. 93. In Snartema I l there are small traccs ofa slit
scam, possibly sewn with blanket stitch. Two frag-
ments from 0vre Berge, Vesl-Agder, have I cm slit
seams each with a line of backstitching along the
hem fold sewn from the obverse side.
The side slits in Fragments I and I I ofthc Hgom
tu nie are sewn down with two lines oftailor's stitch,
11111111"1.111''1 ''I il 111111111'1, I '''111111,11 11'1'11'1
upper edge is no langer exlant. Thc bands \\loven
with individualturns are whip stitchcd to the blan-
kel seam of cach fahric. The gcometrically patterned
band from 0vre Berge, Vcst-Agder, is whip stitchcd
to the fabric.
. hin on thc hem fold can be sccn
IhC' Iin('S ofsUlC h g b .,orsc side of the garment
SIC'1fI 'III.C the rc,'Crsc side, Figs. 87, 88. In
and bachHICh for '" on the gussct is folded
111 thc s 11 scam .
d "de and sewn down with
h band-cdge SI , k
round (C '\cartheedge Ihere is a line ofb an el
tJlanltt _ulch. fi the ob,-erse side of the gannent.
tchiml: ,roeohro'f
f the Slil the fabrie is a150 folded
....... be' Qthtf a o ".
h d "mmed side. bu! thiS time se\\n
'OSI ,ht an -tn . h
.... ., . stiteh and blanke! StHC ollter-
pl1 with [al or s "d
most. Alon!l' the cdgc. againsl the ob\'crsc $1 e, are
of Slem stiteh.
nwo fra2
from unknown,
bas iD htID se....n down \\'11h tallor s sllleh and blan-
kt stilen oulermost. Fig. 45. On the hem fold
arttloOlines ofbackslilch sccn from the obvcrse Side.
'Thtre is a similar examplc from Snarterno I J.
"'hm ("'o pieces of dOlh werc se.....n togeiher, both
mplt and complicated seams were used, possibly
dtptndinlol' on where or in what garment the seam
was . .\Iost of the seams at Dasen werc
prohabh sewn wilh mnning stiteh. and the fabrie
edgcs Ihroughoul. In the
H ffi tunie. alllhc original scams were scwn with
mort complicalro \'arianl of tailor's stitch from
and then with a line ofblanket
mich talen round the previous line of stitches, Figs.
95. At one point the seam has been sewn with
doublt lines oftailor's stitch from (WO direClions. Il
bard lo am funetional differenee between
tbot stams. Ifme coiours had been beller prcsen'cd
"'ould ha\'e been able to see whether the difTcr-
I t\p!"s of stiteh were possibh' associatcd with a
panieular 'o, b .
v our, ut lt seems as though the inner
Dt of Mitches was often vello\\' and the outer onc
same typ<' of se;m oceurs in the "animal
..1:41"__ frae;mcnI from Eveoo/Eide, but somewhat
UUIUt1Ilh e\:('(u,-" F h . .
. =. ITSt I e plCCCS were lald edge
and sewn togcther wilh small running
. Thc seam allowances ....ere then pressed
n and sel\'n " h d b .
from " \\11 ou le lmes of blankel stitch
, Fig. 96. Similar seams occur in
mo and \"
\\nto the side ..
tlw- . ,set of the Hogo
mnie was lct
Plf'(t"; of fabri .
st c were lald obvcrsc 10 obverse
..... am allowanccs fi Id-..l
allCpif'( f o aJ round the revcrse side.
t!> o c10th were h h. .
the l en ....' lp stltched togethcr
..IL... rewrse side Th
-...vanees h. . e very narraw seam
ale open edg
Fig. 94. Tht originDf Stoms ofIM Hgom lormml aTt Sfu:n
u:ilh 1111l row ojtaiWT'S slikn and 1111l row rif lJfaMtl stilehjrom
tilher side I1j IMjoin.
: - Jt. ---11 ...ll_'
..U...- '-{1-'-:1 to" W II- lt
Mr -11
Fig.95. Tht Hgl1m stam.1'/taTtJt Ihljabricjoin, lajfl1,'s
stiten, ond ofin Ihis lJfawt stikhu IhlOUgh tach loop in IM
pm;w/l.S fint. Dlau:ing: M. TDmbfom_
Fig. 96. The ja/nie jQin 01 Evtb. is matk fint with small ron-
ning sliuh and Ihtn with blanktl slikhjrom IWO diTectil1n.!.
Dmwing: I Raknu Ptdttstn.
probably truc al Hgorn. C\'cn IhoUll;h Ih
are not disccrnible Ihroughout. The "Ork:'
were aOOm O.S cm wide and mUSt ha,-e brn.
spicuous decorative feature of the
. h h '-
t al t clr side was "isibk AB
sIn hems were defi.nllcly visible, with thr
seams probably a dlffcrent colour from tha
fahric, as at Vciem. t
An Anglo-Saxan grave from :'.'1itcheU's HiU
lingham, has a wrist-clasp se..... n on to tablet
and 2/2 twill (Crowfoot 1952:1891). The tri
extension of the clasp is posilioned abo'e the
by photographs and a dra"inc.
unued ahove the clasp. There do nOl appear
an)' seams along Ihe edges of the slil. but the
edge of the rear is edged with blankel stilchiQr
wilh 2-ply yarn.
Comparing the needlework of the :"ordic;
tion Period COstumcs with Ihat sun;';ng
Roman territor)', one finds, gcnerally spuking,
the laner is a good deal inferior in quaIity.
cally all the seams in these garments are sewD
whip stitch, quite long and Ullcven stitches asa
and without any consideration of whether or
they would be visible from the ohverse side. 1biI
probably duc to thc way in which the garmmb
made. In the Mediterrancan region. costumes
woven to shape, which mcam fe.... scams,
moreover the seams were positioned so as DOC
all Ihal visible. In the Xordic area. as in
regions, garmenls were generall)' CUl out. a
dUfc which requircs a different standard
Jcwork. In garments CUl toshape, the seamsCOlld
left visible, in which case it was important et
be able 10 coneeal them or clse to make them
ful. One example of the latler is a shirt from
in whieh cords ofred \\'001 accompany all the
on the obverse side; cf. below, Chap. 13.2.1
Another sewing techniquc is instanccd by the surviv-
ing sinew thrcads in the Evebl'l/Eide find. These
werc twistcd round a material which has now dis-
appeared. Thc threads werc laid in a pattern on a
ground and thcn sewn down using a Icchnique called
At 0vrc Berge, thc wcrc probably se..... n
,..;th backstilch and with an open edge on the stam
allowances, as in thc big fragments of the "nousers"
in Snarterna \'.
As has now been shown, thc needlcwork is ofconsis-
Icntly high qua lit)'. In scveral cases the purely
utilitarian scams are of sueh workmanship as to be
virtually "ornamental". This is particularly striking
in the scams which cmploy horh tailor's stitch and
blanke! stilch. One may ask whether it was nOl Ihe
intention for the side from which Ihe seams were
se,,'n also to be visible sometimcs. In thc Hgom
tunk, all the original seams e.xcept at the cuffs are so
fine that the}' could equally weU have bttn on the
obverse side. The Slem stilch - running stitch lines
on thc slit seams are purely ornamental seams. The
Hgom tunic presents five different kinds ofstitch-
running stitch, backstitch, stem stitch, blanht stitch
and tailor's stitch - in addition 10 the whip stitch of
the additions. 80th at Veicm and at Eveb0/Eide, red
and ycllow yam occurs in the seams. The same was
Tablel ....eave plays a prominent part in the textile
m of the Period, as in COSlUme design.
Thc fvllowing short descriprion of the technique is
offert<! for the bcncfit of the non-specialist.
To make lablet-woven bands onc needs a very
mplt piece ofequipment consisting ofa number of
dUn lablets 4-8 cm square. Thcse are usuaJly made
"'"OOd. but bone and horn also occur. :'\'owadays
rigidcardboard is used. Tablets ha\"c a small hole in
t'aCh tomer. :\ threacl is passed through these holes
aad tht threads form the warp of the band. The
th of the band dqx:ncls on the number oflablets.
'\nrn the wea\;ng begins. the tablets are placed
td${e and clos
IOgcther and the warp threads are
to an Objttl ofsome kind and stretched. The
. aTe then turoed according to the type ofband
h to be Wo\en.
nw. bands are produced by turning all
rabJeb a quan r .
\\"ben er o a tum m the same direction.
,after the turn f h d
,aWCtt rea lsmserledinthe
"'"11Ormed bet h h .
"" b \\cen t c t reads m Ihe upper hales
ta lels and II . h
1ft li('(j lose In t e lower holes, the tums
IOp;ether and b
band \\'h one o tams a warp-twined
, en thc tablet
tabl s are turned, the threads from
CI are IwiSted h
bI., -h, h taget er on both sides of the
1 et ewe . . d
d 'h - aVlllgls oncon one sideonlv. To
(' liltcnw' . .
llobll'ts r. Inlng of threads occurring behind
.a'lerwcavin .
illlhl'OIh d' g a plece one can turn all the
of I.... ht er This changes thedirec-
..... _, . ProduCln d
-mI. g a lstmct line right across
Ihe lablets ar ..
!hr Ihread' e posltloned in such away
s In even' olh b
. er ta let are enterro
from the right (2) and those in all the other from the
left (S). The ta bIets are then said to be threaded
altemately in pairs. The twist is distinctly brought
out in this way and the structure ofthe band acquires
a herring-bone-likc appcarance. bands usuaUy
have a narrow border with tablcts threaded alter-
nately in pairs in each edge.
If different colours are used for the Ihreads, oflen
with several colours in one and the same tablet, then
interesting colour effecls can be produced even if aJl
thc tablels are turncd toge.!her in the same direclion.
By varying the turns in the same shed, with quar-
ter-turns forwards and backwards, semicircular
tums forwards and backwards, a labiet lert statio-
nary and so on, one can produce complicaled lex-
tures and patterns. The scope for variation is amaz-
ing eompared with the simplicity of the equipmenl.
The tablet-weaving teehnique was used through-
out the Ancient World. Opinions vary as to where it
first appeared. One band long believed tO be among
the oldest examples of the teehnique is the belt of
Ramses II (e. 1200 B.C.). But it nowscems elear that
this belt was made by a different mcthod.
The bands from the Danish Bronze Age graves at
Borum Esh0j and Egtved have also been presumed
to be tablct-wovcn (Broholm & Hald 1940:73 fI), but
here again it is not necessarily the Icchnique whieh
was used. The starling and finishing borders of the
Egtved girl's lace-up skirt, however, are made with
tablets (Hoffmann 1964:168).
The tablet-weaving lechnique was used in a vari-
ety ofways in prehisloric times - as a border for a
woven fabric, as a separate woven band or as a cord.
The fourth edge of a piece of clOlh, thl':
border, can also be donc using tahlcls.
hanging warp Ihreads of the ready-wo\"cn ra
thcn used as a weft. Each warp thread'"" ,.
through a tablet shed, the tablets are turned and.
thrcads rClUrncd through the next shed
whleh they are eut off. The warp Ihreads caa
pass through the tablet shcd onee and thea
plaited into tassels,
The eombination oftahlet-wo\"en bordm
twill is a consistem feature of thc tcxtil(' Ii
thc Roman Iron Age and :\ligration Period-"
As statcd earlier. normally only a tabkts
used for the borders of fahrics, but theR are
fabrics wilh vcry wide, decorativc barders or
From Gjeitc in Levanger, Norway. there is a
dated to the 3rd-4th ccntury AD and consis
twO tablet-woven bands woven together al righ
les with fragments ofa 2/2 lwill in the angle
them (Hougen 1935:621). The present v.idth,
is incomplele, is 6.2 cm, WO\'en with 123
,,'ide tablct-wO\'en bands WO\'en IQg('ther
fabric also exiSI from Donbeck in Denman,
with 150-160 ta bIets (Hald 1950:88). , .. ...",
with 50 and 70 ta bIets (Hald 1950:89) and
which has table!-wovcn bordcrs on all four
Thc starting barder is woven with ten table
sclvages with 6-7 and the finishinIi border WI
(Hald 1950:63 f). Several cloaks found in
man bogs and dated to the early eenturies
Christian ('ra are eharacteriscd by broad
wovcn borders woven simultaneously" ith the
(Schlabow 1976).
was no greal difficuhy in\'olHtI in
fabrie and broad bands simultaneou5ly, 50
the bands were \\'oven wilh quarter-tums
pattern was limitcd to various calour elfects.
the Jvligration Pcriod, howc\'er, Ihe panerns
band bccomc more complicatcd and sO.w....
them simultaneouslv with thc rabric
became excessi\'c1y
some. Instead. narro\\' and purel> rUllCUuaUy
....-crc rcvcrted to for the picces of dOlh:
wcre done with 2-4 tablcts. The decorau\e
nd ,ewn 00
....-ere then ....-oven separate ya,
fabric. .
Thc find from Blindheim :\iore,
. d as an lOl
4th century can be llltcrprete 'd
' A37c
stage in this dcvc1opmcnt. . h ded
woven band wo\'cn with .')2 tablet5 t r:a..:I
, . , "umtcu
nalclv in pairs and quarter-turns. .._.:1
- . . beh{'\cu
checked, 2/2 twill. Formerly It ,,<UJ . ,he
rateh ,n
band had been woven sepa . d brtfI
way, but that the \\'en at one edg-e ha
Fil, 97. Drloi/ of sdr:agrfrom Hijgom U'OU1l :rilh tU'(l lob/ris.
Drawing: E. LMndU:(,Il/.
8.2.1. Tablel weaving and fabrics in olle picce
Tablet wcaving with tablcts threaclecl alternatcly in
pairs and quarter-turns occurs in fabrics in a
"'arp-weightcd 100m barh as staning barder, as sel-
vages and as finishing horder.
Thc Korwegian Tegle find from the 5th ccntury
shows how tabler wca\'ing was used as astarting
borcler for a 2/2 woollen {will fabric (HolTmann &
Traenebcrg 1959:44ll). Duringweavinga band, the
wer, lhreads in the tablet wcavc wefC pullcd out on
OIlC side into long loops. The band is narrow, woven
with rhree ta bIets threadecl alternatdy in pairs, each
with four threads.
(ra band like this is secured to the upper bcam ara
warp-weighted 100m, thc drawn-out \Ven Ihreads
will hang down, forming a warp for thc fabric tO be
In this tablcl-woven band fonns a
purcly funclional v.'ilh no decorath'c pur-
In primitivc looms, the fabrie has to have stout
sel vages, otherwise the weft is liablc to make il con-
tran as weaving procceds, The tablet-weaving
tcchnique is suitablc for this purpose. UsuaUy only a
fcw tablets arc uscd for each selvagc. The fahric of
the Hgom tunic has aselvage consisling of IWO
tablels ahernately threaded, Fig. 97.
8.2,3. Warp-twined bands ,,'ith patterns in
different kinds of wefl wrapping and
a tapcstry-like lechnique
A completc innovation of the \1igration Period,
judging by the finds, is bands with pattems exceuted
with a special panern weft, Ihe mo\"emcntS ofwhich
are not affceted by those of the tahlets. Thc tablels of
the pancrn stetion remain stationary during the
paltem wea\'ing. The warp threads form twO layers
with the threads from the upper holes of Ihe tablets
in one and those from the lower holes in the other.
This open shed inc1udcs both the mai n weft of the
hand, which goes from one edgc 10 the other of the
band but is only hound by the turns of the horder
tableis, and also - sometimes, at least - the pattern
wens whieh for the moment are not inc1udcd in the
pattern. The paltern wefts cover the entire warp.
Thus there is no aeli\"e mai n wcrt in the pattern
sections, and so Ihe paltems are nol brocaded.
The patlern wefts consist of long, smooth and
shiny fibrcs. It has been previously assumed that this
material was human hair, beard, goat hair elc. but,
as stated above in Chap. 3.1, il is horsehair.
Se\"eral different kinds of pattcm wefts oceur. A
pattern seetian always begins and ends with one or
more lines of weft-wrapping whieh run from edgc 10
edge, Fig. 99. The pattern weft can, for example,
cm wide and is woven with 80 ta biets threaded alter-
nately in pairs, It is made- ofa relatively thick, hard-
spun yarn. The band is divided into patternro fields
which endase three tablers from each edge. The
pattem ficlds are 9.5-10.5 cm long with 2.5 cm long,
unpatterned sections in helween. The hrocading
thread is now a pater brown than the material of the
ground weavc. The pallern wefts, as a rule, pass over
three tablcts. All pattcrns are rectilinear, geomctri-
cal ornaments such as swastikas and meanders.
Spun gold and gold slripes which may passibly
have been used as brocading thread occur in Swedcn
from hoards and crcmation gra'l.'cs from the 5th to
the 7th centurics, e.g. from Lov (Arv.'idsson
1962:113fI). These, howcver, tell us nOlhing about
applicalions, possible patterns or techniques. Bands
brocaded with metal wire are common during the
Yiking era, as is shown by the finds from Birka
(Geijer 1938:75ff). Bands with brocaded pattcms of
gold exist from Anglo-Saxon and German graves
between the 4th and 7th centuries. In mOst of the
linds only the gold remains, but in Taplow Barrow,
Bucks, there is a tablcl-wovcn woollen band
brocaded with narro\\' gold stripes (Crov.'1'oot &
Hawkes 1967:80).
."r ,
Fil 98. TIu MU' anarySis oj the (MI/u/ioll tJ'/U'WI IJu eto/h
.t"" 6.wJ. Blindkim..\lm..4fln &Xnu PtwSt!n 1988.
TbC' tablel-wovcn band or the remlla flod alsa
loops at onc cclge. Cnfortunately
IS no fragmcm still connecled with fabric. In
rase- the loops could JUSt as weil have been
h b
,n t e and was sewn on to thc dalh.
reordIll" to \ 'h h o d
., \ 3\ t e nll s have shown hitherto
c bands wo . . 1 '
. ven Slmu taneous!\" wilh a fabricare
mlolthq ,
Uantr-turns onl\' and pallcmed with
n onh .
2.2. Warp-t\\'incd bands \\'ith brocaded
. f
and malll we t going from edgc to
a pallcrn wefl, l' h
h With' w liC only goes back and
lo ]f) the patte fl
,,1latis<;o[ h rn Ig"ure to be produced.
art eonh-p '"'' .
ttthni . re I mg .:\ordic example
.L.. que occurs in In H I 1
UI(' be e c ge and find, datcd
n Period (Hout\leen Iron Age and .\1ig-
gen 1933::>::d1). This band is 10.5
..,11 100ps through which thc
10 form sm..
eh a, b . -as then threadcd (Hougen
\\ Pd
'" o d nah'sis b\- Rakncs e ersen
';64f1 Renewt' a., 11
a' h fabric and band ....-erc aClU3 y
sh(l\\n ,hat l c h h
the same time. but t at t cy were
nalOoc'all . 98(R k
::ded to!l;ethcr in a special way; see Flg. a -
pedcrsl."ll 1988:116ff).
Fig.99. In bands, lh, paltnnfields kgin I&illl S(JflmM
with the wrops in paralld rOWJ in the Jamt diruliM.
Fig. JOO. In lOrM how, IMpallnn sf/lUlr, l)tgins u.ith iuaps
in difft1tnl tiirutions forming Q hnring.1xme patlml.
Fig. lOJ. A harsenai, wifl is huilllip,for example, over stuen
labiels and posses Ot'U, under and round In, so thai Q diagonal
/HJt/ml will befonrud whnz llu w4J is pac.Ud d()$t.
Fig. 102. The wifi oftk paUnn is brotnr 2J.
u'ef/1aet' l".cill. PholQ." liltrlskapsmusttl. T
l 1 l 1 l r I l
Fig. 103. In the paUtm (onlours and rlseu:hm. W wtft
$r...,Ta/timts round all llu ihrtotll from Me a' IIL'O:
lQform UTtiazl gaps in lM 1J.:(O;:;'. In aJdlllOtl /O
uvfl-faad tuiil, IKctuioTUJi rou.S ofsmrlMk a,t b
c "0 labklS. back
pass over all threa sIrom \\ Ll.....
'er [Wo
thc threads from onc ta et. 0\ . is
ane and so on. This kind of'\'cft-,\ rapp,ngfaCC
. k Th ' of I,'raps can
mous with souma. e ro\\ s 10
" (ons sO as
direction or clsc changc [rcC l _A_f!
" " F" lOD" In--
hcrnng-bonehke pattcrn. 19"
"" "shable. o
where lhe colours are Istlllg
. f PP;"g .....ith the colour.
" 'CHon o \,r;l. d -
1[( . _ ro re ,"en- closc-packed an It IS
horsehalr "c,lS a ,
-m ], not 10 sa'- impossible. to trace an
("1"\ dl ICU .' ]0
, '. f d"'lail Therc can be belween
\ dual \,('t m ", . . d
, h -,f, between l':ach mam .....eft, an
d !() horse alf II
an t: 10-12 mai n wcfls/cm. L:sually,
thrrt" are Ollen ] d b
backs of the bands are caneea c y
m rrtl\'Cr. l c ' .]
. D tO the pallern werts bcmg so c ase-
ubnc. ue .
_" _ - ],_ possible in exceptlonal cases tO see
....c! !lIS Oll _ .
thc' are turned roundjusl one tablet, as In
,oumak. Colling'-I'ood has suggeslcd (1982,
fl .13 thal!he \\cfl has lO between the upper
and k""er Ihf"('ads from onc tablet SO that the wr:a
comprisc rqual numbers of Iheeads on each Side
makt the bands equilateral. Il has not been poss-
bk tu confinn Ihis. The horschair seems ah"'ays 10
round all lhe threads from one lablel. .
In the patterns, one horsehml"
Ihrrad dats not pass from edge \O edge in the pattern
illion. A hon;ehair wen is huih up, for example,
TI" tablets and passes o\"er, under and round
tbt'st '>O thaI a diagonal pallern is formed when Ihe
b are p.acked c10se together. Fig. 101. In cascs
.-hm' the wcfl onl} passes round onc tablet, this is
aled. b.. the longer Ooal. Il is impossible tO lell
wbnher Ihis procedure only oceurs in the herring-
bone-like or ,,'helher the wefls are made in
the ume way in the soumak weaves deseribed
abow. These, howcver, are so extremc1y smooth
lh.11 I,hey werc most probably woven from edge \O
In regular soumak. A lonl!;er or shorter section
IOdt-wrapping is fOllowed by the figurative
Itttn. The of the patlern seetions is in
!!2rJ..tjl-jD.ud tuill. Fig. 102. In other words,
""dt passes o\"er lablelS l and 2. under lablets 3
-I,o\er:' and 6 and so on. The next wcft goes the
lie .... a\". i.e. underneath lablets I and 2 o,'er 3
aod -I. under 5and 6 Th h- d '
UDdt . e t Ir passC5 o\"er tablet I
',IabIets 2and 3, o\"er tablets 4and 5 and so on:
e oUrth' h
IS t C Contrary of the third and thus
I. over tab!ets 2 and 3, under
and:> etc B\' ,l, - be
" ernatmg tween these four
an k' '
lIbooth pac mg them doscl\", one obtains a
surface \.hi"h -]] , k
... \'1 ma e a suilablc
T1k und for the patlems.
COntours of h
""P!>"g Th I e patlern are dOll(: in wert-
. e \I(:ft pa. ] -
fr ses 5C\'era times round all
omoneorl....ot bl .,..
a1slit,-, be a ets, ng. 103. In this wav
.l:a'_ ..... n form d . h '
c ] c m t e weave between the
, o Oured ficlds . .
. Thesii" ] ,Just as m lapestry Wtavt or
.are essco .
t\r main .....ert fills u because the
COnt p the tnterSllces even ifthere
Our along d
. h is apM one an the same group of
.. o I' h
n y In, e eomours and the
ground of the patlern that the pattern wca\'e is really
\\"hen eolours arc changed. ,he "'ert not in use can
be concealed in thc opcn shed together with the
passivc ground ",cave. but the bands often havc
loose weft threads hanging on the reverse side.
\\"eft wrapping has been scen on archaeological
textiles before, both in and outside Scandinavia, but
so far the i\'ligration Period examples are the carliest
in Scandina\'ia.
In one of the Frankish royal graves in Cologne
Cathedral, probably bclonging \O the Frankish king
Theudebcrt's Langobardian bride \\"isigarde and
date<! tO the early 6th century, there is aheadband
\...ith gold wire parti)" as a straight weft and partly as
wcft-wrapping (Doppclfcld & Pirling 1966:11).
From \'alsgrde 6 (Arwidsson 1942:87) and \'als-
grde 7 (Arwidsson 1977:81) there are a Ilumberof
soumak fragments done in woollen yarn against a
linen ground which has now been lost.
The Sutton Hoa flnd also indudes a number of
soumak fragments (Crowfoot 1983:1-28rI).
From Birka Ihere is a tapcSlry-like fragment with
eomours in weft wrapping (Geijer 1938:53)_
In a number of \'iking texlile remains
have been found with pattern conlours in soumak.
They indude, for example, the famous fragments
from Oseberg, a fragment from Rolvsoy and twO
others from Rogaland, B0 in Torvastad andJtten in
Hetland (Hougen 1940:89).
The soumak recurs in the Swedish wall hangings
from verhogdal and Skog. The verhogdal hang-
ings are eurrently being examined and the results
suggest that they may be older lhan was previously
supposed, i.e. belonging tO the \'iking era
& l\ockerl, :\IS). The Skog wallhanging is in all
ecnainty from the 131h century.
In oriental textiles, soumak occurs both with and
withoUI aground weave, The latter variant is the
eommonel' of the IwO, The technique occurs in
AnatQIian fahrics from the 6th eentury B.C. but is
believed to have originated in the Caueasus region,
where it is more common Ihan in Turkey.
The term "soumak" is believed to come from a
town in the SOUlhern Caucasus where fabrics of this
kind were made (Balpinar 1983:69).
In Europe, howC\'er, Ihe lechnique already
existed in the Stone Age. The f1nds from
Irgcnhausen in Swilzerland, indude several linen
fragments with patterns in different variants of
soumak (Vogt 1937:80).
The combination ofdifferent kinds ofweft-wrapping
and broken 2/2 wertfaced twill when the wefts com-
Bands with edge borders of tablels th
alternately in pairs on both sides and
tangular pattern sections separaled b\'
seetions woven with quarter-turns
to edge.
Bands with an edge barder oflablcts th
alternatcly in pairs on one side and a con
ous pattern section extending all the wa
the other edge.
The band which comes from the lower edgt
Hgom tunie is ofTYPE I, Fig 3. It is 4 cm Wide
woven with about 60 tabIets, IS ofthem (or
14 and l S rcspectivC!y) threaded alternatel} in
on eaeh side near the wider paltern squares
and 19 respectiveIy by the smaIIer squares
consccutivc pattern squarcs are extant and
offour more exist as loose fragments.
types of square on the band. Ncarcst the bult
2 I
.. down after'
squares are I em ong, narro\\ mg .
whilc the others are 4 cm long. Thc WIde sq
, 'h b -O mak ....-eftS WI
begm and end Wl1 a out 3 sou
wraps all in the same direction, the narro
about I cm herring_bone_patterned wefts..
One band onIy 1.1 cm wide, from H
, 'fleminthe
woven with 16 tabIets SIX o Il
, ' 'd F" 41.4pa
seetlOn and five on each SI e, Ig. d
Bcm long an
sguares are extant. These are . .
and end with soumak \Vefts.
A band from Danmark
wide was originally about I.S cm, .g
, fi Id 16m long. now
rectanguIar pat tern le , . c .ed b'
The pattern is in both sides surround .
wefts. 'd ..d
' 33cm"'1 e
OneoftheEveboban SIS d dal
with SO tablets, ofwhieh 12 are thrra e
Bands without edge barders wilh rect
pattern sections separated by narrow
from edge to edge, woven \vith quarter-
pattern sections of the bands do no, h
. ave a
weave, only a pasSIve weft. The patterns a
entircly with the pattern wefts. re b
Only. a small number of bands have SUIVJ
suffiCient kngth to convey an idea of ho\\" they
eonSlructed. A number oftvp" ho".,
, , .... 'er, are
guishable, Fig. 104.

Fig. 104. Thru lJ'Pes of hGrsehair-pallaned bands.
(1) With edge borders on Iwo sides and reclangular
paltan sections. (2) Band with edge border on one
side and (:onlinous paJlem. (3) Band wilhoul edge
borders with rnlangular pa/lem snliolll.
pletcly cover thc \Varp gives an impression of tapes-
try weavc. Tapestry technique in the broad sense is
ah'iays charactcriscd by thc \Vcft bcing discontinu-
DUS, Le. being inserted with differently colourcd
yams, and by the \Ven covering the \Varp. The bind-
iog is usually tabby, bU! Twill and irregular binding
alsa accur (Geijer 1972:59). Somctimcs, as mcn-
tjaned earlier, open slits occur when the boundary
between {WO coloured areas goes in the direction of
the warp. This happens in tapestry wcavc as well,
but alsa in oriental kelim. In Norway, kelim occurs
in bands of the woman's costume at Hallingdal
(Noss 1966:12911). These are known as
"smettaband" or "nlcband". Thc bands as a rule
are guile narro\\'. They have a sparse 'Narp and a
covering weft of various eolours. The bands are
woven on a deviee whieh looks like a rectangular
box, with a holder for two rollers and does not have a
shedding meehanism. The weft is inserted in the
warp with a flat shuttle or needle.
It is hard tO find an adequale name for the tcehni-
gue used in the Nordic horsehair patterned bands. If
anything it is a tapestry-like teehnique. Since many
bands survive only at the beginning of the panern
section, one might consider the term "soumak
band". The material of the pattern, horsehair, could
aho provide the name. As remarked eadier, the term
"broeaded" cannot be used, beeause this denotes a
ground weavc with an extra pattcrn wefr. The
. .J Fig 70.71. Four consecmive
. n rach . .
pours o '.0 of Ihem completc, SUI'Vlve on
uares. 1\\ f
palll"rll S d there are minor pieas o Ihree
an All
ont'. fi ffi loosc fragments. squarcs
tm ro . I h
pil "dlh The squares vary In eog!
of the same \I I . .
'" 6 d 3 cm. Thc\' begm and end with
btf'Ie<'n 2. an '
. bonc-patterned wefts.
finds hal-e tablets threadecl alter-
. - on both edgcs and should belong to
....tth In pairs H" .
n'PE I: probably [WO morc bands from ogom,
tbeband from lhejoin at thc lowcr eclge oflhe tUnJC
. h from the flat silver buttons by the hearl, and
;auutat T d
0Gt fach from Timra in :\'Iedelpad, oresu.n In
Srmland. Danmark in Uppland. and Sem In the
Parisb of Grong,
Tht cuffs from Hgom are TYPE 2. These are 6
"ide. \\o\-eo with 86 tablets, of which 19 are
thrtaded ahcrnalcly in pairs on one edgc, Fig. 21.
TItt pallcrn section begins with 0.5 cm herring-
bont-pallerncd WCfIS. with 5-6 in a row facing in onc
1M ruff from E\"eoo is 3.7 cm wide and wo'en
th65 tabltts, of" hich 15 are threaded altematdy
pairs on one edge, Fig. 72. The panern stetian
brgins with 0.5 cm herring-bone-pattcrned wefts.
The cuff. from Norrala, Hlsingland, are 1.4 cm
wide and Wo\-en with 74 tablets. four of them are
lbreadcd in pairs on one edge, Fig. 49.
Tbt panem section begins with herring-hone-
lltmcd "efb.
From \'eiem in Xord-Trendelag Ihere is a 7.7 cm
wide band. Fig. 65. This is woven with ahout 85
biets thrcaded alternatcly in pairs, induding thrcc
The pattern seetion begins with 0.4 cm
beningbone pauerned "-cfts.
Ina ...o .
clas man s grn\"e at Slenen. \. anse, \"est Agdcr,
Tbc ps ... ere found auached to 6 cm wide hands.
boatpattf:rn seelion begins with 0.8 cm with herring-
From 1.:" I S .
. "u en, agn & FJordane, there are two
ps wuh large ch d b
th Ila lp-car\"e uttons and two others
t. undecorated bultans. all of them on horse-
band. The chip-caned buliOns are
ona'2cm 'd
"" . h' Wl e not the full width) band
"'l{ aboul 80 I bl Th
"';th fi a elS. e panern seclion
Dur horseha d .
ps in th lr-panerne wefts wnh the
esamedire b . '
ed b _ ellon, pro ably 10 red. This is
) three yellow . C . h
ile d. I'e ts \\'11 the wraps in the
IreCtlOn Th d .
--.... . fi' e lreetlon of the wraps
or the I f
";th th n ast wc t. "'hich is red. The
e at bUllans' _
IS now I cm wide hut it
"'..... \ wlder d '
. Fil!;. 76. One' an WO'en with at !east 75
lilrtaded alternalelv has six tablets
Hl pairs. The pattem section
begins with wefts where the direetion of wraps
changes after three weflS. This is repeated four
times. The direetion probabl)' changes with the weft
colour. The last mcntioned band is dcfective on one
sidc and may possibly bclong tO TYPE l.
Together with two c1asps with kidney-shaped
buttons rrom Snanemo II, there was a 6-6.5 cm
wide band, Fig. 77. The fragments from the four
c1asp halves are somewhal different, apan rrom all or
them lacking one edge with tablelS thrcaded alter-
nately in pairs. In Fragment I the pattern begins
with an 0.6 cm wide border of red woollen yarn,
where the wen passes over IWO ta biets and under-
neath two. This is followcd by a soumak and horse-
hair horder at least 0.9 em wide, with the wraps in
pairs and then changing direclion in twO wefls, after
which they are grouped in threes. Fragment 2 has an
0.8 cm wide border in soumak with woollen ram, the
weft threads bcing aligncd in pairs. Fragment 3 has
an 0.8 cm wide border ofred woollen yarn, in which
the weft threads pass over the threads rrom two
tablets, under two and soon. The hordcr ends with a
soumak wcft of the same yam. Kexl come thrtt
soumak wefts with the wraps in the same direetion,
followed by three werts with wraps in the oppositc
direction. Fragmcnt 4 roughly resembles Fragment
A 2.5 cm wide hand rrom :'\edre Stedje, Sogn &
Fjordane. has 12 tablets threaded ahemately in
pairs on one side. The pattem seeiian begins ....'ith
herring-bone-patterned wefls.
A 3 cm wide band from Vemmestad, Vest-Agder,
has lO ta biets threarled illternalely in pairs on one
side. The pattern seetion begins with soumak, but
this cannot be identified more exactly.
TYPE 3, so far, includes onl)' one band from
Snancmo \', Fig. 80. This is woven with 30 lablets.
The biggesl fragmenl is only 9.5 cm long and eon-
sists of two pattern squares. Thcse squares are 3.6
cm long.
The bands from Feature l, Danmark (Uppland),
Ommundroo. (Vestfoid), Joo.estad, (Rogaland)
Lunde. Haegebostad and Slenen (\'est-Agder)
retain insufficient details for c1assification in types J
and II.
PQssib!e origins of the "tapes/ry-like" lechniqul
The question is where the inspiration for these bands
using a lechnique can have come from.
\'"here, during Ihe late Roman Iron r\ge, were there
fabrics whieh could have been prototypcs for the
pallern weaving on the Nordic bands?
The oldest-known evidence oftapestry-like fabrics
was found in Chatal Huyuk. The inside walls of
Fig. J05. Jnserted tapestr;' Palmpa. FOllTRWtt
threads from the tabby together,forming,.
threadfor the tapes/ry seclion.
the perishable nature of its material, but a new
is opened up by the patterned
The textile art of the Mediterrancan rtgtan
the Near East cannot have been unkno
. . h" hould
Northerncrs. ScandmavJa at I IS !lme s
thought of as a backwatcr isolated from d
ments in the south and centre of Europe. In
persons, and perhaps large groupS as wcU. t
in the Continental wars and were doub
. f h . and what
Ignorant o w at was gOlllg on
. he Near East
able not onl)' in Europe ut ID t
, d' the RomaD
No doubt those who had serve ID
. . h 'arious Gtrm&G
and later as mercenanes Wlt \ " b
d b
ht back la
doms had also seen an roug Thae
garments of striking d
.. . l d d both Slik an
modmes ma)' have mc u e .' nI'C-
nosllksJfl ...--
wcaves. The fact ofthcre emg . n
l d
rcvJOus ca
Nordic finds docs not prcc u e d the
. Th l 'materials an
the matenaI. e g OSS) come:
. . us( have
llvel)' attraCllve palterns m
hauses dated to c. 6000 B.C. were decorated with
paintings clearly depicting kelim-like fabrics of the
kind still woven in the region (.\ldlaan 1989).
A lapcstry border dcpieting a line of lions, disco-
vered in Pazyryk, probably comes from Iran, as does
a fine tapestry weave depicting water hirds and deer
hearls, discovered in a Scythian grave in Kertsch.
Also oflranian origin, but from the Sassanid period,
are a number offragmems from Antinoe and Fustat
(Piister 1948:46fT).
In addition to tapestr)' wcaves covcring the cmire
surface, there is a type which Geijer terms inscrtcd
tapestry (Geijer 1972:60). In these fabrics, limited
pattern sections are woven as decorations into a
plain wcave, usually tabby. Thc inscrtcd rapestries
deviate in both colour and texture from the ground
weave; see Fig. lOS. Here entire groups of warp
threads serve as a single \Varp thread for as long as
they are inc1uded in the tapestry giving it a coarser
texture than that of the ground weave. Inserted
tapes try is above all known from the large quantities
ofEgyptian grave flnds from late antiquity and from
Copticand Islamic times, but it al50 existed in Palm-
yra and Dura Europas (Pfister 1934:31 ff, 1937:22ff,
1940:33ff, 1945:6fI).
From the beginning of the 3rd century we have a
few gold and purple tapestry fragments from cos-
tumes found in a provinciai Roman sarcophagus in
Viminaeium in Hungary (Geijer 1965:223fl). That
flnd indudes coins from 254 A.D. The fabric is
bdieved to be of Syrian origin. A similar fragmell! is
now in Riggisberg (Lemberg &
Schrnedding 1973:Tafe1 ]). Tapestry weave has also
been preserved in one of the two Frankish royal
graves found under Cologne Cathedral (Bendcr-
J0rgcnsen 1988:126fI). These two graves are dated
to the earl)' 6th eentury. The tapes try weave eomes
from the boy's grave and was found on the ringmail
neck guard of the helmet. The fabric is supposed to
be the !ining of the neek guard, not an aecidental
pieee of doth.
The oldest flnd of tapestr)' weave from Sweden
comes from Birka (Geijer 1938:480).
Tapestry is also woven in China, but always with
silk, sometimes with gold wire added. The technique
is known there as kessi (formerly kossu) and presum-
ably came to China from Iran during Sassanid
Thus the tapestry technique spread both east-
wards and westwards from Iran and it is not incon-
ceivable that it also spread to Scandinavia. During
the Migration Period, which had a high levd of
artistic achievement, new impulses were absorbed in
many flelds. Textile art is relativel)' unknown, due 10
_ _ 10 skilled wC3,'crs. Trying to produce
plfJIlOn r. fl rms must been an exciting
h _13.\1\-('11 ,fec o "l bl
'" S'ik a maIeriai was hardly aval a c
lJenl(f. I as . . C': h d
. . l" ilCd quantlllCS, c.g. a lew l rea s
er t III Itf\ 1m . h
Hi from a piece of dalh.. on I e
'P' d , , "'loss\ matenaI wh_ch could be
hrr han. "a ,., , .'
usrd. !fil I,-as Ilscd in thc same as Slik, w1th long

