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Disgust in the 21st C.

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Disgust: The body and soul emotion in the 21st century Paul Rozin University of Pennsylvania Jonathan Haidt University of Virginia Clark !Cauley "ryn a#r College $his arti!le #as %u&lished as !ha%ter 1 of an edited volu'e. $he !itation is( Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) * !Cauley) C. R. +2,,-.. Disgust( $he &ody and soul e'otion in the 21st !entury. /n D. !0ay * 1. 1latun2i +eds..) Disgust and its disorders. 3ashington DC( 4'eri!an Psy!hologi!al 4sso!iation. P. 5-25.

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 2

Disgust: The body and soul emotion in the 21st century $he %resent volu'e is) #e &elieve) the first-ever edited volu'e devoted to the e'otion of disgust. /n this !ha%ter #e address the follo#ing issues( 1. 3hy #as disgust al'ost !o'%letely ignored until a&out 155,) 2. 3hy has there &een a great in!rease in attention to disgust sin!e a&out 155,6) 7. $he outline of an integrative) &ody-to-soul %reada%tation theory of disgust) 8. 9o'e s%e!ifi! features of disgust that 'ake it %arti!ularly sus!e%ti&le to la&oratory resear!h and %arti!ularly a%%ro%riate to address so'e funda'ental issues in %sy!hology. /n the final se!tion) #e outline so'e ne# :uestions that arise fro' the re!ent in!reased interest in disgust in the areas of &rain 'e!hanis's) %sy!ho%athology) the %sy!ho'etri! a%%roa!h to the stru!ture of disgust) and disgust and 'orality. 3e then indi!ate so'e i'%ortant as%e!ts of disgust that have yet to re!eive syste'ati! investigation. Why the delay? A Century of Ignoring Disgust Disgust got off to a good start in Charles Dar#in;s !lassi!) The expression of the emotions in man and animals +155-<1-=2.. Dar#in listed disgust as one of 72 e'otions and 'ade it an i'%ortant !o'%onent of Cha%ter 11) >Disdain ? Conte'%t ? Disgust ? @uilt ? Pride) et!.A He even in!luded a %age #ith dra#ings of disgust eB%ressions. 4s e'otion resear!h develo%ed #ithin %sy!hology) ho#ever) disgust +and 'ost of the other e'otions 'entioned &y Dar#in. dro%%ed out of the %i!ture. 4ttention !onverged on sadness) anger and fear +and only re!ently on ha%%iness as #ell.. $hus) in 3illia' Ja'es; +1-5,. !lassi! !ha%ter on e'otion) the #ord disgust +disgusted<disgusting. is 'entioned 7 ti'es) in !o'%arison to anger<angry +2, ti'es) %lus 11 for >rageA.) and fear<afraid<fright +82 'entions.. 3e eBa'ined the indi!es of 1C 'a2or introdu!tory %sy!hology teBt&ooks fro' 1-5, to 15C- +$he titles of these teBts) a !onvenien!e sa'%le of the teBts availa&le in the University of Pennsylvania li&rary) are listed in the notes to $a&le 2) %. 7D-) of Rozin) 2,,D. indi!ates a total of C %age referen!es to disgust) as o%%osed to 8D for anger and -C for fear. $his la!k of interest in disgust is sur%rising &e!ause disgust 'eets the standard !riteria for &eing a &asi! e'otion as #ell as any other !andidate) a!!ording to the !riteria set forth &y Ek'an +1552.) and it is usually in!luded in lists of &asi! e'otions) #hi!h ty%i!ally also in!lude anger) fear) ha%%iness) sadness) and sur%rise. $he land'ark &ooks on e'otion +/zard) 15==F Gazarus) 1551F Plut!hi!k) 15-,F $o'kins) 15D7.) give !onsidera&le attention to disgust) and there is one !lassi! %a%er +4ngyal) 1581.. "ut) as a to%i! for either resear!h or attention in the tea!hing of %sy!hology) disgust #as al'ost a&sent during the 2,th !entury. $his a&sen!e in the 'ore re!ent literature #as do!u'ented &y 1latun2i and 9a#!huk +2,,C.) #ho !arried out a sear!h for anger) fear) and disgust on the Psy!/nfo referen!e data &ase fro' 15D, to 2,,7. $here #ere virtually no %a%ers on disgust until the 155,s. $here is no si'%le eB%lanation for this negle!t &ut four fa!tors 'ay have !ontri&uted. Hirst) all hu'an endeavors) starting #ith %er!e%tion<attention) involve infor'ation overload and filtering out 'ost of the in%ut. Gi'ited !ognitive resour!es for hu'ans and li'ited hu'an resour!es for resear!h in a!ade'i! %sy!hology virtually re:uire a sele!tion of a s'all

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 7 su&set of %ossi&le to%i!s for study and attention +Rozin) 2,,=a.. 9o) of Dar#in;s 72 !andidate e'otions) it is not sur%rising that only a fe# &e!a'e the targets for 'a2or resear!h %rogra's. 9e!ond) fear is easy to see and study in other ani'als) and is o&viously funda'ental in 'any for's of %sy!ho%athology. 4nger as a sour!e of violen!e has !lear relevan!e to so!ial %ro&le's. 9o it is not sur%rising that fear and anger re!eive 'u!h 'ore attention than disgust. 4s already noted) fro' 3illia' Ja'es on#ard) %sy!hologists have fo!used on fear and anger in trying to understand &oth everyday %ro&le's and %athologies. 4 sear!h of t#o linguisti! data &ases +fro' the Ginguisti! Data Consortiu' I###.ld!.u%enn.eduJ--a very large !o'%endiu' of English language ne#s sour!es) and a 'ore 'odest &ase of s%oken English sa'%led fro' trans!ri%tions of tele%hone !onversations--reveals the follo#ing. /n the ne#s data&ase) there #ere 1=)DD7 !itations to disgust +disgust) disgusted) disgusting.) !o'%ared to 1==),1- for anger<angry) and 2-C)158 for fear<afraid. $hat is) relative to disgust) !itations to anger #ere 1, ti'es 'ore !o''on and !itations to fear #ere 1D ti'es 'ore !o''on. /n the !onversation data &ase) ho#ever) the ratios #ere 1.8 to 1 for anger and = to 1 for fear. $hese lo#er ratios suggest that in !o''on s%ee!h disgust is relatively 'ore fre:uent than in #riting. 4 third reason 'ay &e that disgust) as its na'e suggests) is %arti!ularly asso!iated #ith food and eating. Psy!hologists have sought general 'e!hanis's of &ehavior rather than fo!using on s%e!ifi! do'ains of life +Rozin) 2,,D.) and the food do'ain) in %arti!ular) has re!eived very little attention +Rozin) 2,,D. 2,,=.. 4 fourth reason for disgust avoidan!e 'ay si'%ly &e that disgust is disgusting. Pelha') iren&erg) and Jones +2,,2. de'onstrated that tiny flashes of affe!tive %ositivity influen!e %eo%le to !hoose 'arriage %artners and !areers #hose na'es rese'&le their o#n +e.g.) 'en na'ed Ga#ren!e are 'ore likely than average to &e!o'e la#yers and 'arry #o'en na'ed Gaurie.. /t see's likely) therefore) that #hen graduate students !hoose resear!h to%i!s) 'any are steered a#ay fro' the revolting su&2e!t 'atter of disgust. $hus %sy!hologists; #eak attention to disgust 'ay &e a result of so'e !o'&ination of the follo#ing fa!tors( disgust #as lost in Dar#in;s long list of e'otionsF disgust lost out to fear and anger in the ra!e to &e relevant to hu'an %ro&le'sF disgust #as seen as relevant to only that narro# %art of hu'an &ehavior related to food and eatingF and disgust resear!h is avoided as disgust is avoided. Why Now?: Documenting the ise of Interest in Disgust $he analysis &y 1latun2i and 9a#!huk +2,,C. indi!ates a nota&le rise in disgust !itations in the 155,s) sta&ilizing at around C, a year in the last de!ade. Co'%ared to levels of a&out C,, for anger and 12,, for fear) the level is still 'odest &ut the in!rease is i'%ressive. /n this ti'e %eriod) disgust see's to have assu'ed the %la!e that #ould &e a!!orded to it in ter's of its relative fre:uen!y in English-language ne#s sour!es although still #ell &elo# the level of English-language !onversations +&oth esti'ated fro' the Ginguisti! Data Consortiu') see a&ove) ###.ld!) 3e are not a#are of any a!ade'i!ally oriented &ooks on disgust &efore 155=) &ut) sin!e the %u&li!ation of 3illia' /an iller;s +155=. The Anatomy of Disgust) there has &een at least

