CRIME PUNISHMENT

AND PROTEST
THROUGH TIME
GCSE SCHOOLS HISTORY
PROJECT
REVISION GUIDE
NAME: ________________________________________
You will need to tackle the following sections.
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:

Section 9:
Section 10:
Section 11:

1a
2a
3a
4a
5a
6a
7a
8a








9a
10a
11a

(
(
(

1b
2b
3b
4b
5b
6b






1c
2c


4c
5c
6c



8b

8c

(

11b

(

11c

(

1d

5d
6d


-1-

EARLY MODERN PERIOD 1450 – 1750
Section 1a 1.
Punishment?

2.

Section 1b

Section 1

How do changes in Society cause changes in Crime and
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2.

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3.

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4.

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What changes affected Crime and Punishment during this
period?
Try to find at least six
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Crimes against Authority (the government)
Pilgrimage of Grace
1. When did this take place? ………………………………………
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2. What were they protesting about? ……………………………
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3. What had Henry VIII done to make things worse?
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-24.

What did the Pilgrimage hope to achieve?
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5. What did the government do?
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6. Why did it act so harshly?
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-3Section 1c

Kett’s Rebellion
1.

When did it take place? ……………………………………………
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2.

Who was the King on the throne at the time? ………………
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3.

Why were they protesting?
1.
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2.
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4.

What happened (an overview of the main events)
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5.

Why did the government react so harshly?
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2.
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3.
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Section 1d

Gunpowder Plot
1.

Who was Robert Catesby? ………………………………………

2.

What was Guido Fawkes’ job? ……………………………………

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3.

What part did Lord Monteagle play in stopping the plot?

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4.

What did Robert Cecil do? ………………………………………
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5.

What did the Government do? …………………………………
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6.

Why were the Plotters dealt with so harshly? ………………
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-5NEW CRIMES 1450 – 1750
Section 2a

SECTION 2

VAGRANCY
1.

Why were there more poor people at this time? …………
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2.

Why were vagabonds treated as criminals?
1.

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3.

Were vagabonds really a threat?
1.

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2.

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3.

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Section 2b

Witchcraft
1.

Why did witchcraft become a crime?

1.

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-62.

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3.

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Section 2c

New Crimes:
1.

Poaching

What is a Social Crime? ……………………………………………
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-72.

Is poaching a Social Crime?
Arguments for:
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Arguments against:
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Section 2c

Smuggling
1.

How did the government make smuggling worse?
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2.

Is smuggling a social crime?
Arguments for:

1.

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2.

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3.

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Arguments against: 1.

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NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR OLD CRIMES
Section 3a

SECTION 3

HIGHWAY ROBBERY
1.

What is a Highwayman? …………………………………………

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2.

Why did Highway Robbery increase?
1.

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2.

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3.

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3. How true is the popular image of a highwayman – were
they true
‘gentlemen’ of the road?
Arguments for:
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1. ………………………………………

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2. ………………………………………
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Arguments against:
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1. ………………………………………

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2. .…….…………………………………
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3. ………………………………………
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Section 3b

JONATHAN WILD
1.

What did he do?

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- 10 ……………………………………………………………………………
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2.

Was he a ‘thief-taker’ or a ‘gangster’?
Arguments for thief-taker:
1. ………………………………………………………………………
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2. ………………………………………………………………………
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Arguments for gangster:
1.
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2.
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PUNISHMENT 1450 – 1750
Section 4a
today?

1.

Section 4

Which punishment that existed in this period still exists
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2.

Which punishments do not exist today?
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3.

Why did punishments become so harsh?
1.
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- 11 ………………………………………………………………………
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2.
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3. ………………………………………………………………………
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- 12 Section 4b

Complete the table below
Changes

1485 – 1750

Stayed the same

Problems with the medieval systems of law enforcement
were:1.

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2.

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3.

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New methods of law enforcement were:1.

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2.

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5.

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of law

However, these did not always work, why? For each method
enforcement above say why it did not always work very well:1.

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2.

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3.

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5.
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- 14 ………………………………….………………………………………
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Section 4c

Government Attitudes
1. Why were many of the laws passed at this time designed to
help protect the rich?
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2. Why were punishments so harsh?
1.
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2.

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3. Did more executions take place because of the Bloody
Code?
1.
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2.

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3.
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INDUSTRIAL BRITAIN 1750 – 1900
Changes in Society

Section 5

- 15 Complete the following spider diagram
FACTORS THAT BROUGHT ABOUT CHANGES IN CRIMES AND
PUNISHMENTS BETWEEN 1750 – 1900
The French Revolution
Britain’s

1. ……………………………

…….
Agricultural Revolution

Wealth

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…….
1. …………………………………..
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2. ……………………………

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…….
2.

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Industrial Revolution

3. …………………………………..
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Crimes and

1. ……………………………

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Punishment

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2. ……………………………
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Poor Law Amendment
………..