acquired a conslclerablc glass. Thc
b. l t I'C '"
L1 _ :nin, lechnique had long been used for
. L__
producinl'\" pallcrns. Probably il began 10 lIC UScu In
-arne way as whcn lapeslry pattcrns woven
J \Unic in the :\'ear Easl. In these tumcs, the
UlS('nni patterns diffcr in both colour and texture
from lh(' ground weavc. Often (WO or more of the
"MP thrtads of thc ground to a
slDgk "arp thread as as II was mcluded In thc
Similarly, thc warp threads from
one tabkl scr\'cd wgether as a thread in the pattern
tons uf thc bands. Different steps were used for
dctai panem surrounds. In the Oriental tapes
b) too. pancrnsare sometimes framed with a kind of
JOUrnal-like .... raps, known as fliegende nadel.
tllthe :-';ordic bands. the affinity with tapestry is
t apparent in a band from Toresund, Srmland.
The paltan square begins wilh a soumak weft: two
ut_ 1"'0 yellow and two red in herringbone
J811n'1l. The left comer of the pauern has been fully
en ",ilh yellO\\ wefts bound in broken 2/2 wefl
Qttd twill, so as 10 form a yellow triangle. As a
tour on Ihis lhere is a line of red soumak wraps
th double horschail', i.e. somewhat different from
wdi-wrappinlt on other bands. The whole line of
lWnp! is al an angle to lhe direction of the wefl and
PI1bably done immediatelv afler the yellow
comn had been oompleted, fi'g. 106. The right
COrnn of the band was probably done in the same
\ The band h d
as a IstmCI reverse side, with many
IlS. D
l4il oj the h
Qndjro"Z Tortsund. PM.. T
w "'L il.
laose wefl threads of horsehair. Here the horsehair
wefts appeal' 10 ha\'e been inserted both before and
after the passive pattern weft had passed over the
pauern lield, which suggests somc kind of tool.
8.2.4. Bands paucrned with individua! turns
These bands are produced by turning the tablets in
the same shed individually backwards or forwards,
with quarter or halfturns, or e1se leaving them in
position, as the pattern requires. The resultant
bands are twosided with a reversible pauern. As a
rule they were probably done in at least tWO colours,
with each colour dominating one side of the band.
Pattern figurcs, if an}', ",ere done using the ground
colour of the opposite side. This teehnique can be
practised with two or four threads per tablet. With
twO threads in the tablet, the surface can acquire a
structurc rescmbling double faced 211 twill, and
with four threads in the tablet one obtains a doublc
faced 3/1 twill.
The oldest lind of doublefaced band comes from
L0nne Hede (Denmark) and is datcd 10 the 1st
cemur)' A.D. (Munksgaard & 0stergaard 1988:53
ff). This band is red and blue, it has two threads per
tablet and is woven with halfturns, so as to make the
red and blue warp threads alternatdy form revel'
sible-square pattems.
Bands of 2/1 twill with Iwo--hole Ihreading are
quite rare. The oldest of them is the Daetgen band
from the Roman Iron Age (Stettiner 1911:34). From
Norway there are two Period bands.
From Vestrum in Vestfo1d Ihere is an 0.7 cm wide
band with edgc borders on bolh sides consisting of
two tablets having four threarls (Hougen 1935:671),
The centre section has two--hole threading in two
different colours. Snartemo II indudes a 1 cm wide
band which was also originally of (Wo co!ours, with a
herringbonelike pauem, Fig. 79 (Dedekam 1924-
25:42 f, Hougen 1935:68). Typical of the bands with
twohole threading is that the borders are so very
much stouter than the centre section that this in itsdf
hetrays the technique,
It has not always been possible to analysc in detail
the fragments with individual turnings, but most
bands with a diagonal structure probably have four
hole threading. The oldesl lind of doublefaced 311
twill comes from Set rang and is dated 10 the 3rd
century A.D. (Hougen 1935:66, pi X:6). The bor
ders each have two tablets threadecl ahernaldy in
pairs with quarterturns and the centre section is
probably woven with 26 tablets and individual
frieze. I t is 2.7 cm wide and wo\"" - h
. "o \'011 -40
WIth 12 on each edge. The colou'"
, ." are tbc
those of the ammal frieze.
In Norway this type also OCcurs in Dosen
and Bolstad (Hordaland), Veiem (:'\
delag) , Eikeland and Rivjeland (R
naes (Sagn & Fjordane) and
. Hgom Grave has four bands patt:'"
mdlvldual tums, viz Ihe c10ak band
'h ,"'"
toget er wu Ihe c1asps at the feet. and
with one of Ihe two pairs of dasps at Ihe heacL
only on the c10ak band thai same minor traea
patterning are still distinguishable. The quali
the number oftabiets for the edge bordus show
the bands are not idemical.
The band at the upper leg bultoning was
nally 6.5 cm wide, woven wilh 16 ..."",",
aJteenately in pairs on one border, while tbt
fragmentary, with a COUllt ofI8tablelS/cm. Fi
At the lower leg bunoning the band is 5 cm
with 10 tablcts threaded alternately in pain 011
border and an unknown number on other
with 12 Figs. 29-33.
The band at the head is 4.5 cm wide
tablets threaded ahemalely in pairs on each
tablet coum H/cm, Fig. 34.
The doak band was probably 5 cm wide.
or 19 threadcd alternately in pairs OG
barder and 20 on the other, tablet counl14/cm,
The bands from Timr (Yfedclpadl. Torp
Grdinge (Srmland), Feature 17 in Oanmarl
\'. Ryd (Uppland) are also WO\'en \'oilh;'::=
lums bUI all appear 10 ha\'e small. g('(Abt4lidl
Snartemo Vand 0vre Berge (\'CSI-Agder
Dosen (Hordaland) have yielded bands W1 ..
plicated patterns of band plaiting,
diagonal lines and other geometrical motifs
Snanemo V is woven with four coloun III
lablet, Fig. 81. It is 5 cm "ide and \'0"0\:
tablets, ofwhieb eight form a border on
the lablclS in the pattem sectian t ed
the same direction. The colours Ihrcad
hale and the tablets placed as the
to be seen in the paucen.. 'eavIll
, by leaving oDC
quarter-Iurns and somellmcs .
in sim. Somelimes the wen is threaded _
' ha d and
Hougen has analysed t IS n (I
' h' aCCO
be swdied more dose r 10 IS L...I
. e unaU
The fragments are now oose, l. . Ibt
, " d" I cm froJP
fabric. are mne ear s ds
the longest fragment. The ,",'arp Ihrc
turns. The tablets are threadccl with two colours
which exchange positions on top and unclemearh.
This band is badly damaged and thc pattern is hard
to cletermine. From Njurunda in Medelpad there is
an 0.8 cm wide band with two tablers threadcd
alternatdy in pairs on each side and a centre section
patlerned with individual tums. Very lillle indecd
remains of this band and the pattern cannot be
analysed. The find is dated tO thc sceond half of the
4th century (Selinge 1985: l 25 fl) and is the oldest
Swedish example of doublcfaced 3/1 lwill.
But the really superb examples of this variant to
thc lcchnique come from thc Migration Period.
From Snartcmo II wc have a 6 cm wide band wovcn
with 68 tableIs, Fig. 79. Thc borders each consis! of
thrce tablelS thrcaded alternatdy in pairs and woven
with quarter-turns. In the centre scetion the tablelS
are Ihreaded in t"'O colours. One pair oflhreads has
been used for the panern contour, the other for the
background and the inner faces of the paneen. Four
colours have been used. These are now black, red,
yellowish-brown and brown. Each tablel always had
to be threaded with [WO threads of each colour to
give a patlern nOl only in the te.xlUre but also
through oolour. The paneen contours on the obverse
side are now black and red. The band is divided into
wide stripes in the direction of the warp. This can be
compared with the corresponding phenomenon in a
numher of narrow pick-up duble doths from Jmt-
land, Hrjedalen and neighbouring regions of Nor-
way dated to the 131h century (Franzen & Nocken
:\1S), In these fabrics Ihe stripes facilitate the patteen
weaving, because the pauem threads could be
picked up by colour, whieb saved a certain amoum
of thread oounting.
The so-called animal frieze from Eveho is done in
the same technique, Fig. 68. This band is in two
colours, now bluish-green and yellowish-red, but
probably blue and red or possibly yellow to begin
with. It is 2.5 cm wide and woven wi!h 40 tablets, 23
in the pattem section and 8 and 9 respecti\'e1y on the
edge barders. The diagonal of the ground wea\'e is
broken at irregular intervals. Al cenain poims Ihere
isjust one diagonal break in the middle of the band.
Elsewhere there is no break at all or e1se two. It
seems as though the breaks were connected with the
design of the figurative panerns and, just like the
coloured stripes in the band from Snartcmo II, were
an aid to the weavingofthe p31lem. The breakpoints
often come where the tums for apatterned figure
begin. These diagonal breaks are discussed in grea-
[er delail in Collingwood's "'ork on tablel weaving
(1982:284 fl). The cloak band from Eveoo is done in
the same way and is also very similar to the animal
"n each cord. They are so cJose
__ come tog
er l .. . h
_- h . terstices are bardy dlslmguls
_..-hn that I e In . d" I
1U5'''''' _..l ... and have a longllu ma
The coruS are ,cu
abIt-. "ddle This is formed by the centre
_ ..l.;1oO lO (he mI . d" h
h P being wrncd and bm mg t e
bl I 11\ cac groll h
"h'" lded round the warp, to produce t e
wcfl whlC 1510 d h "
. d O 'er and under the eor s t ere IS a
""et eor s. \
COdl,.- l. The corresponding cords on the
liDt of souma...
band are different. The warp has
btrD into 18 groups and a red wefl has been
wrapped four times round the warp threads of
IfOUP",ilhout any of the tablets heing turned. \\'hen
,cord is finishcd, the weft passes to the next group of
thrnds. and so on. There are (WO soumak weft
thrnds respectivcly over and under the wrapped
row. 80th the fragments with cords end with plain
tIiom outside ,hem.
Tkband frorn 0\TC Berge is about 3 cm wide and
"(11 32 tablets, Il of them on each border,
r._ 84. h is sewn on to a 2/2 1....;:11. This band is
WOl,"(11 in thrte colours. which gives it a differenl
mTIX appearance from Snartema V (Hougen
The Dosen band, of the same type is sewn on to a
twill. hs maximum width is 4 cm. One border is
aboul O.i cm wide and woven with eight tablels
dundtd a1lernardy in pairs. Colours and pal-
1mIing in this fragmelllary band cannot be
diAinguished in an)' greater delaiJ.
'I1tne three bands are woven using a variant of
tedmique .... hicn is not known from any olher period
or Iocarion.
of band OCCur throughout Scandinavia
-"'Il: Ule p "00 I "
."> en. n 32 graves
ds of tablet_ . - b '
..... Tb .... O\en ands are known to the
16 bands woven with
...... tUrns 18' .
r.-_ ' In tapestry-hke technique and
co . ,
ahernaleh-' . nSlstlng soldy oftabiets threaded
.I" paIrs InS' d
10 far 1-. ' "e en, tabletwovcn bands
found' 15
Prik nine b d In graves. These finds
on .. s WOven with individual lurns
f\_ l ..e lech . ,
I ntque and eighl with only
an a in pairs. From Dcnmark
bUrial r o finds. most of them from the
Bands .....ilh both individual
tums and tapestry-like lechnique QCcur in this com-
plex offinds, which is now being analysed for publi-
cation. The Danish finds occur in. 10nhemJutland.
From Finland only one find of lablet weaving is
known to us from the Migration Period (Heinonen
1954:44, Kaukonen 1968:55). This is a tablet-woven
edge on a 2/2 twill fabric. The cdge consists of six
tablets threaded altcrnatdy in pairs. The find comes
from a skeletal grave in Kankia, Huiuinen.
As mentioned earlier, bands with lablets threaded
ahernaiely in pairs and individual turns also oceur
during the Roman Iron Age. During Ihe Migration
Period, howevcr, they become wider and more
e1aborate1y patterned than before. This type lives on
during the Viking era, but finds hitherto have only
included naITOW bands. about I cm wide.
One band from Pilgramsdorf, Poland,
dated to the 3rd-4th cenlUry A.D., had stripes of
doublefaced 3/1 broken twill (Fuhrman 1939/
40:308 fr, Hald 1930:234) and another fragment with
a diagonal structure comes from Sakrau, Poland,
and is dated ro the 4th century (Sage 1934:272,
Fuhrmann 1939/40:308f1).
Anglo-Saxon have yiclded several finds of
lablet-wOven bands with individual turns. From
Morning Thorp, Norfolk, there are nine pattemed
bands, alleast two ofthem in double-faced 3/1 bro-
ken t\vill (Crowfoot 1987: 172!). One bands is
panerncd in red, blue and white, The same type of
band also occurs, for example, from Bergh Apton,
Norfolk (Crowfoot 1978:106) and Fonaby, Lincoln-
shire (Crowfoot 1981:98f).
A geographically remotc location has yielded a
tablet-woven band bearing a great resemblance to
the bands ofthe :\1igralion Period. This find comes
from Sir Aurel Stein's excavations of the fort al
Miran in East Turkistan, south-west of the desert
city of Lou-Lan discovcrcd by Sven Hedin (Stein
1921, pi XLI C, Sylwan 1926:24-0, Schuette
1956:22). lt is fragmcnlary. \-Vhat remains of one
border is woven with 12 labkts threaded alternately
in pairs in pak blue, yellowish-brown, bluish-green,
pale brown, madder red and carmine. The other
border is missing. The resl of the panerned section,
woven with 3O-32tablets, has a reversible pattcrn of
lions in yellowish-white and blue. In bolh technique
and pallerning il is re1ated ro the bands with animal
pauerns. Miran had a Tibetan military post be-
tween 750 and 900. Sevcral circumslances poinl to
culturallinks with the West, but there are no direct
indications concerning Ihe origins of these bands.
Si.'\: or seven tabletwoven bands were found al
Miran, but no tablets. Nor have lablets been found
Saxon soumak ma?' conceivably be a
developmenr of this NordlC varian, f h