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 8 one other &ook fo!used on disgust +9. iller) 2,,8.) and t#o #ell-regarded %sy!hology trade &ooks #ith %ro'inent attention to disgust +"loo') 2,,8F Pinker) 155=.. /nterest in the involve'ent of disgust in anBiety disorders +%arti!ularly %ho&ias and o&sessive !o'%ulsive disorders. #as signaled &y s%e!ial issues devoted to disgust in the Journal of Anxiety Disorders + !0ay) 2,,2. and the Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry +1latun2i * !0ay) 2,,D.. 3e re!ently !oded all 175 a&stra!ts in the Psy!/nfo data&ase that 'entioned disgust in the title) a&stra!t) or key %hrase fro' 2,,1-2,,D. 1ur analysis sho#ed that the largest fo!us of re!ent #ork is the link &et#een disgust and %sy!ho%athology +%ri'arily &ut not entirely %ho&ias and 1CDF 7=K of referen!es.) follo#ed &y neurologi!al<neuroanato'i!al<neuro!he'i!al as%e!ts of disgust +1-K of referen!es.. Lone of the re'aining to%i!s had seven or 'ore %er!ent of the referen!es. 9o'e of the 'ore !o''on of these s'aller !ategories #ere the %sy!ho'etri!s and stru!ture of disgust) !onta'ination and odor) dyna'i!s of disgust +es%e!ially 'o'ent to 'o'ent !hanges and intera!tions #ith other e'otions.) 'oral disgust) %sy!ho%hysiology) develo%'ent) and eB%ression. The body!to!soul "reada"tation theory of disgust 1ne reason for the re!ent eB%losion of interest in disgust 'ay &e the gro#ing re!ognition that disgust is related to 'any so!ial) !ultural) and even s%iritual issues. /n 1557 #e develo%ed a theory of disgust to eB%lain ho# this originally food-related e'otion eB%anded) &oth in &iologi!al and in !ultural evolution) to &e!o'e a guardian of the &ody) the so!ial order) and the soul +the &ody-to-soul %reada%tation theory.. 3e &egan #ith the re!ognition that disgust #as at its !ore a food re2e!tion e'otion +Rozin * Hallon) 15-=.) &ut that) !ross !ulturally) disgust eli!itors !o'e fro' a #ide variety of do'ains. 3e suggested that foods and &ody %rodu!ts are the !ore disgust eli!itors) the eli!itors for #hi!h the &rain #as 'ost dire!tly sha%ed &y natural sele!tion) %ro&a&ly in order to avoid &iologi!al %athogens +Rozin * Hallon)15-=) Rozin et al.) 1557) 155=.. /n our vie#) this %o#erful !ore disgust syste') #hi!h sti'ulates a sense of re%ulsion and a #ithdra#al fro' the eli!itor) #as %reada%ted for easy eBtension to other threatening entities) in!luding so!ial and 'oral threats. aking so'ething disgusting 'eans %rodu!ing internalized 'otivation to avoid it. 3hat is done #ith fe!es in toilet training !an &e done #ith other things) in!luding ina%%ro%riate seB) %oor hygiene) violations of the &ody envelo%e +e.g.) the stu'% fro' an a'%utated hand) or vis!era eB%osed &y a #ound.) and death. 4lthough 'any of these avoidan!es 'ay have so'e health &enefits) the 2ustifi!ation that %eo%le are a#are of is often 'ore sy'&oli!. Garge fa'ilies of disgust eli!itors are features that hu'ans share #ith ani'als( eating<food) eB!reting) seB) soft &ody interiors) and death. $he authors for'ulated this entire set of eli!itors as re'inders of our ani'al nature. /n this vie#) hu'ans dis%lay) in 'ost !ultures) a strong desire to &e seen as :ualitatively distin!t fro' other ani'als) to &e >'ore than ani'als.A Disgust is in the servi!e of this desire &y !ausing us to re!oil fro' re'inders of our ani'al nature. Perha%s the 'ost threatening !hara!teristi! that hu'ans share #ith other ani'als is 'ortality) and avoidan!e of !onta!t #ith death) either %hysi!ally or 'entally) see's to &e !entral to disgust. $he :uintessential odor of disgust) the %utrid odor) is the odor of de!aying ani'al

Disgust in the 21st C. -- C flesh. 1ur linking of disgust and death) ins%ired in %art &y Ernst "e!ker;s +15=7. Denial of Death) %aralleled the develo%'ent of terror 'anage'ent theory +$ $. in so!ial %sy!hology +@reen&erg) Pysz!zynski) * 9olo'on) 15-DF 9olo'on) @reen&erg) * Pysz!zynski) 1551.. $ $) also rooted in "e!ker;s ideas) highlights the i'%ortan!e of !o''it'ent to !ultural nor's as a defense against individual 'ortality. Dire!t linkages &et#een 'ortality salien!e and disgust have &een esta&lished +CoB et al.) 2,,DF @olden&erg et al.) 2,,1.. 1ur further analysis suggested t#o other do'ains of disgust eli!itors) not related to our ani'al nature. 1ne is inter%ersonal disgust( disgust at other %ersons) %arti!ularly strangers and out-grou%s. 4 se!ond is 'oral disgust) in #hi!h disgust is harnessed to %rodu!e offense at !ertain !ulturally deter'ined 'oral violations. /n ter's of 9h#eder;s !ross-!ultural taBono'y of 'oral syste's +!o''unity) autono'y) and divinityF 9h#eder et al.) 155=.) disgust see's to &e the e'otion linked to violations of divinity +the C4D triad hy%othesis) Rozin et al.) 1555&.. Haidt and his !olleagues have de'onstrated that disgust %lays a dire!t role in 'any 'oral 2udg'ents +Haidt) 2,,1F Haidt) 0oller * Dias) 1557F 3heatley * Haidt) 2,,C.. Disgust is no# a %art of 'oral %sy!hology. What #$lse% &a'es Disgust #(uddenly% so Interesting? Disgust has a nu'&er of s%e!ial %ro%erties that 'ight a!!ount for its re!ent and ra%id rise as an o&2e!t of interdis!i%linary study. /t also has a fe# %ro%erties that ought to 'otivate 'ore resear!h in the future. 1. Convenience. Psy!hologists have understanda&ly tried to &ring their resear!h into the la&oratory) to esta&lish 'ore !ontrol and allo# for eB%eri'entation. 1ne of the !hallenges of e'otion resear!h is that) ethi!ally) it is diffi!ult to eli!it strong e'otions in the la&oratory. /n %arti!ular) it is ethi!ally %ro&le'ati! to eli!it fear or anger in a realisti! #ay in the la&oratory. /t is relatively easy) ho#ever) to sti'ulate disgust in the la&oratoryMeven in an f R/ s!anner--and this !an &e done in ethi!ally a!!e%ta&le and e!ologi!ally valid #ays. 1ne !an %resent real disgust eli!itors) in %hotogra%h or in reality +e.g.) a !o!kroa!h. and %rodu!e strong disgust in %arti!i%ants. 3e have done this using over 2, different real eli!itors +Rozin et al.) 1555a.. 2. Contamination. Conta'ination is a s%e!ial %ro%erty of disgust eli!itorsF they have the %o#er to render a good food inedi&le &y 'ere &rief !onta!t +Rozin) ill'an * Le'eroff) 15-D.. EBa'%les of !onta'ination see' to follo# the sy'%atheti! 'agi!al la# of !ontagion( >1n!e in !onta!t) al#ays in !onta!t.A 9ensitivity to !ontagion a%%ears to &e %resent in all adult hu'ans) &ut a&sent in !hildren +see Hallon) Rozin) * Pliner) 15-8F revie#ed in Rozin * Le'eroff) 155,.. Conta'ination effe!ts) for #hi!h disgusting entities are %arti!ularly good eli!itors) are of interest to resear!hers in 2udg'ent and de!ision 'aking) &e!ause the effe!ts are very %o#erful and often >irrational. /t is i'%ortant to re!ognize that !ontagion effe!ts using disgust eli!itors are not dire!tly 'ediated +in !onte'%orary hu'ans. &y a fear of infe!tion. 4lthough individuals ty%i!ally 2ustify their re2e!tion of a 2ui!e !onta!ted &y a !o!kroa!h in ter's of health risks) their aversion is not redu!ed signifi!antly if the !o!kroa!h is sterilized +Rozin et al.) 15-D.. Conta'ination effe!ts !onne!t disgust resear!h #ith #ork on essentialis' in develo%'ental %sy!hology) and like#ise #ith the study of o&sessive !o'%ulsive disorder.

