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CH16 Exam Prep

Design Review Design Goal An IPv6 design suggests that all client hosts should dynamically learn their IPv6 addresses. Which tools can be used? (2) A plan shows the use of stateless Autoconfiguration. What functions should we expect the IPv6 DHCP server to perform? Possible Implementation Choices Covered in This Chapter Stateful DHCP and Stateless autoconfiguration

DNSv6 Server Addresses

Notable Questions from This Chapter to Consider During an Implementation Plan Peer Review Question Answers An implementation plan states that router IPv6 address Static Ipv6 configuration, or Static EUI-64 configuration should be assigned as obvious values, using the lowest and configuring the router interface MAC to be a simple numbers in the range per each assigned prefix. What low address. configuration methods could be used to configure these low address values? A plan calls for the use of stateless autoconfig for client Ipv6 unicast routing and an ipv6 unicast address hosts. What must be configured on the routers to support configuring on the interface attached to the LAN where this process? the hosts reside.

Implementation Plan Configuration Memory Drill Feature Configure the full global unicast address on an interface. Configure the unicast IPv6 prefix on an interface, and let the router add the interface ID. Configure an interface to find its unicast IPv6 address using stateless autoconfig. Configure an interface to enable IPv6 and use another interfaces IPv6 address as needed. Enable IPv6 on an interface and do not configure a unicast IPv6 address. Configure the link local address of an interface.

Configuration Commands / Notes Ipv6 address interface-id/length Ipv6 address prefix/length eui-64 Ipv6 address autoconfig Ipv6 address unnumbered interface Ipv6 enable Ipv6 address interface-id/length link-local

Verification Plan Memory Drill Information Needed All IPv6 routes A single line per IPv6 address Detailed information about IPv6 on an interface, including multicast addresses The MAC address used by an interface The MAC addresses of neighboring IPv6 hosts The information learned from another router in an RA message

Commands Show ipv6 route Show ipv6 int brief Show ipv6 int interface Show int interface Show ipv6 neighbors Show ipv6 router

Review all the Key Topics


Key Topics for CH16 Key Topic Description Element Figure 16-1 Conceptual view of IPv6 global routes List Rules for abbreviating IPv6 addresses List Rules about how to write IPv6 prefixes Figure 16-3 IPv6 public prefix assignment concepts List IPv6 subnetting process Figure 16-5 IPv6 subnetting concepts List Three steps used by the stateless autoconfig feature Figure 16-8 IPv6 address format when using EUI-64 Table 16-7 Comparisons of Stateful and Stateless DHCP List IPv6 address types (unicast, multicast, and anycast) Figure 16-10 Link local address format Table 16-9 Address types and prefixes Figure 16-11 NDP concepts Page Number 535 536 538 540 541 542 545 548 549 550 552 552 555

CH16 Memory Tables


Example IPv6 Prefixes and Their Meanings Term Assignment Example from Chapter 16 Registry prefix IANA to RIR 2000::/12 ISP prefix RIR to ISP 2000:1111::/32 Site prefix or global routing prefix ISP to Site 2000:1111:AAAA::48 Subnet prefix Site Engineer subnets 2000:1111:AAAA:1::/64 Although an RIR can assign a prefix to an ISP, an RIR may also assign a prefix to other internet registries, which might subdivide and assign additional prefixes, until eventually an ISP and then their customers are assigned some unique prefix.

Summary of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Addresses Method Dynamic or Static Prefix and length Host learned learned from from Stateful DHCP Dynamic Stateful DHCPv6 Stateful DHCPv6 Server Server Stateless Dynamic NDP EUI-64 autoconfig static Static Configuration Configuration configuration Static config with Static Configuration EUI-64 EUI-64

Default router learned from NDP NDP NDP NDP

DNS addresses learned from Stateful DHCP Stateless DHCP Sttateless DHCP Stateless DHCP

Details of the RS/RA Process Message Multicast destination Meaning of Multicast address

RS FF02::2 All Routers on the local-link

RA FF02::1 All Nodes on the local-link

Comparing Stateless and Stateful DHCPv6 Services Feature Stateful DHCP Remembers IPv6 address (state Yes information) of clients that make requests Assigns IPv6 address to client Yes Supplies useful information, such as Yes DNS server IP addresses Most useful in conjunction with No stateless autoconfiguration

Stateless DHCP No

No Yes Yes

Common Link-Local Multicast Addresses Type of Address Purpose Prefix Easily Seen Hex Prefix(es) Global unicast Unicast packets sent 2000::/3 2 or 3` through the public Internet Unique local Unicast packets inside one FD00::/8 FD organization Link local Packets sent in the local FE80::/10 FE8, FE9, FEA, FEB subnet Site local Deprecated; originally FEC0::/10 FEC, FED, FEE, FEF meant to be used like private IPv4 addresses Unspecified An address used when a ::/128 N/A host has no usable IPv6 address Loopback Used for software testing, ::1/128 N/A like IPv4s 127.0.0.1 IPv6 RFCs define the FE80::/10 prefix, which technically means that the first three hex digits could be FE8, FE9, FEA, or FEB. However, bit positions 11-64 of link local addresses should be 0, so in practice, link local addresses should always begin with FE80.