The 15 Swedish Migration Period grave fiods
tablet-woven bands cxtcnd from Jmtland
north to Vslergl!and and GOlland in titt ID
Hgom and Timr, in Medelpad, eonuiD
bands woven in a tapcstry-like tcchnique and
with individual tums. Otherwise only one type
be established for each grave. Eight gravts art
of men, three are probably women's and the
are indeterminate. Chanees of preservation in
with the number of dasps, so this is a natural
tribution, since the men's graves invariably
more dasps than the women's.
All bands are woven with tablets lhreaded
nalely in pairs. Since the patterning does not
start under the bulIOns, where the bands have
ally survived, many of lhe bands are of ind
nate type. Often, however, bands patterned
individual tums appear to be pauerned thro
their length, i.e. even underneath the huuODS.
the bands with tapes try-like technique the pa
ing usually starIs just after or exactly underneatb
buttons, but seldorn bcfore the buttons or
round the inside of the garment. In eertain
least, the bands seem 10 be adapted to the
which they were to dceorate. This is most
apparent from the Hgom man's tunie. where
patterning of the lower edge is adjusted as
the lefr and right sides begin and end .dentially
The wide bands, measuring more than
aeross belong with the dasps. The nartoW
, b chedlo
betwcen l and 2 cm had a utton ana
button washer on the underside and somelimd
bined with a hook-and-eye. \Vhere hookand
. . b bl , round Ihe
mlssillg, a loop pro a y wen nmatt;
inslcad as in the case of Feature l. Da
, . butt
Chap. 4.1.4. This arrangement reqUlreS
.' I ''''in distanet
certaill helght or c se a eer .. .....
. . Il' "f the but..-
button and fabne, espeela ) 1 h
rounded. The question is I\lhether I e
. . I t tO
bunons occurnng Sillg y ac ua , 'ted
. d ,hev were mouD
ment or whether lllstea , . bject
haldrick or same other o _....
. d , polOt 10_J
The few finds oceurnng o no . of
. h distribution
raphical differenee 10 t e
tyres of band. . cchnique
The bands in tapestry-hke t .est
width and thread count.
Bands with a tapestry-like technique are not known
in Scandinavia cither berorc or arter the Migration
No such bands have yet been round in Finland or
Soumak or wcft-wrapping as a form of brocading
occurs elsewhere. In a tablel-wQven band from one
of thc princely graves in Chclles, that of Quccn
Bathildc (d. 680) there is a pattern of differem ani-
mal figures, apparently in tabby, and a tfce pro-
duced by a kind ofwcft wrapping (Laportc & Boyer
One of the bands from Durham is in soumak
(Crowfoot 1956:454 f, Grangcr-Taylor ]989:3]2 fI),
but unlike the Scandinavian ones it is brocaded, A
binding rnain wefl runs between the soumak wefts.
The weaving is consistenl!y very fine and regular,
with 24-28 soumak wdt threads/cm. In the Durharn
band, Ihe weft passes over two pairs oftabIets on the
obverse side and four on the reverse side; in other
words, Ihe obverse resembles the reverse of an
Oriental soumak. The reverse, like several of the
Nordie bands, was not meant to be seen (Granger-
Taylor ]989:317).
The infulae of a milre from St. Peter's, Salzburg,
now in Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, and dated to the
12th century, are tablet-woven with soumak
patterning in silk and gold (Lernberg & Schrnedding
1973, Taf. 15). The soumak weft threads are inter-
spersed with a mai n wdt with quarter-turns.
Another band of the same kind was found in an
archiepiscopal sarcophagus in Ravenna.
The Durham, Salzburg and Ravenna bands form
the subjeCl of an essay by Granger-Taylor
(1989:303 f). In her belief, the patterns of both the
Durham and Salzburg bands are copied from
samitum silk, The Ravenna band has a differenl
patlern bU[ is teehnically similar to the other two.
Granger-Taylor finds it likely that these bands are
UnIike the Scandinavian bands, these three are
brocaded, i.e. they have a main weft either with
quafler-turns or in tabby, with brocaded soumak
wefts in betwcen. Other bands with brocaded
soumak patterning, dated to the I] th century, exist
in Germany (von WiJckens 1988:301 ff, and Muller
Christensen 1978:988).
Bands with tapestry-like technique seem to be a
native Scandinavian product. The brocaded Anglo-
anywhere else in the area.
The Belt of St. Cuthbcrt from Durham Cathedral,
dated to the 10th century, is patterned with double-
faccd 3/1 broken twill (Crowfoot 1956:435f).
Hgom. is 1.1 cm across. Widest is Ihe
dat' dead man's waist in Ihe Norrala
~ andat Ihecuffsand leg bands in
7:4 cm. The I"\orrala bands are
coarse. with 10 tab1els/cm. Olher
usualh- have a rounl of about 16
The finea' of all is one of Ihe Hgom
bands, with IS/cm.
The Norwegian bands are, on average, coarser
[han the Swedish ones. :\<Iost of them were woven
wilh ~ 12 tablels/cm and on1y a few, Evebe among
Ihem, ha\'e 15-17 tablelS/cm. Widths range from 2.5
to 7.7 cm. Bunoning wilh I + l bultan does not occur
in the Norwegian linds.
Between the sccond and third animals from tbc
a slripe right across the band is woven ....ith q
turns. This probably has no decorati\'e
but was done to SOrl Out the lurns on thetabIeD
alonger pieceofpatterned wea,ing. The"'......
positioned with heads and legs altemali\'dy
most, exccpt for the defecti\'e animal on
righl, which appears to be Iying on its side
possibly a quadrupcd, with a tail and an on_o(
on ilS flank. The same kind of animal, Iying
side, also occurs on the vcrhogdaJ soumu
now dated to the Viking era, Fig. 108. The DCSI
quadruped depicted with twO visible legs..
rump and its head facing backwards. Animals
same type oceur, for example, on Ihe gold roBar
Atleberg, This has a line ofsmall animal figura
Ihe parts oftheir bodics distinetly
Ihe teehnique, there is some differenee
animal depieted in Fig. 109 and the animals
Evcbe band. The wea\'ing technique
angularity of dcpiClion whieh mak IhlS
more ornamental than in the casc of the coUar
third figure probably dcpicts (WO
mals intertwined, just like the tWO
each other's mils on the brooch from
Korway (Hougen 1967, Plate 66). ro:
again, is a quadruped shown with tWO
gated beak-like face and a tail eurled up _.J
, . fi" an
steeply bent back. Flgure I,e IS .
. bi This onc
,"ped wilh all four legs \"ISI e. L "L..
. i bca..
ereet and an open mouth wIth ong, _..-bd
, . 'b d in lhe .....OVU"'""
I t rcscmbles the figurc \fiscn e
zle from Evebe, Fig. 110. b d haS
A strav fragment of the same an ed
shaped quadruped wilh its head .tU
. a hllz:h fU......
open mouth with long Ja
Usually animal ornamentation is associatcd with
meta) objecls. This, of course, is because metal
objects are so much commoner {han artifacts of
organic material, bu! in cases where organic mate
rial has survived there is also animal omamentation
tO be seen, as for example in the ease of the .....ooden
"puzzle" (the cternity ring) with carved ornaments
from Evcb0 (Slraume 196I:Pl XXIII:a). The {ab-
lel-woven bands are another example. Thc fre-
quently broad and solid bands used, logcther with
clasps, at scvcral points in the castume, invitc deco-
ration. They can provide room for both individual
forms ofpanerning and epic dcpictions. The tcchni-
quc imposes ccnain limitations. For example, one
cannot produce round shapes, only \-crticals, hori-
zontals and diagonals at an angle of aboUI 45
degrees. Il is possible, though, to produee the illu-
sion of rounding by a combination of straighl and
oblique. The limitalion of this technique compared
with wood and metal can be at Ieast partly offset by
the abundanee ofpanerning whieh the eolours make
possible. The two types ofband occurring during the
Yligration Period are so different as to warrant sepa-
rate sections below. The bands in tapestry-like
technique are particularly abundant in animal
ornamentation, but this also occurs on bands
patterned \\-ith individual turns, even though these
appear more often to be geomelrieally patterned.
The so-called animal friezc from Evebe has five free-
standing animal figures positioned in a line, Fig. 107.
fl lO; 11It "anima! jrin.I""jrom utln. Aftn Dtdtkam 1924/25.
lit lfJB ~ 'mtmhnl/ Qni11Ullftar/l 1M Orulwgdal u.'allhang-
..,. PM,O: S. HaUg,m, .-l.n.
- - - -
~ - --
~ ~
~ I
, ,
Fig. 110. AnimaljiguTt on UJOOlkn ''puUfe''. ElJthlEldt.
Af/u SlrlIumt 1962 PI XVI.
curved [ail. Here again we have the same emphatic
S s h a ~ as in figure {WO and in the gald collar from
The cloak band from Evebo is baclly worn and one
can only see that il was ance pallcrned but not what
thc pallcrning dcpictcd. A ligure is distinguishablc
in the square fermed in the comer by the crossing of
the (WO bands, but cannot be analysed an)' funher.
Snartemo II includes a band showing a quad-
ruped with ilS mouth opcn, ilS cars ereCI and a long
tajl curvcd in over ilS body, Fig. 79.
Thc c10ak band from Hgorn is now in a very
fragmentary state. Apan from the cdge borders with
lablets lhreaded alternately in pairs, parts of the
central section of 311 twill are cxtant, with traces of
heavily angular pattcrns in blue against a red
ground, Fig 42. Unfortunatdy, tOO little remains for
the paHem to ~ identifiable. Judging by the fre-
Fig. /Jl. T1u rn;lmlgllltJ, fKlltn1lfitldsftowr du IumtluJiT /NJttrmd iHJnd. EulnlEidt. A/UT Dtdmn /924/25.
scvcral times round one or more tabkls. Tht
insidc the contours are WO\'en in thc samc way
ground wca\'c, i.e. in a broken 2/2 weft.faad
pattern, which makes the paucrn hard lo in
espccially whcn a pattcrn COntour gocs in the
direction and is marked only by a changcof
thc eolour is faded, then somctimcs it is im
spot the transition.
Hgom, togethcr with EvcbB, is the only
widc bands in which rcctangular fidds ofpa
have sUf\,ivcd in sufficient lcngth for thert
several patterncd squarcs in succession. TI1eIe
lhat the patterning was non-rcpctiti\c. In the
band from Ihc lower horder of the tunic. four
squarcs in a row ha\'e survi\'ed. two oftheat
plelc and IwO fragmcmary, as ha\-e tract:s el
four, Figs. iD, 71. As w'ith the Hgorn bud,
figures are now ydlo\'.-ish-brown on a
ground, The first square from thc Icft COlI
cnigmatic pattcrn which Dcdekam belie\ucaa
bird, Fig. III (1924/25:28). Square IWOconW-
lions placed head on, \'.-ith the rear legs ofDDt
forwards and those of the other backwards.
wise the IwO lions are fairh- similar. Onefronl
raised and positioned in froOl of lhc other
nose. The other paw is lifted abovc the
strike a blo\\', The front pawS are dcplcted
hand with four "fingers" and a shorter ..
This pattern is now the most dcarJy distingtd
. . d fig"re which
In square lhrcc there IS a weil' I
kam first dcscribcs as giving the
rccumbcnt man (1924/25:27 f). He
cvcr, that it is probably an animal. ThiS fi;jP"'op;cdo.,
rhombic "head", like many other human
in textile art, twO "hands" long" bcdI
"legs". A doser pattcrn analysls than sbed
ible in this connection could probabh L....l
. S fironh-
hght on the matter. quarc ou.. . bh
which is t.'l:tant. contains what IS pro.ha .....
. f . l ,""cmbhnlt u'"
pan of lhe bo<h' o an amma .. ,
, . hown "llb
square two. A raiscd paw IS s _..I
.l. .. animals, apu
thc samc manner as or u,cs..
fool. r psing.
Gustafsson (1889: 15) reported lm
quently occurring smooth sections of 3/1 {will, thc
palterns consistcd of free-standing ornaments. The
bands with geometrica! ornamemation are usually
pattcrned throughoul thcir lenglh, which makes il
likely that this onc too had animal ornamentation.
The other Hgom bands \\loven with individual
turns have a central seetion aD/l {will without any
remaining pattern figures, and so these tOO may have
been dccoratcd with animal ornamcntation.
From Snartcmo V, Fig. Bl, 0vre Berge, Fig. 84
(Vesl-Agder) and D0sen (Horclaland) there are
wide bands with gcomclrical pallerns done in indi-
vidual lUrns. The ornaments are high!y variable,
comprising squares, reclanglcs, meander-like
panuns and swastikas. Similar dccor occur on thc
buckct-shaped poller)' 1984:139 fl) but it
also occur on brooches (Hougcn 196i, nr 57) and
wooden objcclS (Straumc 1961, PI XYH). A group
ofnarrowcr hands, c.g. from Danmark, Fig. 61 and
Timr, Fig. 55, have less \"aricd pallcrns, for in-
stanee v..ith small, ciose1}' spaced rhombs.
Analysing the individual pauerns ofthese bands is a
hazardous undenaking. At many points the pattern
threads have disappeared altogcthcr. The colours
are for the mOSt pan so faded that no distinct area
houndaries are perceptib1e. The best points ofrefer-
ence for intcrpreting thc figures are affordcd by Ihe
tcxture. The beginning and cnd ofa pattcrn squarc,
as menlioned earlier, usually ha\'e a largeror smaller
section of weftwrapping. The length of these SC(:-
tions has probably been adapted tO requirements in
relation tO the figurative pancm of the size of the
squarc. Probably the same oolours were used in the
wefHvrapping stripes as in the panems, but it is not
possible to tell whcther oolours change regularly at
c"cry turn of the \Haps. The contours of the patterns
are often heavily marked by the pattem weft passing
Fil 111. ll'orshiP/'(r btlu:un animals. From thl back oj tht Hiigom lunic. ntxl UJ the hUlIoni7lg on lhe !tJi .id!.
the"back and on the right of the front piece is slighdy
larger and contains a more extensive pictorial depic-
tion tban the others. Bcsl-preserved is the piclorial
on th(: left sid(: of back piec(:, Figs.
112, 113. In thc middl(: can be S(:en a worshipper
looking straight ah(:ad, with arms stretch(:d up al an
angle. Th(: body disappears al the bonom between
two protract(:d animal bodies Iying outstretchcd on
cach side of the worshippcr. Th(: worshippcr's hcad
is drawn as a rhomb. Only one ey(: is This is
slightly off-c(:ntre, as if figure had been one-eyed.
Probably the intention was for il to have two eyes.
""'hO on one band of the cuff. but Dedekam
at th .
Il< bo d _IS IS no langer discernible (1924125:34).
n 15 badh- WO . f
...,,- . b b . rn In rom, but a figure is still
-..uIltUIS a leontheb k r T
"" ac o H. here are probablv
..-Hern form' dd
. ,- S In a mon 10 the quasi-human
n lke (hos .
trt1) On this ha e prenously mentioned, (he
talk nd aTe probably meant 10 be seen
longtst H"
tbt (Ilnie '" . ogom band, on the lower border of
, alnS liv .
has vanousl ..e squares lO a ro..... , Fig. 18. It
PIl"", } Slzed parts of another four. The
.. re nearesl b b
t e ultans on both sides of
Fig. 114. Wonhipper he/rueen two animals. From the right side of the back. Hiigom.
Fig. 115. Pattern drQwing of Fig 1/4.
The body is of consistent width. The arms terminate
with wide, V-shapcd hands. The animals have
bodies of even width, tcrminating with rather
pointed heads in profile, turned away from the
worshipper and with ears efeet, jaws open and one
eye visible. One front leg is raised in front of the body
and terminates with a 7 "fingered" paw. From the
paw, streaks ofsoumak extend to the lowcr cclge of
the pattcrn square. The contours are now yel1ow,
but were originally natural white. Both figures and
background are now red - the animal apaler mad-
der red and the background morc a bluish red. Orig-
inally the figures were yellow againsl a red
background; see Chap. 6. The eyes of both the
worshipper and the animals are blue. The animals
cannot be directly identificd as a species.
conceivably depict lions, but the miod
are perhaps more calculatcd to put
e Wllh u.e
dragons. Another pattern squar ed
motif, though somewhat 114-
in the right side of the back plcee, F.lgs. blid
. . h .n detalls art
This band IS so wom t at ceftal umllcl'
distinguish. Moreovcr, the pattern has ad:'"
. l re exten I>oe
weaving errors. The amma s a . The
"fingered" paws onc over the other. -:Ho
, d' d with IWO
per has this time been eplcte . h.d'
. . " maj' ha\e
third "original termJllaUO
motif Fig. 12. The width or the
, . Iv mcnu
the same as in thc tWO prcvJOUs , h side
I the fou
pattern is very fragmentary. n
F'l' lJ6. A silkfragmnltfrom an unhwu:" church i" the RIlim-
/eld. ilatid la titt j/h or 6th ((nlwy. Pholo: Victoria and Albert
.V-..trun. London.
ulion of lUnic, more than a cenlimelre
mnains of the original pauerned square, Fig. 15.
the same \,idth as the previous Ihr:, but on1y
lM inilial soumak wea\'e is extant.
The arrangcment oftwo animals facing away from
or lowards cach other is not of Scandinavian origin
bUI can be traccd back to .\'lcsopotamian art from
Sumerian times. Thc motifwas adopted by the Per-
mm and spread throughout the world, partly
through Sassanid fabrics. Thc depiclions ofa human
bring two animals probabl\' emanatc from
g"emal mythology. and abo\'e all the fable of
and Enkidu. It was thc viClor over the
thaI had to be depicted, hence the picture of
till; hero SI " b
. an( mg clween two wild beasts. The
ammal-Iamer 'r' h
. motl , Wlt a man between two lions
ClC(urs In p . . '
. erslan Silk and meta1 work. It was incor.
por;utd m tarh- Ch' ,
m'C ,.. . nstlan an as the SlOry of Daniel
UIC lon s de Th ' '
Euro ' n. e Image was frequently in
Jl(. In B d' .
"". h - urgun lan terntory during
,t (Cmur... I . '
les L .' t OCcurs partlcularl\' often in buck
...nO\\nasO1 .
"-'ct" . anlc buckles. .\hny of these have
.....}'I lons \'hleh a ,. '. .
which er re emu atlOns ofCopnc onglnals,
tales a pres . h
1Crninaled h umptlOn t at the motifwas dis-
939:1581 ,t .rough woven fabrics (Holmquist
. ,,,,sllk frag r
thc Rh', ment rom an unknO\\"II. ehureh
lo. meaod n " h " ,
Lo . 0\\ m t e \ Ictona and Allxrt
l\.._. In ndon d .
-"'Iliel is d... . . eplets Daniel and the lions.
r:ai.._. "PIClcd as a 'h' .,
\\ors lpper with hIS hands
,.,.0 IWo..... ro"
y sedentary symmelri.
cal lions, Fig. 116. The silk lxiongs to a group
believed to date from Ihc 51h and 6th cenmries,
attributed to Egypt or maybe Syria. These fabrics
survi\'e as fragments in various European church
trcasuries. Small fragments exist in Milan, Saint-
Maurice, Chelles and Scns (Laportc 1988: 137), and
there is alarger piecc in Abegg-Stifmng, Riggisberg
(Flury-lemberg 1988:412fl).
One of the carliest Scandinavian examples of the
mOlifoccurs in a brooch from lundc dated to the 5th
century. In the middle of the head plate is a human
face with something which can be interpreted as a
forked beard. The head is flanked by two reptilian
beasts (Karlsson 1983, Fig. 13). This motif also
occurs on the scabbard from Hgom (Fig. 2), on the
gold rotlar from Alleberg and on the runestone at
Krogsta in Tuna (Uppland). The picture stone from
Smiss shows a man scated and lifting, in eaeh hand,
a beast strongl)' rcminiscent of a dragon. Similar
dcpictions a1so occur on the purse from Sutton Hoo
(BruceMitford 1972:Platc 9). The Smiss picturc
Fig. //7. lVorshipptrflom Ourhogdal lojJtslr.J Jb.jmllonds
Uns mlLft"um. OIlt"rlulld. Photq: S. Hoflgrrn, ATA.
Fig. //8. PIlIIem S'Ction tJu UJO,SItiPfNf on lite iHJck of tJu HiilfJm hlni(.
piclOrial marif was translated to Scandiabil,
perhaps at second or .hird remo\-e, and thr
artists ""'ere nOl aware of the significance ofll)('
rial mOlive, (hcn presumably they read inlo lbC'
tures amtaning which came naturally (O Ibnn
..... hich the\' Cch able to disccrn in the 'motu
picture the Conlinem really rcferred 10 Da:aicI
in the den aflions, the Nordie artists Illay ha\t
il to represent Sigurcl's cOOtest with
nar warding olfthe scrpents. Thc saga ..-l
well-known in thc 7th ceotur'y and .... as trtUlU-
long aftcrwards, as witness one of thc \'crbc:J8dII
tapcstries and the rock cardngs at Ramsunds
(c. 1,000). The worshippcr
Overhogdal wallhanging Fig. 117 (Franze:nm
erl, MS). Tapestr)' la shows a mountcd:-
and Ib shows IWO of {hem. The wors
drawn with rhombic heads, straighl bOl":'"
anns and clumsily fashioned hands. AP"l.rt
dumsiness inherent in the coarser
a great resemblance here to Ihe HgomH....
Each of the four smaller fields oflhe. r
conlains an individually designed 1beY
animals are probablv quadrupe<b.
positioned alternatelv: head and lep u.:.;....,.
, "(2)' CXlto
The pallem in square , l.e. n . d'm II to
""uare is badlv worn in pariS and l ICU
uish, Figs. 118, 119. Probab1y, I ou .
stone puts one in mind, nOl only of Daniel in the den
of lions but also of a hero from the story of Sigurd
Favnersbane (Lunden 1983: 17). Different versions
ofthis heroic lale were known all over Ihe pre-Chrisl-
ian Germanic world. One may ask whether the artist
inlended showing Daniel in Ihe den of lions but,
inlentionally or uninlenlionally, aJlowed himself to
be influeneed by the seenes from the saga of Sigurd.
Holmqvist (1980:46) finds il reasonable 10 see a
mixture of hUIhen and Chrislian as a symptom of
the syncretism which was widespread in Europe
during the early centuries ofChristianity. The wor-
shipper need not be regarded as a dcliberately
Christian touch; il may perhaps have been valid as a
symbol of power, no matter where it came from.
Arbman and Cinthio (1974:56) say that when a
Fig, / /9. rollern drowing of Fig //8.
F'l. /20. Pjll/m! S(clion (3).
F'l m. Pallml drm.cing. Fig /20.
in the o . d' ,
pposJtc lreCtlOn to the prcvious
sqllare. The . l' , ,
amma m square (3) IS turned m the
s.tme d" .
' l,reetlan as the worshipper Figs. 120 12l.
liammal is" 11'b ' ,
10'- ' \lrtua y n bon-shaped and appcars
10 a crouch" . . ..
I mg poSJ(lan: posslbly lt has no front
. t hasone C)'. Th ' l' ()'
. ... e amma In square 4 IS
rlgs. 1,22, 123. The rear pari ofits body is
l'Ound ,Igh. On Its flank is a small blue square and
Stomach . . d '
bad....-a... . IS a gir le. Its head is turned
1"L 'uS. restIng on' b k Th '
"'''' l' ns ac. e eye IS marked.
nlma m ro (5)
"idtoJ)t -.,uare has lhree or four legs a
and one eye, Figs. 124, 12j. In ;he
the e y are a number of squares" these
eye, afe bl Th ' , ,
ItoInachs "f ue. e markJng round the
v scveral of h .
Oriental d '. t e animals frequently occurs
ep1ctlOns f .
...... parallels o ammais, but no Scandina
are knowll to the author.
Of the band let into the front piece on the man's
lef, side, abom 6.5 cm remain, including 1 cm of
soumak with all v.TIlPS in the same direclion, Fig. J5.
Fig. 126 shows what is diseernible of the pattern.
This is ,he beginning of a square having the same
width as the worshippcr squares, but the pattern is
defeClive and diflicult lo inlerpret.
The wide band from ,he cuff, unlike the band on
the lowcr cdge of,he mnie, probably has a continu-
ous panern, Fig. 12i. The weaving here appears
freer than on the other bands, presumably for several
reasons. It must have been difficult to maintain a
consistent height in thc pattcrn, i.e. morc or less the
same numberofwcft threads in all pattcrn figures for
the full width, when weaving a wide, richly
pauerned band and alternating between different
types of steps and diffcrent qualities of horsehair.
Probably morc weft threads had tO bc inserted here
and ,here than was originally intcnded, so as ,o
achieve roughJy the same height over the full width.
This sttms to be a live1ier, more "populous" pattern
,han in the squarcs. Probably a quasi-human figure
is depicted, and pcrhaps animal figures as weil. Here
as ....'ith the band from the Evebe cuff, it seems as if
the patterns are to be viewcd vertieaUy.
Another band with horsehair patterning from
Hgom is very narrow, with pattern squarcs only 0.8
cm wide and Q.7-0.8 cm high, Fig. 41. Probably the
Fig. 122. Palltm stion (4).
Fig. 123. Pallem drau:ing, Fig /22.
palterns here eonsisl solely of differemly coloured
diagonal fields.
On lWO narrow bands from Toresund, Fig. 57,
and Danmark, Fig. 60, with, respectivcly, 14 and 8
tablets in thc paucrned section, which leaves very
little room for any animal omamem3tion, there is a
simple geomelrlc ornamentation of triangles,
diagonal lines and rhombs.
Theornamentation and animal depictions occurring
on bands and on the fiflh century castume clasps in
the Scandinavian region have obdous ContiDcaal
paraBels. On the Roman-German frontien, a
all alang the Rhinc and Danube, a
mOuntiDgs has been round with a combmal*l
relatively realistic edge animals and \"igorousJr
carvcd ornamentation (Karlsson 1983:18 fl.
Continental chip-carved mountings probably iD8&I"
cnced Scandinavian art at an cariy stajlc. DuriIIC
4th centurv the Roman-Gcnnan frontim
guarded b}' German soldiers in acc:oaue-
Probably the soldiers cmbcllishcd Ihclr. rnodftt
ments wilh mountings of this ki.nd.
such as Ihe lian images. are definite!} bo
. h ounlingt are
late Roman art" Olherwlse I ese ffi onJy
specifically Roman and, since Ihcy ha\"e "
found in the nonhern reaches of the
thc border with German territory, IS mark
suppose that the Germans lef, thelf
ornamematlon. At me co ap "
Empire carly in the 5th cenlUry. thc fronUd"_....
, h ldicrs rttuf1ll""
sons were dispcfsed and t c so . d .,
,"mC km ITU
their horne areas. At the same I .
. " orna
began 10 appear in Scandmavlan
Pli 124. PallmI Jtction (5,
F" /25. PIl1tm1 draaillg. Fig 124.
Theo silks memio d L_
aD ' Ile auovc could also have played
Itnponant pan . . .
llprsll'\ l' as inSpIratIOn for the bands in
. - l e techniqu Th
1ft dividtd . c. c patterns of thase silks
""- r 'hma rectangles, in lines following thc
Il o t e \\cfl Th
QJh. d-,.. . e pallerns are naturalisti-
. "'''11 and d .
eplct mythologicai themes. The
e usuallv of t' l
ofth' , .... 0 ca aurs. The highl}' figura-
4 e .... fabric from Riggis-
co wIde (FlurY-Lemberg 1988:4121).
tri1Urlphal r of31 different mOlifs. A kind of
P ocesslOn of the .'\ile god Seilos is
depicled Hl a beige pauern on a reddish-brown
As stated abovc, thc animal dcpictions on bands
with individuallUrns have elear parallels in Nordie
omam(:ntation. S(:veral of the animals from thc
Evebo/Eid(: animal frieze can b(: identified and com-
parcd with similar ones fashioned in metal and
Fig. 126. Pal/nn dra/ng of nDW palkm Dn tIu
joiMd band Dn tIu lift side ofIMfront.
Fil. /27. band/rom IM UlJlS /My /NJnibly "au "ad Il aJnlinu()us
is ralher remarkable. Perhaps this happmed
chanet or dse ....ith the aim of altemalt pa
always being \"isiblc from ahem31C direetiom.
bands aft composed as horizontal borden..
most later bands, which have \'crtical pattnmnc
The cuffs from both Hgorn and Evcbohau'
and langer cominuous piclOrial scenes "hich
probably placed vcrtically. They bOlh includt
quasi-human figure, possibly surrounded by
mals etc. \'\'herc [hese particu]ar
ccmed there ma...- be reason 10 agree "'/1th
when he wriles, the E....ebo
small fidds with paltcrned figures can .
as the olclest hitherto known examples :-
dinavia ofpiclOriallexlile art, and that the
the beginning ofa developmcnlleading 10:
live textile occurring in the O.sebcrg.find
. h . 'rom Q\"CrhU5--
10 the soumak wall angIOgs Il
Skog (1924125:30). 19
$nartemo 11. according tO Hougan by
. . h h E eOO lind. an
sllghtly younger I an t c v . d
how a strl
textile art is also ten mg to s d is (I
tion. The animal on thc SnartCITlO
.. l ring In na
removed from the onglOa s QCcur
\\'000. The simiiarities ",ould be more striking if il
were nOl for the angularit)' imposed on the patterns
by the weaving technique. It is hard to disccrn very
much conservaIism in the ornamentation of the
hands, as previous writers have observed (Hougen
1935:89f). Thus neither for technical reasans nor
with refercnce to the ornamemalion is there any
douht of these bands being Nordic products.
Theornamentation of the bands done in the tapes-
try-like techniquc is somewhat different, which, at
kast in part, may be due to Ihis tcchnique affording
greater liberty of pattern design. The individual ani-
mal figures are Ihe same on the whole, but they
contain more details and are marc "realistic". There
are also a number of depictions which have nOl yet
been found on bands woven wilh individual tums,
viz the worshippcr motif and the "leonine" depic-
tians. The animals surrounding the "'orshippcr can
be temalivc1y interpreted as lions. On the Eveoo
band, with two lions standing head on, the animals
are somewhat easicr tO recognisc. The paws of the
Hgorn and Evcb0 animals are drawn, but not
\'lOVen, in a simiiar manneL The positioning of one
of the Eveb0 lions on its head in rc1ation tO the other
. bo The Snartemo animal is a firsl-
_, fi,ures at ve . 'r. . .,
lJIl l, ,_ h \ ':1\" in which mOlns In text! e art
mpleu t e ' .
rattt",a. h "ged for a great Iength of nmc.
Ur"'1\-C une a .'
an ' h bscr\'ed thai the piclOnal wcave In
n_..lrkam as o h- h
fi d "nclucles animal heads w le aft
ffi Oselxrg In I
, _ _ ,. "milar to (hase of the Snartcmo II
aslomshmg SI
border 11924125:42). . .
The bands are probably carners of symbohc
r which onee had a meaning for the owncr and
::btholder. The at the momenl
of pra' er in contact with dlvmc powcrs. He trans
a' message from human beings to the god and
mns . N d-
Although the worshipperls rare In l or le
\ (t ,t......
an of thc Period, onc fiods him as a
S\mbolic fi!':"ure. for example, in the above men-
lioned gaJd coHar from Alleberg, and in the lost
golden horns of GaUchus in Denmark.
It may have been nOt insignificant thaI the wor-
shipper motif was depicted several limes on this
COSIumc. Combincd with theothcr animal ornamen-
tation, this probably adds up 10 a costume pregnant
wilh symbolism. It secms reasonable 10supposc that
such a costume diffcred a great dcal in meaning from
those with narrow bands without animal ornamen-
tatian or with gcometrically decoratecl bands.
Puhaps there was a special rcason for the bands with
worshippcr motifs and animal ornamentation being
scwn on to the inside of the costumc, so thai the)"
would only be IUrned outward, towards the be-
holdcr, on special occasions.
10. FUR
Unformnatcly, the finds of fur hair in the Hgom
Grave tell us nOlhing about Iheir funclion there, but
it seems reasonable !O assume that (he man was
wearing one or more fur garments. The beaver hair
found by thc man's head may bc assumed to come
from a fur cap. The reindeer hair and other fur hair
may either come from different garments or repre-
sent parts of the samegarment. It is also possible, of
course, that the fells were laid over or under the dead
As staled carlier, bearskins probably covcrcd the
emire floor of the grave. On 10p of this or Ihese
bearskins there was a coarse 2/2 twiU and pcrhaps
also a finer ""iII.
At Desen, remains of a fell were discovered in a
grave with unusually goocl preservation conditions.
At thc bouom oflhe grave was a layer ofbircb bark,
and on !op of this a bearskin had been spread out.
The dead man had been laid on top of the bear skin,
shrouded in two large \.'Oollen blankets (Shetelig
1912:147), At Evebe (Hougen 1935:9) and Snar-
temo II (Shelelig 1912:11) as well, a bearskin was
spread out underneath the dead men.
II has been assumed thai furs in Migration Period
graves usually come from Ihe hear, but cowhair has
been idenlified in a woman's grave in Sorunda (R
Elfstrand, personal infonnalion). Hare fur has bt':en
identified in the E...eoo find (Rahncs Pedersen
Fur garments ha\'e not been established in any
Nordic buna!. Vet il seems perfectly obvious that
Ihey existed, considering the availability of fur ani-
mals and the c1imate. Besides, we have a large
numbcr of skin capes from Danish bog finds (Hald
1950:319fI). Just as with the texlile cOSlume finds,
wc are faced here with garments be10nging to a
differem dass from those in the burials: cf.
13.2.2. The SC)'lhian finds are probably
allt for purposes of comparison, despitc the
enee in time.
Thc Ahai fiods includc scveral fur garmenlJ
short cartan from barraw 2 in Pazyryk is made
sable with thc fur side turned inwards. On the
side, parallcl seams have been sewn with smew
threacl along the length of the garment and Ihttt
applique patterns ofhicle (Rudenko 1970:850. TbiI
caftan is edged with ermin dyed blue.
Another garment from barraw 2 at Pazyryl
sabl.:: with fur hairs on both the outside and .
Although the insides of the furs were not \"isibk
bolh had paraIleI sinew threacl seams aJong
length of the garment.
Thcre is nothing extant in
sugges! that a similar techmque of
seams was used, either with fur or in
material. Sinew threads are eXlant, on other
hand in the Eveb0 flnd. They were proba )
, -blv fell
for embroidery on lealhcr or, pOSSl .',
maieriai is decaved and hard 10 delermlO
. . d 1 h Ifell
exacdy, Slnew thread an eat er ,_
found IOgether with hair from the ....
illikely that thev belongcd 10 an arnde.of
, , 1 'th
Caps of fur, leather or le I W1
. . . 'ous fonns. from
embroldery are extant. In \an
ryk (Rudenko 1970:890 fi
' . . f the fur 1nlD
A thorough examination o bh
Migration Period graves would prob
'. __I.
'fr ent fur aOlm-
our knowledge oflhe use o lller
pcrhaps too of garmenl design.. 03 graves
Bo (1980:5f1) has exam
IN . nu
" rn of I a\lO
bear phalanxes from the l useu . t'S fl
aterial co
quities in Stockholm. e m
_ d IS skcletal graves from 68 burial
all D -
w _ d-ff n' parts ofSweden. aungs range
JO mere
(l"lUn Roman Iron Age (six graves), the
from thC, proper (20), the Migralion Period
Roman ron .) d h V-k-
_ h \',ro\'ingian penod (21 an t c I mg
')JI l C . R I
'12\, Oflhe 20 graves clatecl 10 the ron
3 3re from the island of Gotland. Dunng the
-\(t'. . --' fi
_ - P,n"od the concentratlon mo\'cu rom
Golland to :\Icdelpad and thc :\llaren \ alley, wnh
10 and 8 graves respcctively. Pelre asks whClhcr b:ar
fdbin Iron Agc graves afe a status symbol reflecllng
lht Iocal fur trade.
Fur (fading is reoorded by the Ostrogolh historian
Jordanes. wOting in the mid-Gth century, who men-
lions lhal the Svea, through innumerable inter-
mediaries. deli\-ercd shiny black furs to the Romans.
It hard to gauge thc volume of the Scandinavian
fur trade in prehistorical times. In two of the most
frtqucm areas for burials with bear phalanxcs in the
Roman Iron Age - Gotland and Medelpad/Hlsing-
land - there is a coincident distribution of imponed
Roman anicles in the gra\"e finds (Petre 1980:10,
mberger 1964:385, Fig. 168). The prosperity of
U\(:oommunities offo.lcdelpad and Hlsingland dur-
ing the later Roman Iron Age and the Migration
Ptriod may \'ery weil have been due lO a great extent
to areas, nalUrally enough, being staplc
regions for the export of furs southwards (Petre
1980:12). The fur distriets of Jmtland have been
nnphasised as particularly imponant to the affiuent
Iron .AIle of \ledelpad (Slomann 1948:54). Petrc
6nds l.t possible that the custom ofburying persons of
supenor social status on a bearskin dunng various
of prehistorie betokens an imponant long-
trade in furs (1980:13).
_'.1, 1- S -- (
. trom 1980:266f1) deals in an essavon
, .
bearskins and the worship of Odin, the historico-
religious aspect of the use of bearskins in burials.
From time immemorial the hear had been asaered
animal and Odin was associated wilh it until quite a
late period. Bronzc matrices from Bjrnhavda, Tors-
lunda, indude one showing Odin the one-eyed,
while IwO mhers showa man IOgether with, respec-
tivdy, one and two hears. A mount on one of the
helmets from Vendd shows a man armed with an
axe and holding a bear tethercd by a rope. In the
Icelandiesagas, Odin's warnors (hirdmn) are vari-
ously referred to as uHhednir and berserkir. The
explanation given for "ulfhednir" is that they wore
wolf-hides as eoat of mail. "Berserkir" ("bear-
skins") may possibly ruean "bare-shined", Le. with-
out a eoat ofmail. The original meaning orthe term
has since travestied inta "berserk". 80th ber-
seTkir and ulfhednir, quile simply, weTe royal
warriors or eounieTs dresscd in animal hides as
members of an organisation. Odin, the patron deity
of the bear and ilS inearnation, concerned himself
y,'ith certain groups ofpeople - the upper elasses and
theiT dead. Odin is the lord of the dead and he leads
the Odensjakt, the procession of the dead whieh
draws onward in the tempests of autumn. The pro-
cession of the dead seems ro have been mimed and
enaeted by the berserkir. This is an ancient lndo-
European phenomenon, namely that of the age
classes. Thesc warlike castes appeared in the Nonh
as bcrserkir, and were closely eonnected with Odin.
"The bear was Odin's animal and, accordingly, that
of the upper classcs, and especially the god of the
high-ranking dead. And so Ihedead, especially those
from the upper strata of society, were often laid tO
rest on bearskins. In this sense the bear hides were a
social status symbol" (Strm 1980:269).
i.e. without hook-and-eye. This is the case, fortxam-
pk, with the finds from Timr (Medelpad
Toresund (Srmland) and Danmark (Uppland
Instead the garments were then buttoned up Wl
loops round the buttons (see FIg. 59).
The first examples of one or more garments bDI
held rogether by same sort of clasp oceur during
latter half of the Roman Iron Age, originallng
Southern Scandinavia. Different types seem IOottur
paraBel. In the south of Sweden and in Denmad
there are clasps formed of metal wire, the twO ends
whieh are rolled up in opposite directions tO form
spirals. The oldest of these finds, from Heiligenha-
fen, Kr. Oldenburg, in Schleswig Holstein (Hincs
1984:42) is dated to the late 3rd or early 41hcent
Other finds dated to the fourth eentury oceurm
in the south ofScandinavia, viz Denmark, Skne
land. During the early Migration Period
small clasps also appear in Norwav. In [nglaDd
there are 20 finds of clasps, the oldest being daled
the late 5th or earlv 6th centur" (Hines 1984:68
, ' b<d
mall round button-like rivet heads attat
, , ~
tablet-woven bands and/or fabrie exist from
cemUl)' in Denmark, Norway and Sweden and
stimte the second type ofclasp. Two b u t t ~ S O
, d' 'h 'Il' l 'd ,oncentnC a
In lameter WII nel o-m al .
: d d l n a nch nJIII
were found m an unrecor e p ace I ",_1:_
, d l d F'g.128{;)OP'lj-
grave from NJurunda, ]\tIe epa, l .os
1985: 125 fl). That find is among the oldest I
of buttoning with bands still extanL
, l l s come from
The oldest finds of sIDg e c asp pear
land. Here small, quite modesl daspS ap __IM'
. ularo
one or more small heads on tnang ~
are eonteml""'-:::-
plates with hook-and-eye. ese ._.J
, l s men
ous with the metal wire c asp nd
. Almgren a
From period V:2, accordlllg to
Clasps playan important part in Nordie costumc.
Their positioning tells us morc [han any other
adornments about the structure and form of gar-
ments. Thc clasps at the \Vrists show that a long-
sleevecl lunie was woro, hut also that thc sleeves
must have been so narraw at the bonom that they
had to be buttoncd up. Similarly, the clasps at the
ankles show that long trousers weTe wom and that
they, like the sleeves of the lunie, werc narraw at thc
bottam. At Hgorn, moreover, there are clasps at the
bottom of the lunie on both sides. These, like the
ones alrcacly mentioned, mark the length of the gar-
ment and show that il was preferred close-fitting at
the battarn. These are the only dcmonstrable posi-
tions of thc clasps.
Clasps occur during the Migration Period in Swe-
den, Norway, Finland, Estonia, North Germany,
Denmark and England. Hines (1984:49) puts the
figure at 100 for Norway, 185 for Sweden and GOt-
land, more than 25 for Denmark and Bornholm and
about for 40 for Finland.
Migration Period c1asps consist of Iron, bronze or
silver sheet plates, the side of one plate being bent
into a hook whilc the other - the eye - has a eorre-
sponding slit. The plates were attaehed ro the under-
side of the garments. Metal pins passed through the
layers of c10th and were riveted ro the plates. Some
pins had no buttons attaehed ro them. lnstead the
head of the pin served as a button. Others again had
bunons which eould be east in one pieee with the
pins or soldered on 10 them. This latter type were
most often of bronze, sometimes of silver and fre-
quently gilded.
There are also buttons which oecur singly with
metal pins through the layers of c1oth, fastened to a
small rivet washer on the underside of the garment,
Bennet has analysed aboUl 100 burial grounds in
the :\hlaren Valley which were investigated be-
,,-"een 1960 and 1980, concentcating on a "base
group" of 228 Migration Period graves (1987:35f).
Eighty-two of thern (36%) contained clasps.
Another twenty or SO contained small clasps with flat
buuons. These lauer have nOl been included in the
study because key artifacts are lacking. This group of
objccts, however, is undcr-rcprescnted. Next to
combs, clasps represent Ihe largest group offinds in
the :\1laren Valley. They occur with equal frc
queney in both men's and women's graves (Bennet
1987: 100, Fig. 71). In the richest men's graves, sev-
eral different types ofbuttons orten occur togeIher,
while the simple, undecorated buttons are slightly
more common lhan others.
Hines (1984:65) flnds it clearly evident that men
wore more c1asps than women, as is also suggested
by the prcsent work, dealing with a very limited
number of graves. Hines' view that more women's
than men's graves contain clasps is, however, open
to queslion (Hines 1984:61 f).
\Yomen's gra\'es do nOl as a rule contain more
than a pair of c1asps (i.e. two complete clasps). The
only exception hitherto is Ommundroo, Hedrum.
That grave conlained c1asps with 2 (2+2) gih but-
tons, five silver pins, probably from c1asps of the
same kind as those previously mentioned, small
c1asps ofsilver 2 (1 + I), ,,-''o flat-headed bronze pins
and two prelzel-shaped dasps silver gild {Dybsand
Fig. /29. Tht clasps pfactdjiIJt in a u/w IJIl tlKh lOwtr ltg.
Vickftby, Ofal/d.
... '
- ".