Disgust in the 21st C. -- D . The disgust scale. $he availa&ility of a tool often sti'ulates resear!h and 'akes #hat the tool 'easures 'ore salientF this see's to have ha%%ened for disgust. $he Disgust 9!ale +Haidt) !Cauley) * Rozin) 1558. has &e!o'e a #idely used instru'ent) and &e!ause it #as designed to investigate 'any su&ty%es of disgust) rather than %roviding an overall s!ore) it has sti'ulated dis!ussion of the stru!ture of disgust) and of the relationshi%s &et#een su&ty%es of disgust and s%e!ifi! 'ental disorders +1latun2i et al.) in %ress.. +/nfor'ation a&out the Disgust 9!ale is availa&le at(<N2dhDn<disgusts!'l . !. Affective neuroscience. $#o i'%ortant neuros!ien!e findings laun!hed an eBtensive eB%loration of disgust and the &rain) 'otivated in %art &y the ra%id develo%'ent of &rains!anning 'ethodologies. 9%rengel'eyer et al. +155D. 'ade the re'arka&le finding that individuals #ith Huntington;s disease) a hereditary &ut late onset disorder %rin!i%ally of the 'otor syste') sho#ed a sur%risingly s%e!ifi! defi!it in re!ognizing disgust fa!es. 4long #ith #ork on fear and the a'ygdala) this #as one of the first findings suggesting that different e'otions 'ight have different 'ediating &rain lo!i) in hu'ans. $he %resen!e of this defi!it in !arriers of Huntington;s disease) #ho do not yet sho# the late onset 'otor sy'%to's) is %arti!ularly striking +@ray et al.) 155=.. 4n eBtensive series of &rain s!anning studies arose at a&out the sa'e ti'e) starting #ith the #ork of Philli%s +Philli%s et al.) 155=.. $hese studies sho#ed that so'e &rain areas-%arti!ularly the anterior insula) so'e &asal ganglia stru!tures) and so'e %arts of the frontal !orteB--are s%e!ifi!ally involved in the eB%erien!e of disgust. $his #ork !onne!ts disgust resear!h #ith one of the 'ost ra%idly gro#ing areas in %sy!hologyMneuros!ien!e--#here the ease of eli!iting disgust in a realisti! #ay has great a%%eal. Leuros!ien!e resear!h %ro'ises &oth to enlighten us a&out the &rain 'e!hanis's of disgust and to %rovide tests of so'e %sy!hologi!al ideas a&out disgust--for eBa'%le) #hether all ty%es of disgust are linked in the &rain to a food<taste<s'ell syste') and #hether 'oral disgust shares !ir!uitry #ith !ore disgust. ". Anxiety disorders. $he !entral role of disgust in so'e anBiety disorders #as suggested &y Davey and his !olla&orators + at!hett * Davey) 1551F Davey) 1557.) #hen they %ointed out that disgust is an i'%ortant and %reviously ignored as%e!t of %ho&ias. /n addition) their diseaseavoidan!e inter%retation of disgust eli!itors %rovided a !on!e%tual link &et#een resear!h on disgust and resear!h on %ho&ias. $he disgust-%ho&ia link is no# a 'a2or line of resear!h) follo#ed u% &y Davey and his grou%) and 3oody and $ea!h'an +2,,,.) a'ong others. Po#er and Dagliesh +155=. have e'%hasized this and other links &et#een disgust and %sy!ho%athology. Disgust is also kno#n to &e !entral to o&sessive-!o'%ulsive disorder +1CD.. $he link is su&stantively !lear) at least for the !ase of the !onta'ination variety of 1CD) #hi!h see's to relate to &oth enhan!ed disgust and enhan!ed !onta'ination sensitivity. $he disgust-1CD link a%%eared in %rint fro' a nu'&er of different sour!es in the %eriod of 1555-2,,1) and a #hole set of studies relating disgust sensitivity to !lini!al 1CD) or to 1CD tenden!ies) are no# in the literature +revie#ed &y "erle * Philli%s) 2,,DF Husted) 9ha%ira) * @ood'an) 2,,DF and 1latun2i * 9a#!huk) 2,,C.. #. Pu$lic interest. 4lthough %sy!hology has not &een driven) to a 'a2or degree) &y #hat the %u&li! finds interesting +Rozin) 2,,D.) %u&li! interest 'ay have so'e effe!t) and disgust is of

Disgust in the 21st C. -- = interest to 'any %eo%le. edia interest in resear!h on disgust has &een high) and %o%ular television %rogra's like >%ear %actor& s%eak to its a%%eal. The )uture of Disgust esearch Disgust has) until re!ently) &een a hole in e'otion resear!h. 4s a hole fills) su&-holes are often !reated +Rozin) 2,,=.. Currently) &rain resear!h and %sy!ho%athology are the t#o enthusias's that are filling in %arts of the disgust hole) and leaving su&-holes. 3e revie# here so'e so'e resear!h dire!tions #e think are %ro'ising that have yet to re!eive signifi!ant attention. $he first t#o areas +&rain 'e!hanis's and %sy!ho%athology. are #ell develo%ed) &ut #e indi!ate so'e %ossi&le lines of #ork #ithin these areas that have yet to &e eB%lored. $he re'aining areas have re!eived little or no attention. '( Brain mechanisms 3e eB%e!t to see 'any 'ore &rain s!an studies indi!ating a!tivation of &rain areas during the eli!itation or eB%ression of disgust) and of !onta'ination as #ell. $hese) %lus analyses of disgust defi!its resulting fro' &rain da'age) !an &e eB%e!ted to %rovide 'ore details of the &rain !ir!uits that 'ay &e dedi!ated to disgust) and also test so'e %sy!hologi!al !lai's. Hor eBa'%le) it should &e %ossi&le) as studies have already suggested + oll et al.) 2,,C.) to indi!ate the degree of shared and distin!t !ir!uitry for !ore versus 'oral) or other varieties of disgust. "rain s!an studies are also likely to shed light on the relations a'ong disgust and related e'otions) su!h as !onte'%t) anger) sha'e) and fear. Eviden!e that Huntington !arriers have a severe defi!it in disgust re!ognition +9%rengel'eyer et al.) 155DF @ray et al) 155=. %oints to %otentially eB!iting %sy!hologi!al studies. $hese unfortunate individuals 'ay allo# us to study #hat it is like to gro# u% in an environ'ent in #hi!h the 'ost %ro'inent signal of disgust +the fa!e of others. is not %ro!essed. /f disgust is the e'otion of !ivilization) #hat are the !onse:uen!es for a Huntington !arrier6 2( Disgust and psychopathology 9i'ilarly) #e eB%e!t to see 'any 'ore studies of the relation &et#een 1CD and %ho&ias) on one hand) and disgust and !onta'ination sensitivity on the other. $he 'iBture of fear and disgust in 'any %ho&ias needs attention +Davey) 1557. and is getting) further ela&oration +Davey) 1557.. Conta'ination sensitivity is %art of the disgust s!ale +Haidt et al.) 1558.) and !orrelates #ith sensitivity to the do'ain-s%e!ifi! areas of disgust) and all eight of the original !o'%onents of the Disgust 9!ale !orrelate #ith 'easures of 1CD tenden!ies +1latun2i et al.) 2,,C) 2,,=.. Con!e%tually) ho#ever) #e !an se%arate three fa!tors( ho# disgusting so'ething is) the eBtent to #hi!h it is trans'itted &y !onta!t +!ontagion %otential.) and the indeli&ility of this transfer +related to s%iritual vs. 'aterial essen!e +Le'eroff * Rozin) 1558.. /t is %ossi&le) &ut not ne!essary) that 1CD involves high levels of all three of these fa!tors. /n addition) there have &een suggestions of the involve'ent of disgust in a #ide range of disorders &eyond 1CD and %ho&ias) so there is likely 'ore in store a&out disgust and %sy!ho%athology +Davey et al.) 155-F Po#er * Dagliesh) 155=F 9!hienle et al.) 2,,7.. ( Disgust) animal reminders) and death 1ur designation of ani'al nature re'inders as a do'ain of disgust) &et#een !ore disgust and so!ial and 'oral disgust) is a theoreti!al !lai'. /t has re!eived so'e e'%iri!al su%%ort fro'

