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OBJECTIVES:     Determine experimentally the friction loses of a pipe in different pipe fittings configurations.

Understand and Characterize the unit operations that relate to fluid flow systems of these fittings. Compare the experimental results with different published and theoretical values. Identify the different factors that influence the differences of these values.

THEORY In this laboratory, An equivalent resistance in pipe diameters (fD) method is used to determine the pressure drop across valves and fittings. This method ues the equivelent legth of a pipe dived by the internal diameter of the pipe the results are independent of the size of the pipe of the fitting in the laminar regions. The pressure drop in a pipe from the biggining to the end (Pa-Pb) can be calculated by using the Bernoulli equation:

Where, = The pressure at the entrance of the pipe = The pressure at the end of the pipe = Gravity constant ( 32.3 ft/s2) = Gravity constant conversion factor (lbm*ft2/lbf*s2) = Flow speed square related to the entrance of the pipe. = Flow speed square related to the entrance of the pipe. Where represents the loses due to friction in the pipe. These losses can be calculated using the Hagen-Poiseville relation:

However since the lenght of the pipe may not be the same to the physical lenghth of the system, and the intereor may not e smooth at the juction of the two pieces/ The friction across the coupling must be measured and it is specified as a legth of pipe because it can be added to the real length. Thus, the following equation should be used: The change of preasure includes a length of pipe beore and after fitting can be calculated with the following equation. In order to find the pressure drop for just the fitting, it is necessary to use the following equation: Where, = The pressure drop for the fittting (inches of water) = The pressure drop for the fitting and (conecting pipes) = Lenght of connecting pipe A (ft) = Length of connecting pipe B(ft)

Thus.= Pressre drop for the long length of pipe of same diamter and material as the conneting pipes and measured at the same flow condiction = Leght of long pipe over which was measured (ft) equation has to be changed to a more useful form. For the second pipe system 5) Measure the pressure drop for the before and after the 45 degree bends in pipe at different flow rates. the equivelant resistance in the pipe is calculated with the following equation: ( )( ) Where. 2) Calibrate the rotometer at about 7-8 different points from max flow to zero flow. = Internal diameter of the pipe (ft) DATA COLLECTION METHOD 1) Measure water temperature as temperature may change throughout the experiment. 4) Measure pressure drop across pipes A. For the first pipe system. 3) Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample by using a Vernier Caliper. . B until get enough flow rates data to construct useful plots.