, [Q23: J08ll) (here aTe clasps in seven gra.vcs: I n

lilan ,. llstena. dasps weTe round In SIW,
"-'I narum. a .
\ ... SIC. . bY onc calf and four complclc ones
[OUT In a ro" , "EG I T r
,. r I p bj" the other calf (A 4 4, a
,jl1(! hal a c as " BI ..
Cl also occur in a ruined grave lrorn as-
1.4 ' ,.asPS'inde (AEG 413). Havor in Hablingbo is
uun2" as ")T F 190
.. h ' clasps (AEG 564. eXI Ig.
saK! tu a\e.>"- .
(here werc (WO clasps by e3ch wnSI and
shi'''' I al "8 d bl

onc lower leg. Grave b ,a ou e
thm (ose .'
. h, bunal ground. cont3med ten paIrs
if'I\tLnI '
r:i las positionro at the wmts and the lowcr legs
T:Xl 222. 56l, 564). There is ,3 variant?f
type (AEG 564) from a cremauon In
hllslenarum. \"allstcna. Another {WO CTemanon
buriats from period \':2 comain clasps, of (hem
from Hal'or in Hablingbo - one with four (AEC 563)
and onc with tWO cJasps (EG 562).
of the Gotland graves mentioned here are
warriors' graves.
A man's gra\-e from Vickleby on the island of
land contained ten cJasps resembling EG 561,
po'litioned five on each lower leg, and above these,
00 tach leg. there was a round bronze mounting.
Bmtath ofthese cJasps there are traces of2/2
r..ill, Fie; 129.
Blindheim mentions a find from 0vstebe, Sandeid
comprising seven small hooks in a line,
tuh with a filigree head (1947:52). That find is
dJtro to the second half of the 4th centur"\'. The
boob are altached to cloth or band. .
Thus the different types of clasp were used for
Stturine; both the lower part of the sleeves and the
part of the tmuser legs. The origins of the
different types can hardly be unconnected. Hooks
ud C'le . h . I
. s .... n spIra ends are not known from GOt-
land. and only a fe..... specimens of clasps are known
land and Gotland before the Migration
tnod. [t is nOt clear in what way the different types
artconnecle I d h .
{an w at thelr common origin ifany
can be. ' ,
1956;7 fI). This whole find includcs a very opulent
set of jewel1ery, with {WO cruciform brooches and
[WO relief brooches. The dasps may possibly have
belonged to different garments, though these werr:
not neassarily \,'orn by ,he deceascd; they could
have been foldcd up and dcpositcd in thc grave.
In an articJc on dasps from Gotland (1986:19),
Heddin finds a ratioofabout 3: l betwecn men's and
women's graves. Tineleen of the 48 graves with
c!asps can be scxed. four of them are women's
graves, 15 men's.
or the Swedish graves induded in the present
study, thc breakdown by sexes and numbers of
buttons/dasps is as follow5:
Hgorn 6 (3+3), 2 (3+3), 2 (3+3), 2 (2+2)
Norrala 4 (4+4), (5+5), (4), (4), (I)
Lockne 2 (3 +3)
Timra (I + I), 2 (3+3)
Torp (2+2)
Toresund (1+1), (I)
v. Ryd (2+2)
Danmark, feature 72(1+1)
Lov, g"",e 3 (2+2), (I), (I), (I)
Linde (3+3), (4+4), (I)
Danmark, fealUre I 2 (I + I)
SjlOfla (2)
Grdinge (3)
Danmark, fealUre 17
Hammarby 2 (5+5)
Bondkyrka (2+2)
The most e1aborale buttons in the Hgom Grave are
on the cuffs. Second to ehese come a number of
buttons at the head and then the upper pair at Ihe
feet. The clasps by the waist, the lower part by the
feel and two at the head have disc-shaped buttans of
silver, probably undecorated. The Norrala man's
buttons are all alike: disc-shaped, gilded sil\'er
bultons with triskeleomamentalion. The man had a
clasp al each wrist and one al each ankle, as weil as a
claspjust below the waise on his right side. In addi-
tion, four smaller buttons of the same type were
found at the left shoulder and at Ihe waisl, on the
righl side.
At Timr, Skyltberg, Ihere are (1+1) chip-carved
button at waist hcight and 2 (3+ 3) flat, undecoraeed
bultons probably at the feet.
In the other Swedish graves deah " h
. . r h \\11 hert
position o t e dasps and button . h
s .... u texfle
ments is not known. l
In the Norwegian finds including the c b .
' ommatl
c asp an abnc, the breakdown be', h
veen t e
and numbeTS of buttons/clasps is as follo....-s:
Evebo 2 (3+3), 2 (3+3), 2 (2+2)
Ugulen 2 (3+3), 2 (4+4)
Veiem 4 (5+5)
Vemmestad 2 (3+3), (3)
Snartemo II 2 (4+4), (5), (3), (I.
Nesse 2 (3 +3)
Flugheim (2+2)
:".1aele (4)
Sem (3)
Heve (2)
Nedre Stedje (2)
Ommundrod 2 (2+2), (5), 2 {1 +I , 2
Dosen 2 (4+4), (I)
Nornaes 2 (3+3)
Sletten 2 (3+3)
Rivjeland 2 (3+3)
Lasken (4+4)
Hauglum (3+3)
Storesund (3+3)
Bols/ad (3+3), (l)
Eikc1and (3 +3)
Stamnes (3 +3)
Evebo/Eide with six clas ps. Ihe cIoscst
to Hgom and eontainiog
does 2 (3+3) high bultans of gil! brom:e WI
profiled side and counlersunk Slyle I ornaJIlCSlD'
lian, and 2 (2+2) and 2 (3+3) flat, bullOns nd
have now vanished. None of the was fou
silU. . ,'nem
Anothcrgrave wilh numerouS bullons IS ek
Crong, which has four clasps. C
c1asps \Vere movcd in this grave, WI
them in situ. All the bultonS are flal, glId .
. . 'Th" some.....hal ,n
Simple clrcular decor. ey val) from
even within one and the same half-c1asp. '1
len Hansa there are 2 (3+3) large !tl
" . an
buttons with animal ornamentauo
. r ., b e TheIarge
small plalll buHOns o gl l ronz . '0'
. The pOSl1l
probably came from the wnsts.
. ,known (de Lange 1909:29).
( )
.--ln {I 's al Dosen there are 2 4+4
From a "om3n . B
. h rhip_carved ornamentatlon. olh
IbtlOns \\l1... ,.
" d b attachcd at the dead warnan s nght
I psha cen d h
(as hh- halr wav between breaSI an lp.
and roUI:( . .'
babh- lav on her Side with both arms
Thn.oITlan pr .'
. h side and both hand in front of her.
on hrr ne: ( . (98 -O d
,rk according to HIOCS l 4: I an
In ('lIm,
08 . only 15 graves with dasps been sexed.
flhern are wamen's gravts. FlOds may ha\"c
h h Th
0 r"CCllt \'('ars \O c ange ( IS plCturc. e
rrncrgc l ,..., .
brgc burial ground at for has
\iddrd a flumber of gra\"CS with dasps (:'\le1sen &
IWmus)ell 1986:24).
the final quancr of the 51h CCnlur)', clasps
appear in Anglo-Sa:wn graves. Thc)' occur only. in
\lIiOmen's e;raxts and hale been used at the wnst,
brncc thr term wrist-clasps (Hines 1984: I07). ;,,'Iost
oflhe finds come from definite women's gravcs, but
Ollt-third come from graves of indetcrminate sex.
Thtdasps art usually found one at each wrist. Some
of thtm are small and simple, consisting of two
shtctsofthin. heaten bronze. Others are more elabo-
rale!y worked in eaSt bronze. gildcd and decorated
_ith animal omamemation and a triangular exten-
5IOfI at the top which is belic\'ed 10 ha'..e coneealcd a
sleeve gusset. In all eases there are hales for sewing
the clasp on to the fabrie.
Hooks and clasps suggest that, in Southem Sean-
dinavia and on the islands of land and Gotland
from the end of the 3rd eentury, c101hes were being
wom whieh were fiHed close at both wrists and
ankles by means of dasps. Garments of this design
are not known from the Continent during either the
Roman Iron Age or the Migralion Period. There is
rcason 10 supposc that the custom can have origi-
naled in Southem Scandinavia and that we are con-
fronted here by a Scandina\ian fashion which later,
somewhat transformed, reeurs in Anglo-Saxon
rcrritory. lv\'orkshop sites with mQulds for clasp-
bUllons have been found in Sweden e.g. at Helg
(Lamm 1972) and Gene (Ramq\';sl 1983).
The Swedish finds include more men's than
women's graves with clasps, whereas in the Norwe
gian linds the scxes are cqually baJanced. In both
countries, c1asps are more nurncrous in men's
Aftcr the Migration Period, clasps no longer occur
in Scandinavian linds, but the type persists for some
time afterwards in Anglo-Saxon lerritory.
In addition to animal depictions, pictures of human
ixings play quite an imponanl pan in the art of the
Migration Period. They oeeur, for example, on
metal mountings, on gold brachteates, in rock earv-
ings and on gold collars.
In Sweden about finy impressed gold foils ("guld-
gubbar"), measuring 1-2 cm, have been found,
depicting human figures. All the finds come from
dwdling sitcs and dating is fairly vague, viz from the
l\1igration Period to the Viking era. There are two
types. The foils can be cut out of a rdatively thick
sheet ofgold and some delails engra\'ed on them, or
else thcy can be squarc or rectangular gold foils
pressed from one side. The foil depicts one or two
standing persons, a man or \Voman or a man and
woman. In the laUer case thc figures are shown in
profile, their arms outstretched IOwards eaeh other.
The single figures oceur both nude and dressed. On
the foils with amatory scenes, the woman wears a
long gown with a paucrned border at the boHorn,
often with a train. She has a cloak over her shoulders
and her halr is worn long, gathered in alarge, loose
bun at the neck, The man wears a knee-lcngth tunie,
long trousers and has long hair. Virtually the same
costumcs oceur on the single+figure foils. One gold
foil from Sorte Muld on the island of Bornholm
depicts a solitary man wearing a eoat open at the
front (Watt 1989, Fig. 5a); er. ixlow.
The draftsmanship of these foils is stcreotyped
and tells us little about the aetual costume. The foils
are hardly ever pierced in the corners, and so they
were not sewn on tO garments. Same have a small
loap at the back, so that thcy could be worn on a
String (Stenixrger 1969:258f). Their original func-
tian is not known, but there is a great deal to suggest
that these figures played a pan in connection with
one or other form of religious exerciS(: \\att
)989:132). The gold foils 3fe a purelr Scandina\U11
phenomenon. Apart from the Swedish foils. abou
fifty afe known from Non....ay and mOTC lhan 2CXX)
have been round on Bornholm.
The four well.prescrvcd topper malrices from
Torslunda, intenrled for thc production ofimprt'SKd
roil matriccs for helmets, date from the lransi
belween the Migration and \icrO\1ngian pniods.
Thesc roils show men carrying lanee and sword and
wearing he1melS and knce-length tunics dlXOl'arcd
with wide borders at the boHom, one man "'tariaC
long trousers and a hornerl hcJmct in company wim
a man wearing an animal mask. a man figb
bears, and a man, carrying an axe, wilh a capruml
hear. One orthe last 1WO mentioned men is "'tanas:
long trousers, close-filting at the anklcs. and tbt
other is dressed in a tunic which extend5 haIf
do,"n his thighs. . .
lmpressed foil friezes from the
period depicting human figures occuron
from Valsgrde 7 and 8. \'endel I and XI\. 1k
men here are wearing outer
, 'ide belts l-
In some cases there are Isunct, \\ "",,
e: \' ndeiM-
Torslund matrices and the hdmel Irorn e S(lIDt
(c. 600) show baldricks resembling thos: (roID
of the Migration Period graves. de.plc,;;':t
the end of the 6th eenturv and beginnlng
t the front. J_
show the first garmenls 10 be open a _
I\' helmet
impressed foils from the Ven e
man wearing a coat which is marc {han lm cdId
Fig. 130. This has wide borders along the front ...:..III
t the front, pt-
and lower edge and wraps over a . be beiIDd
over left. The same kind of coot don
, I la
e: \ en e .
from Sultan Hoo and that lrorn . bered
. h j randlsgat
laHer the eoat IS somew at onge
F .IXI. Ilfl/JTmMjeiljromtMJulmd, IlmkIXJv.1kman
,. .'if/IS u.(Qting II C4filln, IM 111II11 cm du righ/w eMin
..utM<l $werd u.ilk II bafdricJ:. TItt e{dts/ Su:tdish dtpiicm
.fII r4/11n. btjQrt Qr e. 600.
tht a i ~ wilh 'd be -
9jj "bb l'> a \\1 e h. \ alsgrde 7 (Arwidsson
n_ - ~ 8 and 138) shows Ihe same kind of
..... "'Cnt On Ih .
e Impressed foils of the helmel
ctvpe of .
abl\, o : . garmcm wc have now described prob-
, nglnatcd . h h
Tltt<,- ....0 -d' wlt t e equcslrian peoples of Asia.
, rCn mg
:lJId made fr eoats or caftans open at Ihe front
"t\""'ard Om StOllt woollen fabrics. During its
progress, this eoat devclopcd from a prac-
tical riding garmcnt to, finally, an official anicle of
apparcl at the Byzantine court on festive occasions.
A numbcr of canans have been found at Anlinoe in
Egypl and dated to Ihe 5th-6lh century, Fig. 131
(Geijer 1963:8, Kocken 1988:96). These coal5 are
made of napped woollen fabrie and decoraled with
wide strips ofsilk round lhe sittves, neck, fron! edges
and loweredge. The eaftans were probably imponed
from Iran or neighbouring regions. Apan from their
extremely long sleeves, these garments are very sirni-
lar 10 Ihase depieted on the impresseJ foils men-
lioned above. Clearly the caflan was a type of gar-
ment known in Scandinavia from at least aboul 600
A.D. The lexiiIe finds do not supply any evidence
that il already cxisted during the Migration Period.
The picture SlOne al EtcIhem (Lindquist 1941-42,
Fig. 64) shows Ihrec men with knee-Iength, bclted
outer garments. That stone da tes from the :\1igra-
tion Period.
Another Migration Period depiction oeeurs on the
runestone at Mjbro, in Uppland (Stenberger
1964:557). Il 5ho\"'"5 a horseman lifting a shicld on his
left arm and brandishing an edged weapon in his
right hand. He is wearing a ciose-fiuing eoslume
with a wide helt.
None of the human dcpictions menlioned hitherto
has supplied uscful maieriai for comparison with Ihe
.\!ligralion Period costume finds, cxeepl Ihal same of
them show men wearing long Irousers. Unfortu-
nately, though, the depiclions have nOlhing more to
tell us aboul the appearance of Ihe trouscrs.
The only cossumc depiclions from Scandinavia
actually resembling the coslumc finds are those of
the small figures on thc eoUar from lIeberg
(Holmqvist 1980:43 11). Two diSlinet figurcs are
shown, wearing similar cosIume. One ofthem is the
worshipper already mentioned in the section on
band ornamentation. He is depicted en face, arms
Fig. 132. 77u u:orshippn (dj anti (bj titt "birdU:dZCIur"jrom
IM AlIlMlg uJid" Af:n- StJlin 19tH.
uplifted and knces bellt, Fig. 132 a. Thc centours are
marked with granulation. On his upper body, the
worshippcr wears a long-sleeved garment ending
just belew thc wais!. In the centre, at least on one
figure, there are 1WO paralIeI lines from the neck
marking 10 the lower edge of the garment. This,
howcvcr, cannOl be very important, because it is not
marked with granulation. The figure ",ears long
[rousers, ending al thc anklcs.
The other, the "birdwatcher" (Fig. 132b), is, like
the worshippcr. dcpictcd en face \ '"',h
" granIIIa
centours. Hc 100 sccms 10 be \Ycan'ng ,
. . 'atume ",,1;_
Just belew thc walst. Thc arms heinlJ o l h' .......
.., 11\
no sleeves are markcd. He has t
thc. vCrlical markings On
shlppcr srume, ,hls COsturnc dcpictiorJ tallits
closely with the sUITiving eostume materiallhan
of those previausly. This could poul
be because, In actual fact. [her post-date lhe M
tian Period.. Igr'a-
For al least the lalter part of thc Roman Iron Age
andduring the :\ligration Period, the man's COSlume
oonsim oflong trousers and a long-sleeved lunie. l t
alse includes a doak. Thc finds do nOl indicate any
other types ofgarments, bUIlhis is nOl to say that no
others cxisted. Headgear nalurally occurrcd, even
thoull'h the flods yicld insignific3nt evidence of il.
Probably linen c10lhing was worn, but linen occurs
in the linds; see Chap. 5. J. Shoes and other
b>1".. ear are not confirmed bY the Swedish finds
md .... iII Iherefore be omincet in this conncClion:
Conc('ming shoes from this the reader is
rdc-rrtd to Hald 1972.
nu: eadi ! Scandinavian mcn's costumes from
ptrhistoric limes come from Danish oak-coffin
dale<! to period II of the Bronzc Agc, Thc
coslume thcn consistcd of a gown, i,c, a picce
c olh foldcd round thc body and somelimes
uttnding "I" h Id T'
O\er one s ou er. hiS reached part
Wi\" down on h' h d
kid'. c I Ig an was bclted al Ihe waist. A
nt\-sha''''d '"Ioak ' h h'
ll.t' was wom W1l {IS garment.
t __ Clbtume alsa included headgear and shoes \vilh
IllQI-doths (B h I & H
.' ro om ald 1940). The CUl ofthese
IS dearly connected with the shape ofani-
It is k '
nO( no\\ n how long IhlS type of
tumt rema' ed .
bl.ekJt h III In use. The introducIian of the
'--. as been taken 10 implv that people had
--l\lIn to wear t .
booh rousers, But helt bUllans and helt
\\tre airead' be' ,
1htrti' ) mg used In the Bronze Age.
lIOt reaso Ii .
'Pttifieall. n orsupposmg thai the buckle was
\\'cr: rconnecte<! with Irousers, especially as
llld suchlik cgularly wom all Ihe outside of tunics
11> "
t man's COStu h'
me, w Ich bcgan to be used dur-
ing .he Early Iron Age in Scandinavia remained in
use, with various permutations of garments, until
thc mid-14th century and cven longer than that
where the lower classes werc cancerncd.
The cornmones{ Iype of IUnie has been known, at
least since thc medieval period, as a kiurtcl or kyrtill
in Old Swedish, This was a sIceved garment pulled
over the head and somctimes gathered at the waist
with a belt. Long sleevcs for a man's lunic hecame,
from the Earl)" Iron Agc, a rule which, despite
changing fashions, was not depaned from until our
o,,'n day. The tunic rould he long or short, wide or
narrow, but it always had long sluvcs; only ,,"omen
rould leave {heir arms bare (Nerlund 1941:30).
There is no panicular form ofjeweJlcry accompany
ing the tunic through its various variations orfaces of
development. During certain periods its design did
not require allY jewellcry al all. At other limes, the
neck opening, for examplc, was so small that a slil
was nceded in order to pull the tunicoverone's head.
This calJed for a brooch to keep the slit together.
During the late Roman Iron Age and the Migration
Period, the long, narraw slee\"es caJled for special
fastening deviees, hooks-and-eyes and clasps being
used for this purpose. Usually a helt ,,'as wom out
side the tunic, but thc two were not functionally
There is no evidenee oftrousers and tunic having
been introduced simultaneously, but narrow
and legged garments did occur at one and the same
In land and Gotland during the Roman Iron
Agc, as memioned in Chap. 11, cJasps appearcd
which are thought tO be direcdy connected with
trousers and with a long-slccycd garmcnt. Clasps
during the PeriCKi had the same funclion.
Old Norse literature has IWO names for long trOus-
ers: leislabrQkr, which had feet, and okulb1()kr, which
cnclecl at the anklc (Falk 1919:118). The lrousers
couJd be hcld up with a broklindi, a !>ch of textile
malcrial, or with a broko belt of lcather with metal
moumings and a buckle (Falk 1919:120().
mental bdts were always visible and werc ....'om
outside the tunic. Thus, failing (hc occurrence 0[1\\,0
buckles, trousers were probably kept up with a belt
made of texlile material.
\Vherc does the use of trousers come from? In the
East, long trousers were being \\lom long berore thc
Christian era. Riding demands different equipmcnt
from that whieh was CUITent in Euroj>(': and th(: N(:ar
East. Th(: Nomadic hors(:men inv(:nted trous(:rs as a
riding garment. just as the)" invemed boots, and in
this way the equcstrian j>(':oples ofEasl(:m Asia came
to revolutionise eastume. Horse furniture and riding
garments have migrated as different euitura! ele-
ments from the interior of Asia to Eastern Europe
and from there (Q other parts of the European Conti-
n(:nl (Widengren 1960:71).
In Herodotos' day, th(: 5th cemury B.C., trousers
werc ",om by the ).,'ledes, Persians and Scythians.
The Scythian trousers .....cre of two main types:
leather trousers and wide trousers of dOlh. The}'
were tueked down inta soft, low boots. The Scyt-
hians passed on the wearing of trousers to the Ger-
mans and Kelts. The Greeks, in spite of their con-
tacts with the Scythians, never adopted this gar-
In the east Roman provinces, long trousers ""'ere
being ",om in the 3rd centul) A.D. The east Roman
cavall) had the same riding habit as the Parthian
army had - that is, long trousers and a eaftan (Cum-
ont 1926: 1811). Piclures from Dura Europas on the
Euphrates, which was a Roman garrison town until
256 A.D., show forcxample long, richly folded trous-
ers. The Roman anny, with its auxiliary troops, was
a modey collection of pooples and ilS dress was as
"international" as the Empire iuelr. Roman reliefs
often show trouserdad Germans from different reg-
ions, as weil as other "barbarians". Cicero used
"trouser-dad peoples" (bracalae nationes) as a
common designation for the barbarian tri bes (Nm-
lund 1941:36).
There are only a few surviving garments which,
chronologically and geographically speaking, can be
compared with Scandinavian COStum d .
:\'Iigralion Period. The material fiOl e the
companSOQ bas
therefore been expanded so as also 'O 1 d
. . mc u e linda
., In or another, are similar lo Sean-
dlOavlan Migration Period COSlum-
... , even thottgh
they come from geographicall\' remo,_ 1
. . ...p acn aDd
vel)' dIfferent penods. As has alr(:adv bttn
dear; e.g. on the subject of
the Near East and the :\1(:((iterranean r""';on ha
. be .
Important anng on our earl}' textile histon... lDe
same gQ(:s for the history of eastume.
. fidl _.
lmportant In ocatlOns in this region include Pal,
myra in Syria, an important trading centre on lbe
Silk Road destroyed by the Romans in 273 A.D. tbt
abcv(: mentioned Roman garrison to...'11 of Dun.
Europos on th(: Euphratcs, and Halabiyah. alsooa
the Euphratcs. The great necropolt:s in :'\ortbem
Egypt, e.g. Antinoe, are also highl)' significant.
13.2.1. Oriental tunies and trousers
The oldest finds having points of similarity 'A;tb tbt
Scandina\'ian castumes come from PazYf\-k in Alla&,
Siberia and haH been radio-carbon dated to tbt
5th-4th centurics B.C. Th(: deep-frozen gn\t:S
the Ahai nomads contained mummified bodies
men and women, richly caparisoned horsn.
thing, carpets etc. (Rudenko 1970). Various arridcs
ofclothing, several ofthem in amazingly good oonm
tian, have been excavated. There were no trousrrsa
Pazyn.k but trousers \\Iere disco\'ered during a Iatcr
at Tuekta (Rudenko 1960:118[\.
In mound 2 at Pazvryk. a tunic was found. made
oftabby fabric, prob;bly helOp (Rudenko.19
It is made up oftwo front and (\,'0 back PI(Ct:S.
133 sewn togcther in the middle, al the sidts and
, h 'd (:aDlS
the shoulders. Gussets are let inta t e SI e s Red
the bottom. The sleeves are not guss
wcoIlen cords follow the seams in the middle at
< liIryB
Fig.I33. Tunufrom PiU.J"ryk. 51h or4t" (Ol .
Ta/bol-Riu /95$.
"ddle of thc back and betwccn sleeves
front thc mI . d ffi d d
ixxh The neck opemng an cu s are e ge
and 'd --d wool1cn bands. The garmcnt is
'h 1 cm Wl e.,- . I il is 2x 130 cm wide al the bonom,
]04 cm cng.
the top
The sleevcs are 58 cm long,
93 cm at . .
.)(. '''rds the iining. Paris ofanother tUnlC
n.1ITO"lng 10'\" .
. ., .p.....arancc were .lIse dlsco\'ered.
of ,lml ar.. F-
. ,d 3 a short wide garmcnt, open al the
n mau '
,-o\crOO- Ihis is a caftan, made of (WO
fron!. was ..' , .
white rch Fig. 134. The cartan IS done
!aICr50 I " ..
up\\ith IWO l.las al the front. Il has twO slits behmd
allhe bonom and small gussets under the slee\cs. I I
i!lonh 100 cm long. II is 2xl18 cm wide at the
and 2x 140 cm wide at the bottom. The
are iO cm long.
., ., ....
F;'. 134. Sk,tidl (ajlan from P(l{YT)'k. Afen Talbot-Rict
The COstumc finds also indude long fch stockings
and \arious kinds of headgear.
The Pazyryk flnds show that the Ahai people had
an eXI .
enstvc nading nctwork. A knotted carpet and
a tapestry-wovcn border, for example lcslity to COll-
lacts with Ira d d'
. h n, an pattcrne sLIks rcvcal cantacts
"',t China.
From a grave at Nain Ula in NaTthem Mongolia
aledtoh2 '
Vid S"d t nd century A.D. (Trevor 1932, pi 22,
1 1985, kal 174), there is a mnic of
'''''Cla slik It" .
the nttk o' .IS tnmmed With strips of hide round
5t'.o,. pemng and culfs. Strips of hide have been
non 10 the h Id
r"'m h . s ou ers and back for dcooralion.
I e avallabl .
iSrtga ds h e plClures one can only condude,
. [h
oflhe garment, that thc sleeves are
ralgton" 'h
&ont Ih" ' l.e. W1l out any curvcd line al thc
. IStunie 117
""'" fi IS cm long and measurcs 194 cm
rom slce . d
Pin \eell IOsleeveend (Trevor 1932:4{).
1b(' samt: grave .. Id d .
)Ie c a pair of what are now
Fig. 135. lVoollm /roUUfS"lo;" U14, 2nd U/fwfJ A..D. PIwID:
H. &% Giiuhorgs his/oriska WlI/.UVm.
brov,,-n but originally may have been purple, long
woollen trousers with red and green Slripcs WOHn
into part oflhe breadth, a litde way above the knee;
Fig. 135. Acomplete width ofdolh has been used for
each leg and the seam comcs on lhe inside of the leg.
The wide trouser legs are wrinkled at the bottom,
possibly against a band. The trousers have a large
gosset let inlO the crotch and a small gusset at the
stomach so as 10 gi\'t: a straighl edge at the top. They
art: 114 cm long and 116 cm wide al the waist.
The Noin-Ula grave also included sc=veral articles
of headgear, made of hide, fell, woollen fabric and
silk (Trevor 1932 PI 23).
In Palmyra, French archaeologisl carric=d out
extensive investigations during the 1930s, and their
linds included a large number of textiles (Plister
1934,1937,1940). Among other things, they found
Chincse silks and textile products of a local nature.
Costume in Palmyra can be studied, not only in
grave c10thes but also in grave sculptures and a
number of mural paintings in Dura Europas and
Palmyra. Costumc combincs both Greek and Orien-
tal elements. Greek draped garments occur IOgether
with Iranian ones cut to shape. In the early 2nd
centur)', influence from the East provided a costume
which was richly dceorated with stylised borders .
The tunics were of linen and had long sleeves.
There werc eomplctcly undecorated tunics, but
others are embcllished with borders round the neck
and sleeve openings and lower edge, as weil as hav-
ingvertical borders from the ned: openingoutwards,
known as davi. The textile flnds also include tapes-
try-woven medallians together with davi. This stylc
of tunic from Palmyra in the 2nd century reeurs in
Egypt during the 3rd. The tunics were wO"en in one
piece adapted for the purpose. First a narro\\' weave
was set up (Fig. 136) for one sleeve. When this was
Fig. 116. T1u tll1lla av" iJ:(J<!tn lo FiTJI il namne ,Ull;:e
(A-B) u;as ut up and OM skat lt:Ort1l. Tktn IM O/M lu:o
u'arp! (C.D and E.F) u;rre jQil'Ud all lO u-rllU the trunk. roding
allJ-j alla K-l. (amt the $trond s/m:e, ending al L-.If.
Ajter Geijer 1972.
slee'c was shaped so as 10 narra,,",' down.
T o\loards
wnslS; Ftg. ,137 1988:90. er. Hoffrnann
1981:39). ThIS produc\lon mcthod is calle<!"
, h "Q' ""(av_
mg to s ape. U1\e naturall)'. thc Il""dl '
. . . . ' "'" e""or.. for
such garments IS hmLlcd and In\'ariablv o' 1
. '
:\1ale :ostume mcluded and legginlt' tbt
laller bcmg long woalIen stockmgs with or "'ithout
feet. There are no textile fragments \\hich can 1;1(
reliabl)' linked with trousers, but judging tn
sculptures the very wide trousers were rnad( fl'Olll
thin fabric which creased readily. The decor coo-
sistcd of rigid, \'crtical tapcstry-wovcn borders at tht
front of the legs. The trouser legs are gathercd allh-
bouom and tucked into the footwear.
complCled, a warp was added on cach side of il and
thc trunk then wo'"eo. Thc other sleew: came next.
When thc whole ofthis cruciform piecc was finished,
il was folded double in the dircction of the warp and
sewn tOgethcr at thc sides and along thc sleeves.
From Palmyra Ihere are cxamplcs showing that, not
only were the different parts of the tunic woven as
re<:tangular pieccs. bu! as wcaving progresscd the
il' 17 28 29
Fig. /37. T'Iu sl"1'( ((Hl/d be in th, eOUfse rif Wtllling 511
as lO IlIl"QW offtou.:ards the wrist. This was dOM by nducing
thl numblr ofwarp thrlads. Pa!myra, ante 273 A.D.
Fig. 138. Tuni', cul to shape,Jrom Halab!roh. S;ria. 4Ni
A.D. After N()(;!;ut /988.
n oUlsid(
Some sculptures s o\\' a coat \\
tunic This is probabl\' related 10 the caflan. l
the "'hich was' usually \\'o,'cn 10 shapc'
caflan was cut out and assemblcd.
, h B 'zanlint" ('()Uri
As an official garment lor t e de
feslive occasions cartans later camc to be d
J l ' bccn IQun
silk Remains of such garmcnts la\ c l'
. . d caf Irr
Birka (Hgg 1983:207). As 'bo"
'S d' 'la from a
tures ofcartans occur m can ma\
A.D_; er. Chap. 12. Halabi
Olher findsoftunics and al . , 'U
'h the Clt' \lo
S"ria. prc-dates 61O.-\. ._" en '-.
. ' fl ds \.lO
tro\'cd b" the Persians. Thesc m " d
, ' 'Id 's !Ume; an
20 marc or less complete chi ren . a
. dc ofhnen.
pairs oftrOllsers. Thc tunKS. ma
Fig. 139. Linm troustrS from Halabij'ah, Syna. Viewedfrom
plain and decoratcd. Two types appear ro have been
used conjointly, one woven in a single piecc, and the
olher CUl 10 shape. The laner consists of a continu-
ous piecc forming the front and back, i.e. without a
shoulder seam, with sleeves sewn on and gussets at
the bOtlOm in the side seams, Fig. 138 (Nockert
1988:91 f). The Irousers are cut in one largc piece to
form lhc fronl and legs, Figs. 139-]41. At the back in
the middle, a large square picce is inserted, as weil as
two triangular pieces in the upper part of the leg
stam. The legs are slit at the bottom and tied with
bands of the same material. Behind, at the waist,
there is a casing, and in the front there are four loops
fora belt or cord. These trousers belonged to a chi Id
d 6
. a present- ay -year-old. They are 62 cm
long and 84 cm wide at the top (Nocken 1988:91 f).
The flnds from Mochtchevaja Balka in the North-
ast Ca d
, ucasus, ated to the 8th-9th centuries
mcIude seve I . r '
' ra patrs o trousers as weil as caftans of
\anous ro 'I
atena s. The author is indebted to Anna
eroussalimska' fl h' I' .
tio T Ja or t e 'o lowmg personaIlnforma-
n. hreep' r
aIrs otrouscrs bclonged 10 \Vomen.
. noterb
Cm lon pair clon,?ed to a doll and are onJy 7.5-10
th g. 1979 Fig. 16). Another
reepa1fSmth'H' ' . .
6"'d c ermltagc collecllons are not attn-
to any . I
sam partlcu ar grave but were found in the
eareaattheb ..
ma\k. , egtnlllngofthis centurv. One pair
,ut:roenStro Th .
users. e cut rcsembles that of the
trausers Ea h I .
Pleceof I h . c egconslstsofareetangular
h eOl SCWllt h
nere is a I 0get er on the inside of the leg.
arge recta I .
ngu ar plecc of cloth let inro the
Fig. /40. The lillen traustrS iII Fig. 139, IJiewedfrom behind.
Fig.14I. Pal/ero drawillg oftlu Halabi;'ah IroustrS. After
Nockert 1988,
Fig.142. Drawing oftrallsrrsfrom MochtchelJaja Balka.
Drawing: M. To'mblom.
crotch, Fig. 142. The trousers are kept up with a
narrow cloth belt fastened by means ora cloth button
and bUtlonholc. Measurcments: length 60-70 cm,
width at the tap 70-90 cm, leg width at the botlom,
40 cm approx.
13.2.2. 'iORTHER-'1 EUROPEA'i TC'ilCS
182 cm
---- -
Fig. 143. Tunie/fllm Rupshold Bog. EtuI Fmslmuf..
JfUWgtulTd /974.
sewn, but not wo\'cn, so as to narrow do.....n 1OV..lnb
the wrists. Therc is an opening for the htad in t
middle oflhe fabrie. The enlire breadth ofthewr.l\
i.c. thc height of the front and back pieces togethtr,ls
1.94 ffi, which gives the garmcnt a 1ength of0.97 m
The front and back pieees are eaeh 1.15 ffi \,idr I
much bigger than the Thorsberg lUnic Schla
1976, Abb. 1.17). This is the same as OCCU"
linen mnies in large parts ofthe .\ledi,err<lnran
ion. Possibh' it is a local prodUCI emul.ltin(
fashion (HolTmann 1964:32)
1981:39, :\1unksgaard 1976:128 {).
The Thorsberg find has not ouly yiclded throld
lUnic hitherto in Scandinavia but a!sO the old
trousers: a pair of woollen twill trousers. Onr kg
torn olTat the bOllOm while Ihe other cnds in.l ki
. F' l+l Thrl
of stocking f001, likc a piaysult. Lg. . sIi
ers havr' seams on Ihe inside of Ihe leg. Onr
. c h kl nd a link ,,'a\
open tn Ihe seam Irom t e an e a lat
10 make room for the foot, and on Ihr' edgl' of.t
_..I ed for t\lng
there arc traees of woollen CO'U us . d
. . Id c losl'h' (Oun
fabnc logether so that 1t wou lit C .
der ,he foot
shin. The foot part has a seam un n
from the arch of the foot backwards il sm
,. l hed Ana
has been let in to make room [or t le . h I
piecc offabriegocs round the leg, forming t h'
under I t
tion belween leg and fool. e seam . h
'd I 'ec!" Ln I r
turned oulwards. A ImpezOl a pi ht t
of the trousers at the back extends up tO I I k<
. h be n similar
band, and alarger plCCC as e
From geographically doser regions, Sonh Germany
and Denmark, there are a numbcr of costumc flods
from bogs, the most import3llt of them bcing the
Thorsberg flod from Angeln in Schleswig. During
thc first four ccnturies A.D. Thorsberg Bog was a
place of sacrifice where some of thc spoils of war and
other objecls wcrc depositcd. The flnd includes a
complete tunie and also {WO pairs of trousers, one
pairofwhich is intael, fragments oflarge rectangular
cloaks and, finally, one complete and one morc frag-
mentary leather shoe and a minorfragmenl ara third
onc. Thcse garmcms werc not round togclher with a
body, and thcy may have belonged to scverat diffe-
rent peoplc. Like thc other ObjCCls round, lhe)' are
probably more a part of military equipment than
ordinary Germanie eosmmc.
The Thorsberg tunie is cut Out ofa woollen fabrie
in broken lozenge (will. The 100m width is 0.54 m
and thc fullleng(h ofthe piece was 2.36 m. "'hen the
garmem was cut out, maximum usc was made of the
rec(angular picce. This is a basie principle of all
eutling out. Thc Thorsberg mnie is an example of
thc way in which proximilY to doth manufacluring
influeneed cuning. Hardly any of the cloth was
wasted. All the euts are made with the straightest
possible edgcs. The tunic also demonstrates (he
importance of fabric width in eutting (Burnham
1973:3). The from and back pieccs, 0.86 and 0.90 m
long respec(ively, occupy (he full width oflhe fabric,
and Ihc sleeve length cquals the width of thc do(h.
Thus Ihe selvages are retained along thc sides on the
front and back pieces and al the tops and bonoms of
the sleevcs. The (\lnic is laced togcther at thc sides.
The front and back pieces arc joined together with
wide seams over the shoulders. There are no gussets.
The primitive cut is betrayed by the baggy shape.
The tunic is Ihe same width overall and has only
shallow eUls for Ihc neck opening and slee\'e open-
ing. lt has slils al the bonom on both sides. Thc
slec\'es are the same widths bolh ends. At the wrists
there are short slits and a tabkt-woven band has
been sewn on at Ihe edge (NorIund 1941:20, Hald
1962:53). :\leasurcmenlS: length 0.86 and 0.90,
width 0.54 m. Circumferenec ofsleeve openings 0.30
and 0.34 m. Sleeve length 0.5 m. Slceve width 0.26
From Reepshold Bog in East Friesland there is a
mnic of 2/2 lwill which has been palynologically
daled to the Ist or 2nd eentury A.D. This garmem
was ......oven in one picce, Fig. 143. It is sewn logeiher
at the sides and under the sleeves. The sleeves arc