Disgust in the 21st C. -- studies on the %sy!ho'etri! stru!ture of disgust +1latun2i et al.) in %ress.) &ut it needs refine'ent and 'ore eviden!e. 1f %arti!ular interest is the link &et#een death and disgust. /n "e!ker;s +15=7. s!he'e) in #hi!h 'ortality is the &asi! hu'an dile''a +as o%%osed to Hreud;s e'%hasis on seB and aggression. disgust &e!o'es a 'e!hanis' of denial or re%ression) as disgust !auses #ithdra#al fro' thoughts a&out) or !onta!t #ith) death. $error 'anage'ent theory) !urrently a very %rodu!tive line of e'%iri!al resear!h) #ill no dou&t 'ake 'any 'ore !onta!ts #ith the study of disgust. !( Development of disgust and contamination 3e %resu'e that toilet training is an early and i'%ortant disgust eB%erien!e) in !ultures that have toilet training. /t see's that #ith the re2e!tion of %sy!hoanalysis) a &a&y or t#o 'ay have &een thro#n out #ith the &ath#ater. $here is 'ini'al #ork in %sy!hology no# on either toilet training or #eaning) t#o of Hreud;s favorite develo%'ental issues +Rozin) 2,,D.. 9in!e fe!es is %ro&a&ly the universal %ri'al disgust) toilet training is a valua&le arena in #hi!h to study the a!:uisition of disgust. $he !onversion of fe!es fro' a desired to a detested and disgusting su&stan!e is a 'a2or transfor'ation that !ould &e a 'odel syste' for the study of the a!:uisition of strong affe!t of 'any kinds) in!luding so!ial e'otions of sha'e) guilt) and e'&arrass'ent. $he s%read of disgust fro' fe!es to other &ody %rodu!ts) foods of ani'al origin) and eventually other entities %resents a fas!inating develo%'ental %ro&le'. Does the a!:uisition of disgust follo# in any #ay the se:uen!e #e have %ro%osed for the !ultural evolution of disgust6 $o #hat eBtent are disgusts a!:uired se!ondarily +Rozin * Hallon) 15-=. &y generalization fro' already disgusting entities +see Heren!zi) 1518<15C2.6 $o #hat eBtent are disgusts generated &y %airing #ith disgust fa!es or other indi!ators of offense6 Can the a!:uisition of disgust sensitivities &e understood as a for' of evaluative !onditioning6 3e %resu'e that &asi! disgust so!ialization &egins in %arent-!hild or si&-!hild intera!tions) &ut this has not &een studied. $oday #e have only a fe# studies sho#ing a 'odest level of fa'ily +%arent-!hild. rese'&lan!e in disgust sensitivity +Davey) Horster) * ayhe#) 1551F Rozin) Hallon) * andell) 15-8.. Conta'ination sensitivity is not %resent in !hildren &elo# the age of a&out four +Hallon) Rozin * Pliner) 15-8F 9iegal) 15--.. /f) as #e have suggested) !onta'ination sensitivity is ne!essary) then disgust does not a%%ear in full until a&out this age. 4ll indi!ations are that the !onta'ination res%onse +to fe!es and 'any other disgusts) de%ending on the !ulture. is universal a'ong adults) and universally a&sent in young !hildren and all ani'als. Ho# is the idea of >on!e in !onta!t) al#ays in !onta!tA a!:uired6 Does it de%end) for eBa'%le) on !ognitions a&out the a!tion of invisi&le entities) like ger's +Rosen * Rozin) 1557.6 $o #hat eBtent is the develo%'ent of disgust and !onta'ination different in different !ultures6 Does it relate) for eBa'%le) to the 'anner and severity of toilet training6 3e have a little !ross-!ultural eviden!e suggesting si'ilarity in !ontagion sensitivity in 4'eri!an and Hindu /ndian !hildren in the %res!hool to early s!hool years) &ut #ith !ontagion sensitivity a%%earing so'e#hat earlier in /ndian !hildren) and #ith a greater fo!us on inter%ersonal !ontagion in the /ndian !hildren +He2'adi) Rozin) * 9iegal) 2,,8.. $hese :uestions have so far attra!ted relatively little resear!h attention. .

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 5 "( Disgust in human history Disgust) as #e have defined it) in!luding !onta'ination and ideational +as o%%osed to sensory. food re2e!tion) is uni:uely hu'an. $he !ognitive so%histi!ation re:uired to rea!t to the nature or history of an o&2e!t a%%ears only in hu'ans older than three or four. 1f !ourse) a disgust %rogenitor) a re2e!tion syste' #ith a%%ro%riate eB%ressions for &ad tasting foods +e.g. 'outh ga%e in res%onse to &itter taste.) eBists in 'any 'a''als and in hu'an infants. Levertheless) and des%ite its o&vious &iologi!al signifi!an!e) disgust 'ay &e the last of the >&asi!A e'otions to have e'erged in hu'an evolution. 3e have no idea #hen in history ideational re2e!tions of foods +&ased on their nature or origin) rather than sensory %ro%erties. arose. Disgust is !learly %art +though not all. of the %arti!ular food ta&oos found in an!ient Hinduis' and Judais'. /n 3estern Euro%ean history) es%e!ially around eating and the ta&le) disgust %layed a role in 'any of the !hanges in 'anners and 'ores during the thousand %lus years that have &een #ell !hroni!led +Elias) 1575<15=-F 0ass) 1558F iller) 155=.. $here are t#o events in 3estern Euro%ean history that have s%e!ial relevan!e for the !ultural evolution of disgust. 1ne is the a!!e%tan!e of Dar#in;s theory of evolution &y natural sele!tion. $he %re-Dar#inian 'entality +$ho'as) 15D7. #ith res%e!t) for eBa'%le) to hu'an relations to ani'als) #as :uite different than the vie# that e'erged in the C, to 1,, years after the %u&li!ation of the *rigin of +pecies in 1-C5. 4ni'al-nature disgust 'ight #ell have !hanged !onsidera&ly as thinking a&out ani'als !hanged. $he se!ond 'a2or event) less than half a !entury after Dar#in;s *rigin) is the rise of ger' theory. @er' theory %rovides a s!ientifi! &asis for the !ontagion ideas that %re!eded it &y thousands of years. 9!ientifi! de'onstration of %otent invisi&le entities is likely to have had a signifi!ant i'%a!t on lay thinking a&out !onta'ination and disgust. 4 %arti!ularly illu'inating eBa'ination of this %ossi&ility #as !arried out &y "arnes +2,,D.) #ho studied the %u&li! and 'edi!al %rofessional rea!tions to se#age &a!ku%s in Paris +>the great stinks of ParisA. in the 'iddle and late 15th !entury. $he 'a2or great stink of Paris o!!urred 2ust as ger' theory #as taking root in Hran!e. $he >sanitary-&a!teriologi!al-synthesis)A or the >'arriage of filth and ger's)A is des!ri&ed &y "arnes as a fas!inating !onvergen!e of intuition-&ased attitudes to illness and death #ith the s!ientifi! advan!es asso!iated #ith ger' theory. 9o far as #e are a#are) the history of disgust and !onta'ination in East 4sian) 9outh 4sian) 4fri!an) and 4'erindian !ultures is uneB%lored territory. #( Disgust in relation to other emotions 4'ong e'otions) disgust is %erha%s !losest to !onte'%t. $o'kins +15D7. and iller +155=. have had 'u!h of interest to say a&out these t#o e'otions. $o'kins links !onte'%t 'ore to s'ell) and disgust 'ore to taste) and iller !on!eives of !onte'%t as 'ore linked to %ride) su%eriority) and indifferen!e than disgust. $hese suggestions fit #ith the C4D hy%othesis that disgust is the 'oral e'otion asso!iated #ith violation of the ethi! of divinity) #hereas !onte'%t is the e'otion asso!iated #ith violation of the ethi! of !o''unity +in!luding hierar!hy and res%e!tF Rozin et al.) 1555&..

