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Lecture 11.1.1 : Connections in Buildings Lecture 11.1.2 : Introduction to Connection Design Lecture 11.2.1 : Generalities on Welded Connections Lecture 11.2.2 : Welded Connections - Basis for Weld Calculation Lecture 11.2.3 : Welded Connections - Applications of Fillet Weld Calculation Lecture 11.3.1 : Connections it! "on-#reloaded Bolts Lecture 11.3.2 : Connections it! #reloaded Bolts Lecture 11.3.3 : #articular Aspects in Bolted Connections Lecture 11.\$.1 : Anal%sis of Connections I: Basic Deter&ination of Forces Lecture 11.\$.2 : Anal%sis of Connections: Distri'ution of Forces in Groups of Bolts and Welds Lecture 11.\$.3 : Anal%sis of Connections: (ransfer of Direct (ension or Co&pression and )!ear Lecture 11.\$.\$ : Anal%sis of Connections: *esistance to +o&ent '% Co&'ined (ension and Co&pression Lecture 11., : )i&ple Connections for Buildings Lecture 11.- : +o&ent Connections for Continuous Fra&ing Lecture 11.. : #artial )trengt! Connections for )e&i-Continuous Fra&ing Lecture 11./ : )plices in Buildings

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## Lecture 11.1.1 : Connections in Buildings

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. C0+#0"2"() 0F C0""2C(I0") 3. (3#2) 0F C0""2C(I0") 3.1 Colu&n )plices 4Figure /5 3.2 Colu&n Bases 4Figure 65 3.3 )i&ple Bea&-to-Colu&n Connections 4Figure 175 3.\$ +o&ent *esisting Bea&-to-Colu&n Connections 4Figure115 3., )i&ple Bea&-to-Bea& Connections 4Figure 125 3.- +o&ent *esisting Bea&-to-Bea& Connections 4Figure135 3.. 8ori9ontal Bracing Connections 4Figure 1\$5 3./ :ertical Bracing Connections 4Figure 1,5 \$. *2;1I*2+2"() F0* 2C0"0+3 ,. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 -. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
)teel fra&e 'uildings consist of a nu&'er of different t%pes of structural ele&ents< eac! of !ic! !as to 'e properl% attac!ed to t!e neig!'ouring parts of t!e structure. (!is ill in=ol=e t!e use of se=eral for&s of connection. (!e &ain classes of connection are: i5 W!ere a c!ange of direction occurs< e.g. 'ea&-to-colu&n connections< 'ea&-to-'ea& connections and connections 'et een different &e&'ers in trusses. ii5 (o ensure &anagea'le si9es of steel or> for transportation and erection e.g. colu&ns are nor&all% spliced e=er% t o or t!ree store%s. iii5 W!ere a c!ange of co&ponent occurs< including connection of t!e steel or> to ot!er parts of t!e 'uilding< e.g. colu&n 'ases< connections to concrete cores and connections it! alls< floors and roofs. Figure 1 gi=es e?a&ples of connections it!in t!e conte?t of a &ulti-store% fra&e.

Connections are i&portant parts of e=er% steel structure. (!e &ec!anical properties of t!e connections are of great influence on t!e strengt!< stiffness and sta'ilit% of t!e !ole structure. (!e nu&'er and t!e co&ple?it% of t!e connections !a=e a decisi=e influence on t!e ti&e t!at is necessar% for t!e statical anal%sis and t!e production of dra ings. #roduction of connections< i.e. cutting< drilling and elding of &ain &e&'ers< plates< cleats and stiffeners< consu&es &uc! of t!e or> content in t!e fa'rication s!op. (!e ease it! !ic! t!e site connections can actuall% 'e &ade is a >e% factor in erection. (!us t!e selection< design and detailing of t!e connections in a 'uilding fra&e !as a =er% significant influence on costs.

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2. COMPONENTS OF CONNECTIONS
Connections in steel structures are nor&all% &ade using elds and@or 'olts. Welds Alt!oug! =arious for&s of structural elds are possi'le< fillet elding of t!e t%pe illustrated in Figure 2a is nor&all% to 'e preferred to 'utt elding as s!o n in Figure 2'< since it reAuires onl% si&ple preparation of t!e parts to 'e Boined< can usuall% 'e acco&plis!ed it! relati=el% si&ple eAuip&ent and does not reAuire special s>ills of t!e elder.

Alt!oug! elding &a% 'e conducted on site< it tends to 'e e?pensi=e for t!e follo ing reasons:

(e&porar% platfor&s it! safe access !a=e to 'e pro=ided. Wor> can 'e dela%ed unless elds are protected fro& t!e eat!er. 2lectric current !as to 'e supplied to t!e or>ing point. (e&porar% 'olts and cleats are still needed to !old &e&'ers toget!er. Cost of inspection. (!e longer erection period &eans t!at t!e client cannot ta>e o=er t!e 'uilding as Auic>l%.

## )ite Boints are< t!erefore< nor&all% &ade using 'olts.

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Bolts Depending on t!e s!ape of t!e connection and t!e location of t!e 'olts< t!e% are loaded in tension< in s!ear or in co&'ined tension and s!ear< see Figures 3 and \$.

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(o acco&&odate so&e &is&atc! in !ole distances and 'olt dia&eters< !oles are nor&all% drilled 2&& in dia&eter greater t!an t!e 'olt dia&eter 4clearance !oles5. W!ere displace&ents due to t!ese clearances are not accepta'le< t!e 'olts &a% 'e preloaded to pre=ent slip. For staticall% loaded structures< suc! as 'uildings< preloaded 'olts s!ould nor&all% 'e a=oided. (!e special treat&ent of t!e contact surfaces to o'tain a !ig! and relia'le =alue for t!e slip factor and t!e procedures to ac!ie=e t!e design preload are e?pensi=e. Other Parts In addition to 'olts and elds< ot!er parts are often also necessar% to transfer forces< e.g. plates and angle cleats. Figure , s!o s so&e e?a&ples in 'ea&-to-colu&n connections.

#otentiall% ea> areas &a% occur in connections. In t!e 'ea&-to-colu&n connection in Figure - suc! areas &a% 'e t!e colu&n flange and t!e colu&n e'. (!e trans&ission of !ig! localised forces in t!e colu&n &a% cause local %ielding and local 'uc>ling. (!ese failure &odes &a% 'e decisi=e for t!e &o&ent resistance of a connection. For e?a&ple< t!e &o&ent resistance of t!e connection s!o n in Figure - is lo er t!an t!e full plastic &o&ent of t!e 'ea&.

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If necessar%< t!e &o&ent resistance can 'e increased '% strengt!ening t!e rele=ant ea> areas of t!e connections< see Figure ..

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3. TYPES OF CONNECTIONS
For 'uildings designed to resist essentiall% static loading< including ind loads< it ill nor&all% 'e sufficient to design connections to resist forces t!at pri&aril% act in one direction onl%. 8o e=er< in seis&ic 9ones large load re=ersals &a% occur. (!is load re=ersal ill nor&all% reAuire a different approac! to t!e design of t!e load-resisting structure< leading to different for&s of connection. For &ulti-store% 'uildings t!e connections 'et een t!e &ain structural ele&ents &a% con=enientl% 'e classified as:

## Bea&-to-'ea& connections Bea&-to-colu&n connections Colu&n splices Colu&n 'ases

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Bracing connections.

(!is list does not< of course< include connections 'et een t!e &ain fra&e or> and ot!er parts of t!e structure< e.g. 'ea&s to floors< attac!&ent of t!e cladding< etc. Despite t!e different geo&etrical configurations and detailed structural reAuire&ents of t!e fi=e different t%pes< certain general functional reAuire&ents &ust al a%s 'e addressed:

(!e connections s!ould 'e strong enoug! to trans&it t!e design loads. (o t!is end< t!e% s!ould 'e arranged to trans&it internal forces fro& one &e&'er to anot!er along s&oot! load pat!s so as to a=oid se=ere stress concentrations. (!e% &ust posses t!e intended degree of fle?i'ilit% or rigidit%. (!e connecting ele&ents 4plates or cleats5 s!ould 'e arranged suc! t!at< as far as possi'le< t!e% are self-positioning< accessi'le for fi?ing 4in t!e s!op and on site5< and capa'le of pro=iding a Cgood fitC.

(!us t!e design of an% steel or> connection &ust si&ultaneousl% satisf% t!e needs of structural adeAuac%< an appropriate t%pe of 'e!a=iour and practical engineering. Clearl% it ill often 'e possi'le t!at different arrange&ents satisf% eac! of t!ese needs to differing degrees. A certain a&ount of Budge&ent and e?perience in deciding t!e relati=e i&portance of t!e different design criteria is reAuired to decide !ic! reAuire&ent s!ould 'e gi=en t!e greatest e&p!asis in a gi=en situation. 0f course< t!e designer does not !a=e a co&pletel% free c!oice as !e &ust al a%s ensure t!at t!e connection is a'le to trans&it t!e reAuired le=el of loads. 8is c!oice in t!is respect relates to t!e e?act arrange&ent selected and< per!aps< to t!e e?tent to !ic! a &ore easil% fa'ricated connection &ig!t pro=ide &ore strengt! t!an is actuall% reAuired. In t!is respect also t!e or>s!op s!ould !a=e an influence on t!e design. Its capa'ilities and eAuip&ent s!ould 'e ta>en into consideration !en detailing connections. (!erefore< t!e detailing or> s!ould 'e underta>en in consultation it! t!e or>s!op. Connections in=ol=ing tu'ular &e&'ers reAuire special care as t!e arrange&ents used for open sections &a% not si&pl% 'e adapted. (!e &ain factor is< of course< t!e li&ited access t!at pre=ents t!e use of 'olts it! nuts inside t!e tu'e. In cases !ere t!e connections &a% 'e &ade !oll% '% elding< e.g. s!op fa'rication of trusses< t!e solution is clear. 8o e=er< site Boints need particular attention< especiall% if t!e clean lines !ic! are often a factor in selecting a tu'ular configuration are to 'e preser=ed. +ore infor&ation is pro=ided in t!e Lectures in group 13. In order to gi=e an i&pression of t!e ide =ariet% of possi'le designs< t!e follo ing descriptions include figures to pro=ide e?a&ples of t!e connection t%pes &entioned a'o=e.