I. ,. n JJ MH
flf 144 Pal/mr drtr.Ling Dj IN Tlumberg ITOlLflrj. .4Jkr Hold
Fig. 145. Pa/lff1l tiTaa'ing ojIT(JlUtUjrom. Dammti(Jrj, &hIt-
rd.ig. Af/tT Haiti 1962.
Fil 146 Pli d '
" .. II' Il em rawmg of Irousers from D(l(!gm, Schluwig,
'"'J... old /962.
in fl A -
UJri 1 rom. trouser band round the waist
OOps for a bell. These loops are strips ofdoth
no seams Th .
. e lrousers are l ffi long. The walst
bottom IS m and Ihe leg width is 0.3 ffi at thc
From Damend f' S
trouse h" or In chlcswig (here are a pair of
t'S1\' Ich res bl h
cm c I e Thorsberg lrousers but
nalel)' a II b r' '
Hj. Th um er o plCCCS are missing, Fig.
e legs are t If
lltlpossibl om o at the bonorn, and so il is
"'- e to tell wheth l'k h
""'01>< h er, l e t e trousers from
...... eseend d' ,
" is e In leet. The legs have a seam
1....- SOmcWhat fl h b
..... trOUse Be' er ack than in the Thors-
N. hmd, In the middle, there is alarge
rectangular plece extending from the waist 10 the
crotch. A similar roundcd piece is missing from the
front. A triangular piece has been found, let into thc
leg seam atlhe back oflhe thigh and up tQwards the
crotch. One of these pieces is missing. There is a
wide trouser band round the waist (Narlund
1941:37. Hald 1962:37, Schlabow 1976, Abb.
175-183). :\1easurements: Iength 1.15 m, originally
longer. The trousers were originally cut from a c1oak.
Other bog finds of apparel come from bodies,
same of which may have ended up in the bogs by
misadventure bUI the majorit)' as a form ofpunish-
ment or as sacrifices to thc gods (Narlund 194-1:20).
:Ylas t orten, eastumcs from this type offind belong to
lower strata ofthe population than those represented
by grave finds, which for the most pan also include
an abundance of metal objects.
\\-e have IWO such examples in a couple ofprimi.
tive mnics from bogs in :Marx-Etzcl and Obenahen-
don. These are plain, slee\"e1css garmems sewn from
reelangular pieces of c10lh whieh were folded and
sewn togclher on one side but with an opening for
one arm. On the oppositc side a hole has been cut for
the other arm. The top edgc is scwn together but
with an opcning for the hcad. Both garments werc
bardy 1 metre long. The)' are also very similar in
width; Marx-Etui 0.87 +0.87 m and Obenaltendorf
0.84+0.84 m (Schlabow 1976, Abb. 145 and 146). A
silver penclant, dated to c. 200 A.O., was found
together with the Obenahendorf tunie. Presumably
"".. ,,0
al least IWO sides, usually aecompanicd b\ ('
ealed lasseIs. \\'ild (l988:B2) has mad . h,mpli.
." . Case rma
c asslllcatlQn oflhe doaks discussed b\ S hl
-6 ." . c abolo.
I , rangmg ,rom the mOSI complicatcd ;:Thon.
berg I) to the simplest (Neddenavcrb
. 'crgen and
bcnaltendorf), Flg. 147. Hcsho\\"s h
. I cvcanbc
rangcd In a continuous series and hn n . h .
, -- __ mp aslsn
Ihat they cannOt bc divided intogroups b\' St
. ., I ' ruelura!
cnlena.."\ coup C of Ihe North German c10ah
mentioned here; olhen,ise the reader is refcrrcd7
Schlabow's aecounl (1976).
The Thorsberg 1 cloak 2.36x 1.68
(rceonstructed measurements). and is WOV'en in tio.
in pale and dark blue squares with white ed
(Schlabow 1976, Abb. 116-123). Along all four sides
there are lablet-wovcn barders. The c10ak has been
reconstructed with tassels on lwO sides. When ",om
it was probably folded on the diagonal. .
From Hunteburg there is a doak
2.60 x 1.80 m. Holes lert by a fibula show Ihal il lO
wom folded in lhe middle (Schlabow 1976. A
From Denmark ,here are three finds. v'iz {'.u,
finds from Donbaeck, datcd 10 the 3rd A.D
and one from \'rangslrup, daled to the 41h cmlu
A.D., as weil as il bog find from Yejen which pfOb.
ably dates from the J'vligration Period.
The Donback find consists ofan 8 cm wide tabltl-
woven band with 150-]60 lablets thrcaded all -
nately in pairs and quaner-turns. On one ooge of
band there is a small piece of212 t.... iii. which show5
that the \Ven of the band cominued inlO the fa
(Hald 19.1O:88).
From Yrangstrup there is a piece oflozene:e (lfli
one end of whieh cnds with a 7-9 cm wide ta
\\loven band from which most of the wen is mi
(Hald 1950:91).
A doak measuring 2.02 x 1.53 ffi and wo\en
broken lozenge twill comes from Yejell BOjt- This
fabric has tablc(.\\ov-en borders on all four
(H.ld 19500630. .
From Gjdte in :\"ord Tronddag there a
fonned bv IWO intersectine: tablet-wO\'cn
. . .' d h Th'
Neithcr band is eXlant mils full \\1 I .
b d
62 ',th ]?3 labku
an IS now . cm, \Voven " -. __.l
.' n:lITS;U'"
ta biets are Ihrcaded alternate } III r- . r-
band IS \\Iovcn with -_-al
. O h" small
stfipcd red yellow and grecn. Il. d
' '11 I' h the ban
have survived of thc 212 tWI w liC ed I
.. "dlasbee
nally adorncd. The GJclte 111l l . 0)0

3rd or 4th ccntury AD. ougen . fr(JIII
Thc find from remlla in Skane.
ber of sm-
Roman Iron Age, includes a num dtd
. h bIet'> thre
weave fragments. woven Wlt ta
13.2.3. Korthern European c10aks
Tacitus, wriling at Ihe beginning of the Christian
era, reparts that the commonest garment wom by
the Germans was a doak (sagum). Originally this
was a square pieee of variously coloured cloth, usu-
ally coarse woaIlen fabrie. Tt was used as an OUler
garment and held logcther al the righl shoulder by a
fibula or, among the common people, by a wooden
pin. The Trajan buckle shows a German wcaring a
square, tasseled doak of a kind probably wom only
by persons of rank. Apart from the big deeorative
cloak, lhere were probably smaller ones, shawl-like
pieees of doth, as it were, whieh people eould wrap
round them (ThiclI9BO:77l). Among the Romans,
the sagum beeame principally part of the warrior's
dress (sagum sumere - to take the field).
The oval doaks of the Bronze Age were CUl from a
square pie<::e ofcloth, while Ihe cloaks oflhe Iron Age
relain all four edges of the weave. The shape of the
c10ak probably ehanged during thc pre-Roman Iron
Age. The c10ak oflhe Roman era is dislinguished by
being woven, usually, in onc pieee inslcad of being
CUl to Ienglh. CIOlh from the warp-weighted 100m is
charaeterised by compleled edges on at lcast three
sides - a slarting border and selvages - and some-
times on the fourth side as weil - the finishing bor
der. Cloaks \Voven in this way did not havc to be
hemmecl all round - they \Vere readyas soan as they
were taken off lhe 100m.
A number of cloaks found in ::\oflh German bogs
arc charaeterised by wide lablet-wo\'en borders on
this plain, slee\"eless garmenl was also used in Scan-
dinavia during the Early Iron Age (.'\orlund 1941 :29
A pair of simple (rousers comes from a bog in
Daeigen, Holstein. These afe cut in Olle piece and
CUT up in the croteh, Fig. 146. The)' are sewn
tOgcthcr so thai the seam comes a[ong the inside of
the leg. At thc bottom the}' are hemmed and have a
17-18 cm long slit. The leg pieces are cxtanl in thejr
full lcngth. Gussets go from the crolch seam 10 the
trousel' band. Some of the upper part oflhe trousers
is probably missing (NorIund 1941:38, Hald
1962:37 f, Schlabow 1976, Abb. 183-187).
From there are a pair of trousers
resembling thc Daetgen {rousers. Here as in
Dactgen, the maill component is a piece cut up at the
crolch and with seams on thc insides of thc legs.
Nowadays lhese trouser would fil a child aged 6 or 7
(Hald 1962:41). length 0.85 m, IOp
eireumferenee 1.3 m.
ZIS Pl .. ,N TWlll
? 41Z/6 Pl ... ,N TWlll
Z/Z Pl .. rN TWlll
1lI0otENER 101001'1
z/z 01 ... 1oI0NO
z/z OI ..... ONO
?Pl .... 1N TWlll
O...... ENOORF
? Z/S O''''''ONO

Pl ... 1N TWlll Z/S Pl,,'N TWlll



ZIS Pl .. ,N TWlll
Fit_ 147. Sch .
tmall' rtprmnUltian ofdaaks /Qund in Fru Gtrmany. A/In !Vild 1988.
natd\' in' .
lo . paIrs, WhlCh are assumed to have belonged
a c10ak Th' b d'
, 1..- . IS an IS of verv fine qualitv with
bl .,
"<n', -h ta ets/cm (Geijer 1939:190). Some frag-
'" ave trac, r . h
Infa s o Stue es along the edge which
ns that tn b
Ptobablv' e and was woven separately and
,..,. . dld not helong to a cleaL
.neEvebofi dh
"""M n as a eomer formed bv 'wo bands
$(rjljngk . e.r and ending in tassels, 4.2.3, This is
the comers of the Thorsberg
llllikr tn nnd IS WOven ..\rith individual tums,
Itpi.ratehCa orsberg c1oak, this band was woven
. nd se"',n on to the fabric.
The same type of tassel eorner as at Eveoo also
occurs in the Hgom find, Chap. 3.1.4.
Scveral of the other :\1igration Period bands
woven with individual tums can have belonged 10
c1oaks, but the crueial evidence, a comer, is lacking.
The geometrically patterned band from 0vre Berge,
see Chap. 4.2.6., is the edge band ofa {will and may
have bclonged to a doak. The same is true of the
similar band from Dosen, see Chap, 4.2.4. The band
....>ith animal figures from Snartcmo II, sun>iving as a
stray fragment, may possibly also have belonged tO a
c1oak, but here again wc have no evidence.
Ylas! fabrics from Swedish Migration Period {jods
are woollens, \VQven in 2/2 lwill. Only four broken
lozenge twills have been round. Both Z/Z, ZIS and
SIS spinning are represenled, but Z/Z spinning prc-
dominates. The finesl fabric has a thread eount of
50 x 4Q/cm. the coarsest 5x51cm. In most fabrics,
thc COURt is roughly 12x 10 threads/cm. Wool analy-
ses ara Rumber of Norwegian fabrics and bands do
nOt tell us conclusiH:ly where the ""'001 came from,
but there is nalhing 10 suggcsllhat il was necessarily
imported. No .....001 analyses have been performcd on
the S.....edish (jods. Linen has occurud bUI is rare,
panly becausc il decays more easily and a150, prob.
ab!)', bccause there was no linen at the poiors where
thc brooches, i.c. for our purposcs mainly c1asps,
were worn.
The bands are the most remarkable of Ihe Scan-
dinavian :-vligration Period textiles. At no time
before or since has the arl oftablel-weaving achieved
such a peak of excellence. Bands palterned with
individual tums already occur during the Roman
Iron Age, but the lcchnique devcloped during the
...ligration Period, when bands were woven which
were broad and richly pauerned.
The bands pauerned with horsehair in dilTerent
kinds of weft-wrapping and tapes try-like technique
have no counterpart elsewhere. There are no similar
bands from Scandinavia either before or after Ihe
Migration Period. The lechnique is used in
reclangular panern units and for continuous
pauerning. The ordinary tapeslry teehnique origi-
nated in Iran, bUI during the Roman Iron Age the
technique was used in the Eastern :\Iediterranean
region and in Egypl. Finds have occurred as far
nonh as Hungary and Germany. This special var-
iant of the tablct-weaving technique was probabl\
inspired by the decoration occurring. for examplt.
on garmellls. The patterns are heightcncd by lht IlS(
of horsehair for the wefl. Perhaps it silk ",hich
inspired the use of this particular malerial. with iu
smooth, shiny surface. Patlerns are broul:hl out
marc c1early by the diSlinct contrast bet",('('n st(;-
tians done in \\'001 and horsehair
Horsehair has nOl pre\'iously been found as a 1('1,
material for weaving in Scandin3\"ian prthistoo.
The many surviving colours in bath fabrks mlf
bands hear witness 10 a high level of profickno
dyeing, which accordingly can hardly haH:' bttn
new development at this time. ,,"eld was
...ellow woad for blue and madder and PoIisb
. ,
cochineal for red. Probablv many other plants 111'
also used but Ihese are 'Ihe species identifitd
, . \. Idand
analyses ofa limitcd numberofspecmlens. \t.
woad are native dycstuffs. :\Iadder was gro\\n mtht
medieval period, bul il is uncertain I
alreadv existed in Scandinavia during the :\ItRrat
PerioJ, Polish cochineal is a dyesluffimportfd from
the regions somh-east of thc Baltic. None of
dyestuffs, cxcept indigotin for dyeing has
established berore lhe :\'ligralion Penad..
The fabries indude a few of
quaIity, but this in itselfis not a O[\I.
lian. Notlhat imports are 10 be rulcd ou. __c
ed thfrt SO'''-
lablet-wovcn bands are cancern. I
. h' d'ddua tU
doubt that bands patlerncd \\"11 In I.. of
directl" inta the Scandina"ian tradluo
- h
. . I ta]lifS "It
weaving. The ornamenlauon a so. h __
. od B d O\-en "Il
mher native pr uets. an S" .
,' bul on l ..
are alien tO Scandinavian [ra illon.
d not occur an) where clse either. The
hand the\ o . h .
. 'on is ScandinavIan and, l ere agam,
ornamentau .' d
. babl, no nced 10 qucstlOn nallve pro uc-
[here- l' pro, , . . . . f
." ch of,he sun'lnng textIle material rom
llOJl . ,OlffiU . b d
\1" ration Period is hkely tO have een Importe .
tht. . I d bl dd
c n cochmca an . POSSI \', ma er.
\part ,roI .' ..'
.h d\fStuffs tOO can be of natl\"c ongm.
l the Germanic society Oflhc Migration Pcriocl,
"(\lurt cuhurc' was probably an important cuhural
(aelOr. with royal couns and chieflains' residences as
the principal CUSlOffiCrs for articlcs and Out-
landinII' craftsmanship. German court (ullurc was
, o
surprisingly international by nature." This
passage from Lena (1980) seems .lO
fil in at leasl "ilh the proclucllon of the horsehaJr-
patu:med bands. The textile finds, like so many
otherphenom('na, pointlOan ext('nsi\"(' cuhural con-
I.ithin the uPIKr strata ofsoci('ty.
Flnds from mounds 2 and 3 al Hgom suggest that
bronzl'-founding. and probably also silver- and gold-
smithing were practiscd on th(' spot (Ramq\,jst
1990:90). Fragments of at l('ast thrc(' nc('dl(' cascs
... ef(' disco\-ered in the house foundations under
mound 3 Ramq\"ist 1990:77f). Fine n('cdles must
ha\'(' been neccssary for the needlework of the cos-
turne and perhaps also as aids 10 wcaving with the
tapestry-like technique. None havc )'et been found
... hich w('re suitable for this task.
Loom w('ights of fired clay have been found at
S('\'('ral points in the house. The heaviest concentra-
tion occurs near the eastern corner. Occasional
lI'eights also occur near the central hearth and in the
Western part of the house. One complete weight is
It weighs about 200 g. The biggest concen-
trallon of weights consists of nearly 2 kg of frag-
ments. which would scem to be thc cquivalcnt of
aboUI Icn weights. Ramqvist estimates the maxi-
ml_um numberofloom weights in the house at about
:) (1990:77).
These Joo
weights can weigh from 150 g 10 1,000
more. \Iost of them weigh betwccn 500 g and
\I. g 1964:20). From Denmark we have
"lIgrallon P'oo .

en welghts from FrcdS0 (Mors) with

il a\Cra"e . I
" welg lt of 600 g and from Bornholm
a\'erage w . h' ,
"BI k elg t 400 g. Cia)' 100m weights from the
ac Earth" rB k
o lr a weigh bClween 700 and I 000
. lamete '
Son 'I rs range from 4 to 12 cm. In one house,
('.\uldII h
!h('4th _ ' on I e Island of Bornholm, dated 10
fi'<d I or :)th cemur)'. 20 complete 100m wcights of
yand21f .
HolJi ragments were found 10 two rows
1964:312). Thc w('ights from the hous('
allons be h
""hat ....- neat mound 3 tell us nothing aoom
as ....ove h
"'" 'h n t crc, only that weaving occurrcd
(' .. h
. ted 100m was used for il.
14.2. COSTU,IE
1+.2.1. Tunics
Thc comparati\"c finds rC\'caJ scveraJ different types
oflUnic. The caftan, the variously dceorated, slee\'cd
doak worn open al the from, first appears at Pazyt:'k
and can then be followed westwards tO Antinoe and
Byzamium. As wc have already seen. it also appcars
in the ith centw-y depictions in Scandinavia bUI has
not been idemificd in archaeological finds unlil the
\,iking cra (Hgg 1983:20i 11).
The dassical, cruciform tunic first occurs in Syria
and then, somewhat later, in Egyp!. The Reepshold
IUnic, which unlike the Syrian and Egyptian Hr-
sions is of wool, was made in thc same way. Il is
uncertain whether this is a stray cxample of a gar-
mem oth('rwisc belonging to the :\fediterranean reg-
ion or whether Ihe same production mcthod was also
used this far nonh.
Thc Scandinavian tunicofthe 1I1igration Period is
a cut garmenl. The Hgom man's IUnic supplies
most details about the cUl oflhe garment. This is CUl
with from and back picces sewn together at the sides
and with skeves inserted. The skeves werc long and
very narmw al the bonom. The Hgom find is also
theonly one to give us a clear indication oflhe Icngth
of this garment. It was about 70 cm long, and thus
extcnded only about 10-15 cm beIO\.. the belt, unlike
the roughly knee-Iength garments dcpicted, for
example, in the impressed foils. The Hgom gar-
mem had side slits which werc closed with clasps.
Probably, thcn, it was a faidy close-fitting garment.
No other finds has dasps in a position showing that
the garment usually looked like this. The Norrala
find, with a clasp below the belt on the right side (see
Chap. 4.1.1.), is one possible exception. There are,, a number offinds with a sufficient number
of clasps for this kind of arrangement.
Our greatcst ignorance concerns the neck of the
garmcm. Thc Hgom flnd shows that a centre piece
is let in both front and back, betwecn thc upper
sections of the sleeves, and Ihat these pieces were, at
least partly, sewn togetheI' at the shoulders. Neither
at Hgom nor at any other man's gravc is there a
clasp, brooch or pin, which can have becn positioned
at the neck. Judging by the Hgom garment, the
neck opening was nOt large enough tO be pulled over
the hcad without some kind of slit. Unfortunately,
none of the finds shed any additional light on this
We are bettcr informed conccrning the appear
ance of the slccves. The slee\"e ends of the Hgom
garmcm have survi\'ed sufficiently for both CUl and
wiclth 10 be determined. Thc same goes for the tops
of the skeves. Thc material in betwcen is missing,
but the slccvc length was measurcd in the grave
during thc cxcavalion, and the slceve has been
reconstructed with the aid of this measurcment. At
the cuffs, onc can see that the fabric loone side oflhe
slit is cul slraight on the grain of the fabric, the other
halfis al a considc:rable anglc. This CUl, with one side
straight and the other on the biast gives the sleeve the
shape at the bonarn illustTated by the drawing in
Fig. 44. This caused difficulty when the wide, stiff
band had to be scwn on at the cuff. Il is only sewn on
to the lowcr eclge of thc sleeve. On the inside of the
sleeve, thc band is sewn on to the fabric with blankel
stitch, but only on the side where the threads of the
fabrie are straight in relation to the band. Difficuhies
were thus expcrienccd in se\\fing the stifT band on to
the hea\'ily slantcd fabric. This is also apparent from
other finds, C.g. Snarterno II and EveOO. In the
Nonllcgian Veiem find, one of the bands has been
folded round at an angle, so that the distance from
the fold to the beginning of the pattern is 0.4 cm at
thc bonarn and 0.9 cm at the tep, next te the slit; see
Fig. 65. On one fragment from Bolstad, Hordaland,
the bunons have been positioned diagonally across
the band in relation to the wdt direction. Thus the
cut of the sleevc was probably similar in all these
Certain variations are noticeable in the tunies,
and three types are distinguished.
The firSI type incIudes the Hgom mnk, which
extends about 15 cm below the belt and is done up at
the sides \\fith flat, plain bultons..-\long the lower
edge, bands \.,.;th rtangular fields of horsehair
pauerning are sewn on to the inside of the garment.
At the cuffs there are bands with continuous horse-
hair patterns but with no inside edge barder; these
are done up with high, Style I decoratcd buttons.
The sleeves are cut with one straight and one heavily
angled side.
This description also talIies quitc wdl with the
Evcoo tu nie, which howevcr was probably sIightly
longer, added to whieh wc do not know how or if it
bultoned at the sides. The sleeve design is probably
the same. The band fragment, probably from the
lowcr edge of the garment, is divided into rcetangu-
lar pattern units.
Norrala can also have belonged tO this type,
ahhough only one side clasp is in sim and nothing
can be said for ccrtain aOOut the pauern division of
the bands.
Snartcmo I I may have belonged te this type, but
the number of cIasps is uncertain and nothing is
known about their positions. The euffs, however, are
cut in the same way as at Hgarn.
There are no cIasps from Snartemo \. b
h h
. titlbe
otse alf-pattcrned band may possiblv s
. ' uggest thai
thiS garment was of a similar kind.
The Veiem find is marc enigmatic "--
, no
dasps were found in situ and onlv mino.'
. .ragmttll$
ofband have sun"lvcd. On alicast IWO of the clas
the do not an inside edge border,
one poml the band IS folded diagonally, whieh couJd
mean thaI the fabrie was on the bias on olle sid '
e, In
whieh ease it resemblcd the sleeves alread\ dt-
seribcd. .
Ugulen may possibly also bcIong to this group.
since it has two sets of clasps, the most opulent of
\"hieh were \\lom at the euffs.
A somewhat difTerenttype oftunie is
by the finds from Danmark in L"ppland thltt
graves), Toresund in Srmland and Timra in
:'vfedeIpad. I n all these eases, there is only one bUllon
riveted to a fairly narrow band, and
are laeking. In Danmark, and probably also in Iht
other two eases, the tunics were donc up with ont or
marc laees whieh were looped round the buttons. X
diagonal cut of the fabric can be distinguished. 1M
Toresund band is foldcd under Ihe fabrie Tbt
bands from Timr and Toresund are
panerned, and the bands in one grave from Dan-
mark are patterncd with individual turns, 'A'bllr
those in another (a woman's grave) are horsehair
patterned, and in a third there is no trace ofpatttrn-
ing at all. Since all the bands are narrow, there is no
animal ornamentalion. All bullans are gildcd and
ehip-carved and probablr belongcd to euffs.
A third, far simpler rype. is represenled by the Ii
from D",sen in Hordaland. The lower parti of the
sleeves are extant, and ther have no band rdgin
Instead they end with a cuff of doubIc-folded dOlh
The three types are cIearly definablc. In the finl
type blanket- and tailor-stitehed seams oeeur at
Eveoo. \'eicrn. and SnartcmO II and.'
, 'd' h ' l ornamenta
One or marc ban s wll aOlma \
occur at Hgorn Eveoo and SnarternO II and
, H" rn and E\TN.
Cloaks can be demonstrated at ago
. , a\-es and
These are all opulent warnors gr ' r __
l dl
' .hefinestO .........
Evebe and Snartcmo I an are rod
eOnlaining as they do scvcral imported P
and, moreovcr, articlcs of gold. . l'k'
- rn IUnIC I
The original colour of the ogo . __
, S 0\'. the gal'''''''
Eveb0 tumc. was red. In nartern '11
_" A cd eostumc I
with the soumak band was rcu.' r _....d
d h
' r . can be
'""'ve of a warrior an c le taJll I
0'- " gamonl1;lJ...
with the colour symbolism oc
. h
, ,qUlt} .... It
nian and Indo-Europeans Jll an l ' ,"'d
ler ( l
the colour of the warrior an ru
.?40). Widengren points out that thc Persian
1956.- "k 'h" Yh'
for the outer garment was -apa . 15 term
name d Arabic as qab (Widengrcn 1956;259). In
entere . . h La'
',op,'nion the word IS relatcd to l e tIO
. v/nieh was first used by Gregory of Tours in
the6thcentury (1983:!:J f). But thegarment wom by
the Sassanid ca\'alry and ilS precursOl"S was open at
h 'ro
nt varied in length, and had long, narrow
l e , . .
sltt\"e$ and no clasps. This garment occurs In PICIo-
rial aft of the late 6th c.::ntury but has not been
identified amongthe textile fiods from the ...ligration
\Ian\' barbarians serving in the Roman army rose
10 high'rank and. by way of acknowledgment, were
presented with a garmenl indicative of Iheir stand-
This was a tuni(Q fOl!O - in other words, the red
tunic with its border (Hgg 1983:217). The practicc
isabovealllypical oflhe period after 300 A.D., when
me Danubian defences were manned primarily by
non-Roman auxiliaries. Perhaps it is marc a nali\'e
\-arianl of this garment which can be discemecl
among Ihe finds.
There would seem to be no doubt thai, in the
gra\'cs menlioned here, .....e are concemed wilh peo..-
plefrom a leading stralum ofsociety - petty kings or
chicflains. In addition 10 the poinls already men-
lioned, thesc graves are distinguished by Iheir size,
by the high qualily of the individual finds and, not
least, by Ihe ornameDlation.
Moving down the scale a little to Veiem and
\orrala, one immediately notices difference. The
gra\'cs are now smaller and the weapons are undeco-
rated. fabrics and bands are coarser. There is
ornam ' h
entallon on t e bands, but unfortunately not
e?ough for us to lell what kind. The garments in
\eiema ve
re green. nlortunatcly we do not know
anything abcut the eolour of the Norrala garments.
TThe second type are marc difficult tO pinpoint.