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 1, Disgust and sha'e are another %air of related e'otions. /n one %ers%e!tive) disgust is an other-dire!ted 'oral e'otion) and sha'e a si'ilar &ut 'ore self-dire!ted e'otion. Hinally) there see' to &e relationshi%s &et#een disgust and hatred that 'ust &e #orked out +see dis!ussions in $o'kins) 15D7 and iller) 155=.. /n general) the relation of disgust #ith other so!ial e'otions is yet to &e eB%lored. ,( -ntergroup disgust Disgust 'ay %lay an i'%ortant role in inter-grou% relations. Dehu'anization see's to &e involved in very negative attitudes to) harsh treat'ent of) and even geno!ide dire!ted at %arti!ular grou%s +Chirot * !Cauley) 2,,D.. Hasla' +2,,D. distinguishes &et#een animalistic dehumani.ation that 'akes the ene'y 'ore like ani'als) and mechanistic dehumani.ation that 'akes the ene'y less hu'an &y denying the' uni:uely hu'an !hara!teristi!s that 'akes the' 'ore like a 'a!hine. Hasla' suggests that disgust is the e'otional rea!tion asso!iated #ith ani'alisti! dehu'anization. 9i'ilarly) Des Pres +15=D. suggested that an i'%ortant su%%ort for Lazis killing Je#s and other in'ates in !on!entration !a'%s #as the ani'al dehu'anization i'%osed u%on the' &y the living !onditions they #ere su&2e!ted to. Lazis found it easier to kill ani'als than hu'ans. 4!!ording to DesPres) those %risoners #ho resisted >ani'alizationA +e.g.) &y #ashing the'selves even #ith 'uddy #ater. #ere 'ore likely to survive. Hiske) Cuddy) @li!k) and Ou +2,,2. have suggested that grou%s %er!eived as lo#er in status and dissi'ilar to the referen!e grou% tend to &e vie#ed &y the referen!e grou% #ith disgust and !onte'%t. Related results suggest that disgust sensitivity is %ositively !orrelated #ith negative attitudes to foreigners) i''igrants) out-grou%s) and deviant individuals +Haulkner) 9!haller) * Park) 2,,8F Hodson * Costello) 2,,=F Lavarette * Hessler) 2,,D.. $his relation 'ay &e 'ediated &y fear of infe!tion or !onta'ination +Haulkner et al.) 2,,8F Lavarette * Hessler) 2,,D.. $hus) in the !onteBt of intergrou% relations) disgust 'ay serve as &oth a res%onse to a threat of !onta'ination and a 2ustifi!ation for hostility that !an eBtend to 'ass 'urder. /( Disgust) morality) and the 0ay culture shapes disgust Disgust has sti'ulated resear!h and thinking a&out 'orality in t#o #ays. /t has %rovided another di'ension in our understanding of e'otion and 'orality) 'oving &eyond the usual fo!us on anger. $hus) &y a %ro!ess of 'oralization) !ertain a!tivities that #ere on!e 'orally neutral or even status-%ositive +like !igarette s'oking. &e!o'e 'orally negative +Rozin) 155=.. 3hen this o!!urs in &ody-related do'ains) there is reason to &elieve that disgust is re!ruited as an e'otional res%onse) as for eBa'%le in rea!tion to !igarettes) !igarette ashes) and even s'okers +Rozin and 9ingh) 1555.. 9e!ond) studies related to disgust have !ontri&uted to de&ate a&out the relative role of rationality and affe!t or e'otion in 'oral 2udg'ent. /t is no a!!ident that the 'a2or %resentation of the intuitionist %osition in 'oral %sy!hology +Haidt) 2,,1. !a'e fro' a %sy!hologist #hose interest in 'oral 2udg'ent originated in resear!h on disgust +Haidt) 0oller) * Dias) 1557.. 4s Haidt suggests that affe!t leads 'oral 2udg'ent) so it 'ay &e %ossi&le that affe!t leads %oliti!al o%inions. Pizarro et al. +2,,=. found that %oliti!al !onservatives s!ore higher in disgust

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 11 sensitivity. Huture resear!h 'ight eBa'ine individual differen!es in disgust sensitivity #ithin !ultures as a %artial a!!ount of differen!es in %oliti!al ideology.. 1( The structure of the domains of disgust $here is 'u!h yet to learn a&out the linkage &et#een the various do'ains of disgust. 1ur %reada%tive a!!ount %rovides one a'ong a %ossi&le set of taBono'ies. Psy!ho'etri! resear!h su!h as the #ork of 1latun2i +1latun2i et al.) in %ress. %ro'ises to hel% us to !arve the !ategories of disgust at their 2oints. 3ork on %sy!ho%hysiology and &rain a!tivation or lesions #ill hel% us to see #hat disgust eli!itors share !o''on 'e!hanis's. '2( Contamination 3ork &y Carol Le'eroff +Le'eroff and Rozin) 1558. identifies t#o 'odels of !ontagion) at least for 4'eri!ans. /n one 'odel) 'aterial essen!e) the sour!e of !ontagion &ehaves like a 'i!ros!o%i! %arti!le. /t !an &e eli'inated &y #ashing) sterilization or so'e other %hysi!al %ro!edure. /n the other 'odel) s%iritual essen!e) the essen!e see's to &e %er'anent and indestru!ti&le. Hor 'ost %eo%le) you !an;t get 4dol%h Hitler out of his s#eater +s%iritual essen!e.. Hor 'any of those sa'e %eo%le) you !an #ith so'e diffi!ulty get the he%atitis out of a s#eater #orn &y so'eone #ith that disease +'aterial essen!e.. $he !ognitions and feelings &ehind these t#o ty%es of !ontagion) usually linked to disgust) need to &e understood) as #ell as the !auses of &et#een- and #ithin-!ulture differen!es in the %ro%erties of essen!e) and the ty%e of essen!e that is assu'ed to &e trans'itted &y !onta!t #ith disgusting or other negative entities. 4 %arti!ularly i'%ortant feature of !ontagion) %aralleled &y disgust) is the 2ourney fro' the %hysi!al to the 'oral. $hough 'oral !ontagion is often indeli&le) it is so'eti'es treated as if it is %hysi!al. 4 very %ro'ising line of resear!h re!ently de'onstrated the effe!tiveness) for 4'eri!ans) of #ashing) a %hysi!al !leansing o%eration) as a #ay of ridding the self of 'oral !onta'ination +Phong * Gil2en:uist) 2,,D.. ''( 3nma4ing disgust 3e live in a disgusting) !onta'inated #orld. 4l'ost everything #e intera!t #ith--!hairs) doorkno&s) air) food--has &een in !onta!t #ith other hu'an &eings. $his !ould &e !ri%%ling) &ut %eo%le !o'e to ter's #ith it +unless they have 1CD) !onta'ination ty%e. &y a !o'&ination of ha&ituation) refra'ing) and retreating to ritual and sa!red la#. 3e do not kno# the dyna'i!s of ho# this o!!urs) &ut it is o&vious that #e ignore 'any %otential disgust eli!itors in daily life) unless !alled to our attention. Door kno&s) for instan!e) tend to es!a%e our attention eB!e%t #hen) for eBa'%le) an unsavory looking %erson handles a doorkno& #hile eBiting a %u&li! &athroo' as #e are a&out to rea!h for the sa'e doorkno&. Ha&ituation 'ust surely %lay a 'a2or role) and one !riti!al issue is ho# s%e!ifi! the ha&ituation is. $his issue is es%e!ially salient for %rofessions in #hi!h disgust eli!itors are salient( surgeons) 'orti!ians) and individuals #ho deal #ith gar&age. 3e re!ently sho#ed #hat looks like ha&ituation to the disgust eli!iting %ro%erties of !adavers in 'edi!al students #ho s%end 'onths disse!ting a !adaver) &ut this a%%ears :uite s%e!ifi! to death disgust eli!itors) and %erha%s does not even eBtend to still #ar' dead &odies +Rozin) 2,,-.. Conta'ination sensitive religions) %arti!ularly Hinduis' and Judais') have ritual #ays of dealing #ith !onta'ination)