Common Multicast Addresses Purpose All IPv6 nodes on the link All IPv6 routers on the link OSPF messages RIP-2 messages EIGRP messages DHCP relay agents (routers that forward to the DHCP server) DHCP servers (site scope) All NTP servers (site scope)

IPv6 Address FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::5, FF02::6 FF02::9 FF02::A FF02:1:2 FF05::1:3 FF05::101

IPv4 Equivalent Broadcast N/A 224.0.0.5, 224.0.0.6 224.0.0.9 224.0.0.10 N/A N/A N/A

Router IOS IPv6 Configuration Command Reference Command ipv6 address address/length ipv6 address prefix/length eui-64

ipv6 address autoconfig ipv6 address dhcp ipv6 unnumbered interface-type number ipv6 enable ipv6 address address link-local ipv6 address address/length anycast

Description Assign static ipv6 address Assign prefix/length and let router dervie the interface-id using the link address (of the lowest numbered LAN interface if configuring a serial interface.) Configure a router interface for stateless autoconfiguration Configure a router interface to use stateful DHCP Configure a router interface to use the ipv6 address of the interface stated in the configuration Enable ipv6 on a router interface, thereby telling the router to create a link-local address Statically configuring the link-local address on a router interface. Assinging an ipv6 address as anycast

Define Key Terms


Term Global Unicast Address Link Local Address Unique Local Address Stateful DHCP Stateless DHCP Stateless Autoconfig Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) Neighbor Solicitation (NS) Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Router Solicitation (RS) Router Advertisement (RA) Definition Globally routable ipv6 address FE80::/10, local link address used for link local communication, derived by EUI-64 Ipv6 private addressing FD00::/8 Stateful DHCP is the same thing as Ipv4 DHCP keeps track of all state information while providing prefix/length/interfaceid/and DNS. NDP still provides default routers though. Only provides DNSv6 server addresses Dynamic address assignment, interface or host finds the prefix/length and default router using NDP, while the interface-id is derived using EUI-64 NDP is the protocol responsible for DAD, RS, RA, NS, NA Used like ARP Used like ARP response Used to obtain prefix/length and default router information Used to respond to an RS with prefix/length and default router information

Solicited Node Multicast Address Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) Inverse Neighbor Discovery

FF02::1:FF00:0/104 the last 24 bits are derived from the last 24 bits of every unicast address assigned to the host or interface. For each unicast address this group is joined. Host or interface sends a NS to its solicited node multicast address. If it gets a response then the unicast address is a duplicate. Used like InARP

CH17 Exam Prep


Notable Questions from This Chapter to Consider During an Implementation Plan Peer Review Question Answers A RIPng implementation plan lists two neighbor routers RIPng doest have any concept of neighbors, but the with unicast IPv6 addresses 2000::1/64 and 2001::2/64, routers will exchange routes just fine. respectively. Will this cause a neighborship issue? Same issues as in the previous row, but the plan uses EIGRP neighbors do not have to share a common EIGRP for IPv6. prefix/length to become neighbors or exchange routes A plan shows a planned config for a new router, with no Router ID IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addresses on all interfaces, and EIGRP EIGRP process shutdown for IPv6 configuration. What potential issues should you Interface configuration` look for in the configuration? (3) Same scenario as the previous row, but with OSPFv3. Router ID Interface configuration OSPF starts up already, so no need to issue a no shut The plan shows an EIGRP for IPv6 and OSPFv3 domain with All routes in the routing table will be redistributed that mutual redistribution. The configuration shows a have been leared via EIGRP. The following routes will not redistribute eigrp 1 command under the OSPF process. be redistributed: What kinds of routes should be redistributed? Which LC kinds will not? C Link Local

Implementation Plan Configuration Memory Drill Feature Assuming IPv6 routing and IPv6 addresses have already been configured, configure RIPng.