from Toresund are the finest from the
. Igratlon p.. '00 A h' ,
... fl. emlsphefleal button is of the
same t)'p. '
l' as lO grave 3 at Lov (Arwidsson 1962, PI.
1974:96). This is a warrior's grave hut
unlortunat I . h '
B d e y It as been plundered and disturhed.
an s from h'
t IS grave and also from Timr are
ITO..... Th T
_ '. c oresund band is patterned with
"m,' r rnameOlS. Too little of the Timr band
lOS lor Ihe .
n"y ornamentatlon to be determinecl.
oresund b d k_
atIee t an ucars the most striking resembl-
technique; cr. Chap. 8.2.3. One of
The s .ro
Danmark is geomelricallv pattemecl.
qUCStlon is h h '
IlCople f w el er we are dealing here with
o another . . y , ,
oflhe...... ""s or posltlon. he dimenSIOns
.....ves are m J"
a . ore Imlled, but the objects pre-
re sull fim-dass gifts.
The cufffrom D0sen, which has no band decor,
comes from a simple grave with neither weapons nor
imported products.
Narrow sleeves hcld together by dasps seem only 10
occur during the ),1igration Period in Scandinavia
and in Anglo-Saxon England. Sleeve elasps oceur on
both men's and women's garments in Scandinavia.
In England they seem to occur mainly on women's
The only garment depicted from the ),1igration
Period resembling thai described here occurs in one
of the small human figures depicted on the gold
rollar from Jleberg. This shows agarment elosed al
the front and extending onl}' a short way below the
waisl. The garment had long sleeves. but no other
details are shown.
To Iheaulhor's knowledge, garments with a single
front hdd togclher at the sides by clasps, do
not occur outside Scandinavia during the i\1igration
Period. Probably, then, Ihis is a local, Scandinavian
fashion ooncentrated within Non,'ay and Sweden,
but also occurring in Dcnmark. True, it is only in a
small number of opulent graves that c1asps occur in
sufficient numhers for such agarment, but the large
numbers ofc1asps or bullons found in other graves-
50% of graves in the Valley - still
suggest that this \\'as a faid)' common garment.
Whal dislinguished high from low need not have
been the shape of the garments; il could have been
the materials ofwhich Ihey were made, and perhaps
also Ihcir colours and band decorations.
The disappearance ofbuuoning at the hands (and
feet) during the mid-6th century need not imply that
the appearancc of costume changed all that much.
The Merovingian Period finds have liule to say
about what was used instead and how. Depietions of
human beings, however, suggest that the long-
s!eevcd garmcnt worn open at the front - i.e. the
caftan - had become an important article of apparel
in normative connections.
14.2.2. Trousers
Unfortunately,just as with other finds, so very little
has survived of the !rousers at Hgom thaI virlually
Ihe only thing we can say ahout them with any
ccrtainty is Ihat the trouser legs were long, trimrned
with band al the honom and held tagether al the
ankles with clasps. This need tO fasten the trouser leg
at the bonom can mean either that the leg was so
narrow Ihat slits \\Iere needed so that the trousers
could be put on and taken off, or else that the legs
were so \,ide thai thcy had to be galhered at the
bonom tO stop them flapping aoom. Thorsberg
modds with feet secm to be ruled out. becausc the
fragments do nOl suggest any continuation of thc
fabric Jxyond the lowcr band trimming. Since,
moreover, the Hgorn grave with ilS opulen! horse
furniture was apparently the grave ara horsernan, il
scems likely that thc trousers were suitable for rid-
iog. In other words, they wcrc marc likdy 10 resem-
ble ,hase of the Asiatic equcslrian peoplcs. For this
reason again, thc Thorsberg modd can be excludcd,
since il is nOt scrviccable for riding. hs unsuilabilily
in this respect is rc\'caled by a passage in Chap. 134
ofNja\'s Saga: "Flosi preferrcd togo by foot, bccause
he was wcaring ieistabrokor (trousers with fecl)"
(Falk 1919:119).
Thc Hgorn trousers are the only ones with two
clasps in position at the bottom of the legs. The
butwning length was juSt over 10 cm on each leg and
comparable with the buttoning in a number offinds
from the Late Roman Iron Age. With bunoning that
length, the trousers are likeJiesl tO have been worn
with low footwear.
The nearesl one can come to a description ofthese
trousers is that they reached down to the ankles, i.e.
were okulbrokr, and were probably roomy, at least
Fil, 148. Mosaic from Nt1JD,jDTdon, daud 53/. Man ICtaring
tlllnics, long lrOlllStTs u:ilh a bDTder on IM /OtUr edge, rtctanglll/ar
cloaks and Phrygian raps. A.fter BJ.{anriniKhe MosaWn (J1lJ
at the top. Since neither pairoftrousers' h
'. Jntecom-
paratlve matenaI has more than one
. ... ..... am er the:
prevlous chapter). we assume that the
trousers were made thiS wa\'. Bm the qu h
. . "J>l1on t en
IS where the leg seam was positioned Th
. e t'DUser
mode! made up of two tubular parts with
. . OG
the IOsIdes of the legs would seem to"'-
ut: ru,"", OUt
here, be1::ause the c1asps too would then come .L-
. d f h -
IOSI e o eac leg. I t seems more likeJy that the
trousers were constructed like those from
HalabiY'ah, fig. 138, with theseam at the backoflhe
Contemporary trousers with decor resemblin2; the
Scandinavian ones occur in a mosaic from \foum
Nebo in Jordan, Fig. 148, daled to 531 A.D. This
shows various animals, trees and nowers and also
peoplc vari ously dressed. (Byzantinischc \losaiken
aus Jordanien, 1986:78). SeveraJ of the mcn are
wearing long trousers, tunies and rectangulardoab
secured with brooches in front or on the right shoul-
der. Two of the men are wearing "Phrygian caps'
i.e. a soft bonnet with a forward point. wom iM
Greeks in amiquity and probably origin.
The trousers are decorated with widc borders al the
ankles. Their .....idth is hard 10 gauge. The legs
appear to be faid)" straight. The tunies extend haJ{
war down the thigh. They are decorated ....ith bor-
ders at Ihe bonom and round the cuffs. One of iM
tunics may possibly ha\'e a slit extencling down-
wards from the right side ofthe neek opening. T...lIoC
the persons depicted, a shepherd and a art
wearing draped garmenls. ..
In a Ravenna mosaie dated tO c. :168 (\olbach
1961), the Three :\1agi are shown .... Iong
trousers with a border at the front and al the lower
edge. They are also wearing tunies decorated wim
1 that of the
bands and draped in a manner slml ar \O
Nebo mosaic, large doaks and Phrygian By
tradition the Magi are thus depietcd in Onental
, . of me
dress (Gervers 1983:310). Thc cOSIUmcs __.I
. d' PalmHa 1LI1U
mosaic agree with those deplcte 10 .' bor-
Dura Europos, espccially as rcgards the \cru("a!
ders of the trousers.
14.2.3. Cloaks
. . bl . bands and tassels
Cloaks \"uh Wide ta et-\,oven R()IP8II
have bn interpreted by eertain \1_
imports (Bencler J0rgensen 1988.65 fI). ofCUlt"
d lhe absence
82), however, has remare on . ..__ tbC
. tn textiles U"""
mngly tablet.woven rueTS
Roman Empire. I loaks.;tk
As the finds make elear, rectang
a.r Cd . bod'
. S dina\'la un,'e>
deeorative bands existed 10 can
Iron Age and the Migration Period. On
thr OIDaD
an Iron Age cloaks, bands and cloak fabnc
(hr om "d"bh
" ",n simultaneouslv, whJie, JU lfIng y t C
In;re \\0\
thc banclsorthe Migration Period doaks ..... ere
In s, h" k
_ probablv bccause thc tee mque ,or ma -
S(l'"n o
the bands had now grown so complicatcd that Il
nsier 10 wea..-e them separalely. But c10ak rab-
ria> and bands .....ere still produced in dosc conjunc-
" " from the c10ak corners suniving from Eveoo
and Hgorn, we can tell thaI the weaving of the
comers, Le. the ends of the bands, was complclcd
"hen the SilC or the c10ak was clear and thc bands,
pcrhaps, had alreacly been sewn .on. .
Therc is nOlhing as regards elther techOlquc or
p3.ucrning 10 say thaI the cJoaks were not produced
v-ilhin the region where they were round.
yet to be the way
in ....-hich doak was worn during :\1igration
?'oneoftheopulent men's graves has yiclded
a brooch. Nor have any cords or loops been found to
suggest that the cloak was tied taget her. As men-
lioned earlier, the North German c10aks from the
Roman Iron Age are very large, and the same is
probably of doaks in the Migration Period.
Possibly they were wom folded, held to the
by own weight. or fastened by means of
bands or cords whieh have since vanished.
14.2.4. The Hgorn Costume
let usend by summing up how the Hgom man was
Hewore a red tunic extending 10-15 cm below his
bell. This IUnic had 7.5 cm long slits at the sides,
c10sed by means of dasps with 3+3 fiat silver
bUllons. Along the lower edge there is a 4 cm wide
lablel-woven band with rcctangular unilS ofpatlern-
lng .....Oven with horsehair in a tapestry-like techni-
. The patterns next to the side buttoning consist
o worsh' be
Ippcrs tween two animals facing out-
otherwise they consist of various animal
motIfs. The . l " " "
amma s were ongmallv yello\\! wlth blue
C)CSanda h' l" " '
w lie OUt me agamst a red ground. The
\larmem had I l ""
" h bo ong s eeves with SilLS alleast 6 cm long
le Itam"l db l " "
b , ... ose vcaspswlth3+3gilt convex
Ultons with St I l "" '
Slon y e ammais. There was a precious
tulf. e Or so.mething of the kind on each butmn. The
d . h6
....ilh . e cm wide tablet-woven band
a la " "
CoI " pestrv pattern and the ona>nal
ourswer b '.' O'
lkt\'esli pro ably whue, yeUow and red. The
ond, l' Is are se.....n with a lineoftailor's stitch in red
Ine ofbla k . .
lines r n et Slltch m yellow. There are twO
o Stem St' h
Hl' on the seam allowances. The
garmem was cut with front and back pieces and
sewn together at the sides. The sleeves are cut in one
piece, with one slraight and one anglcd side, which
gives a curvcd scam. Beginning at the IOp bcneath
thc sleeve, the seam cnds al the bonom on the out-
side of the wrist. To make the cuffs straight at the
bottom, the doth has been CUl at a considerable
angle, with the result that the band at the cuff could
only be sewn on along the edge ofthe sleeve fabric. A
gusset is let in underneath each sleeve. The sleeves
are CUl in such a way as lo eXlend a long way inta the
front and back pieces. Only 6 cm of the shoulder
seams are cxtant. Unfortunatcly nothing rcmains of
the ncck opcning of the garment. The bands at the
lower edge of the garment are sewn on with whip
stitch tO the lower edge and tailor's stitch along the
upper edge. The)' werc sewn on against the inside of
the garmem, and when thcy were turncd to the
outside, this revealed the ohverse of the pancrns.
The slit seam is folded round from the band-trim-
med sidc and sewn down with double lines oftailor's
stilch. There are two lines ofstem stitching along the
edge of the slit.
The scams of the garment ha\'e very narrow hem
folds, dose together and sewn down with tailor's
stitch from borh sides, after which a row of blanket
sritch passes through each of the tailor's stitches. At
same points one can see that thc inner rows ofstitch-
ing are ycllow and the outer ones red.
The garment wasjoined at the man's len side with
a gusset 46 cm long and 5 cm wide at the boHom,
beginning at the lower edge and cnding at lhe sleeve
hole. This gusset consislS of lhrce pieces of fabrie,
one of them of the same quality as the rest of the
garment and the other [WO somewhat coarser. The
band which has been let in is of the same type, but
somewhat wider than Ihe original band. The band
join has been concealed by means of a silver foil
rivcted over the join. The seams of the join are less
carefully sewn than in the rest of the garment.
The man's belt had bronze moumings and carried
various utensils, and hl' wore it round his tunic.
The trousers were red, of the same kind offabric as
the tunic, and they were buttaned at the bottom with
two c!asps per leg. The upper c!asp has 3+3 gilt
bronze buttons with a horseshoe patlern and niello
inlay. Thesc clasps were auached to 6.5 cm wide
bands panerned with individual tums. The lower
clasps had 3+3 flal silver buttons and were attached
tO 5 cm wide tablet-woven bands, also panemecl
with individual tums. These bands wcre probably
close tagether, giving an 11.5 cm long bunoning
from the ankle upwards. The oolourofthese bands is
uncertain. Probably Ihe width of the trousers
increased quite considcrably above the bunoning,
for grC31cr comrort, since thc Hgorn man was prob-
abl)' a hOTsernan. Il is possible that thc trousers had
the seam 31 the back of the leg and that thc clasps
were auached to a slit in this seam. The)' can hardl)'
have been worn on the insides of the legs. Xothing
remains tO indicate what the trcusers lookerl like at
thc top, nor has anything survived of the helt for the
He was shrouderl in a iargc rectangular, band-
trimmed cloak of unknown colour, wilh cornt=:r
tassels. The hand had bluc pancrning againsl a red
Nothing rcmains orany footwear, but considering
that he had buttons from his anklc and a good way
up his leg, he was probably wearing a b()()tlike shoe.
Traces of fur disco":ered by the man's head may
come from a cap. The other traces of fur may come
from various fur garments.
He may have had linen dothes - trousers and a
shirl - next tO his body, but there are no traces orany
such garments preserved.
Above the man's head there would seem,judging
by the array of clasps, to have another IUnic.
This was green and of somewhat coarser quaiity
than the one he was wearing. le was edgcd at the
bonom with a 4 cm wide band P'tt d'
, ",[Je In la
estry-like technique. It was done up with 3 3 p-
silver buttons. The cuffs were trimmed wilh +, . Ilat
'd ba d _oJ' Jcm
WI e n S, panerncu wuh individual HI
done up with 2+2 gih sih-er bUllons Wilr::s
carved decoration. p-
Between the doak and bearskin Iher" W"
'" aven'
coarse twill rabric. .
The Nordie cOSlUme - long lrousers fastened at the
bonom with dasps, and a tunic extending some' 'Na\
below the waisl, with long sleeves, al
ends and held together by clasps - probably took
shape during the laner part orthe Roman Iron Age.
It developed during the :.\tigration Period and tbC'
buttons grew larger and larger. The pariS of lhC'
costume adopted dunng Roman times, especially
people in\'olved in defending the eastern and south-
castern frontiers of the Empire, onginally belongtd
tO the apparel oflhe leading warriors and horsemen.
As such they became a manifestation of high rank
and social importancc, and this was probably acCC'Jl-
tuated by means ofmatenals, colours and omamrn-
tation of the ver)' conspicuous band decorations
The fashion Ihen spread, until eventually it was
adopted by a large part of the population.
15.1. SWEDEN
15.1.1. Roman Iron Age textiles
Yaskillde. Blsnungs
sm! 7583:129
Daling: per 1\';(
o Fragments of iron ....ith minc:ralised traces of textiles,
2/2 1will, SIS, i x 7 threads/cm. :\1easuremems: 2.5 x 2
Other finds: clay ve5sds. bdl moumings, knife, 7 brOllze
"''''' BibliQgraphy: :\Imgren 1914:30
Benclcr-Jargensen 1986:233
Timd, HOfSla
SH:\I 23906
Sa: male:
Dating: 4th
C B .
.roken lozengc twill, 18x 18 threads/cm, ZlZ, Thc
arter 16 thrc:ads in one direction and 12
the Other. ),Ieasuremenu: 5x 10 and jx8 m.
fiods: sword, shidd boss, 2 spearhc:ads, "jcwd
Bibliography: Sloman 1948:lOf
1969, Excurs 1:22
Ik:nder-jargensen 1986:233
'Hjurunda, SkOIIsund
111 25337
Sele: maje
Dating: So d
o T' II half of Ihe 4th cenlUry
...0 flat silvtt b . L. .
Ullons WIl" mello mlay, nveted tO a
lab1el-wo\"en band rolded double. Two lable:1S
threaded alternaleJy in pairs on e:ach side. The middle:
part prohably pauerned with individuai tums. The
band probably se:wn on to the fine: broken loze:nge Iwill
unde:rneath. \\'idth or band 0.8 cm, length 2 cm.
O Broken lozenge now reddish-brown, 22 x 22
thre:ads/cm, Z/S. 1o.feasure:ments: 3.5x8 cm.
o Broken lounge twill, now reddishbrown, 14)( 13
Ihltads/cm, ZlZ_ 8.5 x 4 cm.
o Broken lozenge ",;11, now reddishbrown, originally
rulled, 15x 13 threads/on, ZlS. 5x6
O 2/2 t\...m, now black. 12x 10 threads/cm, Z/S. Mea-
surements: 3x 2 cm.
Other flnds: sword rragments, knire, shidd boss, rrag-
ments or shears, helt accessories, fragments of glass,
Bibliography: Selinge 1985:125f.
Simris, Simris
L.UHhol 29155 41
Sex: male
Dating: Late Roman Iron Age
o Fragment oftablet-woven band, woven with 15 tablets
threadc:d ahernaiely in pairs. 0.7
(width)x I cm.
Othe:r flnds: gaming pic:ces, resin caulking, spurs, 3 heads,
strike:-a-light, shidd, spearhead, lance head, knife rrag-
ments, casket mounting, sword, pouery.
Bibliography: Stjernquist 1955:IH and 141 PI
8c:nder-Jorgensen 1986:233
Simris, Simris
Gra....e 46
Sex: Indctcrminate
Daling: Early 4th ccntury
O Fibula with (races of 2/2 (will, Z/Z.
0.5)(0.5 cm.
O from the scythe 212 Iwill, 18x 16 threads/cm, Z/S.
)"leasuremenlS: 1.5)( 1.5 cm.
O Slray fragment of 2/2 lwill, ZlS. Mcasurcmcnts:
0.5)(0.5 cm.
Other linds: fragments ofiron, iron oomb,:2 bron:: fibulas,
:2 bronzc pins, ponery.
Bibliography: Stjernquist 1955:ISf and 141 PI
Bencler-jurgcnsen 1986:233
Simris, Simris
LUHM 29155
Grave 47
Sex: female
Dating: Earl}' 4th (entury
o Buckle with minera!ised traces of textiles in several
layers on both sides. Tabb)', linen, 12)( 12 threads/cm,
Z/Z. Measuremems: 3)(4 cm.
o Fragment of Iablel-woven band, 10 tablcts threacled
ahernaiely in pairs=O.5 cm. Possibly the rcmains of a
pancm with individualturns. ),Ieasurements: 0.7 x 1.4-
O From a collar, 2/2 n.ill, 16x? Ihrc:ads/cm, ZlZ. ),1"ea-
surements: 2xO.5 cm.
Other finds: 2 silver fibulas, 2 bronze fibulas, silver pin,
bc:ads, pc:ndant, knife, mmb, Sirap lag, 2 day vessc:ls.
Bibliography: Sljernquisl 1955:19f and 14-1 PI
Iknder-Jorgenscn 1986:233
Simris, Simris
LUH),1 29155
Grave 55
Sex: maje?
Dating: Late Roman Iron Age
O Bronze loop with 2/2 twill 20x? threads/cm, ZlS.
fl,Ieasurements: 1)(0.5 cm.
Other finds: hook, resin eauiking, comb, potter)"
BibJiograph)": Stjernquist 1955:23
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:233
Simris, $imris
LUH),! 29155
Grave 7i
Sex: Indeterminate
Daling: Early 41h cc:ntury
O Iron fibula wilh mineralised 2/2 I",ill. )''leasurements:
u x 1 cm.
O Knife ....ith minera1iscd 2/2 twill, 12 x 12 thrc:ads/cm,
ZlS. ),1easurc:ments: 2x2 cm.
Other finds: buckle, iron fibula, fragment of wood "ith
bronze mounting, iron fragments
Bibliographr: Stjernquist 1955:24 and 141 PI XXVII:9
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:233
Simris, Simris
Gra"e 84
Sex: Indeterminate
Dating: Late Roman Iron Age
O Fibula with insignificam traces of tcxtiles. 212 .
- - f" 1.._ [\oiU
Iree!lon o splrmmg not ou:>ervable. Xo q
thread munt.
O Small, strar fragments of 2/2 t\\ill, liS.
ments: less than 0.5xO.5 cm.
Olher flnds: fibula, pouery
Bibliographr: Stjernquist 1955:26 and 141 PI XX\'11:12
Iknder-Jorgensen 1986:234
Simris, Simris
LUHM 29155
Grave 88
Sex: male
Dating: Earl)" 4th century
o Shicld handle with mineralised 2/2 twill, l8xl6
threads/cm, SIS. l\Icasurements: 5x 1.5 cm.
O Resin caulking with impression of 2/2 twill, IQll?
Other flnds: silver flbula, shie1d boss, shield rim.
head, spearhead, 2 clay \'essels
Bibliography: Stjernquist 1955:26fand 141 PI XXVII:.)
Bc:nder-Jorgensen 1986:234
Simris, Simris
LUH),I 291.55
Grave 100
Sex: female
Dating: Early 4th century
o Stray fragments of 2/2 twill, 16x? thrc:ads/cm. ZIS
Measurements: I.:) x I cm_
o Possibly a fragment of tablet-wO\'en band. q.w.
ity. TabJets threaded ahernaiely in pairs.
ments: 1.5 x 1.5 cm.
Other finds: collar, 2 silver fibulas, 2 bronze pins. da,
vesseIs, fragments of leather .. , 17
Bibliography: Sljcrnquist 1955:28 and Hl PI XX\I.
Bender-Jorgcnsen 1986:234
Skivarp, remlla
Sex; male J
Dating: Transition bc:tween early and late Roman roa
Age hardh' an' Ii
Large numbc:r of small, stray fragments.
them more than 2 x 2 cm, and 1()(l5t: threads h.......
d 'ith lablets l
o Fragment oftablet-woven an " Measute"
' ,ming extanl.
altemate y m paus, no pa.. 3.5 ro
ments: max. "'idth 1.2 cm, max. Jength . c . ztS.
32 26 30 threads
o Broken lozenge I",ill, 30- x - r nccrwo-
O 2/2 twill 24 x 22 threads/cm. VS. Qua u
, l heads
O Cords made of four 2-ply wool en I r. rainef _
. I die ",ne st
Other flnds' bronze cauldron, wme a . .
. of thaln u_ .
glass bc:akers, day \'essc:ls, fragments
Bibliography: Geijer 1939:I90f .234
Bender.Jflrgensen 1986
mall' .
. . Transition betwecn Roman Iron Age and :\ilgra-

lian Period . .
o Tabbv, linen, 16x 16 threads/cm, Z/Z. i\lmerahsed
in sc\"erallavers. :\feasurements: 3 x 1.5 cm.
o fragments of212 (will, 14x 14 threads/cm,
Z/Z. max. 0.5x2.5 cm.
o fragments of212 I\,ill, 14 x 12 threads/cm,
Z/S. :\Itasuremcnts: max. I x I cm.
Qrntr linds: shield boss, shield handle, fragmem of chain
mail. iron spur, 3 gold rings, an aureaus strul');; for :\Iax-
imianus Hereules 285-305 A.D.) sil\"er clasp, sih.-er.gih
foil. sih'er mounting, strap tag, romb, 8gaming
piects. resin caulking
Bibliography: .... n..oidsson 19-48:41 f
Repan Ribantikvariembeleu tcxlilsek-
lian Pnr 4611
Kinna Church
Sex: Indw:rminate
Dating: Roman Iron Age
O Fibula Wilh mineralised 2/2 twilL 20x 12 threads/cm,
Olher linds: none
Bibliography: Report Riksantikvariembetets textilsek-
tian Pnr 4615/65

Kolbck, sen I :2, 1:3 elI'.
Fealure 63
Sex: Indeltrminate
Dating: Roman Iron Age
O Textile fragm bo O ..
d' enu, a Ul I , 2/2 tWIII WIth broken
in one direction chevron twill 20x 16
t reads/cm, VS. Measurem'ems: max 0.5 x l cm.
Feature 5
Sex: female?
Dating: Ea I R
o r y Oman Iron Age
I ula .....i(h Ii
'oIilh b of two quaiilies, viz 2/2 twill
diagonal in one direetion, chevron
-J8 threads/cm, ZIS, and broken lounge
twill, 22-24)(20 lhreads/cm, VS. Measuremems:
1.1)(2 and 2.5)(3 cm respectively.
Other linds: aboUl 30 gold roil beads, bronze ring
Bibliography: Hyenstrand 1973:22f
Repon Riksantikvariembetets telltilsek-
tian. Pnr 5335/73.
Vickleby, Vickleby no. 8, Berget
Sex: maje
Dating: per. \':2
O 10 bronze clasps with lcxtile remains. On some oflhe
dasps there are minute fragments of2/2 twill, about
18x 18 threads/cm, Z/S, and on others only Z- and S-
o 2 round moumings ,,;th te:'1tile remains. On one of
them, negligible (races of the same 212 t\\ill as above,
on the olher mort layers of c1oth, but impossible 10

o Spur \\ith mineralised fragmem band
with 10 tablels threadcd ahernalely in pairs. Measure-
ments: I x 1.5 cm.
Other finds: iron fragments, ponery
Bibliography: Edgren MS
V, Tollstad, AlvaSIra
sm..,! 11746:96
Sex: malc
Daling: 3rd cemury
o Iron fragment with mineralised 2/2 twill, 14x 12
{hreads/cm, SIS and 20x20 lhreads/cm
Other finds: sword, shicld boss, shicld handle, strap tag,
Bibiliography: Slomann 1948:8
Bender-jorgensen 1986:234
15.1.2. Migration Period textiles
SH:-'f 1003;
Sex; female
Dating: transition Migration/:\-lerovingian Period
o Large equal-armed fibula with cht\'ron twill near the
a Two small equal-armed fibulas. Undemeath one of
them, linen tabby, 16x 14 threads/cm, Z/Z. Folderl
fragments, se-..-eral layers in a lump, 2><2 cm. Also,
fragments of another t'lhric, poS!ibly woollen twill,
impossiblc to analyse. On the other clasp, folded linen
as per the aoo\('. Betwecn the linen and Ihl" fibula,
twisted yam bdonging to a coarsl:T rabric. Measure-
ments: 2.5x 1.2 cm.
o Round, disc-shaped brooch with linen, as above, near
the pin. Measuremenls: 1.5 x 1.5 cm.
O Four pins. Round one oflhem, woollcn fahric, imposs-
ible to analyse.
o Slray textile fragments, induding four of linen labby,
thr: of the same qualily as above and one slighlly
finer. Two fragments have an 0.5 cm wide hem.
Othcr finds: tweezers, ear scoop, beads, knife, bronze
slUds, iron fragments
Bibliography: Arrhenius 196O:167f
Stenbcrger 1964:618
Schnbcck 1980:108
Linde, Salands
SHM 25386
Se:'C: male
Dating: Period
O Crossbo..... fibula .....ith traces offabric undemeath, im-
possible tO analyse any further.
o Iron fragments and shield handlc: with small fragments
of2/2 twill, Il x9 threads/cm, Z/Z.
Other finds: clasps, brachteatc, ferrule, buckJe, knife,
mount from a drinking horn, wine strainer, gold charm.
oomb, potter)"
Bibliography: Silven 1956:9if
Bender-Jorgcnsen 1986:234
l'\orrala, Borg 1:10
Sex: male
Dating: c. 500
O Two clasps from the wrists, cach with 4+4 fial gilded
bronze buttons attached to tablel-woven band fokkd
round 2/2 Iwill.
The clasp from the lefl arm (FW, 41) besl
Band width 7.4 cm, woven \,ilh 74 lablelS
alttrnalely in pairs, ofwhich four on one edgc and Ihl:"
remainder in the middle scclion whieh is J>altemrt;i
.....ilh horshairs in wef,-wrapping. The pauern section
begins ....ilh soumak, wilh Ihe weflS in alten:ale direc_
tions, forming a herring-bone-like paltem. Onh' a
small piece of the figurative pattern el\lam.
folded round 2/2 lwill, lix I 1 threads/cm, ZlZ and
sewn down under the bUllons wilh running stiteh in 2-
ply, S-t\\isled yam. On IOp of the bUllons. 212 1..."ilI,
8-IOx8 Ihreads/cm, Z/Z. 4.ix2.:;
and 6x4 cm.
O The clasp from lhe righl arm (F49), same as abo"C: bUI
less well-preserved.
O Two c1asps from lhe ankles (F53, 54), eaeh wilh 4+4
flat gilded bronze buttons as per the above. altaehtd 10
a horsehair-panemed, tablel-woven band foldc1l
round 2/2 Iwill. Less well-preservc:d Ihan the cuffs.
Measurements: 6.5x2 and 4x2 cm.
O At the waist a clasp (F51) wilh 5+5 fial, gilded bronze
buttons, the same as abovc, attached to a tablet-wO\-eD
band. Iklwttn the bUllons and Ihe band a la\'e1' el
lealher. Band "idlh 10 cm. \-ery fragmeman Xo
lraces of patterning.
O Under the bell maunling with a bronze ring (F3laand
32), tablct-wQvcn band with lablcls threaded aher-
natelr in pairs with no pallern and 2/2 n,ilL imJ?OSS,bk'
10 analyse morc closely. I x 1.:> cm.
o Round SIrap ends (F31 b), 2/2 ",iIl8-lOx8
cm, Z/Z. 1.5x2 cm.
o Buckle (F50) lying on double layers of tablcl-,,'oven
band with horsehair panernin, as per the ahave. kal-
her and 2/2 IwilL 1.4x2 an .J
O gilded bronze bullons (F48. 52). pl3ctd .in
groups of four and on double layers of
, 'l remenl dlam.
pancrned lablcl-wovcn bane .. easu .
1-1.2 cm. ha-r
O Stray bUllan (F56) on double layers of horse ,';
'l n-menl dl3m. .
panemed lablel-woven ban. _, easu .
=. , h ads/cm Z/Z.
o Stray fragments of 212 Iwill, 14 x l I re .
Measurcments 1.5x2 cm_ 'h"'"
h d
bo t 20 arro" .
Other finds: sword. spear ca ,a u _ ligh<
. .. b b ckle stnke-
boss, shleld handle, s ears, U '. lkoi"
Is lTSlfi eau
IWttzers, ear SCOOp, corn ,c ay ,'esse
Bibliography: Varenius 1961:3 f
Franzen 1964:276f
R,pon inATA Dnr9.6./.61 ., . .],
b I leXUI'>'I'''-
Report Riksantikvaneam elC s
lion Por 4165/1962.

Sex male
Dating: mid- or late 5th cenlUI)' .
o Two (3+3) flat, giJded bronze bUltons with double-
fo[ded tablet-woven band under them. f\.ofeasurements:
width 3.9 cm, [ength [.2 cm. Originally woven with at
least 50 tableIs, 41 now remain. \Varp: Z-spun, weft: S-
spun. traa ofpauerning. Under Ihe textile [a)'eo
on one clasp. a leather SIrap with stilch holes in ...hich
ther<: ar<: dark woollen fibres. Measurements: 3.9 x 1-2
and 3xO.6 cm.
Olha finds: huckle, iron fragments
Festin 1913-1914:3 rr
Slomann [948:45
berg 1953: Fig. 56
Sd':lfiger. Hgom
Gral'c 2
Se:'l 4000
Sex male
Dating: c. 500
o Two (3+3) high, chip-can,ed gilded bultons from the
cuffs, anachcd to tablct-woven band foldcd round 2/2
twi[L Band width 6 cm. Woven with 86 tablets, of
which [9 on one edge, the remainder in Ihe horsehair-
p;1Uemed middle seclion. The pattern begins with 5-6
....efts in one direction, followed bl' the same number in
the other direction. This is five times, and
then followed by a figurative patlern in broken 2/2
"'cft-faced rwill and weft-wrapping. Band folded round
2/2 t ill. 20-24 x 20-22 threads/cm, Z/Z and sewn
down ith running stitch under the bulions. Along the edge, sewn on with whip stitch round the nexl-
QUtermosltablet twisl and the b[ankel-stirched edge of
Ihe fabric. Over the band, a slil sewn with taiJor's stiteh
b[anket stiteh. Along the edge of the slit, twO rows
o Stem stiteh. :\Ieasurements: 17x JO and 8 (partk
dubb[e)x22 cm.
o T",o {3-3) disc-shaped silver buttons from the lower
tdgeofthe lunic. auached to lablel-wO\'en band and 2/
Band width 4 cm. woven with 59 lablelS, of
... hlch 14 and 15 respeclivelv on each edge. 15 tablets/
<m So .'
. umak horsehalr paltem broken 2/2 weft-faced
t...iJl W'd h f '
. I t o the panern squarc nearest Ihe bunons 2
cm narro' d "
f ' Wmg own alter8 cm lO J.4 cm. Total [ength
the paUern square 12 cm. Then four squares 4 cm
Ong, 1.4 cm wide, with O6 cm wovcn with quaTlcr.
turns in bet' Th ;.
b "ecn. e welts m the square neareSI the
Uttons done in the same dircclion Ihose in the smaller
in he' bo '
dOUble .mng: ne pattem. Band sewn down with
. runnmg stnch under the butlOns on 10 2/2 twill
quahn as bo Th '
. a ve. e edge of the rear concealed by a
line ofstem stitch. Se"'n on at the upper band edge \,ilh
close lailor's sIiich, whip stileh at the edge.
Fragment I has a slil seam with double rows oftailor's
slitch, along the edge twO rows of stem stitch against
the folded side. Measurements: 15x9.5 cm.
Fragment II has Ihe same slit seam as above. ),-[easure-
ments: 9x9 cm.
Fragment III has a slit seam with double rowS of
tailor's stiteh folded round the band side and nvo ro.....s
ofstemstitch sewn from theopposileside. Ona pieceof
coarser fabnc, 19x [7 threads/cm, let in on the lefl side
of the garmem, Ihe slit seam is foldecl over in the same
direclion and sewn "ith blankeisIiich. Measurements:
35x88 cm.
Fragmenl lY has a horsehair-panemed band [el inlo
il. This is woven with 67 tablets, 19 oflhem on one edge
and [8 on thc othcr. This band is :tttached to thc
roaTSer twill, 19x 17 threads/cm. Measurements:
8x5.3 cm.
Fragmenls Vand VI 212 twill, 20-24x20-22threads/
cm, Z/Z \<-'ith tablel-woven band as per Fragments
I-III. :'leasuremenlS: 9.7 x 12 and 6.5x i.j cm respec-
O Large fragment of 2/2 twill, 20-24 x 20--22 threads/
cm, belonging 10 Ihe front piece of the lunic. :\leasurc-
ments: 45 x 45 cm.
o T....o (3+3) gilded bronze buttons with a horseshoe
panern, the upper clasps at the ank[es, are atlached to
tablct-woven band paltcrned with individual tums
and 212 lwill as abovc. Band width now 5.5 cm, pro-
bably 6.5 cm originally. [8 tab[ets/cm. Onc edge wo-
ven with 16 tablelS, the other fragmenlary.
O T.....o (3+3) disc-shaped silver bUllans, the lower c1asps
at lhe ankles are an3ched to 5 cm wide tablet-woven
bands pauerned with individualturn.s. Ten lablets on
one edge, probably the same on olhers. 12 lablel5/cm.
Band scwn on to Ihe same 2/2 t"ill as above.
o Two (2+2) gilded, chip-calVcd bUllans, found above
the head, auached 10 4.5 cm wide tab[et-woven bands
panerncd with individual tums. Probably ten tab[ets
on each cdge. 14 tablets/cm. Band sewn on 10 2!2twill,
14x 12 threads/em, Z/Z.
O Two (3+3) dise-shaped silver buttons found at the
head, allached to 4 cm wide tabJeI-,vOven bands .....ilh
horschair paneming. 14 tab[ets on one edge, others
indeterminale. Band se.....n on tO 2/2 I"ill, 14x 12
In addition, slray fragmenus of Ihe following
o Tablet-.....oven band, 5 cm wide, pattemed "ith indi
vidua[ tums. Twenty lablel5 on one edge, 18 or 19 on
others. 14 tablets/cm. Traccs of slitching on one edge.
Found together with thick tablct-.....oven tassels ending
with knots.
o Tablet-woven band, 1.1 cm wide, woven with 16 tab-
lets of which 5 on each edge. Horsehair pattern in
squares, 0.8 cm long with 0.7 cm woven .....ilh quarter-
tums betwttn.
o 2/2twill, 5x5 Ihreads/cm, S/S, found next 10 the fells
at many poims and bc:tween layers of c10th at sorne:
O 212 {....iII, 13-16x 10-12 threads/cm, Z/Z, in Sl:\'cral
Iayers. Possibly of IWO different qualities. .\1easurc-
ments: 27x50 cm.
Other flnds: sword, lanet point and arro\\!
hcads, dagger, shield, curb bil, ring bit, saddle with
mounlings, IWO gold rings, 1'110 gold pendants, IWO gold
bars, gold roundel, silver tWttzcrs, strike-a-light, huckle.
sirap end, bdt maunling, strike-a-Iight set in bronzc, two
rombs, IWO pairs orshears, Iwo axcs, wheuilone, awl, \wo
glass beakcrs, two pols, bronze dish, Ve!itland cauidron,
wooden huckcI with iron mounlings, \WO ....oodcn planers,
resin eauiking rings, fragments of woo<!, fragments of iron,
hazelnuts, fur haiTS
Bibliography: Selling 1952:3YlfT
jansan & Selling 1955:60ff
Bimstad 1984:52ff
Ramqvist 1988:103ff, 1990
Ramqvist & .\liillerWille 1987:95fr
Arrhenius 1988:441 fr
Sundsvall, Nackstavrel:lnna
SHM 22006
Sex: male
Daling: c. 400
o Stray fragment of 212 twill, 11)( 10 threadslcm. Z/Z.
.\1:easurements: 2)( 1.8 em.
Other finds: bell mounting, arrowhead, iron clasp, knife,
res;n caulking
Bibliography: Slomann 1948:27f
Bendcr-jorgensen 1986:234
Timr, Skytt berg
SH.\'! 25516
Sc:x: male
Dating: 500-550
o Two gilded, chip-carved bronze buttons, each
anached 10 tablet-woven band pattemed with hOI"!le-
hajr, probably ofseveral colours originally. The band
folded round a 212 twill and scwn down with double
rows of running stitch ne.xt 10 the fold and one ro,,"
under the buttons, 2-ply S-Iwisted woollen yam. Prob-
ably a row of tailor's stitch over Ihe band edge on the
reyerse side. Band ...;dth, incomplele, 2.3 cm. The
pattern begins "ilh soumak in red and possibly blue.
16 tabletS/cm. The twill unidentifiable. A fell had been
laid over the buttons.
O Two (3 +3) flat, undecoraled brom:e buttons on tablet-
woven band, coarser than the above, 13-14 tablets/
cm. No trace of patttrning. The twill unidcnlifiable.
The lextile fragment butts against birch bark.
o Bronze ring with 212 ""ill, 12)( 10 threads/cm, Z/Z
against the convcx. side and against the concave side a
tablel-woven band pattemed "ith indi..idual tums, 14
tablets/cm. Woven with aoout 50 tablets. The middle
stClion about 35 and 8 tablets on each OOrder. Width,
incomplete, 2.3 cm.
o .\Iounting for a knife sheath with ruSt .
. -stamed f",n
ments o 212 tWIlI, 12)( 12 threads/cm. Z/Z. ......
o Stray fragments of 2/2 twill. lo! x 12 threads/cm l'
.\Ieasurements: max, 2x2.5 cm. . ,I
Other finds: 2 spcarheads. s\\'ord ferrule shieJd h._
'I . ' UU';s.
nng, c asp, strap end, knlfe sheath mount I')
'bl' S . . . poller\,
I 10graphy: ehnge 1969, Exkurs 2:23 .
Repon in ATA Dnr 3146/56
Repon Riksantikvariembetets

lion Pnr 5181171
Torp, Rombck
SH.\1 20438
Sex: male
Dating: c. 450
O 2+2 flat, gilded bronze buttons attached to tablet.
woven band folded round 212 Iwill. Ro.... of
stitch under the bUllons. Two tableLS on each nJge.
The middle 5eClion pallemed ";Ih indhidual lums.
Band width 3.5 cm approx. with 40
Thread count of the 212 twill in one directiOIl 12/cm
Z.spun. Other direction impossible tO .
Top sides of both halves of the clasp originally
covered by a fdl.
Other finds: spearhead, knife, strike-a-Jighl, bronze ring.
Possibly imermingling of linds from IWO graves
Bibliography: Slomann 19+8:28
5elinge 1969, exkurs s 26
Bender jorgensenl9B6:234
Report Riksantikvariemberets
tion Pm 5182172
Hglinge, Gingeholm
Depot lind
Daling: 5th
O Two fragmenls, 2/2 twill, l6x lo! lhrcads/cm. Z/Z,
'\'!easuremcnts: max. 2.5)( I cm.
o Broken lozenge twill, 23)(21 threads/cm. ZlS.
surements: 5)(2 cm. .' J
Olher finds: 7 ('ves, 2 hooks of Slh'er \.,re. 4- fibulas.
cruciform clasps,"4-7 amber beads, knife. fra':'fllents ofiro
Bibliography: Arne 1937:81 fr
Bendcr jorgcnscnl986:235
o Hoby, Hoby
Slray find
Dating: :\-ligration Period ed Linen
o Fibula textile fragment, now delach .. I x1
labbv 12 x II threadslcm, Z/Z. .\leasuremenIS.
, ,
Bibliography: Bender jorgcllsen 1986:235