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## 3.1 Colu ! S"l#\$es %F#&ure '(

/.1 and /.2: (!ese are elded splices. W!ere t!ere are different t!ic>nesses of t!e plates< c!eaper fillet elds can 'e used. It s!ould 'e recalled t!at elding &a% not 'e t!e &ost appropriate connection &eans for site connections. /.3: Bolted splice. (!e =ertical forces &a% 'e assu&ed to 'e trans&itted '% 'earing and@or t!roug! t!e plates. (!e plates also ser=e to trans&it 'ending &o&ents and s!ear forces. W!ere t!ere is uneAual t!ic>ness of t!e flanges@ e's< inter&ediate plates are necessar%. /.\$: A freAuentl% used splice connection. Due to t!e elding in t!e or>s!op< t!e plates &a% not 'e perfectl% flat. "or&all% no su'seAuent &ac!ining is necessar% to flatten t!ese plates.

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/.,: )o&eti&es it is easier to &a>e t!e 'ea& continuous. (o trans&it t!e forces and for sta'ilit% reasons< it is necessar% to stiffen t!e 'ea& 'et een t!e colu&n flanges.

## 3.2 Colu ! Bases %F#&ure )(

6.1 and 6.2: (!ic> 'ase plates need no stiffening. "or&all% t!is is t!e c!eapest solution. 6.3: (!inner 'ase plate it! stiffeners as used in old designs.

## 3.3 S# "le Bea *to*Colu ! Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 1+(

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17.1: Connection it! fin plates elded to t!e colu&n. (!e 'ea& is connected single sided. 17.2: Bolted connection it! angle cleats. Cleats &a% 'e elded to eit!er &e&'er as an alternati=e. 17.3: Connection it! t!in fle?i'le endplates elded to t!e 'ea&. 17.\$: Bolted connection it! angle cleats. (!e !ori9ontal angle cleat pro=ides e?tra 'earing resistance. 17.,: For a t!ic> all of a tu'e< t!e plates can 'e elded directl% to t!e all it!out &a>ing a slee=e in t!e tu'e to !a=e a continuous plate. For &ore details in=ol=ing tu'es< see Lectures 13. 17.-: (!e stiffness depends largel% on t!e t!ic>ness of t!e end plate on t!e colu&n and t!e t!ic>ness of t!e flange of t!e 'ea&. (!e stiffening plates &a% 'e o&itted in &an% cases.

## 3., Mo e!t Res#st#!& Bea *to*Colu ! Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 11(

11.1: Full% elded connection. 11.2: Bolted >nee - connection. 11.3: Dnee-connection it! elded end plates. 11.\$: Welded (-connection. 11.,: Bolted (-connection. 11.-: Bolted end plate connection. It is assu&ed t!at anot!er 'ea& is connected on t!e ot!er side of t!e e'.

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## Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 12(

12.1: Depending on t!e geo&etr% and t!e applied forces< stiffeners &a% or &a% not 'e necessar%. (!is connection !as t!e ad=antage of c!eap fa'rication 'ut t!e disad=antage t!at its total construction !eig!t is !ig!er t!an t!at of t!e ot!er designs in Figure 12. 12.2: In t!is connection t!ere is no need to &a>e a cope as in t!e connection 12.3. (!erefore it is also a c!eap design to fa'ricate. 12.3: (!e top flanges are at t!e sa&e !eig!t. (!e cope &a>es t!is design &ore costl% t!an t!e design of 12.2. 12.\$: (!e 'ea& to 'e connected is !ig!er t!an t!e &ain 'ea&. (!is design is rat!er c!eap to fa'ricate. (!e !inge ill 'e located !ere t!e plate is elded to t!e e'.

## Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 13(

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13.1: (!is design is co&para'le to t!e design of 12.1. 0f course stiffeners s!ould 'e o&itted !ere possi'le. 13.2: (!e tensile force in t!e top flange is trans&itted =ia t!e flange plate t!at crosses t!e e' of t!e &ain 'ea& t!roug! a slee=e. 0n t!e co&pression side< s&all co&pression parts &a% 'e necessar% to introduce t!e co&pression force. 13.3: In t!is design also a cope of t!e 'ea& is necessar%< as in 12.3. 13.\$: Bot! 'ea&s !a=e t!e sa&e !eig!t.

## 3./ 0or#1o!tal Bra\$#!& Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 1,(

1\$.1< 1\$.2< 1\$.3: (!e gusset plates on t!e top flanges &a% 'e a pro'le& !en &etal roof or floor dec>ing is used. 1\$.\$< 1\$.,< 1\$.-: (!e c!annel section in Figure 1\$.\$ is needed as a c!ord for t!e !ori9ontal truss.

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## 3.' 2ert#\$al Bra\$#!& Co!!e\$t#o!s %F#&ure 1-(

1,.1< 1,.2< 1,.3< 1,.\$: :arious possi'ilities for t!e connections of 'racings.

## ,. RE3UIREMENTS FOR ECONOMY

As alread% indicated< t!ere are a great nu&'er of reAuire&ents to 'e &et !en designing connections. (!e reAuire&ents relating to structural 'e!a=iour are e?a&ined furt!er in ot!er Lectures 11. (!e 'asic reAuire&ents for econo&% are discussed furt!er 'elo . (!e costs for a steel structure can 'e di=ided into costs for &aterial and costs for la'our as follo s: +aterial Calculation Dra ings Fa'rication #rotection 2rection. 27 - \$7E F F F F F

-7 - /7E

Fro& t!is di=ision of costs it can 'e concluded t!at a sa=ing of la'our costs !as potentiall% &ore influence on t!e o=erall costs of steel structures t!an sa=ing on &aterial. An influencing factor is t!e relation 'et een cost per >g steel and cost per &an !our.

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In t!e past decades t!e price of steel !as increased considera'l% less t!an t!e price of la'our. (!is trend< toget!er it! de=elop&ents in fa'rication tec!nolog%< &eans t!at structural designs t!at ere opti&al 17 %ears ago &a% not 'e co&petiti=e no . A &aBor part of la'our costs !as a direct relation to t!e design and fa'rication of connections. It is often 'etter in design to sa=e la'our at t!e e?pense of &aterial. (!is fact can 'e illustrated it! so&e si&ple e?a&ples. (o esti&ate t!e costs< t!e follo ing assu&ptions are &ade:

t!e costs for 1c&3 of eld is eAui=alent to 7<. >g of steel. t!e costs for fa'rication of stiffening plates are eAual to t!e elding costs. t!e costs per !ole are eAui=alent to 2 >g of steel.

In Figure 1- a 'ea& in a 'raced fra&e is gi=en. (!e 'asis is a design it! si&ple connections to trans&it s!ear force onl%. W!en t!e G!ingesG are replaced '% &o&ent connection as in HBI and HCI< t!en for t!e 'ea& an I#2 1\$7 can 'e selected instead of an I#2 1/7. 8o e=er< due to t!e e?tra costs for t!e connections< t!e alternati=es HBI and HCI are &ore e?pensi=e< especiall% HBI. (!e difference it! HCI !ic! uses 'ac>ing plates to strengt!en t!e colu&n flanges is less. W!en t!e sa&e e?ercise is carried out for a 'ea& it! greater span< e.g. 17&< it is found t!at alternati=e C is t!e c!eapest.

(!e 'alance 'et een &o&ent resistance in t!e connection and in t!e 'ea& is discussed furt!er in Lecture 11.. on se&i-continuous design. Anot!er e?a&ple is t!e 'ase plates illustrated in Figure 6. It can easil% 'e s!o n t!at t!e t!ic> 'ase plate it!out stiffeners is t!e c!eapest in nearl% all cases.

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For t!e e?a&ple it! t!e 'ea&-colu&n connections< it s!ould 'e &entioned t!at t!e alternati=e A !as no elds. (!is &a% &ean t!at t!e flo of &aterial in t!e fa'ricatorCs s!op is si&pler as no stop is needed at t!e elding station. )o&e ot!er aspects !ic! facilitiate econo&% in design are:

li&it t!e nu&'er of 'olt dia&eters< 'olt lengt!s and 'olt grades as far as possi'le. 1se for instance standard +27 'olts in grade /./ 4ulti&ate strengt! /77 "@&&2 and proof strengt! -\$7 "@&&25< see also Lecture 11.3. 2nsure good access so t!at elds can 'e &ade easil%. +ini&ise situations !ere precise fitting is reAuired. Ac!ie=e repetition of standard details. #ro=ide ease of access for site 'olting. #ro=ide &eans for supporting t!e self eig!t of t!e piece Auic>l%< so t!at t!e crane can 'e released. Ac!ie=e ease of adBust&ent for align&ent. Consider &aintenance !ere necessar%.

For &ore infor&ation on t!ese aspects< reference is &ade to t!e Lectures in group 3< on fa'rication and Lectures in group \$A on corrosion.

-. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

Connections are reAuired !en a c!ange of co&ponent occurs< at c!anges in fra&ing directions< and to ensure &anagea'le &e&'er si9es. Connections &ust satisf% t!e reAuire&ents of structural 'e!a=iour. (!e% s!ould 'e strong enoug! to trans&it t!e design loads and at t!e sa&e ti&e !a=e t!e intended degree of fle?i'ilit% or rigidit%. Connection design !as a &aBor influence on t!e costs of real structures. ( o t%pes of fasteners are used for connections - elds and 'olts. "or&all% elding is applied in t!e fa'rication s!op and 'olts are used for erection. W!en detailing connections< t!oug!t s!ould 'e gi=en to fa'rication practicalities and erection seAuence and &et!od.

.. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. Boston< *.+. and #as>< J.W. C)tructural Fasteners and t!eir ApplicationsC< BC)A 16./. Dra ings of 'olts of all >inds and p!otograp!s of fi?ings procedures< plus e?a&ples of connection design. 2. Interfaces: Connections 'et een )teel and ot!er +aterials< 0=e Arup and #artners. 2dited '% *. G. 0gden< 166\$. 3. 8ogan< (.J. and Fir>ins< A.< C)tandardi9ed structural connectionsC< Australian Institute of )teel Construction< 16/1< 3rd 2d< 16/,. #resents design &odels and resistance ta'les for t!e &ain connection t%pes.