3.…………………………

Act

Education

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.………………………………

1.

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Trades Unions/
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Workers Rights

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2.

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1.
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3. …………………………..

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2..…………………

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3.

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4.
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- 16 ……………………
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- 17 CRIMES AGAINST AUTHORITY
Complete the table below
Reasons for
Protest
Section 5b

Luddites

Section 5c

Peterloo
Massacre

Section 5d

Swing Riots

Protestors Actions

Government
Action

- 18 Reasons for
Protest
Section 5e

Tolpuddle
Martyrs

Section 5f

The Chartists

Section 5g

Rebecca Riots

Protestors Actions

Government
Action

- 19 Section 5h
put in

Why did most protest movements fail? In the following boxes
the right reasons.

Section 5j

ORGANISATION

VIOLENCE

TROOPS & POLICE

GOVERNMENT

A SUCCESSFUL PROTEST
London Dock Strike – 1889
What did the
dockers want?

2.

What did they do?

Why were the dockers successful?

Government
Action

- 20 CRIME 1750 – 1900

Section 6

CAUSES
Section 6a Below are 10 causes of crime. Draw lines and write in the
numbers of
these boxes that are linked. A couple of examples have been
done.
NOT ALL BOXES LINK. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY MORE?

1. Increased
population
links to
……
…. 4

10. The role of
the media
links to
…….
9. Crackdown
on
crime links to
………. 8, 7.
7 New Laws
links
8. New Crimes to …….. 8,
links to
9
………. 9, 7

2. End of
Napoleonic Wars
links to
…………

CRIME

3. CITY LIFE
links to
……………

4. Increased
trade and industry
links to ……..
1

5. Poverty and
unemployment
links to …….
Drink links to
…………

Section 6b CHANGES IN PUNISHMENTS
1.

Why did the bloody code come to an end?
1. …………………………………………………………………………………
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2. …………………………………………………………………………………
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- 21 5.

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Section 6c
TRANSPORTATION
1.

What was transportation?………………………………………………

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2. Why was it introduced? ………………………………………………
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3. Transportation
Good Points

4.

Bad Points

Why was transportation ended?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………

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3. ……………………………………………………………………………
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- 22 ……………………………………………………………………………
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5. When did it end? ………………………………………………………
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Section 6d

PRISONS
1.

What were prisons like in the 18th and early 19th century?
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- 23 2.

Complete the table below:

Elizabeth Fry

John Howard

Born
Died
MAIN
ACHIEVEMENTS

3.

What changes were made to Prisons by Sir Robert Peel?
1.

2.

3.

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4.

What happened in:
1835 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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1839 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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1842 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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1857 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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1864 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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1878 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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- 24 You must know at least three of these dates and what happened.
4.

Complete the following:

WHY DID PRISONS
CHANGE?

8.

What is:
a)

The Separate System?

………………………………………………

b)

The Silent System?

………………………………………………

…………..

…………..
9.

Complete the following:

Good Points
Separate System

Silent System

Bad Points

- 25 -

- 26 THE DEVELOPMENTS IN LAW ENFORCEMENT

Section 7

Section 7a
1. What early efforts were made to improve law enforcement by
The Fieldings?
Henry
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John
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2. Why was a professional Police Force needed?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………
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4. ……………………………………………………………………………
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5. ……………………………………………………………………………
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3. Why did some people oppose the setting up of a Police force?
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- 27 ……………………………………………………………………………………
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CRIMES IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Section 8

Section 8a 1. What 3 factors have influenced the crime rate?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………
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2. Why has the crime rate increased?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………
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3. Why do we have to be careful about these crime figures?
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Section 8b NEW CRIMES

- 28 1. Name 4 new crimes
1.
2.
3.
4.

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…….………………………………………………………………………

…………
2. Which old crimes still exist?
1.
2.

……….……………………………………………………………………
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………………….
3. Why do more young people commit crime – complete spider
diagram
REASONS FOR:………………………………..
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YOUTH
CRIME
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4.
What are the possible solutions to this?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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- 29 ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5.

What 4 crimes are young people often involved in?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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4. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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Section 8c CHANGING ATTITUDES TO PUNISHMENT IN THE 20TH CENTURY
1.

2.

HANGING
ARGUMENTS FOR

ARGUMENTS AGAINST

Draw a time line below starting from 1900 and going to 1950. Put
on it some changes made.

- 30 3.

What problems are still faced in Prisons?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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4. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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Section 8c THE POLICE 1900 – Present
1.

What changes have happened to the Police in the 20th Century?

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- 31 6. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2.

Why have attitudes towards the Police changed?

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- 32 LOOKING AT THE BIGGER PICTURE
1.

FAST CHANGE
changed fast

Section 9
Give an example of things that have

Example:the Police – a lot of change over a short period of
time.
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2.
SLOW CHANGE
changed slowly

Give examples of things that have

Example:
Courts, they still operate/dress in a traditional way
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3.