ScKkr.lkra. Ekar.d "j
"H).! 27.781

Dalinl\": 5th n'nlUr. .
o Textile attached. tO fibula. 2/2 tWIll, 12x 12
threads/cm. Z/Z. ).Ieasun:menls: 1.5x I cm.
o AJso stras fragments of the same fabric. :\Ieasure-
ments: max. I xO.7 cm.
Olher finds: POl sherds, flint seraper, 2 fibulas, 2 pins,
resin caulking
Bibliograph\ Repon Riksantikvariembetels
tion Pnr 4646/65
Grdinge, Uppinge 3:2
SHM 26986:27
Sex: Indeterminate
Dating: ).Iigration Period
o Three plain bunons, for a c1asp attached to
tablet,wo...en band. tablcls/cm. Under one
bUIlon. trace of pallcming ",ith individual tums.
Above this. 2/2 Iwill, 16x 16 threads/cm, ZlZ and
traCC50fstitching ...ith 2-ply, S-t...isted )"arn. l\'leasure-
ments: max. I cm in diameler.
Olher linds: burned bonc:s, rc:sin caulking
Bibliography: Bender jorgensen, 1986;235
Sorunda, Torp
Dnr 629/72
Sex: Female?
Dating: 5th-6th centurv
o Two layers of 2/2 under a c1asp. At right anglc:s
lo Ihe clasp, a tablelwovcn band scwn on to the twilL
o Under a strap tag, band and 2/2 twill as above. Outer
border of the band woven wilh fivc tablets threaded
alternately in pairs. Pattern in middle section unidenti-
fiable. "'eft 2-ply, S-twisted. Round the outermost
tablet, trace of a scam which anached the band 10
the twill. 12 tablels/cm. Band width, incomplele, 3 cm.
O 212 t...ill, 14x 12 threads/cm, Z/Z. t.,'leasuremems:
max. I x2 Cm,
linds: ,glass, 100m hid.e (co",')
Repon Riksanllkvanembetets texlilsek-
lion Pnr 5261172
Toresund. Saltn,
31282 .
Datin.,. d
..",. secon half of 51h century
o Thwo gilded, fiat, chip-can:ed. buttons each allached
va . h '
. Pin t rough tablet-woven band, which in tum was
se....ll on to 212 twill. On the undcrside of the band, a
backplale of bronze. \\"idth of tablct-woven band 1.8
cm. Woven ""ith 28 tablels threaded alternatel)" in
pairs, of ,..'hich 14 in the pattcm section and 6 and 8
respectively on each border. Original colour of band
probably red. Pallem in horschair in red,
ydlow and blue beginning \,ilh 9 singlc soumak ,,'efts
ofvarious coloun right across the pattem square. The
following paueming is in broken 2/2 weftfaced twill
and weft,wrapping. Largc:s! suniving length 2.1 cm.
Band sewn on tO broken lozenge twiII, 5Ox4O threads/
cm, Z/S. Traces of stitching in 2-ply, S-twisted red
yarn. Largest fragment 0.8x2 cm.
o Broken lozenge twill, 4{)x25 threads/cm, Z/S.
o On top of a gilded, hemispherical bulton was a frag-
ment of 2/2 twill foJded double, 12x 10 threads/cm,
Z/Z. 2.5x3 cm.
Other fincis: sword bladc, arrowhead, gildcd, rivet-shaped
mount, wooden bucket.
Bibliography: Ringquist 1975:90f
Report Riksantikvariembetets textilsek-
tian Pm 5341/73
Bondkyrka, Berthga Churchyard
Sex: Indelerminate
Dating: :\Iigration period
o Clasp with ruststained textile remains on top of the
bullans ofone pan, 2/2 twill, 16x 16Ihreads/cm, un-
identified spinning direction. 1'.leasurements: max. l.
0.8 cm.
Other linds: Iron mOUnling, iron fragments
Bibliography: Repon Riksantikvariembetels textilsek
tion Pm 5416/74
Danmark, Danmarksby
Fornl 100
Feature l
Sex: female
Dating; Late :\1igration Period
o Four high, gilded and chip-can;ed bulions.
3:1 Xo idenlifiable texlile remains.
3:5 Undernealh the buuon, very fragmenlary tablel-
woven band ,..ith horsehair pauern, only a few weflS
exlant. Round the "....,aist" of Ihe bullon 4-5 cords,
tightly Zt....isted. Measurements: lAx lA cm.
3:7 Over the bulton 2/2 t",ill, 14x 14 threadslcm, Z/Z.
Measuremenu: 2 x2 cm.
3; 14 Under the bUllon, tablet-woven band, no tface of
palteming and thret c1oscly-spaced. loops rcsembling
323:5. Widlh of band, incomplete, 1.8-2.0cm. In addi-
tion, twO loose loops which went round the bUIlon.
Ihe bunon 2/2 {will, 14x 14 {hreads/cm, ZlZ.
Cord lenglh: 1,8 cm.
O Bdl mounling with bronze ring ri\'cted to a
wovcn band with horsehair patlerning. Six table!s
threacled alternatcly in pairs on one edge, thrte on the
other (incomplete). Eight tablets in the pallern stelian.
The hand was originally divided iOIO rcclangular
patteen fidds, of whieh one now Temains, length 1.6
cm. Pantrn originally yellow, red and one more colour.
Pusent wiclth 1.3 cm. Original wideh probably 1.5 cm,
di\ided iOlo 0.5 cm for each edge border and 0.5 cm for
Ihe pantrn section. The ring lay turned up lOwards the
band and there an: S-twisted cords round the ring. On
Ihe other side of the maunling 2/2 u,,-m, 12x 12
(hreads/cm, Z/Z.
O Equal-armed brooch with 2/2 [will, 14x 14 thrtadsl
cm, Z/S.
Other linds: 2 amber beads, bron:,:<: mounting, bronu pin,
iron fragments, resin eauiking.
Danmark, Danmarksby
Foml 100
Feature 5
Sex: male?
Dating: Late ).'figration Period
o Iron fragment with mineralised 2/2 t""iII, 16>0: 14
threads/cm, Z/Z. :\Ieasurements: 1>0: 1.5 cm.
o Bron:,:e ring with fragment of same 2/2 twill as above,
and uaces of fur hair.
O Bron:,:c ring with uaces of same 2/2 twill as above.
Other finds: iron fragments, slag, iron rivet, resin caulk-
ing, pottery.
Danmark, Danmarksby
Fornl 100
Sex: male
Dating: Late 5th century
O Four gilded and chip-carved buttons.
F 126: I Textile fragment from the underside of the
button. Nearest the button, tablet-woven band, incom-
plete wiclth, 0.8 cm, woven with 12 tablets. Under the
tablet-woven band 2/2 twill, 20x?, spinning direction
incleterminate. :\-[easurements: diam, 0.7 cm.
F 126:2 Textile fragments from m-o buttons, originaUy
auached undemeath the buttons and transfixed by a
rivet which is now completely corroded. One fragment
with a small rivet washer undemeath. Tablet-wo\"en
band next to the bunons.
I. Double-folded tablet-woven band. Ko fabric on
the underside. 13 tablets threaded alternately in pairs.
14-16 tabkts/cm. :Measurements: 0.8>0:0.9 cm.
II. Tabkt-woven band, folded double, ,..ith trace of
2/2 twill on the underside. ;vleasurements: band 0.8 >o: l
cm, 2/2 twill 0.3xO.4 cm.
Other finds: bronze ring, iron mounting with rivet, iron
fragments, spearhead (?), rnin caulking, pottery
Bibliography; Report Riksantikvarkmbetets textilsek-
tian Pnr 5265/72
Danmark. Danmarksbv
Fornl 100' -
Feature I;
Sex: Indeterminale
Dating: Late 5lh century
o Two gilded, chip-carved bUllons, originally attached
to a tabletwoven band folded round 2/2 lwill. The
band sewn on 10 thc twill with 2-ply. S-twisled varn.
Band widlh, incomplcte, 1.8 cm. The middle
woven with aOOut 30 tablets, pancrned with individuaJ
IUrm. On one edge 4 and on the other 8 lablets
Ihreaded ahemalely in pairs. iklv,cen the lab!,.t.wo-
v'en band and the button, a piece of lealher 2/2 t""iII.
14x 12 threads/cm. Z/Z. :\Icasurements: 1.8>0:2 cm.
Olher finds: tweezers, iron fragments. potter.'. resin
caulking .
Bibliography: Report Riksantikvariembetets lextilsek_
tian Pm 517917 1
Danmark, Danmarksby
Fornl 100
Feature 46
Sex: Indeterminale
Daling: 5th cemury?
o Bronze ring with arched IOp. On the rC'\'CI"$C side, '1/2
twill, 8x; Ihreads/cm. SIS. :\leasuremems: 1.6>0:3.2
cm. Also loose threads.
o Textile impression on lump ofdar, 2/2 twill, 8
in one direction.
Other finds: fragmcntary bron:,:e foil, potsherd, resin
eauiking, wood, fire-cracked slone, burned bones.
Bibliographv: Reporl Riksantikvariembetets le",i1!ek-
tion Pnr 517917 I
Danmark, Danmarksby
Foml 100
Feature 4;
Sex: Indelcnninate
Dating: 5th cemury? _
o Textile fragment next 10 lin mounting. Cnder the a
tablet-woven band folded and sewn on 10 a 212 IWIIl.
Band width 6 cm, woven wilh 50 tablets thrcaded
altcrnatelv in pairs. MeasuremelltS: 6x 1.5 cm, 212
twill, 24x20 threads/cm, Z/Z.
0.5xO.7 cm. Z
O fragments of 212 twill. 12)( II thrcads;cm, ZI .
r-Ieasurcments: max. 2>0:2.5 cm.
O Lump conlaining v'ariously sized fragments of
twill. 16>0: 14 Ihreads/cm, Z/Z. :\Ieasuremems: ma.:.
2x2.5 cm. fi
Other finds: Ihree gilded, chip-car\"ed buttons. iron rag-
ments, resin, bane, wood, fire-cracked stone