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\$. Blodgett< 0.W.< CDesign of elded structuresC< Ja&es F Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation< Cle=eland< 0!io< 1)A< 16.2. Infor&ati=e and ell illustrated reference &anual co=ering all aspects of elded design and construction. ,. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F.+.< C(!eor% and design of steel structuresC< C!ap&an and 8all< London< 16/3. Co&pre!ensi=e te?t on t!eor% and design of steel structures. Deals e?tensi=el% it! connections. A detailed treat&ent of co&'ined loads on fillet elds is of particular interest. -. Draft for De=elop&ent DD 2": 1663-1-1: 1662 2urocode 3: Design of )teel )tructures< #art 1< General *ules and *ules for Buildings. C!apter - presents rules co=ering t!e design of indi=idual ite&s of connections< e.g. 'olts< elds< !ole edge distances< etc. Anne? J deals in &ore detail it! t!e design of 'olted and elded 'ea&-to-colu&n connections. .. 2ssentials of 2urocode 3< Design +anual for )tructures in Buildings< 2CC) #u'lication -,< 1661. /. BiBlaard< F.).D. et al< )tructural #roperties of )e&i-*igid Joints in )teel Fra&es< IAB)2 #u'lications< 16/6. 2?plains !o fle?i'ilit% arises in 'ea&-to-colu&n connections and presents &et!ods for assessing stiffness and strengt! properties. 6. Joints in si&ple construction< :olu&e 1: Design &et!ods< )CI@BC)A #u'lication 27,< 2nd 2d< 1663. #ro=ides design &odels and so&e 'ac>ground for t!e &ost popular t%pes of: 'ea&s to colu&ns< 'ea& to 'ea&< colu&n splice and colu&n 'ase. 17. Joints in )i&ple Construction< :olu&e 2: #ractical Applications< )CI@BC)A #u' 27-< 1st 2d< 1662. 2?pands on t!e &ore practical aspects of connection designK pro=ides ta'les to facilitate connection design in a Gloo>-upG 'asis. 11. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< )tructural )teel or> Connections< 1st 2d< 16/6. Co&pre!ensi=e co=erage of &an% aspects of connection 'e!a=iour and design.

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## Lecture 11.1.2 : Introduction to Connection Design

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. *2;1I*2+2"() F0* )(*1C(1*AL B28A:I01* 3. CLA))IFICA(I0" A) A BA)I) F0* D2)IG" \$. L0AD (*A")F2* ,. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 -. *2F2*2"C2) .. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
(!e reasons for connections in all for&s of steel construction !a=e alread% 'een e?plained in Lecture 11.1.1. (!e principal structural and econo&ical reAuire&ents ere also presented. In t!is Lecture 11.1.2 t!e structural reAuire&ents 4strengt!< stiffness and defor&ation capacit%5 are discussed in greater detail. (!e 2urocode 3 H1I classification for connections is introduced. (!is classification considers t!e stiffness and strengt! of 'ea& to colu&n connections. (!e freedo& of t!e designer to c!oose t!e t%pe of connection< and to c!oose t!e details for eac! t%pe< leads to a great =ariet% of connections< see for e?a&ple t!e figures in Lecture 11.1.1. (!e anal%sis of t!e structural properties of connections is presented in )ection \$< !ere a nu&'er of 'asic load transfers are identified.

## 2. RE3UIREMENTS FOR STRUCTUR64 BE062IOUR

*ele=ant properties of steel are its strengt!< its stiffness and its ductilit% or defor&ation capacit%. (!ese properties can 'e de&onstrated in a tensile test< see Figure 1. A ell designed steel structure s!ould possess t!e sa&e good properties.

(!e 'asic reAuire&ents for structural ele&ents@connections concern t!e strengt!< t!e stiffness and t!e defor&ation capacit%. Figure 2 defines t!e strengt!< stiffness and defor&ation capacit% of a 'ea&-to-colu&n connection designed to transfer a &o&ent fro& t!e 'ea& into t!e colu&n.

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(!e rotation capacit% is a &easure of t!e defor&ation t!at can 'e o'tained 'efore failure so&e !ere in t!e connection causes a drop in t!e &o&ent resistance. (!e strengt!< stiffness and defor&ation capacit% of connections are discussed in greater detail 'elo : Stre!&th For t!e deter&ination of t!e forces on t!e connection< a static anal%sis &ust 'e carried out. )uc! anal%sis includes t!e deter&ination of t!e design loads and t!e &odelling of t!e structure< see Figure 3. In t!e sc!e&ati9ation of t!e structure< t!e stiffness of t!e connections is an i&portant ele&ent. Connections can 'e assu&ed rigid< as !inges or as !a=ing a stiffness 'et een t!ese t o. (!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e &e&'ers 4'ea&s and colu&ns5 and of t!e connections pla%s an i&portant role in t!e ulti&ate distri'ution of forces in t!e structure.

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All parts of t!e structure &ust 'e designed so t!at t!e% can resist t!e calculated forces and !a=e a defor&ation capacit% t!at is consistent it! t!e assu&ptions &ade in t!e glo'al anal%sis. St#77!ess (!e stiffness of t!e connection affects t!e le=el of loading for !ic! it s!ould 'e designed. A connection of lo rotational stiffness does not attract &aBor 'ending &o&ents and t!erefore &a% 'e assu&ed as a pinned connection in t!e sc!e&ati9ation of t!e structure. 0f course< t!e stiffness of t!e connections affects t!e deflections of t!e 'ea&s. 2speciall% in non-'raced fra&es t!e stiffness of t!e connections &a% !a=e a &aBor effect on t!e deflections of t!e structure as a !ole and on its sta'ilit%. If t!e connections are assu&ed rigid in t!e &odelling for t!e static anal%sis of t!e structure< t!en conseAuentl% t!e for& of t!e connections s!ould 'e suc! t!at t!eir defor&ations !a=e a negligi'le influence on t!e load distri'ution and t!e defor&ations of t!e structure. 0n t!e ot!er !and< if pinned connections are assu&ed< t!e% s!ould !a=e sufficient fle?i'ilit% to acco&&odate rotations it!out causing significant 'ending &o&ents t!at &a% lead to pre&ature failure of 4parts of5 t!e connection or connected &e&'ers. (!e sc!e&ati9ation of connection stiffness is discussed furt!er in )ection 3. In &an% instances it is accepta'le to design connections gi=ing e?plicit consideration onl% to t!eir strengt!. De7or at#o! Ca"a\$#t8 (!e reAuire&ents for strengt! and stiffness are clear. (!e% result fro& t!e static calculation. (!e reAuire&ent for defor&ation capacit% is &ore Aualitati=e. In practice it is so&eti&es difficult to c!ec> t!is reAuire&ent. Ductile connections t!at !a=e a great defor&ation capacit% contri'ute to t!e o=erall safet% of t!e structure in t!e e=ent t!at t!e connection 'eco&es o=erloaded. )uc! connections &a% also 'e a design reAuire&ent in certain instances< e.g. !en plastic design is e&plo%ed it! plastic !inges for&ing in t!e connections.

## 3. C46SSIFIC6TION 6S 6 B6SIS FOR DESI5N

Connections s!ould 'e designed according to t!eir reAuired 'e!a=iour. +an% design approac!es are possi'le for stiffness and strengt!. In Figure \$ t!ree designs for a 'ea&-tocolu&n connection are gi=en it! t!eir &o&ent rotation c!aracteristics.

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(!ese c!aracteristics &a% 'e descri'ed as follo s: I Bot! t!e rotational stiffness and t!e &o&ent resistance are s&all and &a% reasona'l% 'e neglected< leading to t!e concept of a pinned or !inged connection. 0nl% =ertical s!ear is reAuired to 'e transferred< it! t!e =alue 'eing eAual to t!e 'ea& end reaction necessar% to resist t!e 'ea& loading. II Be!a=iour inter&ediate 'et een c!aracteristics I and III< in !ic! t!e connections possess a finite &o&ent resistance less t!an t!e full &o&ent resistance of t!e 'ea& and a rotational stiffness t!at per&its so&e relati=e rotation. 4)uc! connections are usuall% 'ot! se&i-rigid and partial strengt!. 8o e=er it is possi'le to !a=e connections t!at are full-strengt! and se&i-rigid or full%-rigid 'ut onl% partial strengt!.5 III (!e rotational stiffness is =er% !ig! and t!e connectionCs &o&ent resistance is at least t!at of t!e 'ea&. Continuit% is t!us preser=ed it! no rotation of t!e 'ea& relati=e to t!e colu&nK 'ot! t!e 'ea& end reaction and its end &o&ent are transferred to t!e colu&n.

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All t!ree possi'ilities can 'e applied in &ulti-store% fra&es. (%pe III can 'e applied in 'ot! 'raced and un'raced fra&esK (%pe I is onl% suita'le for 'raced fra&es. (%pe II &a% 'e used for 'ot! 'raced and un'raced fra&es< 'ut in t!e latter case t!e influence of connection fle?i'ilit% on fra&e 'e!a=iour needs to 'e considered. Figure , gi=es t!e sc!e&ati9ation of rotational stiffness for t!e fra&e anal%sis.

2urocode 3 H1I pro=ides design rules for 'ot! t!e rotational stiffness and t!e &o&ent resistance. +- cur=es as &easured in tests are in general non-linear. Anot!er p!eno&enon is t!at stiff connections !a=e so&eti&es a lo &o&ent resistance and =ice =ersa. )o&e e?a&ples are s!o n in Figure -. +- cur=e 2 is c!aracteristic for so&e t%pes of 'olted connections in clearance !oles. At s&all &o&ents< slip causes a rotation 'efore a !ig!er &o&ent is o'tained.

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For practical application< it is necessar% to idealise t!e +- cur=es. For design a non-linear idealisation or linear idealisations li>e t!e 'i-linear or tri-linear ones in Figure . &a% 'e used.