Configuration Commands / Notes Ipv6 router rip process-name Interface interface Ipv6 rip process-name Assuming IPv6 routing and IPv6 addresses have already Ipv6 router eigrp asn been configured and no IPv4 addresses exist on the router, Eigrp router-id x.x.x.x configure EIGRP for IPv6. no shut Interface interface Ipv6 eigrp asn Assuming IPv6 routing and IPv6 addresses have already Ipv6 router ospf Process-id been configured and no IPv4 addresses exist on the router, Router-id x.x.x.x configure OSPFv3. Interface interface Ipv6 ospf process-id area area Configure RIPng to redistribute routes from OSPF process 1 Redistribute OSPF 1 include-connected including subnets, and connected interfaces.

Verification Plan Memory Drill Information Needed All IPv6 routes Details about a given IPv6 prefix All routes within a given IPv6 prefix All RIP-learned IPv6 routes All next-hop IPv6 addresses used by RIP routes The interfaces on which RIP is enabled All EIGRP-learned IPv6 routes All EIGRP neighbors Summary of the EIGRP topology table OSPF router ID and SPF statistics List of OSPF neighbors All OSPF-learned IPv6 routes Interfaces enabled for OSPF and their assigned areas OSPF costs per interface Summary of the OSPF database

Commands show ipv6 route show ipv6 route address/prefix Show ipv6 route prefix/length longer-prefixes Show ipv6 route rip Show ipv6 rip next-hops Show ipv6 protocols Show ipv6 route eigrp Show ipv6 eigrp neighbors Show ipv6 eigrp topology Show ipv6 ospf Show ipv6 ospf neighbor Show ipv6 route ospf Show ipv6 ospf int brief Show ipv6 protocols Show ipv6 ospf int brief Show ipv6 ospf int interface Show ipv6 ospf database

Review all the Key Topics


Key Topics for CH17 Key Topic Description Element Table 17-3 Comparisons between RIP-2 and RIPng List Configuration steps for RIPng Table 17-5 Comparisons between EIGRP for IPv4 and EIGRP for IPv6 List Configuration steps for EIGRP for IPv6 List Decision process for choosing an EIGRP for IPv6 router ID Table 17-7 Comparisons between EIGRP for IPv4 and EIGRP for IPv6 List Additional explanations of key differences between OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 List Configuration steps for OSPFv3 List Similarities and differences with IPv4 and IPv6 redistribution Page Number 574 575 581 582 583 588 589 590 595

CH17 Memory Tables


Comparing RIP-2 to RIPng Feature Advertises routes for RIP messages use these Layer 3 / 4 protocols UDP Port Use Distance Vector Default Administrative distance Supports VLSM Can perform automatic summarization Uses Split Horizon Uses Poison Reverse 30 second periodic full updates Uses triggered updates Uses Hop Count metric Metric meaning infinity Supports route tags Multicast Update destination Authentication RIP-2 Ipv4 Ipv4 / UDP 520 Yes 120 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 16 Yes 224.0.0.9 RIP specific RIPng Ipv6 Ipv6 / UDP 521 Yes 120 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 16 Yes FF02::9 Ipv6 AH/ESP

Comparing Verification Commands: show ip and show ipv6 Function All routes All RIP learned routes Details on the routes for a specific prefix Interfaces on which RIP is enabled List of routing information sources Debug that displays sent and received Updates

IPv4 show ip route Show ip route rip Show ip route prefix/length Show ip protocols Show ip protocols Debug ip rip

IPv6 Show ipv6 route Show ipv6 route rip Show ipv6 route prefix/length Show ipv6 protocols Show ipv6 rip nexthops Debug ipv6 rip

Comparing EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 Feature Advertises routes for Layer 3 protocol for EIGRP messages Layer 3 header protocol type UDP Port Uses Successor, Feasible Successor logic Uses Dual Supports VLSM Can perform automatic summarization Uses triggered updates Uses composite metric, default using bandwidth and delay Metric meaning infinity Supports route tags Multicast Update destination Authentication

EIGRP for IPv4 Ipv4 Ipv4 88 N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2^32-1 Yes 224.0.0.10 EIGRP specific

EIGRP for IPv6 Ipv6 Ipv6 88 N/A Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes 2^32-1 Yes FF02::A Ipv6 AH/EST

Comparing EIGRP Verification Commands: show ip and show ipv6 Function show ip All routes Show ip route All EIGRP learned routes Show ip route eigrp Details on the routes for a specific prefix Show ip route prefix/length Interfaces on which EIGRP is enabled, plus Show ip protocols metric weights, variance, redistribution, maxpaths, admin distance List of routing information sources Show ip protocols Show ip eigrp neighbors Hello interval Show ip eigrp interfaces detail EIGRP database Show ip eigrp topology [alllinks] Debug that displays sent and received Updates Debug ip eigrp notifications

show ipv6 Show ipv6 route Show ipv6 route eigrp Show ipv6 route prefix-length Show ipv6 protocols