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 12 in!luding #ashing and esta&lishing a!!e%ta&le thresholds for !onta'ination +e.g.) the 1<D,th rule for !onta'ination in the rules of 0ashrut I@runfeld) 15-2F Le'eroff * Rozin) 15-=J.. /t is easy to i'agine eB%eri'ental investigations of ha&ituation to disgust. Ho# often #ould an undergraduate need to eB%erien!e %utting a %in in the eye of a refrigerated shee%;s head) for instan!e) in order to find this eB%erien!e 'ore &oring than disgusting6 Ho# long #ould ha&ituation endure after the last trial6 3hat !ultural differen!es 'ight a%%ear in ha&ituation eB%eri'ents6 Ha%%ily eB%eri'ents of this kind are unlikely to attra!t the !on!ern of /nstitutional Revie# "oards. u!h needs to &e done to understand ho# hu'an &eings in different !ultures deal #ith the fa!t that they live in a !onta'inated #orld. '2( Disgust and holes Disgust !enters around the holes in the &ody. ost of the 'ost disgusting &ody %rodu!ts +e.g.) fe!es) vo'it. e'anate fro' holes) and the holes are also fo!i for disgust sensitivity. $here has &een 'ini'al #ork on the holes in the &ody) %erha%s %art of the general rea!tion for'ation to Hreudian !on!e%tions +Rozin) 2,,D) 2,,=.. "ut holes) es%e!ially Hreud;s >&ig threeA +'outh) anus) and genitals. have too 'u!h to do #ith disgust to &e ignored. $hey !an &e vie#ed as the 'ost vulnera&le gate#ays &et#een the self and the &ody) &et#een inside and outsideF like#ise they !an &e seen as guardians of the &ody) %rote!tors fro' the %ossi&ility of %hysi!al !onta'ination +Hessler * Haley) 2,,DF iller) 155=F iller) 2,,8F Rozin et al.) 155C.. ' ( The dynamics of disgust Disgust) like other e'otions) unfolds in a 'atter of se!onds. 4%%raisals) eB%ressions) &ehaviors) and %hysiologi!al events) all o!!ur in this %eriod and influen!e one another. 9!herer * 3all&ott +1558. have %rovided a general fra'e#ork for understanding the %attern of events a!ross a nu'&er of e'otions) in!luding disgust. 4nd re!ent %sy!ho%hysiologi!al studies &egin to give a sense of the se:uen!e of %hysiologi!al !o'%onents of disgust +Gevenson) 1552F 9tark et al.) 2,,C.. 9till) #e kno# relatively little a&out the ti'e !ourse of the 'ulti%le as%e!ts of the eB%erien!e of disgust. Hinally) there is the issue of ho# disgust 'ay intera!t #ith other e'otions) either in alternation or &lending. $he !lose inter%lay and se:uen!ing of different e'otional states is a general %ro&le' for resear!hers interested in e'otions +e.g.) arzillier * Davey) 2,,C.. '!( The $iological and cultural evolution of disgust 1ne of the funda'ental as%e!ts of understanding anything in %sy!hology is to understand the degree to #hi!h it has evolutionary origins) and if so) #hat they are. Disgust !a'e on the stage of %sy!hology) in %art) through the #ritings of Dar#in +1-=2<155-.. /n its anlagen +origin for'.) not %art of disgust no# as #e !on!eive it) it is !learly an ada%tive 'e!hanis' to rid the &ody of %otentially har'ful foods or odors) and %erha%s) to !o''uni!ate infor'ation a&out this to !ons%e!ifi!s. Hurther'ore) a nu'&er of investigators have %ro%osed) #ith eviden!e that the disgust and !onta'ination res%onses originated as ada%tive res%onses to the %ros%e!t of 'i!ro&ial infe!tion +Davey) 1557F Curtis * "iran) 2,,1F Curtis) 4unger * Ra&ie) 2,,8F Hessler * Haley) 2,,DF Haulkner et al.) 2,,8.. Hessler +e.g.) Hessler * Haley) 2,,D. and 9!haller +e.g.) 9!haller * Leu&erg) 2,,=. have &een %arti!ularly a!tive in %ro'oting evolutionary insights into disgust and !ontagion. 1ne of the 'ost interesting %ro&le's that re'ains is to see ho# !ultural

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 17 evolutionary 'e!hanis's) like %read%atation) have &uilt u%on a &asi! disgust<!onta'ination syste') and eB%anded it to a %oint #here its origin is often totally disguised. /t is also %ossi&le that there are evolved %redis%ositions to find !ertain things +e.g.) %erha%s fe!es. disgusting) and that disgust %rovides a %ro'ising arena for understanding intera!tions &et#een &iologi!al and !ultural evolution. '"( 5umor 3e !lose #ith an unusual and a%%ro%riately a'using as%e!t of disgust. Disgust is often funny. /t is a 'a2or %art of the hu'or of young &oys) and has its o#n genre of 2okes +Hine) 15--F iller) 155=.. /t see's) that 2ust like !hili %e%%er) roller !oaster rides) and horror 'ovies) disgust is en2oya&le &e!ause it eli!its a negative e'otion or feeling) &ut in an environ'ent in #hi!h !ognitions indi!ate there is no real threat +Rozin) 155,F Rozin * 9!hiller) 15-,F !Cauley) 155-.. Parti!i%ants in studies on disgust often laugh and sho# signs of a'use'ent +He'enover * 9!hi''a!k) in %ressF Rozin et al.) 1555a.. 3e have !alled this &enign 'aso!his'. /t %lays a su&stantial role in hu'an life) in!luding in the eB%erien!e of disgust. "enign 'aso!his' see's to de%end on a !o'%etition &et#een an e'otion of the &ody and an e'otion of !ivilizationF the !ivilized 'ind see's to take %leasure in the fa!t that it !an rise a&ove its ani'al instin!ts. Con!lusion any have o&served that a good %ie!e of resear!h raises 'ore :uestions than it ans#ers. $he first de!ade or t#o of intensive resear!h on disgust has raised 'ore :uestions than it has ans#ered. /n our vie#) the &iggest one is ho# a 'outh and food oriented re2e!tion 'e!hanis') a >get this out of 'y &odyA e'otion) has &een ela&orated +!ulturally and &iologi!ally. into a &road and 'eaning-ri!h e'otion that %rote!ts not 2ust the &ody) &ut the soul. $his &ook #ill serve to set an agenda for the neBt de!adeF there is 'u!h to do.