2urocode 3 H1I gi=es a classification on t!e 'asis of strengt! and stiffness. For strengt!< t!e follo ing classes can 'e distinguis!ed: no&inall% pinned partial-strengt! full-strengt! full-strengt! if rotation capacit% is not c!ec>ed !ere +*d is t!e design &o&ent resistance of t!e connection +pl.*d is t!e design strengt! of t!e 'ea& 4full plastic &o&ent5. (!is classification on strengt! is applica'le if t!e structure is anal%sed using t!e t!eor% of plasticit%. In a full-strengt! connection< t!e plastic !inge is t!eoreticall% for&ed in t!e 'ea&. In realit% !o e=er< it is possi'le t!at t!e %ield strengt! of t!e 'ea& &aterial &a% 'e 4considera'l%5 !ig!er t!an its &ini&u& specified =alue. (!erefore it is possi'le t!at t!e plastic !inge ill for& in t!e connection despite t!e calculated +*d M +pl.*d. In suc! cases< it is still necessar% t!at t!e connection !as sufficient rotation capacit% to de=elop t!e plastic &ec!anis&. *otation capacit% &ust 'e pro=en in all cases. An upper li&it is defined< a'o=e !ic! it &a% 'e assu&ed t!at t!e plastic !inge is al a%s in t!e 'ea& 41<2 +pl.*d5. +*d 7<2, +pl.*d 7<2, +pl.*d L +*d L +pl.*d +*d +pl.*d +*d 1<2 +pl.*d

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For stiffness< t!e classification is as follo s: no&inall% pinned se&i-rigid rigid !ere )B is t!e 4secant5 rotational stiffness of t!e connection 2I' is t!e 'ending stiffness of t!e 'ea& L' is t!e span of t!e 'ea& 4see Figure ,5. Design of pinned connections onl% in=ol=es consideration of s!ear strengt! and is co=ered in Lecture 11.,. For &o&ent connections 'ot! s!ear resistance and &o&ent resistance &ust 'e considered. *igid and@or full strengt! connections are co=ered in Lecture 11.-. Design assu&ing se&i-rigid and@or partial-strengt! 'e!a=iour is e?plained in Lecture 11... )B 7<, 2I'@L' 7<, 2I'@L' L )B L / 2I'@L' 4'raced fra&es5 or 2, 2I'@L' 4un'raced fra&es5 )B / 2I'@L' 4'raced fra&es5 or 2, 2I'@L' 4un'raced fra&es5

,. 4O6D TR6NSFER
In )ection 2 it is indicated t!at connections s!ould 'e designed to transfer &o&ents and@or s!ear forces and@or nor&al forces< e.g. t!e connection in Figure 3. (!e ne?t step in t!e anal%sis is to deter&ine t!e distri'ution of forces it!in t!e connection< Figure /. It is not necessar% and often not feasi'le to deter&ine t!e real internal distri'ution of forces. It is sufficient to assu&e a realistic distri'ution< pro=ided t!at:

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t!e internal forces are in eAuili'riu& it! t!e applied loading eac! co&ponent is capa'le of resisting t!e forces t!e defor&ations i&plied '% t!e assu&ed distri'ution are it!in t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e fasteners 4'olts< elds5 and of t!e connected parts.

Deter&ining t!e distri'ution of forces is t!e &ost difficult part of t!e procedure< 'ecause< of necessit%< it entails t!e &a>ing of certain si&plif%ing assu&ptions a'out t!e a% t!e connection G or>sG. In Lectures 11.\$ 4Anal%sis of Connections5 t!is su'Bect is co=ered in detail. As alread% indicated in Lecture 11.1.1< a great =ariet% of connection t%pes and connection for&s e?ist.

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(o co=er t!e large =ariet% of t%pes and for&s of connections< it is useful to appl% t!e concept of a set of 'asic force transfers< t!at can 'e found in t!e co&ponents of connections. (!ese 'asic for&s are s!o n in Figure 6. +ore e?a&ples of t!e 'asic force transfers are s!o n in Figures 17 - 1\$. For eac! of t!ese 'asic force transfers a nu&'er of failure &odes are possi'le. All of t!ese s!ould 'e c!ec>ed. (!e ea>est lin> deter&ines t!e resistance of t!e connection to t!e applied load. (!is procedure is illustrated in Figure 1, for t!e introduction of a tension force in an unreinforced 4colu&n5 e'.

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Detailed infor&ation on fasteners is gi=en in Lectures 11.2 4Welds5 and 11.3 4Bolts5< !ilst Lectures 11.\$ co=er t!e detailed anal%sis and design of connections using t!e 'asic force transfer concept.

-. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

(!e principal structural reAuire&ent of a connection is t!at it 'e capa'le of safel% transferring load fro& t!e supported &e&'ers to t!e supporting &e&'er. (!e a'o=e reAuire&ent i&plies t!at t!ree properties of t!e connection needs to 'e considered: strengt!< stiffness and defor&ation capacit%.

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Bea&-to-colu&n connections can 'e classified '% t!eir stiffness as no&inall% pinned< se&i-rigid or rigid. For t!eir capa'ilit% to transfer &o&ents< t!e% can 'e classified as no&inall% pinned< partial-strengt! and full-strengt! connections. (!e anal%sis of connections i&plies t!e assu&ption of a realistic internal distri'ution of forces t!at are in eAuili'riu& it! t!e e?ternal forces< !ere eac! ele&ent is capa'le of transferring t!e assu&ed force and t!e defor&ations are it!in t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e ele&ents. In t!e anal%sis of connections< a nu&'er of 'asic load transfers can generall% 'e identified.

.. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of steel structuresG: 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1.1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662. C!apter - co=ers t!e design of fasteners and of connection co&ponents: Anne?es J and L deal it! t!e design of 'ea&-to-colu&n connections and colu&n 'ase connections.

/. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 2ssentials of 2urocode 3< Design &anual for steel structures in 'uildings. 2CC)< #u'lication "o -,< Brussels 1661. Design aid to facilitate t!e use of 2urocode 3K contains ta'les and guidelines. 2. Design e?a&ples to 2urocode 3 2CC)< #u'lication "o .1< Brussels< 1663 Contains nu&erous or>ed e?a&ples for t!e design of 'olted and elded connections. 3. Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to design criteria for 'olted and ri=eted BointsG. 2nd 2dition< Jo!n Wile% N )ons< 16/.. Gi=es a co&pre!ensi=e appraisal of 'olted Boints and re=ie s in detail &et!ods for design and anal%sis. \$. 8art< F.< 8enn< W. and )ontag< 8.< G)ta!l'au Atlas - Gese!oss'autenG< International Arc!ite>ture Dor>u&entation< +unic!< 16/2 (!is 'oo> presents a ide range of practical solutions for connections in steel and co&posite 'uildings. It as translated into four different 2uropean languages 4Frenc!< 2nglis!< Dutc!< Italian5. ,. #as>< J. W.< G+anual on ConnectionsG< :olu&e 1 - Joints in )i&ple Connections< BC)A< 16/2 (!oroug! treat&ent of design of &ulti-store% fra&e connections. #roposes a range of standardised connections.
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-. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F. +.< (!eor% and design of steel structures. C!ap&an and 8all< London< 16/3 Co&pre!ensi=e te?t on t!eor% and design of steel structures. Deals e?tensi=el% it! connections. .. BiBlaard F. ). D. et al< )tructural properties of se&i-rigid Boints in steel fra&es IAB)2 pu'lications 16/6 2?plains !o fle?i'ilit% arises in 'ea& to colu&n connections and presents &et!ods for assessing stiffness and strengt! properties. /. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< )tructural )teel or> Connections< 1st2d< 16/6. Co&pre!ensi=e co=erage of se=eral aspects of connection 'e!a=iour and design. 6. Joints in )i&ple Construction< :olu&e 1: Design +et!ods N :olu&e 2: #ractical Applications. )CI@BC)A #u'lications 27, and 27-. )CI@BC)A #u'lications 27, and 27-. 2?pands on t!e &ore practical aspects of connection designK pro=ides ta'les to facilitate rigid design in a Gloo>-upG 'asis.

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## Lecture 11.2.1 : Generalities on Welded Connections

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. (3#2) 0F W2LD) 2.1 Butt Welds 2.2 Fillet Welds 2.3 #lug and )lot Welds 2.\$ )pot Welds 3. D2)C*I#(I0" 0F W2LD) - D2FI"I(I0") \$. +2C8A"ICAL #*0#2*(I2) 0F +A(2*IAL) \$.1 #arent +etal \$.2 Filler &etal ,. 2DG2 #*2#A*A(I0" A"D FI(-1# -. W2LD ;1ALI(3 - DI)C0"(I"1I(I2) .. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 /. *2F2*2"C2) 6. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
W!ere t!ere are fa=oura'le or>ing conditions< elding is t!e &ost econo&ical a% to &a>e strong connections. (!erefore< or>s!op connections are usuall% elded. W!ere site connections are necessar% 4erection5 t!e% are usuall% 'olted< 'ut t!e connections are often prepared in t!e or>s!op it! elded plates< etc. necessar% for t!e 'olted Boint. Figures 1-3 s!o so&e e?a&ples on elded connections and t!e a% t!e% carr% e?ternal loads.

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2. TYPES OF WE4DS
In elded construction for 'uildings appro?i&atel% /7E of t!e elds are fillet elds and 1,E are 'utt elds. (!e re&aining ,E are plug< slot and spot elds.

## 2.1 Butt Welds

A 'utt eld is &ade it!in t!e cross-section of t!e a'utting plates in a 'utt or tee Boint. "or&all%< t!e plate edges !a=e to 'e prepared 'efore elding< see Figure \$'. In so&e cases< if t!e plate t!ic>ness is less t!an a'out ,&&< edge preparation can 'e a=oided< see Figure \$a.

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(!e 'e=elled plate edges in a 'utt eld &a% ta>e =arious geo&etrical for&s< see Figure ,.

## For 'utt elds< a distinction is &ade 'et een:

full penetration 'utt eld in !ic! t!ere is a co&plete penetration and fusion of eld and parent &etal t!roug!out t!e t!ic>ness of t!e Boint< see Figure \$. partial penetration 'utt eld< in !ic! t!ere is a eld penetration less t!an t!e full t!ic>ness of t!e Boint< see Figure -.

