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Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project


School of Urban Planning, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Report on Urban Household Water Use Pilot Survey in Beijing and Tianjin
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Summary Introduction Current State of Knowledge Study Area Methodology Interim Results Area for Future Research Conclusions

This report, a pilot survey, summarizes the characteristics of urban water use of 32 sample households, which were visited in the pilot survey from May 18 to June 28, 1999 in municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. 11 samples are in Tianjin and 21 samples are in Beijing. Information from this pilot study indicates that the urban residents in both Beijing and Tianjin are still conservative in water use. There is a difference between the young and old generations. The average water use in typical urban housing per resident, however, is some 3 cubic meters each month. Beijing and Tianjin have a good and cheap municipal water supply service. • 100 percent of the sample households have the indoor tap water service as their major source of household water. • Average family pays less than 1 percent of their monthly income for the water bill, which includes the wastewater disposal charge. • 100 percent of the sample households are metered, even though, the meters are neither read on a regularly and individually base nor directly by the water supply company. • Most of the sample families do not have any type of water conservation measure. Watersaving incentives such as normal water fee rebate is not appealing to them. The families, however, would like to use as much less water as possible • The majority of the households are satisfactory with the current water supply in terms of water quality, taste, color and pressure.

The per capita annual water resource in Beijing .a situation that is clearly contrary to sustainable development of the sector. • How much water does different type of household use? • What do they use the water for? . Some of the important aspects are: • Most of the families are very worried about the further deterioration of the water quality. • Public information on water shortage is insufficient with the regard to the sever resource shortage situation in the region. On the other hand.for example. A more advanced and hassle free billing method such as smart card which is widely used in electricity company is always mentioned by the residents • The maintenance of the current system in both Beijing and Tianjin is poor. They are willing to pay more to prevent the future water pollution • Current billing system is not accurate enough to reflect the actual usage. municipal water planning are facing an ever strong pressure. Introduction Beijing and Tianjin which are two most important cities in China are located in the most water short regions in China. municipal water planner and engineers have relied on very simplistic assumptions about what determines per capita water use and equity to plan municipal water use.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. Public information program should have a clear definition of purpose. which is less than one eighth of the national average and one thirty second of the world average. On one hand. The current standard was adopted in 1986. Canada There is still a lot of room left to be improved with the current system. as well as the increasing water shortage. With the rapid improvement of living standard in Beijing in recent years. serious water pollution further compromises the scare water resource. Montreal. McGill University. rapid and high level of urbanization in the region put a strong pressure on the already poorly managed water supply system. and use of appropriate measures to deliberate the intended message. is only 300 cubic meters. For many years. The water quality in end uses after travelling through the zinc-plating cast iron water pipe system is much lower than that just pumped out of the water plant.

The specific objective of this survey is to evaluate household water use with regard to the increasing living standard and the deleting water resources. household water use behavior as well as household’s ability to cope with water shortage. urban water schemes and water-saving initiatives often fail to achieve the goals set for the amount of water produced. which are also higher than the national average of 34. which marked the opening of the urban system to the farmers. Montreal. Canada • How much do households pay for water? • What does that payment represent a proportion of household income? • What is the amount of water that is sufficient to maintain certain living standard corresponding to the economic level? Questions such as these needed to be answered in order to carry out efficient water planning. According to Chinese Merchandise Price Index and Urban Household Income and Spending Statistics in 1997. By empirical investigation and analytical study. balance supply and demand facilitate a sustainable water use.4.16. Current State of Knowledge For a long time.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning.8 sets. . McGill University. In fact.4 and 96. Many water gush apparatus become the routine equipment in households. Since the urban water supply just became a problem in recent years. the systematic survey which aims to understand how and where urban household use water like this has never been pursued. Coupled with the rapid economic development in recent two decades are the unprecedented urbanization process and the great improvement of the urban living standard. the washing machine owned by per 100 urban households in Beijing and Tianjin were 101. the residential water use accounts for very small portion in the total water consumption. which are higher than the national average of 90 sets. water in Chinese cities has been taken as the real public good and a necessity to all the urban residents. The electrical water heaters in 100 urban families in Beijing and Tianjin are 52 and 39. this research will provide policy relevant information and substantial data for municipal water planning in a timely fashion. because of the lack of adequate data on household water demand. the efficiency of water use and proportion of costs recouped. These translate into the rapid increase in water consumption in urban area. Water supply issue has never been a problem until and after 1980’s especially after 1984.

