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1. 2-D Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 2. Center of Pressure 3. Nondimensional Coeﬃcients Reading: Anderson 1.5 – 1.6

**Aerodynamics Forces and Moments
**

Surface force distribution The ﬂuid ﬂowing about a body exerts a local force/area (or stress) f on each point of the body. Its normal and tangential components are the pressure p and the shear stress τ .

f τ r r ds

f p

local pressure and shear stress components ( τ magnitude greatly exaggerated) force/area distribution on airfoil

N L α R

M

R α V D A

resultant force, and moment about ref. point

alternative components of resultant force

The ﬁgure above greatly exaggerates the magnitude of the τ stress component just to make it visible. In typical aerodynamic situations, the pressure p (or even the relative pressure p − p∞ ) is typically greater than τ by at least two orders of magnitude, and so f is very nearly perpendicular to the surface. But the small τ often signiﬁcantly contributes to drag, so it cannot be neglected entirely. The stress distribution f integrated over the surface produces a resultant force R, and also a moment M about some chosen moment-reference point. In 2-D cases, the sign convention for M is positive nose up, as shown in the ﬁgure. Force components The resultant force R has perpendicular components along any chosen axes. These axes are arbitrary, but two particular choices are most useful in practice. 1

In 2-D it’s more convenient to work with the unit-span quantities. A′ ≡ A/b N ′ ≡ N/b M ′ ≡ M/b y θ pu (su ) su θ τu (su) x dsu pu τu b c α dsl V sl pl (sl ) θ τl (sl ) dsu On the upper surface.Freestream Axes: The R components are the drag D and the lift L. and moment M . the other set can then be obtained by a simple axis transformation using the angle of attack α. N′ = A ′ TE LE TE LE ′ dNu + TE LE TE LE dNℓ′ dA′ℓ = dA′u 2 + . L and D are obtained from N and A as follows. L = N cos α − A sin α D = N sin α + A cos α Force and moment calculation A cylindrical wing section of chord c and span b has force components A and N . parallel and perpendicular to the airfoil chord line. parallel and perpendicular to V∞ . If one set of components is computed. the unit-span force components acting on an elemental area of width dsu are ′ dNu = (−pu cos θ − τu sin θ) dsu ′ dAu = (−pu sin θ + τu cos θ) dsu And on the lower surface they are dNℓ′ = (pℓ cos θ − τℓ sin θ) dsℓ dA′ℓ = (pℓ sin θ + τℓ cos θ) dsℓ Integration from the leading edge to the trailing edge points produces the total unit-span forces. Speciﬁcally. Body Axes: The R components are the axial force A and normal force N . with the span dimension divided out.

the moment Mref for an arbitrary reference point xref is ′ Mref = c 0 −(pℓ − pu ) (x − xref ) dx ′ = MLE + L′ xref This can be positive.5 has the complete expressions. Using the simpliﬁed form of the MLE integral. At one particular reference location xcp . called the center of pressure . This is because for such bodies the integrated contributions of p toward D ′ tend to mostly cancel. the shear stress τ has negligible contributions to the lift and moment. using the upper and lower shapes of the airfoil yu (x) and yℓ (x). the moment is deﬁned to be zero. we have ds cos θ = dx ds sin θ = −dy = − dy dx dx which allows all the above integrals to be performed in x. Simpliﬁcations In practice. Center of Pressure Deﬁnition The value of the moment M ′ depends on the choice of reference point. zero.The moment about the origin (leading edge in this case) is the integral of these forces. ′ ′ Mcp = MLE + L′ xcp ≡ 0 ′ xcp = −MLE /L′ 3 . L′ ≃ ′ MLE ≃ c 0 0 c (pℓ − pu ) dx −(pℓ − pu ) x dx The shear stress τ cannot be neglected when computing the drag D ′ on streamline bodies such as airfoils. ′ MLE = TE LE ′ −x dNu + TE LE −x dNℓ′ + TE LE y dA′u + TE LE y dA′ℓ From the geometry. and the dy/dx terms in M ′ . leaving the small contribution of τ quite signiﬁcant. depending on where xref is chosen. giving the following simpliﬁed forms. or negative. L′ = cos α ′ MLE = c 0 c 0 (pℓ − pu ) dx + sin α dyu yu dx c 0 pℓ dyℓ dyu dx − pu dx dx dx pu x + − pℓ x + dyℓ yℓ dx A somewhat less accurate but still common simpliﬁcation is to neglect the sin α term in L′ . weighted by their moment arms x and y . Anderson 1. as illustrated in the ﬁgure. with appropriate signs.

since M ′ then shows little or no dependence on the angle of attack. is a simpler and preferable approach. This surprising fact will come from a more detailed airfoil analysis later in the course. This awkward situation can easily occur in practice. The moment about ′ this point is in general nonzero: Mc/ 4 = 0. The lift and the moment then represent the integrated pl −pu distribution. 2. The ﬁgure shows how the L′ . as in representation 2. or xref = c/4.pl −pu L L xcp or or M=0 L M<0 M>0 The center of pressure asymptotes to +∞ or −∞ as the lift tends to zero. it is advantageous to deﬁne the “standard” location for the moment reference point of an airfoil to be at its quarter-chord location. Choosing the quarter-chord location for this is especially attractive. The xcp location moves with angle of attack in a complicated manner. Note that with representation 1. A resultant lift L′ acts at the ﬁxed quarter-chord point x = c/4. Consider two possible representations: 1. M ′ . the xcp location moves oﬀ the airfoil and tends to +∞ as L′ approaches zero. so the center of pressure is rarely used in aerodynamics work. and xcp change with angle of attack for a typical cambered airfoil. The corresponding standard moment is usually written without any subscripts. Fixing the moment reference point. A resultant lift L′ acts at the center of pressure x = xcp . ′ ′ Mc/ 4 ≡ M = c 0 −(pℓ − pu ) (x − c/4) dx Aerodynamic Conventions As implied above. The moment about this ′ point is zero by deﬁnition: Mcp = 0. For reasons which will become apparent when airfoil theory is studied. 4 . the aerodynamicist has the option of picking any reference point for the moment.

and the wing chord or wing span for ℓ. For this purpose we deﬁne the following reference parameters: Reference area: S Reference length: ℓ 1 2 Dynamic pressure: q∞ = 2 ρV∞ The choices for S and ℓ are arbitrary. traditional choices are the wing area for S . and may vary across the span. For aircraft. xcp 2. 5 . In contrast. the CL . and depend on the type of body involved.pl −pu α=5 α=0 L’ (M’=0) xcp xcp α = −5 1. the appropriate reference area/span is simply the chord c. Local Lift coeﬃcient: Local Drag coeﬃcient: Local Moment coeﬃcient: cℓ ≡ L′ q∞ c D′ cd ≡ q∞ c M′ cm ≡ q∞ c2 These local coeﬃcients are deﬁned for each spanwise location on a wing. CM are single numbers which apply to the whole wing. for which most of these parameter dependencies are scaled out. and the reference length is the chord as well. CD . The local coeﬃcients are then deﬁned as follows. It is often advantageous to work with nondimensionalized forces and moment. The nondimensional force and moment coeﬃcients are then deﬁned as follows: L Lift coeﬃcient: CL ≡ q∞ S D Drag coeﬃcient: CD ≡ q∞ S M Moment coeﬃcient: CM ≡ q∞ Sℓ For 2-D bodies such as airfoils. L’ M’ c/4 c/4 c/4 Nondimensional Coeﬃcients The forces and moment depend on a large number of geometric and ﬂow parameters.

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