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## 2.2 F#llet Welds

A fillet eld is a eld of appro?i&atel% triangular cross-section applied to t!e surface profile of t!e plates. "o edge preparation is needed. (!erefore< fillet elds are usuall% c!eaper t!an 'utt elds. According to t!e relati=e position of t!e parts to 'e elded< t!ere are t!ree t%pes of fillet eld applications:

lap Boint< in !ic! t!e parts elded are in parallel planes< see Figure .a. tee or crucifor& Boint< in !ic! t!e parts elded are &ore or less perpendicular to one anot!er< see Figure .'. corner Boint< in !ic! t!e parts are also &ore or less perpendicular to one anot!er< see Figure .c. (o i&pro=e t!e strengt! and stiffness of t!e Boint< t!e outer corner is nor&all% 'utt elded< see Figure /.

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Fillet elds t!at can 'e laid in a single run are particularl% econo&icK in t!e or>s!op /&& elds are often possi'le 'ut if site elding is to 'e used t!is figure &a% 'e reduced e.g. to -&&.

## 2.3 Plu& a!d Slot Welds

)lot and plug elds< see Figure 6< are seldo& used in 'uilding structures. (!e% principall% pre=ent 'uc>ling or separation of lapped plates.

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## 2., S"ot Welds

)pot elds are seldo& used in 'uilding structures. (!e parts to 'e Boined< !ic! &ust 'e t!in< are cla&ped toget!er '% t o electrodes< see Figure 17. A current passing t!roug! t!e electrodes &elts t!e pieces locall%< and t!e cla&ping pressure forces t!e& toget!er< for&ing a fused spot. A line of suc! spots constitutes a Boint.

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## 3. DESCRIPTION OF WE4DS * DEFINITIONS

In t!is c!apter so&e ter&s often used in eld design are defined.

(!e parent &etal or t!e 'ase &etal is t!e steel &aterial !ic! is elded. (!e filler &etal or t!e eld &etal is t!e electrode &aterial used in t!e elding process.

Figure 11 s!o s t!e ter&inolog% used to descri'e t!e =arious parts of t!e eld:

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(!e root is t!e point of t!e Boint line reac!ed '% t!e penetration of t!e filler &etal. (!e face is t!e outside surface of t!e eld. (!e toe is t!e line on t!e eld face 'et een t!e filler &etal and t!e parent &etal. (!e !eat affected 9one is a part of t!e parent &etal !ic! !as not 'een &elted it! t!e filler &etal< 'ut !ic! undergoes fast !eating and cooling during t!e passage of t!e elding arc. In t!is 9one< t!e parent &etal is su'Bect to a !ardening treat&ent and can conseAuentl% 'eco&e 'rittle.

(!e s!ape of a fillet elded cross-section can 'e con=e? or conca=e< see Figure 12.

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## For design< t o geo&etrical eld para&eters are used:

(!e t!roat t!ic>ness< a< is t!e &ini&u& distance fro& t!e root to t!e eld face ignoring t!e con=e? 9one. Figure 13 s!o s t!e t!roat t!ic>ness a of a 'utt eld and a fillet eld. (!e lengt! is t!e longitudinal eld di&ension in t!e direction of t!e elding arc displace&ent. Figure 13 s!o s elds for !ic! t!e lengt! l is t!e full lengt! of t!e platesK for t!e lap Boint of Figure 2 l ould 'e t!e su& of t ice t!e o=erlapped lengt! plus t!e idt! of t!e s&aller plate.

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## ,. MEC06NIC64 PROPERTIES OF M6TERI64S

,.1 Pare!t Metal
(!e parent &etal &ust !a=e t!e elda'ilit% properties defined '% t!e steel Aualities of eac! steel grade. (!e elda'ilit% of a steel depends on its c!e&ical co&position and &etallurgical c!aracteristics. (!ese aspects are descri'ed in Lecture 2.-. In accordance it! 2urocode 3 H1I and 2" 1772, H2I< !ot-rolled steel grades )23,< )2., and )3,, it! Aualit% B< C or D are suita'le for all elding processes. (!e &ec!anical c!aracteristics adopted in calculations are t!e %ield strengt! f% and t!e ulti&ate tensile strengt! fu. Furt!er< in t!e case of plastic anal%sis< steel &ust !a=e an ulti&ate

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strain at least 27 ti&es t!e %ield strain and !a=e a &ini&u& elongation As at failure of at least 1,E. (!e =alues of t!ese c!aracteristics are gi=en in (a'le 1. "o&inal steel grade (!ic>ness t t L \$7&& f% +#a Fe 3-7 Fe \$37 Fe ,17 23, 2., 3,, fu +#a 3-7 \$37 ,17 As E 222 22 \$7 && L t L 177&& f% +#a 21, 2,, 33, fu +#a 3\$7 \$17 \$67 As E 2\$ 27 27

Ta9le 1 * Me\$ha!#\$al "ro"ert#es o7 hot rolled steels (!e steel Aualit% B< C< or D reflects t!e i&pact resistance deter&ined '% a C!arp%-: i&pact test in !ic! t!e i&pact energ% needed to fracture a :-notc! speci&en it! a certain te&perature is &easured. (!e Aualit% class indicates if t!e steel is suita'le for t!e application. For e?a&ple< steel Aualit% B< corresponding to an i&pact test at O27C< is used for structures it! nor&al or>ing conditions. (!e steel Aualit% D 4i&pact test at -27C5 is suita'le !en factors suc! as< for e?a&ple< lo ser=ice te&perature of t!e structure< t!ic> steel &aterial and@or i&pact loading are present.

,.2 F#ller

etal

According to 2urocode 3 t!e filler &etal &ust !a=e &ec!anical properties 4%ield strengt!< ulti&ate tensile strengt!< elongation at failure and &ini&u& C!arp% :-notc! energ% =alue5 eAual to or 'etter t!an t!e =alues specified for t!e steel grade 'eing elded. (!e selection of elding consu&a'le is to a great e?tent go=erned '% t!e elding process< see Lectures 3.3 and 3.\$. (!e 'asic principles are:

Welding consu&a'les s!all 'e appropriate to t!e elding process used< t!e parent &etal elded and t!e elding procedure adopted. Welding consu&a'les &ust 'e stored and !andled it! care and in confor&it% it! t!e reco&&endations of t!e &anufacturer. 2lectrodes for &anual arc elding s!all 'e stored in t!eir original containers in a dr% and ar& place< efficientl% protected fro& ad=erse effects of eat!er. Flu? s!all 'e stored and transported in containers !ic! protect it fro& a'sor'ing &oisture.

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## -. ED5E PREP6R6TION 6ND FIT*UP

)o&e i&portant aspects< !ic! are descri'ed in detail in Lectures 3.3< 3.\$ and 3.,< are su&&arised !ere. 0ne of t!e follo ing arc elding processes &a% 'e used:

&etal arc- elding it! co=ered electrodes flu?-cored arc elding su'&erged arc elding +IG 4&etal inert gas5 elding +AG 4&etal acti=e gas5 elding.

All t!ese processes can 'e used in t!e or>s!op. 1suall%< onl% 'olting or &etal arc elding it! co=ered electrodes is e&plo%ed in t!e erection p!ase on t!e 'uilding site. Wit! t!e &etal arc elding process< elds can 'e &ade in all positions. (!e =arious eld positions are s!o n in Figure 1\$< !ere t!e arro s gi=e t!e arc direction during t!e elding operation. It is clear t!at elding in t!e flat position is easil% carried out< allo ing a greater rate of &etal deposition t!an t!e ot!er positionsK'% elding in t!is fa=oura'le position< t!e &a?i&u& si9e of eld run can 'e o'tained. Wit! ordinar% elding consu&a'les and fa=oura'le elding conditions< a fillet eld it! a t!roat t!ic>ness of -&& can 'e produced it! onl% one run. For elds of greater t!ic>ness< &ore t!an one run is necessar%. In t!is case< t!e elding seAuence &ust 'e carefull% planned< see Figure 1,.

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(!e elding conditions< particularl% t!e current li&itation of t!e elding eAuip&ent< constitute a li&it to t!e dept! of penetration into t!e parent plate. For e?a&ple< if a closed 'utt Boint 4no gap 'et een t!e t o plates5 is elded it! one run on eac! side< t!e penetration
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&a% not 'e co&plete and t!e central part of t!e Boint ill re&ain unfused 4Figure 1-a5. Wit! a gap 'et een t!e t o parts of t!e Boint< full penetration can 'e ac!ie=ed it! t!e sa&e elding eAuip&ent. (!e li&itation is t!en set '% t!e t!ic>ness of t!e plates to 'e Boined. In practice< t!e li&it for 'utt elds it! sAuare edges< i.e. it!out preparation< is 17&& plate t!ic>ness it! a ,&& gap. W!en t!e plate t!ic>ness e?ceeds t!is =alue< 'e=elled edges per&it full penetration '% se=eral runs< see Figure 1-'.

2dge preparation consists essentiall% of cutting and 'e=elling t!e edges of t!e plates !ic! are to 'e elded. (!ese operations can 'e done '% t!er&al cutting< '% &ac!ining or '% c!ipping or grinding. (!e resulting surfaces of t!e 'e=elled edges s!ould 'e s&oot!< unifor&< free fro& crac>s and it!out rust. If t!er&al cutting or anot!er process !ic! !ardens t!e &aterial is used< t!e appro=ed elding procedure &ust ta>e account of t!is eld preparation process. Different 'e=el geo&etries are s!o n in Figure 3. #ractical reco&&endations< for e?a&ple 2urocode 3< Anne? W 415< gi=e so&e tolerance =alues for =arious eld t%pes. Finall%< 'efore elding< surfaces and edges adBacent to t!e eld location &ust 'e cleaned to re&o=e oil< grease< paint or an% ot!er conta&inants< !ic! can affect t!e Aualit% of t!e eld and t!e eld strengt!. (!e appropriate elding &et!od and procedure are defined in a proBect specification pro=ided '% t!e designer< see Lecture 11.,.

## .. WE4D 3U64ITY * DISCONTINUITIES

;ualit% control !as 'een for so&e ti&e an i&portant part of industrial acti=it%. (!e ter& Aualit% includes all t!e c!aracteristics of a product !ic! affect its a'ilit% to ser=e its purpose. In t!e lectures of Wor>ing Group 3< and particularl% in Lecture 3.\$< attention is dra n to Aualit% control applied to elding< including t!e Aualification of fir&s and t!e procedure Aualification for elding tests.