29 percent of its total population. Study Area 1. Tianjin has a population of 899.9 percent (1998 Statistics of the Designated Cities and Their Population). the proposed survey will have wide policy implications.4 hundred million RMB Yuan ( USD $108. environmental and uncounted for water use.7 square kilometers. Average household size is 2. 2nd industry 51. 3rd Industry 54. In 1997. Montreal. average household size is 3.86 persons. Beijing Beijing is the capital city of China with a population of 10. Tianjin Tianjin is one of the three independent metropolitan areas directly under the administration of the central government. residential.1%. According to the Master Plan of Beijing. 2.4 hundred millions) which consists of 1st industry 6%. its GDP is 1810. GDP amounted 1240. Canada But in terms of its long-term impact on the water resource and importance to the general public health of household water supply.5%.85 millions and the administrative area of 16807.1 hundred million Yuan ( USD $218.018 million cubic meters by 1997. .8 millions with an administration areas of 11. there are 5 water plants in Tianjin with a daily water supply capacity of 2.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. (1998 Beijing Yearbooks) Beijijng has an urbanization level of 66.8%.67 percent.( Tianjin Water Supply Company Statistics 1999) By the long-range forecasting 1 Municipal water use in Chinese includes the urban industrial. Per capital municipal water consumption1 will increase from 247 liters in 1990 to 315 liters and 360 liters by the year 2000 and 2010. There are 9 water plants in Beijing with a daily supply capacity of 3. McGill University.16 persons. If the city can manage to keep the current consumption level.03 million cubic meters. Residential water consumption only is usually one third to one half of the municipal number.08 Hundred Million) which consists of 1st Industry 4. commercial.(1998 Tianjin Yearbooks) Tianjin’s urbanization level is 56.9%. 3rd industry 42.8 square kilometers. By the end of 1998. the total water demand by year 2000 and 2010 will be 43 and 49 hundred millions cubic meters respectively. In 1997.7%. which is much higher than the national average of 23. there will still a water shortage of 5 and 10 hundred million cubic meters in a normal by the year 2000 and 2010.919. 2nd Industry 40.

The households were randomly chosen from those housing districts. McGill University. They are high. Montreal.67 and 56. The average interview lasts some thirty minutes.3 percent and infill building 9.76 hundred millions cubic meters2.story). which are representatives of the major urban settlement patterns in Chinese cities.story). multi-story housing (less than 7. The forecasted water shortage will be 8. the full-scale survey and the final report. Four residential building typologies. the pilot survey. . Interim Results 1. multi-story housing (less than 7 -story) and the high-rise housing will remain to be the major urban housing pattern in Chinese cities. courtyard or two to three stories housing and infill housing (less than 7. the development of questionnaire. multistory building which is low than seven-story accounts for 40. viz. 2 The water demand forecasted includes the agricultural use in all its rural districts and counties in the jurisdiction of Tianjin.8percent. Directly in door interview with the major family members was used in the pilot survey by the trained Chinese collages according to the questionnaire. Building Type (BTYPE) : The sample households live in four different types of residential buildings which are typical in urban area.54 hundred millions cubic meters by the year 2000 and 2010 respectively. High-rise building accounts for 43.6 percent .3 percent respectively. The construction time ranges of the sampled housing types were varied from 1960’s to 1990’s. old courtyard or one to three stories traditional building 6.. According to Chinese housing design standard and long term policy. Questionnaire was written in both Chinese and English. total demand by the year 2000 and 2010 will be 38. were selected in Beijing and Tianjin. Methodology The survey consists of four stages of the works. One of the residential districts – Huayuan for example in Tianjin was just finished in 1998.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. Canada of the Tianjin Master Plan which is under the revision.64 and 12.rise housing (higher than 7 with elevator).