Show ipv6 eigrp neighbors Show ipv6 eigrp interfaces detail Show ipv6 eigrp topology [all-links] Debug ipv6 eigrp notifications

Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Feature Advertises routes for OSPF messages use this Layer 3 protocol IP Protocol Type Uses Link State logic Supports VLSM Process to choose RID, compared to OSPFv2 LSA flooding and aging compared to OSPFv2 Area structure compared to OSPFv2 Packet types and uses compared to OSPFv3 (Table 6-4) LSA flooding and aging compared to OSPFv2 RID based on highest up/up loopback IPv4 address, or highest other IPv4 interface address? 32-bit LSID Uses interface cost metric, derived from interface bandwidth Metric meaning infinity Supports route tags Elects DR based on highest priority, then highest RID Periodic reflooding every Multicast All SPF routers Multicast All designated routers Authentication Neighbor checks compared to OSPFv2 (table 5-5)

OSPFv2 Ipv4 Ipv4 89 Yes Yes Same Same Same Same Same Same Yes Yes 2^16-1 Yes Yes 30 minutes 224.0.0.5 224.0.0.6 OSPF specific Same

OSPFv3 Ipv6 Ipv6 89 Yes Yes Same Same Same Same Same Same Yes Yes 2^16-1 Yes Yes 30 minutes FF02::5 FF02::6 Ipv6 AH/ESP Same except no same subnet check Yes

Multiple instances per interface

No

Comparing OSPF Verification Commands: show ip and show ipv6 Function show ipv4 All OSPF learned routes Show ip route ospf Router ID, Timers, ABR, SPF statistics Show ip ospf List of routing information sources Show ip protocols Show ip ospf neighbor Interfaces assigned to each area Show ip protocols Show ip ospf int brief OSPF interfaces costs, state, area, number of Show ip ospf int brief neighbors Detailed information about OSPF interfaces Show ip ospf int interface Displays summary of OSPF database Show ip ospf database

show ipv6 Show ipv6 route ospf Show ipv6 ospf Show ipv6 ospf neighbor Show ipv6 protocols Show ipv6 ospf int brief Show ipv6 ospf int brief Show ipv6 ospf int interface Show ipv6 ospf database

Define Key Terms


Term RIP Next Generation OSPF Version 3 EIGRP for IPv6 Definition RIP for ipv6 OSPF for ipv6 EIGRP for ipv6

CH18 Exam Prep


Design Review Design Goal The design states that an Enterprise needs IPv6 support for most LANs, with a regular high-volume of IPv6 traffic. Would native IPv6, point-to-point tunnels, or multipoint tunnels seem most appropriate? The design states that an Enterprise needs IPv6 support for a set small subset of LANs but that their traffic will be regular. Would native IPv6, point-to-point tunnels, or multipoint tunnels seem most appropriate? The design states that an Enterprise needs IPv6 support for a set small subset of LANs but that their traffic will be irregular and occasional. Would native IPv6, point-to-point tunnels, or multipoint tunnels seem most appropriate? The plan calls for IPv6 tunneling so that new routers, when added to the tunnel, do not require additional configuration on existing routers. What type tunnel would you choose, and what IPv6 address ranges? Possible Implementation Choices Covered in This Chapter Native ipv6

Point-to-point tunnels

Multipoint tunnels

6to4 tunneling using the range 2002::/16

Notable Questions from This Chapter to Consider During an Implementation Plan Peer Review Question Answers The plan calls for the use of OSPFv3 along with the MCT implementation of IPv6 tunnels. What tunnel types do you GRE expect to find the sample configurations? (2) The planning diagrams show multipoint tunnels, with IPv6 ISATAP addresses that embed an IPv4 address in the last two quartets. What type of tunneling do you expect to see in the sample configurations? The plan lists a sample configuration with the command tunnel MCT mode ipv6ip under a tunnel interface. What type of tunneling is used in this case? Same question as the previous row, but the command listed as ISATAP tunnel mode ipv6ip isatap. Same question as the previous row, but the command listed is GRE tunnel mode gre ip. Same question as the previous row, but the command listed is 6to4 tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 A plan shows the use of a manually configured tunnel and an tunnel destination for the point-to-point MCT, but ISATAP tunnel. What tunnel subcommand would you expect to not the multipoint tunnel. see for the point-to-point tunnel, but not the multipoint tunnel?