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"or&all%< all elded structures undergo so&e eld inspection. (!e t%pe and t!e e?tent for t!e inspection< as ell as t!e c!oice of elds to 'e inspected are selected in accordance it! t!e proBect specification. (!e principal purpose of eld inspection is to disco=er possi'le eld defects. 2?a&ples on eld defects are< see Figure 1.:

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1ndercut. (!e t!ic>ness of t!e parent &etal is reduced near t!e eld toe. #orosit% or gas inclusions. Air or gas 'u''les are incorporated in t!e &elted &etal< !ere t!e% re&ain after cooling. Insufficient t!roat. (!e t!roat t!ic>ness is s&aller t!an t!e design t!ic>ness. (!e resistance of t!e Boint &ig!t 'e insufficient. Inco&plete penetration. (!e t!roat t!ic>ness is s&aller t!an t!e design t!ic>ness. (!e resistance of t!e Boint &ig!t 'e insufficient.

All t!ese defects can 'e &easured. Codes of #ractice specif% t!e allo a'le tolerances for eac! defect< see for e?a&ple 2urocode 3< Anne? W H1I.

/. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

#ro=iding t!e rig!t conditions it! respect to elding - particularl% fillet elding nor&all% represents t!e &ost econo&ical a% to Boin t o pieces of steel. ( o t%pes of structural eld - fillet elds and 'utt elds - are in co&&on use. W!ere=er possi'le fillet elds s!ould 'e used. A nu&'er of standard ter&s are used !en referring to elds. (!roat t!ic>ness and lengt! are t!e t o &ost i&portant descriptions for deter&ining load carr%ing capacit%. Weld &etal 4electrodes5 and parent &etal 4t!e parts to 'e Boined5 &ust 'e properl% &atc!ed in ter&s of t!eir p!%sical properties. For 'utt elds suita'le edge preparations ill nor&all% 'e reAuired. Welds &ust 'e inspected for possi'le defects so as to ensure adeAuate structural perfor&ance.

'. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of steel structuresG: 2": 1663-1-1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662. H2I 2n 1772,: 2uropean )tandard 1772,< 8ot rolled products of non-allo% structural steels tec!nical deli=er% conditions.

). 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. Bludgett< 0. W.< Welded Connections C!apter 3.3 Constructional )teel Design: An International Guide< 1662. 2. #ratt< J. L.< Introduction to t!e Welding of )tructural )teel or>< 3rd *e=ised 2dition< 16/6.

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## Lecture 11.2.2 : Welded Connections Basis !or Weld Calculation

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. B1(( W2LD CALC1LA(I0" 2.1 Full #enetration Butt Welds 2.2 #artial #enetration Butt Welds 2.3 )tress Distri'ution in Butt Welds 3. FILL2( W2LD CALC1LA(I0" 3.1 Assu&ptions 3.2 Basic +et!od 3.3 +ean )tress +et!od 3.\$ Long elds \$. )L0( A"D #L1G W2LD CALC1LA(I0" ,. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 -. *2F2*2"C2) -. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
(!e purpose of t!is lecture is to present t!e 'asis for eld strengt! calculation according to 2urocode 3 H1I< to discuss t!e assu&ptions on !ic! t!e &et!ods are 'ased and to e?a&ine t!e general &et!ods used to deter&ine stresses in elds. In practice< eld calculations are principall% concerned it! fillet elds since t!ese account for appro?i&atel% /7E of all structural elds. For t!is reason t!e lecture concentrates on fillet elds and gi=es less attention to ot!er eld t%pes 4'utt< slot< plug5. For eld design< t!ree funda&ental assu&ptions are &ade H2I:

(!e elds are !o&ogeneous and isotropic ele&ents. (!e parts connected '% t!e elds are rigid and t!eir defor&ations are negligi'le. 0nl% no&inal stresses due to e?ternal loads are considered. 2ffects of residual stresses< stress concentrations and s!ape of t!e elds are neglected in static design.

(!ese assu&ptions lead to a unifor& stress distri'ution in t!e eld< !ereas =ariation of stress and strain are o'ser=ed along t!e eld. In fact< stress concentrations and residual stresses can reac! t!e %ield stress locall%. 8o e=er< t!e ductilit% of t!e &aterial leads to a redistri'ution of stresses along t!e eld lengt!< producing an apprecia'le reduction of stress &agnitude. (!e redistri'ution also occurs !en t!e eld is su'Bect to t!e action of e?ternal loads. According to t!e t!eor% of plasticit%< t!e final stress distri'ution ill 'e opti&u& !en t!e %ield stress is reac!ed o=er t!e full lengt! of t!e eld. 2urocode 3 H1I specifies t!at t!e filler &etal s!all !a=e &ec!anical properties 4%ield strengt!< ulti&ate tensile strengt!< elongation at failure and &ini&u& C!arp% :-notc! energ% =alue5 eAual to< or 'etter t!an< t!e corresponding properties of t!e parent &aterial. (!erefore< for eld calculation and design< t!e strengt! of t!e parent &aterial is nor&all% ta>en as t!e reference strengt!. Alt!oug! fillet elds are t!e &ore i&portant case< 'utt elds are treated first since t!e design reAuire&ents are si&pler.

## 2. BUTT WE4D C64CU46TION

#ro=iding t!e elding process !as 'een correctl% carried out< t!e 'utt eld filler &etal &a% 'e considered as parent &etal. 8ence< to deter&ine t!e resistance of t!e Boint< t!e calculation is 'ased on t!e t!roat area< i.e. t!e penetration area. Depending on t!e penetration< t o >inds of 'utt elds are defined: full and partial penetration elds.

## 2.1 Full Pe!etrat#o! Butt Welds

For a full penetration 'utt eld< calculation is not necessar% 'ecause t!e filler &etal strengt! is at least as !ig! as t!e parent &etal strengt! of t!e ea>er part Boined and t!e t!roat t!ic>ness of t!e eld is eAual to t!e t!ic>ness of t!e plate< see Figure 1. (!us t!e 'utt eld &a% effecti=el% 'e regarded si&pl% as replacing t!e parent &aterial.

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## 2.2 Part#al Pe!etrat#o! Butt Welds

For a partial penetration 'utt eld< t!e t!roat t!ic>ness considered in t!e design is t!e dept! of preparation< slig!tl% reduced. According to 2urocode 3 H1I< t!e t!roat t!ic>ness &ust 'e ta>en as t!e dept! of t!e 'utt preparation &inus 2&&< !ere t!e preparation is t!e dept! of t!e 'e=el< see Figure 2. 8o e=er< if appropriate procedure trials !a=e 'een &ade< t!e t!roat t!ic>ness can 'e ta>en as eAual to t!e preparation.

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A partial penetration tee-'utt Boint it! superi&posed fillet elds &a% 'e considered as a full penetration 'utt eld< if t!e total t!roat t!ic>ness is greater t!an t!e &aterial t!ic>ness and t!e gap di&ension &eets certain conditions 4Figure 35.

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## 2.3 Stress D#str#9ut#o! #! Butt Welds

As alread% pointed out< in eld calculation a unifor& stress distri'ution along t!e eld lengt! is assu&ed. In t!e ulti&ate state a plastic redistri'ution of stresses &a>es t!is assu&ption &ore or less true. In t!e elastic stage< !ic! is of interest in fatigue design< t!e stresses are not unifor&l% distri'uted< especiall% not !en t!e filler &etal %ield point is &uc! !ig!er t!an t!at of t!e parent &etal. For e?a&ple< consider a 'ar loaded '% an a?ial tensile force as s!o n in Figure \$. (!e 'ar ill elongate and< due to t!e #oissonCs ratio effect< its initial idt! ill decrease. (!is lateral contraction is unifor& if t!e 'ar is !o&ogeneous. But near t!e eld line< !ic! !as a different %ield point< t!e lateral contraction is less t!an in t!e parent &etal. (!is effect causes a =ar%ing stress distri'ution along t!e eld 4Figure \$5< in !ic! t!e tensile stress at t!e centre is greater t!an t!e a=erage stress.

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It is good engineering practice to a=oid !ig! stress concentrations occurring at s!arp reentrant corners in Boints connecting different cross-sections. A=oiding stress concentrations is especiall% i&portant if t!e connection ill 'e su'Bect to fatigue loads. (o reduce t!e stress concentration< a gradual transition fro& one section to t!e ot!er is reco&&ended 4Figure ,5. (!ese aspects are also discussed in t!e lecture on fatigue design and in Lecture 3., and Lecture 3.- concerning fa'rication and erection of steel structures.

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## 3. FI44ET WE4D C64CU46TION

3.1 6ssu "t#o!s
(!e assu&ptions adopted for fillet eld calculations according to 2urocode 3 H1I concern &ec!anical and geo&etric c!aracteristics. As alread% pointed out< t!e &ec!anical properties of t!e filler &etal s!all 'e co&pati'le it! t!e parent &aterial properties. (!e t!roat area of a fillet eld considered in t!e calculation is s!o n in Figure -. (!is t!roat area is t!e product of t!e t!roat t!ic>ness and t!e effecti=e lengt! of t!e eld. Generall%< t!e effecti=e lengt! of a fillet eld is eAual to t!e o=erall lengt! of t!e full si9e fillet< including end returns< if t!e fillet eld is continuous. For long elds and inter&ittent elds< t!e effecti=e lengt! &a% 'e reduced.
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Fillet elds reAuired to carr% loads are nor&all% produced it! a t!roat t!ic>ness of at least \$&&. Welds it! effecti=e lengt!s s!orter t!an \$7&& or - ti&es t!e t!roat t!ic>ness< !ic!e=er is larger< s!ould 'e ignored for trans&ission of forces.