self-employed as well as the employee in the service industry. Only 6. retirees.6% are clerks. 3. Only 12. while another 15.2 yuan on electricity and 70. 4. Household Socioeconomic Data 3.3 Age of the building (SE03): The majority of the buildings were built after 70’s. 3.6 Family type (PDFTYPE): 75% of the sample households are small nuclear families.1 Source of household water (AS05): 100% of the sample households have the indoor tap water service as their major source of household water.8% have less than RMB 3. 3. 28.4% of the family heads are professionals.5 Family with or without baby (PDBABY): 87.5% of the households have a baby.000 yuan.5%) have a university education. 2. Montreal. 31% are privately owned. 2. 2. with an average age of 51 years old.1 Housing ownership (SE01): 50% of the housings are owned by companies and institutions in which the heads of families work. Household Profile Data 2.6% are illiterates.5% of the visited households do not have a baby who is defined as a child younger than three years old.3 Age of the family head (PDHA) : Age of the family heads range from 27 years old to 86 years old . while 25% are extended families with three generations under one roof. 2.2 Education level of the family head (PDHE) : The majority of the family heads ( 62. those after 1990 are 46.1 Occupation of the family head (PDHO) : 34. .3% of the families have an annual income per person more than RMB 8. 3. 15. McGill University.2% own a master’s degree.4 Family size (PDFS): Average family has 3.8 yuan on household water. 2. Less than 7% of each group are blue-collar workers.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning.6% just finish high school. Water Amenities and Service Data 4.000 – 8. 64.8%. of which those constructed between 70 – 80’s are 50%. Canada 2. 18.1% are officers.7 yuan on telephone service.000 yuan and 25% of the families are between RMB 5.000 yuan.4 Monthly utility expenses (SE04): The sample families spend 15.2 Average annual income per person (SE02): 56. 15.2 persons with the maximum one has six members while the minimum one has only one person.

43.6% of the sample families depend upon the tap water for daily drinking purpose. 18.8% of the families think that the current water taste is excellent.1% have dishwashers.1%.6% of the families use washing machine each week. Only 28. There are 21. McGill University. 96.4 Way of bathing (AS08): 84. while 15.1% do two loads.7% bad.9% of the family members take a shower once a week.8% of them usually only do one load of laundry. while 40. 28.5% good and 18.9% view it very good. 40.68 liters of water each day.5 Time of bathing (AS09): The majority of the family members (62.5% of the households.3 Bathing frequency (AS07): 34. 43. 21.10 The Current Water Supply (AS 15): • Quality (AS15T): Only 3. 53. pure water and distilled water used for drinking. 4.8% have flushing toilets. 21.4% of them take forty minutes to an hour to finish each bathing. Only 9.6% of them wash every two days and another 15. Color (AS15C): 15.9% washing machines.2 Water using appliances (AS06): 90% of the families have showers. 37.8% of the families wash their clothes everyday by hand. 4. Other appliances such as electrical waterheaters is only popular among 37.8 Household Drinking Water (AS12): 90.1% of the families rank the current water quality excellent. Only 3.4% of the households have other sources of water such as bottled mineral water. Only 15.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. • • Taste (AS15T): 18.6% of the households go laundry every three days and most of them do not using washing machine neither.9% very good. 21. .8% good and 18. 4.8% think it is bad.8% think the teste is bad. The variance among seasons especially between winter and summer is great. 4. 4. Canada 4. 31.7 Laundry Load (AS11): For those households using the washing machine.1% have handbasins. 4.6% of them think it is very good.6% of the households view the current tap water color as excellent.6 Laundry Frequency (AS10): 43. 4.9 The Amount of daily Drinking Water (AS13): The sample families drink an average 5.6% take a shower every three days. Montreal.9% bathtubs.1% of them take less than ten minutes. while 9.3% of the family members take a shower once a day. 4.4% of the families using shower while 12.3% of them view it good.5% of the household choosing tub bathing and other ways of bathing accounts for only 3.5%) take twenty to thirty minutes to finish their showers. 93.

4. The minimum usage is three tons and maximum consumption is fifty-five tons respectively. etc.8% of them do not have.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. 5. 4.2% of the meters are read either irregularly or by employment companies.12 Leaking tap (AS17): 75% of the families do not have the leaking taps and only 25% of them suffer from tap leakage.13 Brown Water (AS18): 40. Household Water Use Behavior And Perception Data 5.4% of the visited household agree that the current water pressure is excellent.16 Household Monthly Water Consumption (AS22): Each household consumes an average of fifteen tons of water every month. another 48.4% of meters of families are read monthly. 3. 21. . 21.3% of the families think it is bad. 4. flower watering.5% of the households use the water for drinking. bathing. Only 6.2 Water Conservation at Household Level (WB28): 37.11 Number of faucets (AS16): Each of the sample family has an average 4 taps with the maximum of eight and minimum of two.3% of the households can have a maintenance in a timely-fashion way.15 Meter Reading (AS20): 48. laundering and toilet washing.1% of the households use the water for car washing. 50% of them use water for flower watering as well except for the above purposes. 4.9% of the families do their own plumbing works. Only 3. Canada • Pressure (AS15P): 59. while 21. 5. Montreal.1 Utility of Household Water (WB23): 37. McGill University. cooking.9% very good.4% meters read every two months. 62.7% of the families have the brown water running out of their taps after the interruption of the water supply for certain hours. 4. 4.5% of the families do not have any of those measures.14 Plumbing Maintenance (AS19): 56.5% of the households have the water-saving measures such as reuse of the ‘sullage’ or ‘grey water’ for toilet washing.