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Disgust in the 21st C. -- 1C in disgust and &odily eB%erien!e. Cognition and Emotion) 22) 7-15. Hine) @. 4. +15--.. @ood !hildren and dirty %lay. Play < Culture) ') 87-CD. Hiske) 9. $.) Cuddy) 4. J. C.) @li!k) P.) * Ou) J. +2,,2.. 4 'odel of +often 'iBed. stereoty%e !ontent( Co'%eten!e and #ar'th. Journal of Personality and +ocial Psychology) /2) -=--5,2. @olden&erg) J. G.) Pysz!zynski) $.) @reen&erg) J.) 9olo'on) 9.) 0lu!k) ".) * Corn#ell) R. +2,,1.. / a' not an ani'al( ortality salien!e) disgust) and the denial of hu'an !reatureliness. Journal of Experimental Psychology= ?eneral) ' 2) 82=-87C. @ray J. .) Qoung) 4.3.) "arker 3.4.) Curtis 4.) * @i&son) D. +155=.. /'%aired re!ognition of disgust in Huntington;s disease gene !arriers. Brain) ''22) 2,25? 7-. @reen&erg) J.) Pysz!zynski) $.) * 9olo'on) 9. +15-D.. $he !auses and !onse:uen!es of a need for self-estee'( a terror 'anage'ent theory. /n R. H. "au'eister +Ed..) Pu$lic self and private self +%%.1-5-212.. Le# Qork( 9%ringer-Verlag. @runfeld) D. /. +15-2.. The Je0ish dietary la0s= >ol. '. Dietary la0s regarding for$idden and permitted foods) 0ith particular reference to meat and meat products +7rd Ed... Gondon( 9on!ino Press. Haidt) J. +2,,1.. $he e'otional dog and its rational tail( 4 so!ial intuitionist a%%roa!h to 'oral 2udg'ent. Psychological 9evie0) '2/) -18--78. Haidt) J.) 0oller) 9.) * Dias) . +1557.. 4ffe!t) !ulture) and 'orality) or is it #rong to eat your dog6 Journal of Personality and +ocial Psychology) #") D17-D2-. Haidt) J.) !Cauley) C. R.) * Rozin) P. +1558.. 4 s!ale to 'easure disgust sensitivity. Personality and -ndividual Differences) '#) =,1-=17. Hasla') L. +2,,D.. Dehu'anization( 4n integrative revie#. Personality and +ocial Psychology 9evie0) '2) 2C2-2D8. He2'adi) 4.) Rozin) P.) * 9iegal) . +2,,8.. 1n!e in Conta!t) 4l#ays in Conta!t( Contagious Essen!e and Con!e%tions of Purifi!ation in 4'eri!an and Hindu /ndian Children. Developmental Psychology) !2) 8D=-8=D. He'enover) 9. H.) * 9!hi''a!k) U. +in %ress.. $hat;s disgustingS..."ut very a'using( iBed feelings of a'use'ent and disgust. Cognition and Emotion. Hodson) @.) * Costello) 0. +2,,=.. /nter%ersonal disgust) /deologi!al orientations and dehu'anization as %redi!tors of intergrou% attitudes. Psychological +cience) '/) D51D5-.. Husted) D. 9F 9ha%ira) L. 4.) * @ood'an) 3. 0. +2,,D.. $he neuro!ir!uitry of o&sessive!o'%ulsive disorder and disgust. Progress in @euroPsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry). 2) 7-5-755. /zard) C. E. +15==.. 5uman Emotions. Le# Qork( Plenu' Press. Ja'es) 3. +15C,.. The principles of psychology. Le# Qork( Dover.+1riginal #ork %u&lished 1-5,.. 0ass) G. +1558.. The hungry soul. Le# Qork( Hree Press. Gazarus) R. 9. +1551.. Emotion and adaptation. Le# Qork( 1Bford University Press.

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 1D Gevenson) R. 3. +1552.. 4utono'i! nervous syste' differen!es a'ong e'otions. Psychological +cience) ) 27-2=. Ginguisti! Data Consortiu'. arzillier) 9. G.) * Davey) @. C. G. +2,,C.. 4nBiety and disgust( Eviden!e for a unidire!tional relationshi%. Cognition and Emotion) '1) =25-=C,. at!hett) @.) * Davey) @. C. G. +1551.. 4 test of a disease-avoidan!e 'odel of ani'al %ho&ias. Behaviour 9esearch < Therapy) 21) 51-58. !Cauley) C. +155-.. 3hen s!reen violen!e is not attra!tive. /n J. @oldstein +Ed..) 7hy 0e 0atch= The attractions of violent entertainment) %%. 188-1D2. Le# Qork( 1Bford University Press !0ay) D. +2,,2.. /ntrodu!tion to the s%e!ial issue( $he role of disgust in anBiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders) '#) 8=C-8=D. iller) 9. ". +2,,8.. Disgust. $he gatekee%er e'otion. Hillsdale) L. J.F $he 4nalyti! Press. iller) 3. /. +155=.. The anatomy of disgust. Ca'&ridge) assa!husetts( Harvard University Press. oll) J.) de1liveira-9ouza) R.) oll) H.$.) /gna!io) H.4.) "ra'ati) /. E.) Ca%arelli) D.E. .) Eslinger) P.J. +2,,C.. $he oral 4ffiliations of Disgust( 4 Hun!tional R/ 9tudy. Cognitive and Behavioral @eurology) /) D--=-. Lavarette) C. D.) * Hessler) D. . $. +2,,D.. Disease avoidan!e and ethno!entris'( the effe!ts of disease vulnera&ility and disgust sensitivity on intergrou% attitudes. Evolution and 5uman Behavior) 2,) 2=,-2-2. Le'eroff) C.) * Rozin) P. +15-=.. 9y'%atheti! 'agi! in kosher %ra!ti!e and &elief at the li'its of the la# of 0ashrut. Je0ish %ol4lore < Ethnology 9evie0) 1) 71-72. Le'eroff) C.) * Rozin) P. +1552.. 9y'%atheti! 'agi!al &eliefs and kosher dietary %ra!ti!e( $he intera!tion of rules and feelings. Ethos= The Journal of Psychological Anthropology) 22) 5D-11C. Le'eroff) C.) * Rozin) P. +1558.. $he !ontagion !on!e%t in adult thinking in the United 9tates( $rans'ission of ger's and inter%ersonal influen!e. Ethos= The Journal of Psychological Anthropology) 22) 1C--1-D. 1latun2i) ". 1.) Gohr) J. .) 9a#!huk) C. L.) * $olin) D. H. +2,,=.. ulti'odal assess'ent of disgust in !onta'ination-related o&sessive-!o'%ulsive disorder. Behaviour 9esear!h and $hera%y) 8C) 2D7-2=D. 1latun2i) ".) * !0ay) D. +2,,D.. /ntrodu!tion to the s%e!ial series( Disgust sensitivity in anBiety disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry) ,) 1-7. 1latun2i) ". 1. * 9a#!huk) C. L. +2,,C.. Disgust( Chara!teristi! features) so!ial 'anifestations) and !lini!al i'%li!ations. Journal of +ocial and Clinical Psychology) 2!) 572-5D2. 1latun2i) ". 1.) 3illia's) L. G.) Gohr) J. .) * 9a#!huk) C. L. +2,,C.. $he stru!ture of disgust( Do'ain s%e!ifi!ity in relation to !onta'ination ideation and eB!essive #ashing. Behaviour 9esearch and Therapy) ! ) 1,D5-1,-D.