## 3.2 Bas#\$ Method

(!e 'asic &et!od for t!e design of fillet elds is descri'ed !ere. It is gi=en in 2urocode 3< Anne? + H1I as an alternati=e design &et!od. (!e load acting on t!e fillet eld is resol=ed into load co&ponents parallel and trans=erse to t!e longitudinal a?is of t!e eld and nor&al and trans=erse to t!e plan of its t!roat 4see Figure -5. (!e corresponding stresses are calculated: 1 P F@al is t!e nor&al stress perpendicular to t!e plane of t!e t!roat area. 1 P F@al is t!e s!ear stress in t!e plane of t!e t!roat area< trans=erse to t!e eld a?is.
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2 P F@@@al is t!e s!ear stress in t!e plane of t!e t!roat area< parallel to t!e eld a?is. 2 is t!e nor&al stress parallel to t!e eld a?is. (!e nor&al stress 2 is not considered 'ecause t!e cross-section of t!e eld is =er% s&all and !as negligi'le strengt! in co&parison it! t!e strengt! of t!e t!roat area su'Bected to t!e s!ear stress co&ponent 2. Application of t!e =on +ises criterion to t!ese stress co&ponents gi=es t!e eAui=alent stress eA in t!e t!roat area of t!e eld: eA P H12 O 3412 O 225I 415

2urocode 3< Anne? + H1I specifies t!at t!e fillet eld ill 'e adeAuate if 'ot! t!e follo ing conditions are satisfied: eA fu@4 + 5 and 1 fu@+ !ere fu is t!e no&inal ulti&ate tensile strengt! of t!e ea>er part Boined. + is t!e partial safet% factor for elds 4P 1<2,5. (!e =alue of t!e correlation factor s!ould 'e ta>en as follo s: 2"1772, )teel Grade )23, )2., )3,, 1lti&ate tensile strengt! fu 3-7 "@&&2 \$37 "@&&2 ,17 "@&&2 Correlation factor 7</ 7</, 7<6 425

For inter&ediate =alues of fu t!e =alue of &a% 'e deter&ined '% linear interpolation.

## 3.3 Mea! Stress Method

2urocode 3 gi=es< in t!e &ain te?t< a si&plified design for&ula !ic! does not reAuire deter&ination of t!e stress co&ponents in t!e eld. (!e for&ula is 'ased on t!e &ean stress &et!od !ic! considers t!e eld strengt! as 'eing eAual to t!e s!ear strengt!< independent of t!e direction of t!e force acting on it. )ince t!e eld is ea>est in pure s!ear t!e &ean stress &et!od al a%s gi=es results on t!e safe side. (!e fillet elds &ust satisf%:
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F@a1 f= P fu@H3. + I435 !ere F is t!e e?ternal force acting on t!e eld. f= is t!e design s!ear strengt! of t!e eld.

## 3., 4o!& :elds

Figure . indicates t!e stress distri'ution for long elds in a lap Boint. (!e distri'ution is analogous to t!at o'ser=ed in long ri=eted or 'olted Boints 4see Lectures 11.35. Large stresses occur at t!e ends of t!e connection. In t!e ulti&ate state< Bust 'efore failure< t!e plastic defor&ation near t!e ends contri'utes to a &ore unifor& s!ear stress in t!e elds. 8o e=er< if t!e connection is long t!e stress redistri'ution ill not 'e full% unifor&.

2urocode 3 specifies t!at t!e design resistance for a long eld in a lap Boint s!all 'e &ultiplied '% a reduction factor l to allo for t!e effects of non-unifor& stress distri'ution. If t!e lap Boint is longer t!an 1,7a

LW P 1<2 !ere

LB is t!e o=erall lengt! of t!e lap in t!e direction of t!e force transfer. For fillet elds longer t!an 1<. &etres connecting trans=erse stiffeners in plated &e&'ers

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## ,. S4OT 6ND P4U5 WE4D C64CU46TION

(!e strengt! of slot and plug elds is calculated it! t!e &ean stress &et!od as for fillet elds. In t!e calculation< t!e effecti=e area of t!e slot or plug eld is ta>en as t!e area of t!e slot or !ole.

-. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

(!e 'asis for calculating t!e strengt! of elds is gi=en. It is noted t!at residual stresses and stress concentrations are neglected since t!ere is a considera'le stress redistri'ution in t!e ulti&ate state. For long elds in lap Boints< !o e=er< a non-unifor& stress distri'ution is ta>en into consideration. Generall%< 'utt elds reAuire no calculations for design. Calculation is onl% reAuired in t!e case of partial penetration elds. Follo ing 2urocode 3< a &ean stress &et!od as ell as an alternati=e &et!od 4Anne? +5 are gi=en for fillet eld design. (!e &ean stress &et!od does not reAuire calculation of indi=idual stress co&&ents in t!e elds 'ut generall% leads to &ore conser=ati=e results.

.. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of steel structuresG: 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662. H2I Bresler< B.< Li&< (. 3.< )cal9i< J. B.< Design of steel structures< 2nd 2dition< 16-/.

.. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< )tructural )teel or> Connections< 1st 2dition< 16/6. 2. Bludgett< 0.W.< CDesign of elded structuresC< Ja&es F Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation< Cle=eland< 0!io< 1)A< 16.2. Infor&ati=e and ell illustrated reference &anual co=ering all aspects of elded design and construction.

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## Lecture 11.2." : Welded Connections A##lications o! \$illet Weld Calculation

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. )ID2 FILL2( W2LD) 2.1 Application of t!e +ean )tress +et!od 2.2 Application of t!e Alternati=e +et!od 2.3 Connection )trengt! 2Aual to +e&'er )trengt! 3. 2"D FILL2( W2LD) 3.1 Application of t!e +ean )tress +et!od 3.2 Application of t!e Alternati=e +et!od 3.3 Connection )trengt! 2Aual to +e&'er )trengt! \$. 0BLI;12 L0ADI"G ,. L0AD-D2F0*+A(I0" B28A:I01* -. W2LD (0 1")(IFF2"2D FLA"G2) .. BA)2 +2(AL C82CDI"G /. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 6. *2F2*2"C2) 17. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
Lecture 11.2.2 sets out t!e t o &et!ods proposed in 2urocode 3 H1I for designing fillet elds< t!e &ean stress &et!od and t!e alternati=e &et!od. (!e &ean stress &et!od 42urocode 3 - Clause -.-.,.35 is a si&plification of t!e alternati=e &et!od. (!e elds< &ust satisf% F@al f= P fu@H3. + I !ere F is t!e e?ternal force 4independent of orientation5 trans&itted '% t!e fillet elds a is t!e t!roat t!ic>ness l is t!e lengt! of t!e eld f= is t!e design s!ear strengt! of t!e eld. (!e alternati=e &et!od 42urocode 3< Anne? +5 reAuires a calculation of t!e different stress co&ponents in t!e eld to deter&ine an eAui=alent stress. (!e follo ing conditions &ust 'e satisfied: H12 O 3412 O 225I and 1 fu@+ !ere 1< 1< and 2 are t!e tensile and s!ear stress co&ponents 4see Figure 15 applied to t!e t!roat area of t!e eld fu@H + I 435 425 415

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fu is t!e no&inal ulti&ate tensile strengt! of t!e ea>er part Boined + is t!e partial safet% factor for elds P 1<2, is t!e correlation factor for !ic! t!e =alues are: P 7</ for )23, steel< 4fu P 3-7+#a5 P 7</, for )2., steel< 4fu P \$37+#a5 P 7<67 for )3,, steel< 4fu P ,17+#a5 A co&parison of designs produced '% t!e t o &et!ods follo s.

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## 2. SIDE FI44ET WE4DS

)ide fillet elds transfer an a?ial force F applied in a direction parallel to t!e eld lengt!. Consider a lap Boint it! t o side fillet elds 4Figure 25. 2ac! eld trans&its t!e force .

## 2.1 6""l#\$at#o! o7 the Mea! Stress Method

Condition 415 gi=es F@42al5 fu@H3. + I 8ence< t!e t!roat t!ic>ness &ust satisf% a 43@25F@4ful5. + 4\$5

## 2.2 6""l#\$at#o! o7 the 6lter!at#;e Method

Wit! t!is a?ial force< onl% t!e stress co&ponent 2 is considered:

## and t!e &ini&u& t!roat t!ic>ness is: a 43@25F%@4ful5. +

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Condition 435 need not 'e considered !ere 41 P 75. For side elds< t!e t o &et!ods lead to t!e sa&e result for t!e t!roat area of t!e elds.

## 2.3 Co!!e\$t#o! Stre!&th E<ual to Me 9er Stre!&th

(!e connection can 'e designed '% co&parison to 'e as strong as t!e connected &e&'er. For t!is purpose it is not necessar% to deter&ine t!e &agnitude of t!e force acting on t!e connection. In t!e case of t o side fillet elds transferring an a?ial force< t!e follo ing condition for eAual strengt! can 'e set: 2alfu@43. + 5 A f% or a 3Af%@42lfu5. + !ere A is t!e cross-section area of t!e connected &e&'er f% is t!e no&inal %ield strengt! of t!e &e&'er 4,5

## 3. END FI44ET WE4DS

2nd fillet elds transfer an a?ial force applied in a direction perpendicular to t!e eld lengt!. Consider a tee Boint it! t o end fillet elds 4Figure 35. 2ac! eld trans&its t!e force .

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## 3.1 6""l#\$at#o! o7 the Mea! Stress Method

Condition 415 gi=es F@42al5 fu@43. + 5 and a 3F@42lfu5. + 4-5

## 3.2 6""l#\$at#o! o7 the 6lter!at#;e Method

0nl% t!e stress co&ponents 1 and 1 are deter&ined in t!e t!roat area of t!e eld.

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## a (2@254F@ful5H + I Condition 435 1 P F@422al5 gi=es a F?@422ful5.+ 4.C5 fu@+

4.5

Co&parison of 4.5 and 4.C5 s!o s t!at t!e t!roat t!ic>ness gi=en '% 4.5 go=erns t!e c!oice of eld di&ensions. For end elds< t!e alternati=e &et!od is &ore ad=antageous t!an t!e &ean stress &et!od. (!e reduction of t!e t!roat t!ic>ness is P 7</2.

Fro& 4.5 and 4\$5 t!e eAui=alent strengt! for an end fillet eld fe and a side fillet eld fs according to t!e alternati=e &et!od can easil% 'e deduced. (!ese =alues as ell as condition 4/5 for different steel grades are gi=en in (a'le 1.
)23, fe H"@&&2I 4end fillets5 eAual strengt! it! t o elds fs H"@&&2I 4side fillets5 2,, a 7<\$- t 27/ )2., 2/a 7<\$/ t 23\$ )3,, 321 a 7<,, t 2-2

Ta9le 1 E<u#;ale!t stre!&th 7or e!d a!d s#de 7#llet :elds 7or d#77ere!t steel &rades

## 3.3 Co!!e\$t#o! Stre!&th E<ual to Me 9er Stre!&th

In t!e case of t o end fillet elds transferring a force perpendicular to t!e eld lengt!< t!e follo ing condition for eAual strengt! applies 4t!e alternati=e &et!od5: 2alfu @42 + 5 t l f% or a 42@254tf%@fu5. + !ere t is t!e t!ic>ness of t!e connected &e&'er. 4/5

,. OB4I3UE 4O6DIN5
(!e t o loading conditions descri'ed in c!apters 2 and 3 occur freAuentl%. A fillet eld &a% also 'e su'Bect to o'liAue loading. Figure \$ s!o s so&e cases of o'liAue loaded elds.