service quality 18.3% of them think it is very good.4% of them express that the rate is too low.3 Existing Water Supply Service (WP29): 28. 5. While 15. McGill University. while 12. reliability 6.8% of the families regard the water rate is too high. Montreal. 5. 59.5% is good and 3.6 Comparing with other Utility Payments (WP32): By comparing with other utility payments such as electricity fee.1% of the families think the existing water supply service is excellent. 18. 5.6% of the households think the priority should be given to maintenance. 12. telephone charge.5% of the families agree that water quality needed to be improved in the future.8 Aspects needed to be improved Right Away (WP34): 53.5%.4%. Canada 5.6% of the families think the existing water rate is too high. 5.8% think it is too low.1% is bad.3%. 75% of them think the rate is normal and 9. 5.8% of the families express that they will just use enough water to meet their normal daily need and will make every effort to save as much water as they can.5% of the household think the aspect needed improvement is water pressure. 56.5% think it is the billing system that needs to be upgraded. 12. and fee charging system 37. .4% of them think it is normal and another 18.1% of the families rank the water quality as the most needed aspects to be improved right away.8%.7 Aspects needed to be improved (WP33): 62.4 Water Rate (WP30): Half of the families do not know the existing water rate per ton. Other aspects are water rate 9.9 Water-saving Incentive (WP35): 40.6% of the families will participate into an water-saving incentive program in which the households using water less than certain amount say three tons per person per month will receive certain amount (ten to twenty percent) of the water fee rebate.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning.8% and maintenance 18. 5.5 Water Rate (WP31): Only 15. Another 43.

9% of them hope the extra revenue can be used to improve water quality. 5.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. 21.8% of the families are aware of the water shortage in the region.5% of them are will pay between 101 to 200 yuan. 18.9% of the households will not care about any percentage of the rebate. McGill University.14 Awareness of the Water Shortage (WP40): 68.17 Expense assumed (WP43): 18. Only 9.15 Water Conservation Propaganda (WP41): 81. 5. 71. 5.2 yuan.8% of the families willing to pay a maximum of water rate per cubic meter of 1.3% of the families willing to pay more if the water supply companies will future improve their service such as providing even higher quality water.5% of the families will try to use less water if the rebate rate is more than 30%.11 Willingness to Pay More (WP37): 81. 37. 5.16 Water Conservation Program (WP 42): 90.6% f the families are willing to take part into the water conservation program such as retrofit of water using appliances with the subsidy of government.13 Extra Revenue (WP39): 75% of the families wish the water supply companies can utilize the extra revenue to prevent water pollution. Montreal.9% eager to use the money to upgrade management system. 21.4% of them willing to pay more than two yuan per cubic meter of water. 6.8% for reliability and water pressure respectively. 5.5 RMB yuan. While 46.9% willing to pay 1. Areas for Future Research . 5.8% between 201 to 300 yuan. 18.10 Rebate Rate (WP36): 12.8% of the families are willing to pay more than 500 RMB yuan. Canada 5. 5.3% of the household notice some forms of water conservation advertisements either by media or posters.3% 401 to 500 yuan respectively.3% between 301 to 400 yuan and another 6.12 Maximum Water Rate (WP38): 43.

Montreal. the major factors that affect the urban residential water use can not be clearly defined. The small sample size limits the scope of the conclusions. Canada The pilot survey. An analytical model should be built in future survey analysis in order to capture the general picture of urban residential water use and demand pattern as well as their possible trend. McGill University. Because of the limited analysis which is just the frequency counts for each answers.Sustainable Water Resources Management in Beijing and Tianjin Region Water Demand Estimation 1999 CIDA Funded Project Team School of Urban Planning. the findings in this report need to be further verified in the full-scale survey. (Please refer to the questionnaire review for specific revisions) The format of the questionnaire can be also improved to include coded answers that can be directly filled out during the interview in order to minimize the coding workload after the survey. is a preliminary study per se which serves its purpose mainly to check the validity and relevance of each question for the pre-designed questionnaire. Therefore. Conclusions The pilot survey indicated that the questionnaire in general could effectively induce the necessary information to understand the urban household water use. as its name suggests. . There are several questions such as those concerning with the water shortage situation need either future modification either reconstructed or just writing them off.