Bibliography: Report Riksantikvaricm etets
tian Pnr 51 ;917 l
Danmark, Danmarksby
Fornl 100
Feature 124
Sex: fc:male?
Dating: 5th ccntury
o T,,'o bronzcc fibulas. one cruciform, with twO laren of
112 t\,ill. Round the pin holder 2/2 twill, IOx 10
,hrNdsfcm. Z/Z. The same al the catch ccnd, probably
se,eral layers.
o Iron fibula entirely covered by rust-stained 2/2 twill.
o Cord fragment from consisting of intertwined 2-
ph woollen threads.
o bead with indeterminate \"egetable fibres.
Other finds: iron fragments, knife
Bibliography: Repor! by Hgg, MS
Danmark, Danmarksby
fornl 100
feature I i4
D.uing: 5th century
o IOgether "ith beads, 2/2 t....'ill, 12x?
threads/cm. ZlZ. One fragment slarting border (?),
tabb} 6x 16 threads/cm, Z/Z, stitchcs ....ith S-twisted
\am at one edge.
Other linds: bronzc rings. rcsin
Eker, Helg
Xr 10779
Dwelling site lind
Dating: Migration period
o Aclasp bulton on broken lozenge twill, 14 x 14 Ihreads/
cm, Z/Z. 2x2 cm.
Hammarb., Smedb.-
Forn 6-i . ,
Se,,; indeterminale
Dating: period
O Two clasps. cach with 5+5 plain bronzcc bUlIons
attachcd to tablet-wo'en band folded round a twill.
The band probably WO....en wilh about 65 tablets, about
14- tablels/cm. width about 4.5 cm,
lcngth lA cm. 2/2 ,,,m, 8x8 threads/cm, Z/Z.
surements: max. O.7xO.8 cm.
Other linds: Unknown
Bibliography: Repon Riksantikvariembetets
tion Pnr 5253173
Lov. \'iken
SH:\I 29.401:3
Sex: malc
Dating: per. \"1:2
O On Ihe re\"ersc side ofa gilded bdt mounting 2/2 t\\ill
16-18x 16-18 threads/cm Z/Z ' ,
o H . ' .
cmlsphccrical gilded bunon, said to have had coarse
labby fabric on the back.
o with 2+2 flat buttons, ....ith unidentifiable textile
O hragments beh,een buttons and mounting.
, sword, knife, lance shicld arro," bo....' glass
ganlln . '" , ,
B'b. g !lleces, wooden bucket
Illography: Arwidsson 1962: 113 f
Lamm,J. P. 1972:30f
\'. Ryd, Torstra
Sex: mak?
Dating: per. \'1:2
o 2+2 flat bultans for a c1asp with tablet-....o\'en band
and t....ill fabric undemeath. The band sewn on with 2-
pI)", Stwisted yam. Band ,,;th 2.5 cm, one cdge ,,-'oven
with II tablets, the other wilh 8. r.liddle stetion woven
with 22 tabkts. panerned with individual turns. 12
tabkts/cm. Weft 'l-pI)", S-twisted. The band only
folded back about 0.5 cm on lhe reverse side, i.c. as far
as the rivet hale for Ihe bultans. band whip
stilched 10 fabric. 212 t,,,m, 18x 16 threads/cnl, Z/
Z. :-'-Ieasurements: 2.3)( 1.5 cm.
Other finds: buckle, gilded silver studs, glass fragments
Bibliography: Lamm,J. P. 1973:81 f
Repan Riksantikvariembetets tcxtilsck-
tion Pnr
Hemsj, Ingared
SHM 25655
Sex: Femak (grave 2)
Daling: c. 550
o Tccxlile fragments from fibula I.
From catch ccnd.
A. 2/2 l"il1, 15)( Il threads/cm, Z/Z.
1.5x3 cm.
B. J-ply cord of \'001, Z-spun. :\Ieasuremenu: 1x 1
From thcc pin holder J fragmems-A. :\leasuremefllS:
max. 3)(2 cm.
fragmenls of plailed cord- B.
from 10P side. Layer 1 probably 212 u,iII, VZ, coarse
quaIity, probabl)" as below. MeasuremenlS: 3x 2.5 cm
l.arcr 2. 2/2 lwill, Sx7 lhreads/cm, Z/Z. fvleasurc-
mcnls: 3.3x3 cm.
Larer 3. 212 twill, IQx8 threads/cm, ZlZ. r.kasure-
menIS: 4x2 cm.
Layer3. 212 twill-layer 3. 1.2 x 1.5 cm.
Larer 5. 2/2 twill-larccr 3.
On 10P of layer 4, small fragments of coarse 2/2 twill.
:\Ieasuremeflls O.7xO.3 cm.
o "Bag top" no. 2. 3 fragments of 212 twill, 13x 10
Ihreads/cm, Z/Z. :\1easurements: 2.5x 1.5 cm.
o Fibula no. 5. 212 t\O.;I1, 7x 7 threads/cm, Z/Z. :-'1easure-
ments: 1xO.8 cm.
Other linds: 3 silver pendanIS, 3 silver rings, bronz:e disc,
bronze foil, libula, part of dasp, 5 glass 2 pastc
Bibliography: NordahI1959:157f
Bender Jorgensen 1986:235
Sjtofta, Hanabo bygge
Sex: fcmale?
Dating; Migration Period
o Part of a clasp consisling of 2 round, disc-shaped
bronze buttans attached by an indelerminalc tablet-
woven band. Row of running stitch undn the buttans.
Iron fragmems, paTt of backplalc of dasp as peT thc
abovc, with rust-stained traces offahric, including tab-
let-woven band.
Other linds: 2 cruciform fibulas, huckle, tK,ads, bumi
Konungsund, Bobergct
SH),I 13529
Dwdling sill': lind
o Iron fragments, with 2/2 n''''ill, 6)(6 threaclslcm, z/z
Bibliography: Bcnder-Jorgensen 1986:235.
15.2. NORWAY
15.2.1. Migration Period texliles in connection
with clasps
:-''!ost of the linds in this c31aJogue are (omb," .
allans of
c.lasp and this being of piVolat importance in rela_
tIOn to the Hogom lind. For othcr tcxlile finds .
. '- ..renee IS
made to Ihe cualogue in Ikndcr-Jorgcnscn 1986.
Bolstad, \'oss
B 9614
Sex: Female?
Dating: 500-550
o Probably 3+3+ l flal, gilded buttons anached 10 a
single layer oflablet-....oven band pallcrned with indi-
viduaJ tums. The butlons posilioned o\"er
mc band in relalion to the wert dire<:lion. Possibh fi,-e
tablets threaded altemately in pairs on one edge. In Ihe
middle Sfi:tion the diagonal probably alternates four
limes over the ....idlh, and the Slripes arc aboul l cm
wide. Band width, incomplete. 4.8 cm. original "idlh
probably .5 cm. Length 2 cm. tl"iII belwecn bullon;;
and mounts.
o Fibula with 2121will at the catch end. 12x 12 thrl"ads!
cm, Z/Z.
O Bronze c1asp wilh several layers of 2/2 Il,ill. IOx8
threads/cm, Z/Z.
Other finds: 2 bronze pins, helt ring, awl, arrowheads,
ri"ets, fragments ofiron, slrike-a-light, buckct-shaped pol.
Bibliography: Blindheim 194i:83
Magnus 1984:148
Desen, Os
Sex: Female
Dating: 61h ccntury
o Two (4+4) chip-carved and gilded
anached tO lablet-woven band pattemed w'lh lOdl'
vidual1urns. Closer analysis of the panern impossible.
Six lablels threaded alternately in pairs on one
three or four on Ihe Olher. Measuremcnts: widlh cm.
1cnglh 1.8 cm. Widlh of pattcrn SCCliOn 3.9 cm. Thl"
band is attachcd to 212 lwill, quaiil)" impossible 10
mcasure. h d
o Equal-armed fibula "'ilh 212 twill at Ihe calC l"n.
16x 14 Ihreadsl cm, Z/Z. h h d-
oCruciform c1asp ,>'ith lextile remains under I e l"a
Z/Z Ml"35
plate, 212 Iwill, 14 x 10 Ihreads cm, ..
menis: I x l cm. ual-
Olher finds: silver reliefbrooch, 1'>'0 bro
anned fibula, belt ring. keys, knife, awl. spm,;."birch
buckel-shaped pol, resin caulking. rcmains
" .
bark . b h l"" fibulas.
Between Ihe Slones: cruc.form rOOC
bronzr pin. small c1asp. knife. spindle-whorl. glass frag-
ments. buckel.shapcd pot.
Su a\ items in the filling: poltery, fragments ofiron, key"
Bibliography: 1908, No. 3, s 12f
Sht'lt'lig 1912:132f
Dcdekam 1924/25:53
Blindheim 194i:82f
Hougen 196i, nr 40
Iknder-jorgensen 1986:254
Dosen. Os
Sex: male (lI;r3\'e II in mound 1\')
Dating: 6th cenlUn
o Two blankets of 2/2 Iwili. Thread counl6x6/cm ap-
pro.x., Z/Z. The inner blankel 1.5 m wide, length not
me3Surable. The outer blanket considerably larger but
impossible to rne3SUrt'.
o Two slee\'e fragmenlS. One of Ihem 46 cm long and
torn offat the (Op. At Ihe bottom a plete of cloth folded
double and sewn on as a cull". Three gussels let into the
seam 32 cm from Ihe lower edge. On one side of
Ihe seam a fabric barder WO\'en with 4-5 tablels_
All seams with blanket stitching in the edges, probably
sewn with running stitch. 2/2 twill, 12-13x 12-14
Ihreads/cm. Z/Z.
The other fragment 40 cm long "ith onl)' one
gusset kt into the sleeve seam.
o Another fragment, now in two parts, and probably of
the same quality as the skeves, has mOTe seams. )Iax.
kn'tth 22 and 41 cm respc<:ti\'ely, "idth 24 cm.
O There are SC\'eral smallcr fragments with seams.
O Two fragments have a I cm foJded hem sewn down
with a line ofbackslitch_ Length 8 and 7 cm respective-
ly. widlh I and 2 cm respecti,-ely.
o Atablet-wo\"en band, at leasl4cm wide, with indi\'idu-
al tums. The edge oonsists of eight tablets threaded
ahernatel\' in pairs-O.i cm. l! cm. Band
sewn on to 2/2 Iwill, bad!y leeched. indeterminate
Probably ditTerent from the slee\'e fabric.
Olher finds: tweeurs, shears. knife, wcoden box, strike-a-
light, bear skin
Bibliograph\': B:\I..\ 1908. :\0. 3:16
Shelelig 1912:139f
Hougen 1935:i9
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:254
He\'e. \'oss
Sex: male
Daling: Earl\' 5th cenlUrv
o Two ro d' .
un ragmentS of lablel-wo\'cn band and 2/2
t\<,m attached under flat, undeoorated silver bUllons.
":tJe tableH'ow:n band posslbly patterned with indi-
\ldtlal turns. Thread counl oflhe 2/2 twHl not quantifi-
O :bl
. diam. 0.8 cm
a I er IWO spearheads, fibula, buckle, helt
tweezers, awl, shears, buckel-shaped pOl.
I lography: Fen 1939, kal 244
Bender-jorgensen 1986:253
B 5742
Sex: male
Dating: 450-500
o Pan of a dasp "ilh four flat, undecoraled bronze
bUllons on lab1el-woven band. T.. blels Ihreaded allcr-
nately in pairs. No lrace of pauerning. ""arp now
yellowish-brown. \Vert rcddishbrown. \\'idlh, incom-
plele, 6.5 cm. Tablel Count: 12/cm. The lablel is
allached to 2/2 [will. 16-IBx 16-18 Ihreads/cm. Z/Z.
:\0 stitching cxtant.
Olher flnds: sword, twO spearheads, iron bar, shield boss,
shidd handle, shears. tweezers, knife, arrowhead. bucket.
two whetslanes
Bibliography: 1903. No. 3:[2
Oedckam 1924/25:54
Fett 1939. kat 230
Bender-jorgensen 1986:254
Slamnes, Alslahaug
T 236CH
Sex: female?
Dating: 5th cemury
o Part of a dasp with small bronze buttons, possibly
allached 10 tablel-"o\,en band.
O Str3yfragmcmsofcoarse 2/2twill, 8-10x6-8Ihreads/
cm, Z/Z. Largest fragmenl 3x2.5 cm.
O Several fragments of finc cord of six 2-ply. S-twisled
woollen Ihreads, max. length 3.5 cm.
Olher finds: cruciform dasp. casket mount, shards from
IWO bucket-shaped day pots, flin( arrowhead. This last
mentioned find may come from another find stratum
Bibliography: SjlJ1:old 1962
Bender-jorgensen 1986:25i
$cm. Grong
T 19628
Sex: probably male
Dating: 4{)(}-450
o Three fial, undeoorated silver (?) buttons, allached to a
bronze plate. the bUllons and plale, tablet-
woven band foldcd round 2/2 twi!L Band width, in-
complete, 2.6 cm, length I cm. On both edges, borders
"ith IabletS Ihreadcd alternaldy in pairs. In the mid-
die seelion, insignificant lraces ofhorsehair palteming.
Tablet count: 12/cm approx. Twill now bluish-green,
apprOl<. IOx8threads/cm, ZlZ. On top of the bultons,
Iraces of animal haiT.
Other flnds: buckle, belt mouming, sirap lag, bdt rings,
[wce:ters, lmife, arrowheads, shc:ars, awl,
iron hanger, buckel+shapcd day vcssci, bireh bark
Bibliography: Farbrl"gd 1979 (new ed. 1983)
Ikndn-Jergensen 1986:256
Veiem, Grong
T 19624
Sex; malt
Dating: c. 500
o Clasp (r 39, aa) with flve gilded bronze bUllons on the
hook pari, viz four small ones, and in the middle a
somewhallarger one. Undernc3lh the bultons, tablet-
woven band folded round 2/2 {will. Band width 6.3 cm,
max. length 1.5 cm. No. tabh:ts i3. About Il tablers!
cm, Two tablets threaded alternalely in pairs on one
edge. I'allcrn Stellon in horsehair. COlOUTS nOl disting-
uishable. Pattern irnpossible to analyse. Band foldcd
round a 2/2 Iwill and sewn down with red 2-ply, S-
Iwisted ",oollen yarn in running SlilCh under lhe
buttons. 1'will now green, approx. 14x 12 threads/cm,
O Part ofa c1asp (F 40, ab) with fke equally sized, gilded
bronze buuons, anached to tablet-woven band and 212
1""iII. Band widlh, incomplete, 7.3 cm, length 1.6 cm.
No. tablets 79. stetion in horsehair ends three
tablels from one roge, other edge not extanl. Horsehair
pauern begins righl under the buttons. Wefts in aiter-
nate directions, i.e, herring-bonepauerned. Band now
attached to a green ".ill, approx. 12x II, Z/Z. The
fabric oontinun a IiItIe way outside the complete band
edge. No trace of slit seam.
o Part ofc1asp (F41, ac) with four gilded bronze butlons,
somewhal differemly sized, anached 10 tablet-"'O\'en
band, width (incomplete) 4.8 cm, lenglh 1.2 cm.
Horsehair.panemed seelion reaching down al the
o Part of a clasp (F 44-, ad) with Ihree gilded bronze
bullons, somewhal differcntly sized, allached 10 tablet-
"loven band and 212 IwilL Band incomplclc, width 4.5
cm, lenglh 1.5 cm. The patlcrn section begins right
under the bullons. The figuralive pallerning begins
afler 0.6 cm. 2/2 Iwill as above.
a Part ofclasp (F 47, ae) wilh four silver-gilt bullons, on
poody prescrvcd tablet-woven band with horsehair
weflS. Width (incomplete) 4.5 cm, length 1.5 cm.
o Part of a dasp (F 50, al), wilh flve gildcd bronze
buuons, attachcd !O tablet-woven band and 212 t...ill.
Band width, incomplele, 7.2 cm. Edge border with
tablets threaded aitematdy in pairs, now missing on
both sides. Wo,en with about 80 tablets. The panem-
ing starts right undemeath the bUllons, 0.7 cm from
the fold. ',"arp now' ydlowish-brow'n, 2-ply, S-Iwisted
....oollen ram. Ground ....eave red, 2-ply, Slwisted
woollen yam. The patiern section begins ....ith 0.5 cm
herring.bone patiern in ydlow and red. The band is
probably anached to the same 2/2 u.ilI as lhe othcrs.
O Part of a dasp (F 51, ah) with twO gilded bronze
bUllons, attached 10 tablet-woven band and 2/2 twill.
Band ,..idth 3 cm.lcngth 1.8 cm. Warpof
now yellow, 2-ply, S-twlsted woollen rarn. "eft of red
dino. Same green 2/2 twill as previoush
O Part of a clasp (F 149, ak) "ith rh'e brorue
buttons, attached 10 tablet-wo,'en band and 2/2 t... iII.
Suniving band width 1.7 cm, length 4 cm. lablets
84-87. 10-11 lablels/cm. On one edge. Ihree tablets
threaded aitcrnaldy in pairs. on the other Ihe paltem
l:Xtends alllhe ....ay OUI. Band se....n on to twill 0.4 cm
from the fold with running stitch, 2-ph'. 5-I"isled
woollen pm. Band folded diagonalIr. The
panem begins 0.8 cm from the edge al the lo"'er
bulton, 0.4 cm at the upper onc. Band folded m'er 1.5
cm againsl the rcversc. Whip stilched edge. 212 t....ill.
now green, 14x 12, Z/Z. Fabric preserved some "'av
abovc the upper edge of the band. l'art ofa Slil
1.2 cm long, probably scwn with blankel slitch alon!\'
the cdge and backslitch on the seam fold.
o Under F 149, 2/2 Iwill with impressions of all the
buttons. Completely mineralised, 12x 12 threads/em.
l"leasurements: 9 x j cm.
O Under the sword, mineralised fragment of tablet-wo-
ven band, width 1.6 cm (=20 tablets), length U cm.
A1so eighl layers of mineralised 2/2 twill and. outer-
most, fur. Measurements: JOxj cm.
O F 147, bo, IWO qualities ofmineralised 2/2 Iwill. IOx6
and 14x 12 lhreads/cm. Z/Z.
o Lump (F 143. bo) ofmineralised 2/2 twill. IOx6. Z:Z.
O Shears and knife \.ith IWO or three lavers of 2/2 I...ill.
IOx6, Z/Z.
o Ribbon-shaped bronze foil. folded in the middle round
lablet-wo\"en band. Width of the bronze foil 1.3 cm.
Icngth folded 4.5 cm. Band "idlh 4.6 cm. len!l:th 2.l
cm. Three or four tablets threadcd ahernateh in pairs
on each edge. Width of middlc stelion 4 cm, ,,'o,'el1
with about 60 lablets in al least oolours.
Patterned with individual tums. Tracesofslitchil1e:. 2-
ply, S-Iwisted yarn, on bolh edges.
Other flnds: axe, spearheads, shidd boss, shield handle,
arrowheads, fragments of bow, awl, iron roc!s,
strike.a-lighl, lweezers, bch mountings, fragments of
wood, polleT)', birch bark
Bibliography: Farbregd 1979 (1983)
Bcnder-jorgensen 1986:256
Eikeland, Time
S 9181
Sex: female
Dating: c. 550 tri
o Clasp ith (3+ 3) chip-<:arved buttonS on tablel-...."(l\ 7
band oven ...ilh indhiduai IUms. On one
. . "idth. In
tablels threaded ahemaldv In pairs. O<>
oomplete, about 4 cm. . 20 t"iU.
o Equal-armed fibula "ith textile remamS. -
10x 10 threads/ cm, Z/Z.
knifc, bdt ring. silver-gilt ring. reliefbrooch, 2
brom;e pins. 8 beads, glass, fragments of iron, bucket-
shaped pot, spindle...-horl
Bibli<lgraphy: :\tyrhe, B. 1965:59f
Hougen 1967, nr 77
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:253
Jodestad, Sandnes
S 2234
Ses: male
Dating: 5lh cemury
o CJasp with (3+3) flat, undecoraled buttons on tablet-
woven band ...-ith soumak paucrning. Il tablets/cm.
The panem scction begins just under the bUllons, "ith
horsehair wefts in alternating directions. ,,"o other
pauem Ollant. The bands are attached tO 212 t"'ill,
21)( 16 threadslcm, Z/Z. There art: also stray frag-
ments of the same fabric.
Other finds: sword. 2 spearheads, knife, shears, shield
boss. bucket-shaped pot, metal rim of wooden vesse:!
Bibliography: Fett 1939, kal 156
Blindheim 1946:52
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:251
K\'assheim, H
Sex: femaJe
Daling: Late 5th-earJy 6th centur)"
o Clasp with twO small flat bUltons on horsehair-
pattemw, tablet-woven band. 17 tablets/cm.
Other flnds: 3 fibulas, 2 bron:u: pins, helt ring, knife,
spindJe-whorl. bucket-shaped pol.
Bibliography: Reichstein 1975, kat 123
Lillehammer 1985:I1:J5
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:252
Kvassheim. H
Sex: female
Daling: Early 6th century
o Clasp with two (3+3) flat, undecorated buttons with
band, further analysis impossible. 2/2
lwdl, Z/Z, further analysis impossible.
Other finds: small dasp with one button. 5 arrowheads
koife. potten: .,
Bibliograph;-: Lillehammer 1985:11:93
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:252
Ri\jeland, Hje1meland
S 2347
Daling: 6th ttntur,.
O T .
. wo dasps, each Wilh (3+3) chip-carved buttons of
sl!\'er-.,.;!t t _L .i
. . . .,. a ta....lIcu 10 tablet-woven band woven with
tndlvldual S
. tums. IX tablets threaded ahernately in
patrs on one d I c
'd h e ge, Ile Otner edge not extanl. Present
:1 t 6 cm. The band is attached to 2/2 twill 17)( 14
tllreads/cm, Z/Z. '
Other finds: 4 fibulas, 2 pins, brachleates, 2 glass heads,
bronze ring, 2 spindkwhorls, 3 knives, 2 arrowheads,
bucketshaped 1'01.
Bibliography: SM 1903:82f
Hougen 1967, nr 42
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:253
SlOresund, Kannoy
Sex: probably female
Daling: Migration period
O Part of a dasp with lllree flat, chip-carved bronze
bUllOnS and three similar, stray buttons. The buttons
on the dasp are altached 10 tablelwo'>'en band and 2/2
t"'iII. Band width (incomplete) 3.5 cm, length 1 cm.
Unidenlified passibly with individual turns.
Band sewn wilh running stllch under the buttons.
o Sira)' fragment ofl\,ill, 10:0:9 Ihreads/cm, Z/Z. :\tea-
surements: 3.3)( 1.5 cm.
Other finds: knife, fibula
BibJiography: B:\O. 1903: I 4
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:233
Eveoo/Eide, Gloppen
B 4590
Sex: male
Dating: second half of 5th century
O Two (3+3) high bUllons of gilt bronze, attached
10 tablet-wo\'en band and 2/2 twill. Lower edge of the
band woven -...ith 15 tablets Ihreaded a1temalel\' in
pairs, paltem sCClion with 50 tablets. Band wid'h
3.7 cm, width ofpallemed scction 2.8 cm. Warp oflhe
middle section now yello....;sh-brown, bluish-black
at the wge. Ground weave bluish-black. The horse-
hair-pauerned section begins under the bultons in
bolh halves of Ihe clasp. First 0.5 cm herring-bone
pattern, with the \Verts in lhrees in each direction. No
loose horsehairs on the reverse. Sewn down on what is
now reddish-brown, fulled 2/2 t,,;Il, 20-24)(20-24
lhreads/cm, ZlZ. FoJded over 1.4 cm against the re
verse and sewn down witb blanket slitch. Above lhe
band a 0.4 cm "ide slit seam, sun.;ving length 4.5 cm
se",'ll wilh IWO rows ofblankel and one of lailor's stilch.
In Ihe seam allowances, two rows ofbackstllch. Fur
hairs on the inside. :\[easurements: band length on one
half of Ihe dasp 7.5 cm, width of Ihe entire fragment 8
o Stray fragment ofa slee-.'e, same number oftabIets on
Ihe outer roge and same widlh as aoo\e. :\'leasure-
ments: length 4.5 cm, width 3.7 cm.
O Il cm long tablet-woven band sewn down along the
lablelwoven border of a reddishbrown 2/2 lwill.
Width of band 3.3 cm. Twelve tablets threaded alter-
nalcly in pairs on each edge. Twemy-six tablets in the
middle section. Two complete and two fragmenlary
pattern squares extant, respetth'ely 2.6 and 3.0 cm
long. O.i-O.8 cm b<:lwccn the squares '>"oven with
quancr-turns. Each square begins with 3+3+3 ",efls
in herring-bone p3tlcrn. The panern fic:lds originally of
at leasl colours, background red. The band whip
slilched round the OUler lablel twist on the lower edge.
Tratts of Slil(:hing along Ihe OIher band edge. The
border ofine 2!21will dont ",ilh four tablel!llhreaded
alternatdy in pairs. 6.5x3 cm of the (abTic remains.
Another four fragments of band attacherl to the same
red 2/2 (will. (I) Fragment with a hem along the hand
edge. :\lcasuremenls:, lenglh ... cm, width 1.8 cm. (2)
Fragmcnl with a hem along thc band edgc. Complctc
paucm square. lcngth 2.8 cm. Inner band edge not
e-..:tam. :\leasuremen15: leoglh 3.2 cm. width 2.5 cm.
(3) Fragmenl with beginning o(pattcm squarc. :'-of ta-
surcmems: length 3 cm. width 2.5 cm. (4) Fragment of
band with bc:ginning of pallem square. ;';0 fabric on
the back. :\Ieasuremenu: !ength 2.5 cm, "idth 2.3 cm.
o :\ large pic:cc of fine. e"'en. now reddish-brown, fulled
2/2 l'..ill, 22x24 Ihreads/cm, Z/Z. Measuremenls
63><42 cm. :\0 and impressions from
buckle and mounu.
o "Cloak romer". Reddishbrown, fulled 2/2 l",ill
labletwoven Slarting border and tubular wO\'en sel-
\'age, 2-ply, $twisled warp and sing!C:.thread wefl, Z-
spun. 14-16>< 14-16 Ihreads/cm. Starting border with
Ihrtt lablelS. At.some poinu, green Slripe:s offour warp
Ihreads. E!se" here, four green threads, four yello\\ish-
brown and four green. One fragment shows that a
square measured about 12>< 12 cm. fragmenlary tab-
let-wo\"en bands along two c:dges, pattemed with indi-
\iduallurns. Band \,idth 2.7 cm, woven with 40 tab-
lets. The roge along the starting border of the fabric
woven with 12 tablets lhreadc:d allernately in pairs.
Width of pattern seetion I cm. The pallern appears on
one side in yellowish-red againsl a bluish-green ground
and on the olher side vice versa. Corner formed by the
twO bands bc:ing woven logether. The warp threads
divided into groups for lassels. Five remain on each
side, originally six. The tassel from the "warp tableIS"
lerminates with a knot, The tassel from the "weft tab
lets" now repeated outermost. Tassel lenglh 2.5 cm.
;"1easurements: romplete corner 17>< 17 cm. The band
sewn down round thc outer edge twist. Small fragment
of band with 12 tablets threadcd altemately in pairs on
one border and II (?) on lhe olher, altachecl 10 reddish-
brown, fulled dOlh. il.leasurc:ments: width 2.8 cm,
length 3.3 cm.
O Band patlerned wilh individual tums, the so-called
animal frieze, sewn down on tO 2/2 twill, now brown,
fulled, 16-18>< 14-16 threads/ cm, Band widlh 2.4 cm,
wo\"en with 40 tablets, viz 23 in the pallern section and
8 and 9 respectivc:ly on the edge borders, which are now
bluish-green. The middle scclion threaded with t\,o
roiours in each tablet, yello" and bluish green.
Reversible pallem. The fabricjoined with an 0.5 cm
"ide sewn wilh runningslitch and blankel stitch.
One piece parti} with a seh'3ge. Opcn edgcs of the
fabric blanket stitched. The band sewn down in the
blanket stitch and round the edge twist of the hand.
;"Ieasurements: 22>< 18 cm. Smaller fragmcnt of the
same kind of band and fabric. The band, like the
previous fragment, sewn do" n in the b1ankel stitch and
round the outer edge twist oflhe band. One completl"
and one fragmemary pat1ern eXlant. ;"lc:asuremems:
lenglh of band 9 cm, hcight 12.5 cm.
o Fragmems of band and fabric from the dasp with t.....o
(2+2) bUl1ons. Thl': buttons now lost. Band "idlh 2.7
cm, w(wen with aboul 40 tableu. Probably - at least in
Ihe middle SCClion - threadecl with IWO yello"ish.rc:d
and IWO bluish-green threads in each tablet. Fi\e lab-
!eu Ihreaded ahernatdy in pairs on one edge. nine on
Ihe Olher. The middle scction p.1uemecl "ilh indi'idu.
al tums. Band fotded round 212 twill and sewn dOwn
"ilh bad: stilch under the bUllons. Fabric dark brown
andsomewhat fulled. thread count appro'(. 16>< 141cm.
O Fragments of band and fabric from the clasp "ilh 1\\0
(3+3) bUllons. The bUllons now losl. Band "idth 3.8
cm. Woven with 58-00 tablels threadcd altemaleh- in
pairs_ The band se.....n down on 10 Ihe twill with
rows of running stilch under Ihe bU110ns. From one
fragment it can be: seen Ihal the band was pauemc:d
"ilh horsehair. Further analysis oflhe t"ill impossiblc:.
o Fullcd 2/2 Iwill, now blackishbrown. 9><8 threadsJ
cm, ZIZ, \vilh tubular woven sdvages.
There are two more qualities oftwill, unconneclc:d ..ilh
O Brownish-recl fabric with green or blue slripc:s forming
large squaTC$, about 15>< 15 cm. 14-16x 16-18
threadslcm, ZlZ.
o ;';ow yellowish-brown fabric wilh squares orrour. now
bluish-green stripes. about 16 cm apart. 14x II
threadslcm, ZIZ.
o Four 1005e cords made of 5even Z-spun threads_ Origi
nal oolour possibly red. Length 5 cm, diam. 0.3 cm_
O Sinew thrtads forming the outline of smalllcather or
possibly feh fragments. These fragments are on tOP of
black hair from the man's head.
Other finds: sword, twospearheads, shidd, belt mOllnting.
strike-a-light, leather pouch, flve wcighls, IWO coi.n-Iike
branle roundels shears knife solidus of TheodoSlUS II
, , , .' h
(408-450), bane arrow, glass beaker. "'ooden \"esscl "Il
bronle mountings, wooden "puzzle" wilh carved orna-
ments, twO day vessels, three box handles, bronle nngs.
hear skin, birch bark
Bibliography: Gustafsson 1889
Dedekam 1924125:31f
Hougen 1935:80f
Fen 1939 kat 286
Straume 1962:401f
:\Iagnus 1978: 1671f
:\Iagnus 1982:281f
:\Iagnus 1982:631f
:\iagnus 1983:2931f
Raknl':S.proersen 1982:751f
Raknl':S.Pedersen 1983:3O-IfJ"
8ender.jorgensen 1986:255
B 7414
o Clasp willl 2+2 flal, undecorated bron2e bUllons on
band. "'idlh 2.2 cm, length I cm. Furlh-
anal\"sis impossible.
linds: arrowheads, knife, slrikea-
Iighl. pot
B"ibliography: 1986:255
Hauglum, Leikanger
B 8045
Dating: 450-500
o Clasp wilh 3+3large, chip-carved bUllans, allached to
band and 2/2 I...-ill. Bmh of
o Ring wilh keys. On Ihe pin twO fragmenls of 2/2 tWIll,
12x 10 lhreads/cm. Z/Z. max.
2.5x 1.8 cm.
Olher linds: fragmellls of caskel, bucket-shaped day
sel, birch bark
1967. nr 6.5
B 63i5:11
Sex: mak
Dating: 61h celllury
O Pan of a dasp wilh lWO small, round, undecorated
siher bUllons on tablel-wo\"en band and 212 Iwill.
Band widlh 2.-5 cm, lenglh lA cm. border wilh
12 lablels threaded in pairs, widlh 0.8 cm.
seClion in wilh
panem begins under Ihe buttons. Band folded round
2/2 twilL 16)( 14 Z/Z.
Other flnds: belt ring, buckle, shield handle, ponery
Xesse. Balestrand
B 8033
Sex: mak
Daling: c. 500
o T....o c1asps, ...-ilh 3+3 (?) bronze
bunons altached to lablel-wo\"en band. Widlh (in-
4.7 cm, Iength 1.8 cm. Eleven lablels/cm.
10 2/2 twill, ZlZ, analysis impos.s-
o Solid, corroded lump under iron mOUnlS. Tabby
Wilh ribbed effecl, 24)( 12 Ihreads/cm, in one dircc-
Iian 2-ply, S-Iwisled yarn, the olher imposs-
ible to anahse. Possiblv of a slarting border.
O h . .
l. er linds: sword, IwO tWO arrowheads,
klllfe, shears. bell ring, Iweezers, strike-a-Iight, buckel-
shaped POl
Bibliograph\": Fen 1939, kat 331
Bender-jorgensen 1986:255
Xornaes, Sogndal
B 9688
Dating: lirsl half of 6th century
o Clasps, two (3 + 3) small chip-carved bUllans on tab-
band wilh individual tums.
Widlh (inoomplele) 3.7 cm, I cm. 18 lablel$/
cm. Funher analysis ofpallem Stilches
under Ihe buttons. Band sewn on t02/2 twill, 14)( 12
Ihreads/cm, ZlZ.
Glher flnds: relief brooch, two bronze fibulas, crucironn
brooch, bdl ring, knift-, spindle-whorl, sword healer, keys,
buckct-shaped pol
Bibliography: 196i, nr iD
Bendn-Jorgensen 1986:255
B 6092
Sex: male
Daling: 450-500
o Clasp with 3+3Iarge, chip-carvcd and gilded bronze
bultons. altached 10 band and 212 Iwill.
Remaining band widlh 7.2 cm, length 2.4cm. Horse-
hair pancrning begins just under Ihe bullans wilh
in red (?), followed bv wefts in re!low
in direclion, and flnalIr one "'efl in red in
Ihe opposite direction. Band fCversible. Xo. tablets
about 80. Sewn down under the bUllons with
sIiIching, probablr IWO rows of running slitch.
o Clasp wilh 4+4 flal, undecoraled, gilded bronze
buttons. Horsehair-panerned band wider than Ihe
c1asp. Sewn on to 212 lwill with small red running
stitches, using 2-ply, S-twisted ....oollen yam, under
Ihe buttons. Band widlh now 7 cm. Lenglh 2.4 cm.
Woven with alleast 75 lablets, II lablels/Cm. Prob
ably six lablets Ihreaded ahemale!y in pairs on one
edge"O.5 cm. Widlh ofpauem seclion 6A cm.
patlern section begins wilh 3 x 4 differently coloured
wefl Ihreads, the direction of the wraps changing
wilh each colour. Aboul I cm of the
remains. The band is allached la what is now
2/2 twilt, 12)( 12 threads/cm, Z/Z.
B 6071
o Clasp wilh 4+4 flal, undecoraled, gilded bronze
buttons on lablet-woven band and 2/2 twill. Band
width 6 cm. Warp yeltow, ...-ert red.
Woven ....ilh about 75 Se....n down under
bunons \,-ilh red, 2-ply woollen ram. The band is
anached to what is now green 2121will, 12)( 12, Z/Z.
60i I and 6092 helong to the same grave. In addilion to the
c1asps menlioned is anOlher one with :3 +3
chip-carved bunons, matching Ihe above.
Other flnds: sword, shield boss, three spl:arheads, arrow-
four knives, shears,
Bibliography: 1906, 14:38 (6071)
BMA 1908, Nr 3:38 (6092)
De Lange, 1909:IOff
Blindheim 1947:84f
Lunde, Farsund
B 3203
Sc:x: male
Dating; 450-300
O Two clasps, probably wilh 3+3 nat, gilded bronzc:
bultans ....'llh niello inlay. ),1051 of Ihe bultons now
delachcd. Originally auached 10 a
band with horsehair foldcd round a 2/2
(will or\'er)' fine qual;ty, no thread COlln! asct':nain-
able. Only small fragments under the buttons
mOlin. Measuremems: diam. 0.6-1.2 cm.
Other flods: bucketshaped pOl, axe, shield boss, shidd
handle, (WO spearheads, fork-shaped iron object, arm\\"-
heads, knife, bronze tweezers, O1wl, gold ring, whctstone,
bronze fall, fragments of glass
Bibliography: Fel! 1938, kal 80
Bue 1926:295
Bender-jDfgensen 1986:249
Lunde, Farsund
B 3204
Dating: 450-500
O Tablcl-wo\'en band with horsehair paw:ming. 12
(ablets/cm. 2/2 u..ill 20x IB threads/cm, ZlZ.
Other linds: ponery, garning pieee, fragments of glass,
fragments of bronze
Bibliograph)': Bender-Jergensen 1986:249
Lunde, Farsund
Sex: female
Daeing: 450-5{)0
o Cruciform fibula \,ith textile remains in several lay-
ers round the catch end, 2/2 h\ill, 14 x 12 threads/cm,
Z/Z, original eolour possibly green.
al her linds: sword beater, curreney ring, silver-gill fibula,
two bronze clasps, silvn-gilt penannula brooch, casket
mounts, knife, two spindlc-whorls, buckel-shaped pOt,
three handJepots, fragment ofglass, iron hoops for wooden
Bibliography: Shctelig 1912:68
Reichstcin 1975, kat 105
Hougen 1967, nr 24
Bendl"r-Jergensen 1986:249
SnartemQ II,
C 8873, C 28026
Sex: male
Dating: c. 500
O Two c1asps with 4+4 kidney-shaped, silver-gill
bUlIons attachw to tablet-wQven band and 2/2 IwilL
Ja. Band width 6.2 cm. One wge WO\'en with ninl" Iab--
lets threaded alternately in pairs-0.6 cm. Ll"ngth 2
cm. The panern se<tion begins with 0.8 cm over rwo
under ewo tabkts with rcd woollen yarn followw by a
soumak weft of the same yarn. comes threl" and
thrtt soumak weft thrl"ads of horsehair. The band
has loosc horsc:hair ends on the reversc: side. $c,....n
down on to 2/2 t....ill, 0.4 cm from the wrap-over "ilh
running stileh and foldw 1.5 cm against the re-'erse
side, where it is sewn do\..-n with blanket stilch. The
fabnc is green 2/2 ",iII "ith a thread COllnl of 16x 16/
cm, Z/Z, edgw al the bol1om ",ith blanket stilch.
The band is sewn round the Olller tablet ewist and lhe
blanket stieching.
Ib. Band wideh 6.5 cm. One wge wo\'en with ten tablets
threaded aiternate!y in pairs=0.7 cm. \\'oven with 92
tablets. Sewn on to 2/2 twill with blanket sliteh along
the lower edge. The band sewn with e10se slitehcs 0.5
cm from the fold. The panern begins l cm from the
fold with O.B cm o\'er lWO and under IWO lablets,
using red woollen yarn, and it ends Wilh a soumak
wefl. This is foJlowed by three soumak wefts with
single horschair in one direction. Band foldcd o\'(;r
1.3 cm against the reverse side and sewn down with
blanket StilChes. The band is al1ached to 2/2 lwill, as
Ila. Band width 6 cm. tablets threaded alternatel}
in pairs on one wge. Band folded round 2/2 twill and
sewn down with c10se running stiteh 0.3-0,5 cm from
the fold, Length 2.7 cm. The pattern wilh an
0.6 cm wide border over two and under IWO lablet.S,
using red woollen yam. comes a horsehair-
pallerned border at leasl 0.9 cm wide, firs! \\ilh 2+2
wefl in altemate directions and then 3+3+3 for the
rest of the border. The band is sewn down on 10 212
twill, as above. The band folded over 1.2 cm against
lhe r(:\o'erse side and se,,n down with blanket stiteh.
Above the band 1.7 cm slit seam sewn \,ith blanket
(?) stiteh.
Ub. Band width 6 cm. Sewn on to 2/2 twill. Sewn down
with small running stitchcs under with the bultons.
The pattern begins l cm from the fold, herring-bone
soumak with woollen vam 2+2+2 in alternatedirec-
tions, 0.8 cm, No ho:Seh;ir. 0.5 cm slit seam al the
top, where the edge oflhe band with tablets threaded
alternately in pairs is missing. Along the other edge of
the band, traces of blanke! stitehing. Band folded
over I cm against the reverse side. . . .
o Tahlet-woven band with animal figures done 10 Illdl-
vidual tums. \"idth S.Bem, length I [ cmand tWos
fragments. \\'oven with 68 tablets, three of them
threaded aiternalcly in pairs on each wge. "arp now
black, red, ydlowish-bro",-n and brown. .
O tablet-woven band of woollen >'arn with zlg
zag panem done with indhidual tumS, probabh'
threads/tablet. Two tablets Ihreaded alternaldy III
pairs on each border. Width 0.8 cm, [ength i.5 cm. h
o Fragment with 11.5 cm long slit (?) seam
blanket (?) stitch. 0.5 cm inside the scam are SIX sm
. . n t e
holes in a row. :\ccording to the find descnpno. 'f; b-
five large silver-giit butlOns were attached tO thIS a
rico Thread coum 16x 12 threads/cm, Z/Z, ;\Ieasure-
mentS: 13x 13 cm.
o Afragment offine, now reddishbrown 2/2 twilJ with a
broken reversed diagonal in one direction 23 x 22
threads/cm, Z/Z. l\leasuremems: 5x6 cm. This frag-
menl ha.!\ a dislinCI crease and t....o holes Ihe same
dislance apan a.!\ on lhe fragment wilh slit (?) seam. A
few Olher small fragments, now a darker brown, with-
out a diagonal break, may be of the same quaiity. One
of these has a tubular woven selvage.
o Coarse, no.... dark bro.....n 2/2 lwill. \Varp paler Ihan the
weft. 8-9x8-9 threads/cm, Z/Z. One fragment with a
o 212 t.... no.... pale brown, with darker brown 1.5 cm
.... slripeS in the warp and weft directions, forming
squares. Three stripes in 9 cm. 12x 11 threads/cm,
Z/Z. borders ex tant. Largest fragment 20x24 cm.
o 2/2 tv.ill ....ilh paler brown warp and dark weft. II x9
threads/cm, ZlZ. Ko borders e):tant, Probably diffe-
rent from the prMious item. Largest fragmenl 2i)( 20
o 2/2 twill. Can be the same quaEtyas the prcvious item,
but now a much paler brown. IOx8 threads/cm, Z/Z.
No borders extant. urgest fragment 15x 15 cm.
o T.....o broken lozenge t....iU fragments. The diagonal
brc:ah after 14 threads in the weft direction. 18x9
threads/cm, Z/Z. One fragment with a tubular woven
selvage, while the other has a 3.5 cm long slit witholIt
any seam Over it. The slil slitchc:s are not discernible.
o Striped 2/2 twill with tablet-woven sdvage, where the
.....eft protrudes in loops. 2.5 cm from the edge lheir
oomes a I cm ....ide pale brown slripe in lhe direclion of
the warp, followed by another IWO stripes of equal
width, I cm apan. 12)( 14 threads/cm, ZlZ.
o T.....ooriginaJly red fragments of2/2 t.....ill, fulled. 20)( 15
threads/cm, ZlZ. One fragment has a roughly ",hip
stitched seam, 3-ply yarn, along one edge.
o Large fragment, 4Ox22 cm, ofbro\m 2/2 twill. 14)( 10
threads/cm, Z/Z. Tubular waven seh'age.
O One 12x 16 cm piece of 212 Iwill, Hx 13 threads/cm.
Z/Z, has several seams, 0.6-0.8 cm wide, sewn with
double lines of blanket stitching. Also a 15 cm long
seam on a slray fragment of the same quaiity. Possibly
a continuation of the preceding item. Measurcmenls:
12x 15 cm. This fabric may be of the same as
that to whieh the dasp was anached.
o A now' pale brown 2/2 t....ill, II x9 threads/cm. Z/Z.
T....o fragments joincd by simple whip stitching. Seam
Icngth 29 cm. One fabrie with a sdvage, the other with
a I cm foldedopen edge. Coarse 2-plyyarn in the seam.
Other finds: sword, axe, four spearheads, shield boss,
sbears. strike-a-ligbL glass beaker. Yestland cauldron.
bronze dish. wooden vessel, bucket-shaped, three gold
CUrrency rings, fi\"e large silver-gilt buttons. three smaller
bultons, buckle
Bibliography: Dedebm 1924-25:36ff
Hougen 1935:68f
Fett 1939, kal 112
Bender-jorgensen 1986:250
Snartemo V, Haegebostad
C 26001
Sex: male
Daling: c. 500
o Under the sword, sC-\-erallayers of red 2/2 twill with 2-
pir yam in both the warp and weft, 13 x 15 threads/cm.
This fabric rttains thret different borders; a tubular
woven sel vage and two tabletwoven edges, one with
four and one ....ilh six tablets threaded alternately in
pairs. Tablel-woven band with horsehair paneming
on to one fragment. This band has no edges with
tablets threaded altematelr in pairs. Widlh 2.5 cm.
Max. conlinuouS length 9.5 cm. Woven with 30 tablets.
The band dividecl into rectangular fieJds ofpallcrning
wilh 0.5-0.6 cm wide stripes in betwecn, woven with
quarter-tums. The patlern squares begin and end ,..-ith
1.2 cm wide SCClions in weft wrapping in which the
direction of .....rapping changes evtry thrtt wtft
threads. Probably wovtn in three colours. The figura-
tively panerned section is about3.6 cm long. This band
has stilch marks on one side. There are two more
o 2/2 twill, dark warp and pale weft. 8x8 threads/cm, Z/
S. Largest fragment 36)( 36 cm.
o 2/2 twill. 9 x i lhreads/cm, Z/Z.
o 2/2 twill "ith 2-ply yarn in both Ihe warp and weft
directions, 13x 15 threads/cm. Largest fragment
39x35 cm. Tubular woven selvage on ont fragment
and twO others have tablet-wovtn borders with, re-
spectively. four and six tablets.
o Two fragments of 212 t\\;II. 12x 12 threads/cm, Z/Z,
sewn together \\ith an 0.8 cm wide joining seam of the
Hgom type.
o From "the 1T0users" there are severallarge fragments
of a pale brown 212 twill, 12x 10 threads/cm, Z/Z,
ma"(. length 5i cm, max. widlh 30 cm. Severallong,
straight seams on various fragments. bUI onl)' one stam
on each. The longest seam 29 cm. The seams whip
stilched together ....ith an open edge on the seam
O Four strar fragments ofgeometrically palterned tablet-
woven band. woven with individual !lims. Widlh 4.8
cm. WO\'en ....ilh 56 lablets. Eighl tabltts threaded al-
temately in pairs on each side. "lax. length 14 cm.
othtrs 8. 4.5,13.5 cm. Paneming in yellow. red, green
and blue. I cm from the edge of the longesl band there
are nine red "cords". Over and under these, a line of
soumak. Above the inner soumak line, a row ofwhip
stitches ..... hich are not "isible on the reverse side of the
band. The corff$ponding row of "cords" on the next
longest band is divided in 18 groups. Two soumak
wefls over and under the line of "cords". Over the
inner one, a line of whip Stitching. 80th band frag.
ments with "cords" end with unpatterned sections
outside them. One edge has holes, as iffrom stitching.
Other finds: sword, buckle, bUllon, strap tag, IWO spear
heads, arrowheads, parts ofa shidd. axe. [WO knives, twO
pairs of shears, a.....I, slrike-a-light......hetstone. wtights and
case, curre:ncy gold, sih'er mounts, glass beaker, Vestland
cauldron, bronze dish, buckct-shaped pol
Bibliography: Hougen 1935:69ff
Bencler-Jergensen 1986:250
Haegeboslad, Linciesnes
C 23203
Sex: male and (emale
Dating: c. 450
O Fragmemary dasp attadlcd 10 horsehair-pam:rnw.,
tablet-wo\'cn band.
Other fiods: sword, {WO spcarheads, {WO kni\'es, shidd
boss, shidd hand!c. shears, fOur cruciform brooches,
huckle, strike-a-lighl. resin, four day polS
Bibliograph)": Fett, 1939, kal 106/107
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:250
Stetten, Farsund
Sex: [emak
Dating: Migration Period
o Clasp with fial, undecoraled bmoze hunons, lWO
(3+3), an3ched (O tableH.:o\'cn band and 212 hYil!.
Band "'idlh aboul 6 cm, lenglh 2 cm. 12
tablets/cm. The band sewn down under Ihe hunons long whip stileh. On onc half Ihe horsehair
pallem begins arter the bultons. On the other half it
passes under the bUlIons and down on \O the reverse.
Clasp 2 possibly similar. The pattemed seetion begins
with 0.8 cm herring-bone-pauerned wefts, with the
warp threads in threes in one direetian. Under one
bunon, 2/2 lwill over the band, JOx JO threads/em,
O Twocruciform fibulas, oneofthem with 2/2 twill under
the head plate and cords round the pin holder.
O Animal-shaped daspwith cord of2-ply threads round-
ed and coarse 2/2 t",ill round the pin.
o Four bronze pins, one of them ,.ith 2/2 1'0.;11, 16x 14
threads/em, Z/Z, and a cord threaded through the ring
and round the pin. The eord of2-ply, S'lwisled yam.
Other linds: spindle-whorl, penannular brooch, three
bronze brooehes, poltery, unburned bones
Bibliography: Rciehstein 1975, kat 106
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:249
\emmeslad, Lyngdal
B 4414
Sex: mak and female
Daling: 5th century
o Two complete dasps and a half dasp, each half with
three flat, undeearated bronze bUltons auaehed to tab-
Ict-woven hand and 2/2 twill. Width of tahlel-woven
hand 3 cm. Ten tablets !hrcaded altematdy in pairs on
one bordu-O.8 cm. Under the hunons the patterned
seeIian begins with horsehair WdlS, pauern unidentifi-
able. Stitches under Ihe bUllons between the pin and
Ihe fold. Original colour of thc band perhaps red. 2/2
hvill originally blue or grun, 12 x 12 threads/cm, z/z.
Other linds: sword, axe, IWO spc:arhcads, knife, shidd
boss. bdl mounting, bdt ring, strike-a-light, comb. twcez_
ers, shears. quartz \.hetslOne, woodcn vesseL glass beakcr.
gold ring, IWO spindlc-whorls, bud:et-shaped POl
Bibliography: Sheldig 1912:138
Fett 1939, kat 83
Bendcr-Jorgensen 1986:23 l
Vercmoen, Vestre Vere, Farsund
C 22297
Sex: femalc
Daling: 3th century
o Two cruciform dasps, one wilh a 1()()5(: fragmem of
tablct-wo\'en band. GnIy tabler.s threaded aitemateh-
in pairs. T""0 small stitches right across Ihe band
one cdge. Hole in the middle of the fragment, probably
left byarivel. t-Ieasuremems: 0.8 x 1.1 cm. This frag-
ment probably belonged 10 another objec!.
Other linds: bronze brooch, three small bronze brooches,
two double bullons of silver, seven beads, knife, spindlc-
whorl, two clay polS, soapstone
Bibliography: Bendcr-Jorgensen 1986:250
0vre Serge, Lyngdal
C 3534
Sex: mak
Dating: 6th
O Gcometrically pauemed tabletwoven band, \.ith indi-
viduallurns in yellow, red and blue. Band widlh 3 cm.
Ele\'en tablets threaded a!ternately in pairs on each
side, the middle section with 30 tablets, 52 in all. The
band whip slitched on 10 212 lwill, ?x 12 thrcadslcm,
Z/Z. along a tubular ....-oven selvage. Ko stitch mark on
the other edge of the band.
o Twocostumefragments, bolh "'jth slils and madeupof
IWO different qualities of cloth, viz reddish-bro'" n 212
Iwill, 24x 24 threads/cm, ZIZ, and a ooaTSCr 2/2 t...ill.
14x 14 threads/cm. Z/Z. check colour effect ",ith 1"0
pale Ihreads and two dark ones. :\Ieasurements: largC5t
fragment aboul 2Ox20 cm.
oStout 2/2 twill, 10 x 8 threads/cm, Z/Z, probably from
a blanke!.
Olher linds: sword, spearhead, twO axes, shield boss, :mi-
mal hide, birch bark
Bibliography: Hougen 1933:77f
Fett, 1939. kat 91
Bender-Jorgensen 1986:251
Lasken, Sem
C 11624
Sex: female
Dating: Migration period
O Ctasp with 4+4 nat undecorated bronze bullons on
tablet-wo\"cn band 2/2 (....-iIl. Band width
- T biets thrc:adcu
plete) .:).8 cm, length 1.3 cm. "'"o ta . the
ahemalely in pairs on one border. patlemed In
middle seclion with indiviciual tums, 2/2 twill, 16x 16
threadsJcm. Z/Z.
OtheT finds: (WO fibulas, bel! ring. awL knife, {WO glass
bc:ads, sill'cr ring. spindlewhorl, 1"'0 day polS
Bibliography: Bender-Jorgensen 1986:248
Ommundred, Hedrum
C 29300
Sc:,; female
Dating: 450-SOO
o 1.3 cm wide fragment oflablct-wovcn band originally
from a dasp. Five lablels thrcaded alternaIely in pairs
on one edge, horschair pallcrning. The lind includes
1"'0 sil\"cr dasps with gilt bunons, fivc silver c1asp pins,
IWO small siln:r clasps, IWO bronze pins. lWO preuel-
shaped dasps of gilt bronze. Behind these last men-
tioned, acwrding to Ihec:xC3va!Or, 2/2 (will. Therc: was
tabJet-woven band behind all the other c1asps and pins.
o On the back of one cruciform clasp there is a small
fragmenl of 2/2 1....'111, 13x Il theeads/cm, Z/Z.
o Another cruciform dasp has an impression Idt by 2/2
t ...-ill.
Other finds: two relief c1asps, two hexagonal mounts, vari-
ous fragments ofbronze, two gold rings, gold wire, shears,
sword heater (?), two spindle-whorls, glass bowl, glass
beaker{s?), IWo bucket-shaped polS, pot shards.
Dybsand, 1956:7 ff
uoA lilvekst 1956 (1959):227ff
Hougen 1967, nr 69
Bender-Jergensen 1986:248
Find spot unknown
C 21695
o 3+3 nat, gilded bronze buttons atlac1led to tablet-
",,-oven band and 2/2 (will. The band fragmentarily
prescrYed, widlh 4 cm. Tableu threaded alternately in
pairs on the edges. The middle seclion pauemed with
individual tums, 14 tablets/cm. The 2/2 twill 16x 16
threads/cm, Z/Z.
o 2+2 high, gih bronze buttons with chip-carved decora-
tion. The bunons now detached. Fragment of tablet-
""-oven band wilh six lableu threaded ahernately in
pairs on one border.
BINDING The intertwining of warp and
weft inlO a weave,
Long trousers with feet.
BROCADE To weave with a brocading weft. OKULBROKR Long trousers reaching down to
the ankJes.
A supplementary weft which is
only moved back and forth with-
in the pattern figure la be pra-.
Twilllurning the direction of the
diagonals with a sharp connec-
tion in bolh lhe warp and weft
directions" DIAMOND T\,\'tLL
A coat-like garment, open at lhe
front and held together with a
helt, Usually wilh \'ery long,
dose-fitting sleeves.
TwiIJ in which the diagonal
turns in one direction and forms
a herring-bone pattern,
Afler-treatmem ofa woollen
doth, using heal and moisture to
make the doth shrink and
Medieval Scandinavian name for
a sleeved tunic pulled on over
the head and sometimes
gathered at lhe waist with a belL
\\'eft or weft system, in addition
to the ground weave, forming
patterns in lhe fabric.
Patterned fabric consisting of
twO waven layers of the same
type, always in differenuy col-
oured tabb)', which are made to
change places so as to produce
the same pattern, in opposite
colours, on both sides.
To make a thicker yarn by n"isl-
ing two or more threads to-
gether. Thc direction of the n,ist
is usually contrar)' to that of the
individual thread,
Usually the point in a weave
where a warp thread passes O\'er
a wdt thread and ties it down.
Silk fabric with t.....o warp sys-
tems - binding and inner .....arps.
the ground wea\'e being twill.
The twO edges running the
length of the .....eave.
Terminology based parti)' on Nordisk Textilteknisk
Terminologi and Burnham, A Textile Terminology,
\Yarp & Wcft. The different typcs of stitch are
cxplained by means of drawings in the chaptcr
headed Needlework.
W O \ ~
Thc division of thc warp inte
[WO laycrs bctwccn which the
weft is inserted.
A wcft-y,.np wcavc with a weft
that docs not pass througb a
shecl but is carried manually
over a group ofwarp encls, and
then passed under and back
around part of the group.
A band woven during warping
in such a way thai the weft
threacls of the band aTt carried
OU! to the side to form the warp
of (he fabric and which is sewn
on to the upper bcam of the
warp-weighted 100m.
One of the three mai n bindings.
The weave unit consists of IwO
warp threads and [WO weft
threads. Each wefl thrcacl passes
alternately over one warp thread
and under one.
Band woven with the aid oftab-
lets. The warp is threaclecl
through thl:: holes in the tablets
and sm:tched. A shed is formed
by tuming the tablets into differ-
ent positions. The tums thus
produced are tied tegether by
thc: weft.
Fabric with a discontinuous wc:ft
covc:ring the whole of thc warp.
Thc binding is usually tabby,
but twill is also used.
Sleeved garment pullcd on over
the head. Originally of linen.
One of the three main bindings,
charactc:rised by the points of
binding for each wefl being
shifted one Ihread at a lime 10
form diagonal lines. A lwill can
be defined in figures, the sum to-
tal ofwhich gives the thread
count for the panern repcal. The
first digil indicates the number
of .....eft threads over which a
.....arp thread noats, the second
digit the number of .....eft threads
which the same warp threads
pass under. For example, 2/2=
reversible four-end twill.
The system ofthreads in wcave,
kept stretchcd while weaving is
in progress and divided inte
sheds for the weft.
The warp dominales the weave.
A 100m consisting oftwo up-
rights, leaning backwards and
supporting a bcam from ..... hich
thc warp hangs vertically and is
kcpt stretched by means of ..... arp
The weft dominates the weavc.
A weave in which the weft does
not pass through a shed but is
carried in turn around either a
single warp end or groups of
warp ends. Stt also Soumak.

Almgren, 8., lm. Romerska drag i nordisk figurkonst

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Historisk museum
Bergcns Yluscums Aarbok (rsbok)
Before Christ
Universitetets Oldsaksamling Oslo
Diaricnummcr (official register number of


Jmtlands lns museum, stersund
Kulturhistoriskl lexikon fcir nordisk
Lunds universitets historiska museum

Arkeologisk muscum, Stavanger
Statens histOriska muscum
Slavanger Museums rbok
SundsvalIs museum
\'itcnskapsmuscct, Trondheim
Universitetets Oldsaksamlings rbok