You are on page 1of 24

SYLLABUS OVERVIEW

CONTENTS
MODULE 1: OVERVIEW
CHAPTER 1 The Investment Industry: A Top-Down View 6 4

MODULE 2: ETHICS AND REGULATION


CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 Ethics and Investment Professionalism Regulation and Supervision

MODULE 3: TOOLS AND INPUTS


CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 Financial Statements Quantitative Concepts Microeconomics Macroeconomics International Trade and Foreign Exchange

MODULE 4: INVESTMENT INSTRUMENTS


CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 Equity Securities Debt Securities Derivatives Alternative Investments

12

MODULE 5: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE


CHAPTER 13 Structure of the Investment Industry CHAPTER 14 Investment Vehicles and Structures CHAPTER 15 Investment Market Characteristics

15

MODULE 6: INDUSTRY CONTROLS


CHAPTER 16 Investment Industry Documentation CHAPTER 17 Risk Management CHAPTER 18 Performance Evaluation

18

MODULE 7: SERVING CLIENT NEEDS


CHAPTER 19 Investor Needs and Investment Policy CHAPTER 20 Asset Allocation CHAPTER 21 Active and Passive Investment Management

20

EXAM WEIGHTING

22

MODULE 1
OVERVIEW It is about getting to the heart and the core purpose of the investment industry its vital role in the world: from helping people save for the future to funding schools, hospitals, roads and other essentials. The benefits this brings when done well (ethically and all parts working together) help serve society.

CHAPTER 1 THE INVESTMENT INDUSTRY: A TOP-DOWN VIEW


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Explain how an economy benefits from the existence of the investment industry; Explain how an individual benefits from the existence of the investment industry; Describe types and functions of participants that collectively comprise the structure of the investment industry; Describe forces that affect the evolution of the investment industry.

MODULE 2
ETHICS AND REGULATION This module focuses on the essential foundations for the investment world ethics and regulation. The firm ground on which we build for our clients: trust, reputation, confidence and value the essentials of a strong and healthy client-focused industry.

CHAPTER 2 ETHICS AND INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALISM


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe the need for ethics in the investment industry; Identify obligations that individuals in the investment industry have to clients, prospective clients, employers, and co-workers; Describe the relevance of ethics to individuals that work in the investment industry; Identify the elements of the CFA Institute Code of Ethics; Explain the standards of practice (professional principles) that are based on the CFA Institute Code of Ethics; Describe consequences of conduct that is unethical or unprofessional; Describe a framework for making ethical decisions.

CHAPTER 3 REGULATION AND SUPERVISION


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe objectives of regulation; Describe a regulatory process and the importance of each step in the process; Identify specific types of regulation and describe the reasons for each; Describe a firms obligations to consumers and related elements of corporate policies and procedures; Describe potential consequences of inadequate regulation and of failure to comply with regulations and corporate policies and procedures.

MODULE 3
TOOLS AND INPUTS This is about understanding how the (economic) world works - the big picture and the fine detail. How the actions of individuals, corporations and governments play out at micro, macro and international levels, how this translates to a companys finances, and how to get a clearer understanding of what this all means.

CHAPTER 4 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Compare information provided by the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement; Compare types of assets, liabilities, and equity; Explain links between the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement; Distinguish between profit and net cash flow; Identify and compare cash flow classifications of operating, investing, and financing activities; Explain the usefulness of ratio analysis for financial statements; Identify and interpret ratios used to analyze a companys liquidity, profitability, financing, shareholder return, and shareholder value.

CHAPTER 5 QUANTITATIVE CONCEPTS


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define the concept of interest; Compare simple and compound interest; Describe effects of time and discount rate on value; Explain the relevance of the net present value in valuing financial investments; Explain uses of mean, median, mode, range, percentile, and standard deviation; Describe and interpret the characteristics of a normal distribution; Describe and interpret correlation.

CHAPTER 6 MICROECONOMICS
After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define economics and the concept of scarcity; Differentiate between macroeconomics and microeconomics; Explain factors that affect quantity demanded and quantity supplied; Describe market equilibrium; Describe and interpret price and income elasticities of demand and their effects on quantity and revenue; Describe how demand for a good is affected by substitute and complementary goods and by market supply; Distinguish between economic profit and accounting profit; Explain production levels and costs, contrast fixed and variable costs, and explain the law of diminishing returns; Identify factors that affect pricing; Compare types of industry structure: perfect competition, pure monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly.

CHAPTER 7 MACROECONOMICS
After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe why macroeconomic considerations are important to an investment firm and how macroeconomic information may be used; Define gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita; Identify basic components of GDP; Describe economic growth and factors that affect it; Describe phases of a business cycle and their characteristics; Explain the global nature of business cycles; Describe economic indicators and their uses and limitations; Define inflation, deflation, stagflation, and hyperinflation and describe their effects on consumers, businesses, and investments; Describe and compare monetary and fiscal policy; Explain limitations of monetary policy and fiscal policy.

10

CHAPTER 8 INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define imports and exports; Explain the need for and benefit of international trade; Describe comparative advantages among countries; Describe the flows of goods, services, and capital in international trade; Define the balance of payments and explain the relationship between the current account and the capital account; Compare fixed versus floating exchange rate systems; Describe basic functions of the foreign exchange market; Compare spot and forward transactions; Describe factors that cause appreciation and depreciation of currencies.

11

MODULE 4
INVESTMENT INSTRUMENTS This module covers the basic investment options, what they are and their purpose - from conventional equities and bonds to more specialized investments such as real estate and derivatives.