GOOD CHANGES
Example:

What things have changed for the best?

Work of Elizabeth Fry or Ending of public executions

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- 33 ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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4.
BAD CHANGES
What changes have made things
worse?
Example:
The Bloody Code
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5.

How have the following affected crime and punishment. Fill in the
table below. An example has been done for you.
FACTORS AFFECTING CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.

CRIME
Not attending church
Swearing on a Sunday
Witchcraft

FACTOR
Religion

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Governmen 1.
t
2.
3.

PUNISHMENT
Trial by ordeal
Hell
Church courts

- 34 4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Vagabonds

New opportunities like:1.
Begging
2.
Increases in stealing
3.
Burglary (richer
people,
more to steal)
4.
5.

Economic
(Money)

1.

Prisons – Britain richer could afford to build them

2.
3.

Social
Changes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Silent system
Separate system
Bloody code

- 35 6.

What has changed? What has stayed the same?
Things that have changed

1. Crimes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2. Punishment
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Example
Highwayman
Outlaws

1.
Public executions
Mutilations

Things that have stayed the same
1. Crimes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2. Punishment

Murder
Theft

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fines

- 36 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT THROUGH TIME

Section 10

Section 10a
1. Execution has been used to punish people for a long period of
time.
a) What continuity is there in the type of crimes punishable
by death?
b)

What changes have there been in the types of crimes
punishable by death?
Complete the table below to answer a) and b)
Medieval

1500 – 1750

1750 – 1900

1900 – 1965

Crimes

Underline the things that have stayed more or less the same

Punishments

In the table above write down the types of punishments they had in each of
the time periods, underline ones that appear in more than one column.

- 37 1.

Draw lines to match the type of execution to the crime, you may
use some more than once.
Plotting to overthrow the
Government

Hanging
Burnt at the stake

Wife murdering husband
Hung, drawn and quartered
Heresey
Theft
Murder
2.

Why were people executed in different ways?
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3.

How did capital punishment change in:a) 1800’s
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b) 1900’s
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4.

Is the abolition of capital punishment an example of progress
(things get better) or regress (things get worse)?
Explain your answer
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- 38 ………………………………………………………………………………………
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- 39 EXTENSION UNIT
Section 11a

Section 11

WITCHCRAFT

1.

Why were few people convicted of witchcraft in the Middle Ages?
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2.

Why was witchcraft seen as a crime?
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4. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3.

How did the following make things worse?
The Government

Individuals (Matthew

Hopkins)

4.

Why did the witchcraft craze come to an end?

- 40 1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5.

Is witchcraft an example of fast or slow change. Explain.

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Section 11b

TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS

1.

See previous note Section 5e

2.

Why were they regarded as criminals?
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- 41 2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3.

Results of the case

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4.
What is the Tolpuddle Martyrs an example of? …………………………
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- 42 Section 11c

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS

1.
What is a conscientious objector?
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2.

Why was not wanting to kill made into a crime?
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3.

During World War One, what was the attitude of a) The
Government and b) The General Public towards conscientious
objectors?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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4.
II?

Why were conscientious objectors treated differently in World War

- 43 1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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3. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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5.

What was the attitude towards conscientious objectors in World
War II of a) The Government and b) The General Public?
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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2. ……………………………………………………………………………………
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6.

Using conscientious objectors as an example

1. What changed between 1914 and 1939 (The start of World War
I and World War II)?
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2. What stayed the same between 1914 and 1939?
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- 44 ……………………………………………………………………………………
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7.
What is this an example of?
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- 45 What to do now
1. Use the information in this booklet to answer some exam questions.
Get them marked to see if you are on the right lines.
2. Start to condense the work still further. Create a series of cards (½ a
piece of A4) with only the important details on them (headings, dates,
etc)
For example:Cards on: Witchcraft, Conscientious Objectors and Tolpuddle
1. Dates, names, role of the government and other factors that
brought
about change.
2. Card on execution. Key crimes punishable by death, different
types of death. How it changed over time.
3. Role of Religion

Crimes it affected
Punishments it affected
Good effects of Religion – Elizabeth Fry, etc
Bad effect – witchcraft. Matthew Hopkins

4. Card on Social Crimes: Highwaymen, Poachers, Smugglers
There are many more cards you can make up:- Rapid changes, Slow
changes,
Good/Bad, etc or topics: Medieval crime and punishment,
prisons,
transportation.
Try to limit the number of cards you make to no more than 10 and
some cards
will have the same information on them, for example: The
Police could be a
topic on its own, but it’s also an example
of a Good change and a Rapid
change.
Try to learn the important points and names on your cards.
IF YOU WANT FURTHER HELP WITH THESE CARDS THEN COME INTO
SCHOOL AND THE HISTORY DEPARTMENT WILL BE GLAD TO HELP
YOU.
FINALLY, GOOD LUCK! HARD WORK IS ALWAYS REWARDED.
WE WISH YOU ALL THE BEST.

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