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 1= 1latun2i) ". 1.) 3illia's) L. G.) $olin) D. H.) 9a#!hu!k) C. L.) 4&ra'o#itz) J. 9.) Gohr) J. .) et al. +in %ress.. $he disgust s!ale( /te' analysis) fa!tor stru!ture) and suggestions for refine'ent. Psychological Assessment. Pelha') ". 3.) iren&erg) . C.) * Jones) J. 0. +2,,2.. 3hy 9usie sells seashells &y the seashore( /'%li!it egotis' and 'a2or life de!isions. Journal of Personality and +ocial Psychology) /2) 8D5-8-=. Philli%s) . G. et al. +155=.. 4 s%e!ifi! neural su&strate for %er!eiving fa!ial eB%ressions of disgust. @ature) /1) 85C-85-. Pinker) 9. +155=.. 5o0 the mind 0or4s. Le# Qork( 3. 3. Lorton. Pizarro) D.) * "loo') P. +2,,=.. Disgust sensitivity and political ideology. Un%u&lished 'anus!ri%t) Cornell University. Plut!hik) R. +15-,.. Emotion= A psychoevolutionary synthesis. Le# Qork( Har%er * Ro#. Po#er) .) * Dalgleish) $. +155=.. Cognition and Emotion= %rom order to disorder. East 9usseB) U0( Psy!hology Press +Ga#ren!e Erl&au'.. Rosen) 4.) * Rozin) P. +1557.. Lo# you see it....Lo# you donRt( $he %res!hool !hildRs !on!e%tion of invisi&le %arti!les in the !onteBt of dissolving. Developmental Psychology) 21) 7,,-711. Rozin) P. +155,.. @etting to like the &urn of !hili %e%%er( "iologi!al) %sy!hologi!al and !ultural %ers%e!tives. /n ". @. @reen) J. R. ason * . R. 0are +Eds..) Chemical senses) >olume 2= -rritation +%%. 271-2D5.. Le# Qork( ar!el Dekker. Rozin) P. +155=.. oralization. /n 4. "randt * P. Rozin +Eds... ;orality and health +%%. 7=58,1. Le# Qork( Routledge. Rozin) P. +2,,D.. Do'ain denigration and %ro!ess %referen!e in a!ade'i! %sy!hology. Perspectives on Psychological +cience) ') 7DC-7=D. Rozin) P. +2,,=.. EB%loring the lands!a%e of 'odern a!ade'i! %sy!hology( Hinding and filling the holes. American Psychologist.#2) =C8-=DD. Rozin) P. +2,,-.. Hedoni! >ada%tationA( 9%e!ifi! ha&ituation to disgust<death eli!itors as a result of disse!ting a !adaver. Judg'ent and De!ision aking +in %ress.. Rozin) P.) * Hallon) 4. E. +15-=.. 4 %ers%e!tive on disgust. Psychological 9evie0) 1!) 27-81. Rozin) P.) Hallon) 4. E.) * andell) R. +15-8.. Ha'ily rese'&lan!e in attitudes to food. Developmental Psychology) 22) 7,5-718. Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) * !Cauley) C. R. +1555!.. Disgust( $he &ody and soul e'otion. /n $. Dalgleish * . Po#er +eds.. 5and$oo4 of Cognition and Emotion +P%. 825-88C.. Chi!hester) U. 0.( John 3iley. Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) * !Cauley) C. R. +1557.. Disgust. /n . Ge#is * J. Haviland +eds... 5and$oo4 of emotions +%%. C=C-C58.. Le# Qork( @uilford. Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) * !Cauley) C. R. +2,,,.. Disgust. /n . Ge#is * J. Haviland +eds... 5and$oo4 of emotions) second edition +%%. D7=-DC7.. Le# Qork( @uilford. Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) !Cauley) C. R.) Dunlo%) G.) * 4sh'ore) . +1555a.. /ndividual differen!es in disgust sensitivity( Co'%arisons and evaluations of %a%er-and-%en!il versus &ehavioral 'easures. Journal of 9esearch in Personality) ) 77,-7C1.

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 1Rozin) P.) Haidt) J.) !Cauley) C. R.) * /'ada) 9. +155=.. $he !ultural evolution of disgust. /n H. . a!&eth +ed... %ood preferences and taste= Continuity and change :%%. DC--2.. 1Bford) U.0.( "erghahn. Rozin) P.) Go#ery) G.) /'ada) 9.) * Haidt) J. +1555&.. $he C4D triad hy%othesis( 4 'a%%ing &et#een three 'oral e'otions +!onte'%t) anger) disgust. and three 'oral !odes +!o''unity) autono'y) divinity.. Journal of Personality < +ocial Psychology) ,#) C=8C-D. Rozin) P.) ark#ith) .) * !Cauley) C. R. +1558.. $he nature of aversion to indire!t !onta!t #ith other %ersons( 4/D9 aversion as a !o'%osite of aversion to strangers) infe!tion) 'oral taint and 'isfortune. Journal of A$normal Psychology) '2 ) 85C-C,8. Rozin) P.) ill'an) G.) * Le'eroff) C. +15-D.. 1%eration of the la#s of sy'%atheti! 'agi! in disgust and other do'ains. Journal of Personality and +ocial Psychology) "2) =,7-=12. Rozin) P.) * Le'eroff) C. J. +155,.. $he la#s of sy'%atheti! 'agi!( 4 %sy!hologi!al analysis of si'ilarity and !ontagion. /n J. 9tigler) @. Herdt) * R. 4. 9h#eder +Eds..) Cultural psychology= Essays on comparative human development +%%. 2,C-272.. Ca'&ridge) England( Ca'&ridge University Press. Rozin) P.) Le'eroff) C.) Horo#itz) .) @ordon) ".) * Voet) 3. +155C.. $he &orders of the self( Conta'ination sensitivity and %oten!y of the 'outh) other a%ertures and &ody %arts. Journal of 9esearch in Personality) 21) 71--78,. Rozin) P.) * 9!hiller) D. +15-,.. $he nature and a!:uisition of a %referen!e for !hili %e%%er &y hu'ans. ;otivation and Emotion) !) ==-1,1. Rozin) P.) * 9ingh) G. +1555.. $he 'oralization of !igarette s'oking in 4'eri!a. Journal of Consumer Behavior) /) 721-77=. 9!haller) .) * Leu&erg) 9. +2,,=.. $he nature in %re2udi!e+s.. 9u&'itted 'anus!ri%t 9!herer) 0. R.) * 3all&ott) H. @. +1558.. Eviden!e for universality and !ultural variation of differential e'otion res%onse %atterning. Journal of Personality < +ocial Psychology) ##) 71,-72-. 9!hienle) 4.) 9!hafer) 4.) 9tark) R.) 3alter) ".) Hranz) .) * Valtl) D. +2,,7.. Disgust sensitivity in %sy!hiatri! disorders( 4 :uestionnaire study. Journal of @ervous and ;ental Disease) '1') -71?-78. 9h#eder) R. 4.) u!h) L. C.) aha%atra) .) * Park) G. +155=.. $he T&ig threeT of 'orality +autono'y) !o''unity) divinity.) and the T&ig threeT eB%lanations of suffering. /n( 4. "randt * P. Rozin +eds... ;orality and health. +%%. 115-1D5.. Le# Qork( Routledge. 9iegal) . +15--.. ChildrenRs kno#ledge of !ontagion and !onta'ination as !auses of illness. Child Development) "1) 17C7-17C5. 9olo'on) 9.) @reen&erg) J.) * Pysz!zynski) $. +1551.. 4 terror 'anage'ent theory of so!ial &ehavior( $he %sy!hologi!al fun!tions of self-estee' and !ultural #orldvie#s. /n . P. Panna +Ed..) Advances in Experimental +ocial Psychology= >ol. 2!. +%%. 57-1C5. Le# Qork( 4!ade'i! Press. 9%rengel'eyer) R. Qoung) 4.3.) Calder )4. J. 0arnat) 4.) Gange) H.) Ho'&erg) V.) et al. +155D.. Goss of disgust( %er!e%tion of fa!es and e'otions in Huntington;s disease. Brain) ''1)

Disgust in the 21st C. -- 15 1D8=-1DDC. 9tark) R.) 3alter) ".) 9!hienle) 4.) and Vaitl) D. +2,,C.. Psy!ho%hysiologi!al !orrelates of disgust and disgust sensitivity. Journal of Psychophysiology) '1) C,-D,. $ho'as) 0. +15-7.. ;an and the natural 0orld. Changing attitudes in England '"22A/22. Gondon( Penguin. $o'kins) 9. 9. +15D7.. Affect) imagery) consciousness= >ol. 2. The negative affects. Le# Qork( 9%ringer. Wheatley, T., & Haidt, J. +2,,C.. Hy%noti!ally indu!ed disgust 'akes 'oral 2udg'ents 'ore severe. Psychological +cience) '#) =-,-=-8 3oody) 9. R.) * $ea!h'an) ". 4. +2,,,.. /nterse!tion of disgust and fear( Lor'ative and %athologi!al vie#s. Clinical Psychology= +cience and Practice) ,) 251?711. Phong) C-".) * Gil2en:uist) 0. +2,,D.. 3ashing a#ay your sins( $hreatened 'orality and %hysi!al !leansing. +cience) ' ) 18C1-18C2.