12

CHAPTER 9 EQUITY SECURITIES


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe characteristics of equity securities; Compare the risk and return characteristics of types of equity securities; Distinguish between preferred stock and common stock; Compare the risk and return differences between investing in a preferred stock and in a common stock; Describe global depository receipts; Describe the characteristics of a convertible bond; Describe differences in voting rights and other ownership characteristics among different equity classes; Describe approaches to valuing common stock; Describe corporate actions that affect a companys shares outstanding; Distinguish between an initial public offering (IPO) and a seasoned or secondary equity offering.

CHAPTER 10 DEBT SECURITIES


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe the basic types and characteristics of debt securities; Identify issuers of debt securities; Explain default risk and describe the seniority ranking of debt securities; Describe characteristics of fixed-rate bonds, floatingrate bonds, and zero-coupon bonds; Describe characteristics of bonds with embedded provisions, such as callable bonds, putable bonds, convertible bonds, inflation-linked bonds, and structured debt securities; Explain risks of investing in debt securities; Describe the discounted cash flow approach to valuing debt securities; Explain the relationship between a bonds price and its yield to maturity; Describe credit spreads.

13

CHAPTER 11 DERIVATIVES
After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define a derivative contract and describe the uses of derivatives contracts; Distinguish between forwards, futures, options, and swaps; Describe the relation between a derivative instrument and its underlying; Distinguish between long and short positions in derivative contracts; Describe characteristics of derivative contracts; Compare forward and futures contracts; Describe option contracts and factors that affect option values; Describe swap contracts.

CHAPTER 12 ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe advantages and limitations of alternative investments; Describe private equity investments; Describe real estate investments; Describe commodity investments.

14

MODULE 5
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE The industry is complex and highly interdependent. This module looks at how the industry helps us invest, who the participants are and what they do, the different markets where investments take place, and the investment products themselves.

15

CHAPTER 13 STRUCTURE OF THE INVESTMENT INDUSTRY


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Identify and describe types of individual and institutional investors; Describe needs served by the investment industry; Describe services provided by the investment industry, including financial planning, investment advisory, investment information, trading, and custodial and depository services; Compare passive and active management, and describe approaches used by active investment managers to design their investment strategies; Identify types of financial intermediaries, including deposit-taking institutions, finance corporations, securitizers, and insurance companies, and explain their role in the investment industry; Distinguish between buy- and sell-side firms in the investment industry; Distinguish between front-, middle-, and back-office functions in the investment industry; Identify positions and responsibilities for firms in the investment industry; Describe aspects of institutional investors investment processes.

CHAPTER 14 INVESTMENT VEHICLES AND STRUCTURES


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Explain the purpose of security market indices, identify their types, and describe uses of security market indices in the investment industry; Compare investing through direct investments in securities and assets with investing through indirect investments; Describe structured investment products, including linked notes, equity-linked annuities, and exchange traded notes; Distinguish among closed-end funds, openend mutual funds, exchange traded funds, and unit investment trusts and identify their relative advantages and limitations; Describe the characteristics of hedge funds; Describe the characteristics of funds of funds; Explain the differences between separate accounts and commingled accounts; Compare investment in taxable and tax-advantaged accounts; Compare defined contribution and defined benefit pension schemes.

16

CHAPTER 15 INVESTMENT MARKET CHARACTERISTICS


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Distinguish between primary and secondary markets; Identify characteristics of quote-driven, order-driven, and brokered markets; Compare the roles of brokers and dealers; Explain the roles of exchanges and alternative trading systems; Compare long, short, and levered positions in terms of risk and potential return; Compare different orders and order instructions; Describe steps for clearing and settlement of trades; Identify types of transaction costs; Describe market efficiency in terms of operations, information, and allocation.

17

MODULE 6
INDUSTRY CONTROLS Controls are critical in helping ensure everything runs smoothly. In the fast moving world of investments and risk it is essential to understand how systems and controls are used in the industry to ensure the client is properly served.

18

CHAPTER 16 INVESTMENT INDUSTRY DOCUMENTATION


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define a document; Describe objectives of documentation; Describe document classification systems; Describe types of internal documentation; Compare internal and external documentation; Describe types of external documentation; Describe document management.

CHAPTER 18 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe a process of performance evaluation; Compare measures of return, including arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and time-weighted rates of return; Compare measures of risk, including standard deviation, downside deviation, and reward-to-risk ratios; Describe uses of benchmarks; Explain the selection of a benchmark; Explain measures of relative performance, including tracking error and the information ratio; Explain the concept of alpha; Explain uses and processes of performance attribution.

CHAPTER 17 RISK MANAGEMENT


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Define risk and identify types of risk; State the importance of risk management; Describe a risk management process; Describe benefits and costs of risk management; Describe limitations of using models and historical information to measure risk; Define operational, compliance, and investment risks and their management.

19

MODULE 7
SERVING CLIENT NEEDS This is about focusing on clients gaining a clear understanding of their needs, circumstances, motivations and ambitions so investments can be allocated and managed in the right way for them.

20

CHAPTER 19 INVESTOR NEEDS AND INVESTMENT POLICY


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe the importance of identifying investor needs to the investment process; Describe and contrast types of investors; Explain how needs differ among investors; Describe the rationale for and structure of investment policy statements in serving client needs.

CHAPTER 21 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Compare active and passive investment management; Explain factors necessary for profitable active management; Describe how active managers attempt to identify and capture market inefficiencies.

CHAPTER 20 ASSET ALLOCATION


After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe how portfolios are constructed to address client investment objectives and constraints; Compare strategic and tactical asset allocation.

21

EXAM WEIGHTING
Questions in the examination will be allocated approximately as follows: Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 Module 7 5% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 5%

Note: These weightings may be subject to slight variation to allow for effective question trialing and to achieve an equal balance of difficulty for all candidates.

22

NOTES

23

www.cfainstitute.org/claritas
24
The Claritas mark is registered in several countries around the world.

version 1.3