Implementation Plan Configuration Memory Drill Feature Configure an IPv6 manually configured tunnel using a loopback IPv4 address. Ignore IPv6 addressing and routing configuration.

Add IPv6 addressing and routing configuration to the previous rows list. Assume EIGRP for IPv6 ASN 1 is preconfigured. Configure an IPv6 GRE tunnel using a loopback IPv4 address. Ignore IPv6 addressing and routing configuration.

Configure an IPv6 automatic 6to4 tunnel using a loopback IPv4 address. Include only IPv6 configuration required for the tunnel to pass IPv6 traffic. Assume all hosts use addresses in the 2002::/16 range.

Configuration Commands / Notes Int l1 Ip address x.x.x.x Int tunnel0 Ipv6 address Tunnel mode ipv6ip Tunnel source l1 Tunnel destination y.y.y.y Ipv6 unicast-routing Int tunnel0 Ipv6 address Ipv6 eigrp 1 Int l1 Ip address x.x.x.x Int tunnel0 Tunnel mode gre ip Tunnel source l1 Tunnel destination y.y.y.y Ipv6 unicast-routing Int l1 Ip address x.x.x.x Int tunnel0 Ipv6 address z.z.z.z Tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 Tunnel source l1 Ipv6 route 2002::/16 tunnel0 Interface tunnel0 Ipv6 address prefix/64 eui-64 Tunel mode ipv6ip isatap No ipv6 route 2002::/16 tunnel0 Ipv6 route prefix/length tunnel0 next-hop

List steps to migrate from the automatic 6to4 tunnel from the previous row to a comparable ISATAP tunnel

Verification Plan Memory Drill Information Needed Tunnel interface status for IPv6.

Tunnel interfaces IPv6 address(es). Connected routes related to the tunnel. The tunnel source and destination IPv4 addresses. Test the tunnel to see if it can pass traffic.

Commands Show ipv6 interface brief Show ipv6 interface tunnel0 Show interfaces tunnel0 Show ipv6 interface brief Show ipv6 interface tunnel show ipv6 route Show interface tunnel Ping traceroute

Review all the Key Topics


Key Topics for CH18 Key Topic Description Element Figure 18-3 Point-to-point IPv6 tunnel concept Figure 18-4 Multipoint IPv6 tunnel concept Table 18-2 Comparisons of four IPv6 tunnel types Figure 18-5 NAT-PT concepts List Manually configured tunnel configuration checklist List Configuration differences between GRE and manually configured IPv6 tunnels Table 18-3 Comparisons of manually configured tunnels and GRE tunnels Figure 18-8 Address planning for automatic 6to4 tunnels List Configuration checklist for automatic 6to4 tunnels List Comparisons of automatic 6to4 and ISATAP tunnels Figure 18-10 ISATAP tunnel logic List Modified EUI-64 rules for forming ISATAP IPv6 addresses List ISATAP tunnel configuration checklist Table 18-4 Comparisons of Automatic 6to4 and ISATAP tunnels Page Number 614 616 617 618 620 625 626 628 629 634 635 636 636 640

CH18 Memory Tables


Comparing Manual and GRE IPv6-over-IP Tunnels Manual Tunnels RFC 4213 Tunnel mode command Tunnel mode ipv6ip Passenger MTU default 1480 Supports IPv6 IGPs? Yes Forwards IPv6 multicasts? Yes Uses static configuration of tunnel Yes destination? Supports multiple passenger No protocols? Link local based on FE80::/96, plus 32 bits from tunnel source Ipv4 address GRE 2784 Tunnel mode gre ip 1476 Yes Yes Yes Yes Ipv6 EUI-64, using lowest numbered interfaces MAC address

Comparing IPv6 Multipoint Tunnels Defined by RFC or Cisco? Uses a reserved IPv6 address prefix. Supports the use of global unicast addresses? Quartets holding the IPv4 destination address. End-user host addresses embed the IPv4 destination? Tunnel endpoints IPv6 addresses encode IPv4 destination. Uses modified EUI-64 to form tunnel IPv6 addresses? Automatic 6to4 3056 Yes 2002::/16 Yes 2 and 3 Sometimes Sometimes No ISATAP 4214 No Yes 7 and 8 No Yes Yes

Define Key Terms


Term Dual stacks Network Address Translation Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) tunneling tunnel tunnel interface point-to-point tunnel multipoint tunnel ISATAP tunnel ISATAP automatic 6to4 tunnel manually configured tunnel GRE tunnel Modified EUI-64 Definition