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A. Assumptions An assumption is merely an unstated (implied) premise. In logically correct arguments which contain an assumption, the premise + assumption = conclusion. An assumption bridges the gap between arguments stated premises and conclusion. Remember, since the assumption is an U !"A"#$ premise, any answer choice that comes %rom the passage to support your assumption is necessarily incorrect. &or assumption 'uestions, %ind the conclusion and determine which answer choice needs to be true %or a conclusion to be (alid.(It must be a statement that completely
supports the conclusion CORRECT ANSWER CHOICES: )ill be supporter or de%ender !upporters help to lin* unrelated in%ormation presented in the stimulus and %ill logical gaps $e%enders eliminate possibilities o% wea*ness and attac* to the stimulus+conclusion.

B. Strengthen the Argument

Identify the conc usion!this is "h#t you #re trying to strengthen$

&ind the logical gap and %i, it with additional in%ormation. "his is the - ./ type o% 01A" 'uestion where additional in%ormation (outside o% the 'uestion) can+should be used. Correct #ns"ers to this %uestion type "i : 2onnect e(idence with conclusion better 1a*e conclusion stronger. !trengthen the e(idence with new in%ormation (perhaps an assumption is needed to ma*e the argument wor* C. We#&en The Argument "o sol(e these 'uestions, you %irst need to identi%y the premise and the conclusion. In this 'uestion type, we assume an answer choice presented to be true 3 e(en i% it introduces new in%ormation (ob(iously, the in%ormation has to be rele(ant to the stimulus)
ANSWER CHOICE '(A)I*ICATION: !hould rebu*e the conclusion o% the stimulus Answer choices are ta*en to be true, e(en i% there is new in%ormation pro(ided. )ill either brea* down causality or show an ob(ious error in reasoning in %ormation o% the conclusion



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)ill point out an ob(ious reason %or the illogical conclusion #numerate a wrong generali5ation 6oint out improper comparisons between two scenarios that the author assumed


2onsider the e(idence, draw a conclusion. An in%erence is an e,tension o% an argument, not a necessary part o% it. A (alid in%erence is a conclusion, but not necessarily the conclusion, o% a set o% statements. &or in%erence 'uestions, determine which answer choice must absolutely, positi(ely be true based on what you(e read. 7 6ic* the ob(ious answer choice. 7 A(oid e,treme answers (too strong or too wea*)
CORRECT ANSWER CHOICES: Restatement o% the conclusion 2ombination o% one or more premises !hould be the main point o% the stimulus, not 8ust a premise (%or 1ain 6oint 'uestions9Repeat premises are wrong )

E. Reso /e the .#r#do0 "o sol(e this type o% 'uestion, loo* %or a logically contradictory discrepancy. 7 -%ten the correct answer will ta*e a similar %ormat (in terms o% answer length or argument structure).

Inference 1S Assumption

An in%erence is a conclusion that can be drawn based on one or more o% the statements in the stimulus. An in%erence must be true based on something that you read. An assumption is a missing but necessary piece o% e(idence. An assumption is something that must be true in order %or the argument to be complete
Num2ers3 .ercent#ges )atch %or the distinction between ,imic the Re#soning &ollow same line o% reasoning %rom the passage in the answer. #liminate the 'uestion stem detail to create a shorthand (ersion o% the argument structure. 7 ;uestion !tem< I% it rains, then I will stay at home today.= 7 !horthand< I% A, then :.=

U1:#R! and 6#R2# "A0#!.


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7 Answer< ?I% A, then :.=

4 .rincip es of CR 4. Understand structure o% argument. Identi%y premise (6), conclusion (2) and any unstated assumptions. .oo* %or structural signpost words which mar* 6 and 2. >. 6re(iew 'uestion be%ore reading passage. @. 6araphrase passages point or main idea using one (erb ?i.e., e,plain, critici5e, compare, contrast=.@ A. Budge arguments persuasi(eness while reading acti(ely. C. Answer 'uestion being as*ed. D. 6rephrase answer. E. Feep !2-6# in mind. 1oderate rather than strong words + 'uali%iers usually correct. .#r#phr#sing #nd .rephr#sing 6araphrasing 7 Acti(ely translate passages into your own words. 7 6retend you are e,plaining the in%ormation in a passage to a 4G9year9old *id. 6re phrasing 7 "hin* about what %orm the correct answer will ta*e. 7 As you do more 'uestions, you will begin to ?guess= correctly, as you start to thin* as the test ma*ers do. Irre e/#nt )atch %or irrele(ant or o(erly strong answer choices in 2R. !tay within !2-6# and "- # o% passage Neg#te 5Counter#tt#c&6

&or assumption 'uestions, negate 2R answer choice to see i% the conclusion can sur(i(e

)hen an argument is based on statistics, it is usually assumed that the people polled are representati(e o% the whole
'uestions In/o /ing Sur/eys 2onsider< $oes the sur(ey accurately represent the (iews o% the whole group sur(eyedH Is there a statistics bait and switchH Scope Shifts :e wary o% scope shi%ts. .oo* %or tentma*ers tric*s< 7 !ometimes a passage will begin with one group and draw a conclusion about another group. !imilarly, a passage might ha(e wea* premises and then draw an o(erbroad conclusion.

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7 -ther times the tone o% the passage mo(es so %ar that the testta*er is le%t wondering, ?Iow did that conclusion come aboutH=