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1sing t!e &ean stress &et!od< t!e design of o'liAue loaded elds is =er% si&ple. Wit! t!e alternati=e &et!od t!e design is &ade as follo s: 1. (!e load is resol=ed into co&ponents parallel and trans=erse to t!e longitudinal a?is of t!e eld and nor&al and trans=erse to t!e plane of its t!roat< see Figure 1. 2. (!e stress co&ponents 1< 1< and 2 due to eac! load co&ponent are calculated.
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3. )tress co&ponents of eac! >ind are introduced into t!e 'asic for&ula 425. Figure , s!o s t!e relation 'et een t!e calculated reAuired t!roat t!ic>ness according to t!e alternati=e and t!e &ean stress &et!od for a tee-Boint su'Bect to an o'liAue load.

-. 4O6D*DEFORM6TION BE062IOUR
(!e load-defor&ation 'e!a=iour of fillet elds is illustrated in Figure -. It is clear t!at an end fillet eld is considera'l% stronger t!an a side fillet eld. (!e difference is actuall% larger t!an one ould e?pect fro& t!e calculation &et!ods descri'ed !ere. 0ne reason is t!at t!e failure plane for an end fillet eld differs fro& t!e t!eoretical t!roat plane< resulting in a larger failure area of t!e eld. (!e failure plane for a side fillet eld< !o e=er< is closer to t!e t!roat plane.

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Figure - also s!o s t!at t!e ductilit% of an a?iall% loaded eld is &uc! larger t!an a eld loaded in t!e trans=erse direction.

## .. WE4D TO UNSTIFFENED F46N5ES

If a plate is elded to an unstiffened flange of an I- or a 'o? section< loading ill tend to defor& t!e flange or t!e 'o? side uneAuall% along t!e 'readt!. (!e result is t!at t!e parts of t!e eld near t!e e' ill 'e &ore !ea=il% loaded t!an t!e ot!er parts< see Figure .. (!erefore a reduced effecti=e 'readt! s!all 'e ta>en into account 'ot! for t!e parent &aterial and for t!e elds.

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For an I-section t!e effecti=e 'readt! 'eff s!ould 'e ta>en as: 'eff P t O 2r O . tf 465 'ut

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'eff P t O 2r O . !ere

4175

t!e geo&etrical para&eters t < r< tf and tp are s!o n in Figure .. f% is t!e design %ield strengt! of t!e &e&'er f%p is t!e design %ield strengt! of t!e plate. If 'eff L 7<. ' t!e Boint s!ould 'e stiffened. For a 'o? section t!e effecti=e 'readt! 'eff s!ould 'e ta>en as: 'eff P 2t O ,tf 4115 'ut

'eff 2t O ,

4125

## /. B6SE MET64 C0EC=IN5

W!ate=er eld design &et!od is used it is also necessar% to ascertain t!at t!e 'ase &etal of t!e connected parts !as sufficient resistance. (o c!ec> t!e 'ase &etal t!ree possi'le failures !a=e to 'e considered< see Figure /:

(ensile failure in &e&'er 1 4pat! 1-15 (ensile failure in &e&'er 2 4pat! 2-25

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Failure in &e&'er 2< along t!e line 3-3< it! tensile failure 4pat! '-c5 and s!earing rupture 4pat!s a-' and c-d5. In t!is case< t!e total resistance can 'e ta>en as t!e su& of t!e ulti&ate strengt! of eac! indi=idual pat!. fu2 4135

## Q2l1@3 + l2Ft2fu2 @+2 !ere

t2 is t!e t!ic>ness of &e&'er 2 fu2 is t!e ulti&ate deign strengt! of &e&'er 2 +2 is t!e partial safet% factor against ulti&ate P 1<2,. "ote t!at tensile failure in t!e &e&'ers need not 'e c!ec>ed again in t!e design of t!e connection. (!e pre=ious design of t!e &e&'ers satisfies t!e strengt! reAuire&ents.

## '. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

2urocode 3 proposes t o &et!ods for t!e design of fillet elds. (!e alternati=e &et!od in Anne? + is t!e &ore econo&ical 'ut in=ol=es &ore calculations. (!e calculation steps are:

i5 deter&ination of t!e load co&ponents acting on t!e t!roat section of t!e fillet elds< ii5 calculation of t!e corresponding stress co&ponents< iii5 c!ec>ing it! t!e 'asic for&ula.

2nd fillet elds are &uc! stronger t!an side fillet elds 'ut t!eir ductilit% is less. Bot! t!e 'asic and t!e alternati=e &et!ods &a% 'e used for elds loaded o'liAuel%. For attac!&ents to unstiffened flanges of &e&'ers< concentration of load transfer in t!e stiffer regions &a% 'e allo ed for '% using an effecti=e 'readt! of eld. (!e possi'ilit% of tensile failure in t!e 'ase &etal of t!e connected parts s!ould al a%s 'e c!ec>ed.

). REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructuresG: 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662.

## 1+. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5

H1I Blodgett< 0.W.< GDesign of elded structuresG< Ja&es F Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation< Cle=eland< 0!io< 1)A< 16.2. H2I 0 ens< G.W. and C!eal< B.D.< )tructural )teel or> Connections< 1st 2d.< 16/6.

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## Lecture 11.".1 : Connections %it& Non 'reloaded Bolts

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. #*I"CI#L2 0F L0AD (*A")+I))I0" 3. DI+2")I0") 0F (82 B0L() \$. B0L( G*AD2) ,. DIA+2(2* 0F (82 80L2) -. "0+I"AL A"D )(*2)) )2C(I0") 0F .. )82A* *2)I)(A"C2 ..1 "or&al Joints ..2 Long Joints /. B2A*I"G *2)I)(A"C2 6. (2")I0" *2)I)(A"C2 17. B0L() )1BJ2C( (0 )82A* A"D (2")I0" 11. )#ACI"G *2;1I*2+2"() 11.1 Basis 11.2 Connections of plates 11.2.1 +ini&u& end distance 11.2.2 +ini&u& edge distance 11.3.3 +a?i&u& end and edge distances 11.2.\$ +ini&u& spacing 11.2., +a?i&u& spacing in co&pression &e&'ers 11.2.- +a?i&u& spacing in tension &e&'ers 11.3 Angles Connected '% 0ne Leg 11. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 12. *2F2*2"C2)

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1. INTRODUCTION
(!e resistance of a 'olted connection is nor&all% deter&ined on t!e 'asis of t!e resistance of t!e indi=idual fasteners and t!e connected parts. Linear-elastic anal%sis is &ost freAuentl% used in t!e design of t!e connection. Alternati=el% non-linear anal%sis of t!e connection &a% 'e e&plo%ed< pro=ided t!at it ta>es account of t!e load-defor&ation c!aracteristics of all t!e co&ponents of t!e connection. Furt!er infor&ation a'out anal%sis of connections is gi=en in Lectures 11.\$. (!e present lecture concentrates on t!e &ost co&&on t%pe of 'olt< t!e non- preloaded 'olt< often called an Gordinar% 'oltG. It is popular 'ecause of its lo cost 'ot! to 'u% and to install. Connections &ade it! t!is t%pe of 'olt are often referred to as G'earing-t%peG so as to distinguis! t!e& fro& t!e slip resistant connections t!at e&plo% preloaded 'olts. W!ere a Boint loaded in s!ear is su'Bect to i&pact or significant =i'ration< elding or 'olts it! loc>ing de=ices< preloaded 'olts or ot!er t%pes of 'olt !ic! effecti=el% pre=ent &o=e&ent s!ould 'e used. W!ere slip is not accepta'le in a Boint su'Bect to re=ersal of s!ear load 4or for an% ot!er reason5< preloaded 'olts in a slip-resistant connection< fitted 'olts< inBection 'olts or ot!er 'olts it! t!e sa&e effect s!ould 'e used< see Lectures 11.3.2 and 11.3.3. For ind and@or sta'ilit% 'racing< 'olts in 'earing-t%pe connections &a% nor&all% 'e used.

## 2. PRINCIP4E OF 4O6D TR6NSMISSION

In structural connections< 'olts are used to transfer loads fro& one plate to anot!er. (!e follo ing figures gi=e so&e e?a&ples !ere 'olts are used< loaded '%: a. Shear 7or\$e %F#&ure 1(

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(!e load is trans&itted into and out of t!e 'olts '% 'earing on t!e connected plates. (!e forces in t!e 'olts are trans&itted '% trans=erse s!ear. '. Te!s#o! 7or\$e %F#&ure 2> o!l8 M(

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In t!e case of &o&ent loading 4+5 onl%< t!e tension part of t!e load is trans&itted '% a?ial tension in t!e 'olt. c. Co 9#!ed te!s#o! a!d shear 7or\$e %F#&ure 2> M a!d 2( In t!e case of co&'ined &o&ent 4+5 and trans=erse loading 4:5< t!e 'olts &a% 'e reAuired to trans&it a co&'ination of trans=erse s!ear and a?ial tension.

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In Figure 3< t!e 'olts A trans&it trans=erse s!ear< !ile t!e 'olts B trans&it a co&'ination of s!ear and tension or s!ear and co&pression.

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Bolts t!at are not preloaded to a predeter&ined preload< &a% 'e called Gnon-preloaded 'oltsG or Gordinar% 'oltsG. In case of a s!ear connection 4Figure 15< t!ese 'olts are also called G'earing t%peG 'olts. (!e principal action on a 'olt in a splice Boint of t!e t%pe s!o n in Figure \$ is s!earing on its cross-sectional plane caused '% 'earing 'et een opposing plates in t!e Boint. (!e elastic distri'ution of t!ese 'earing stresses and t!e stresses produced in t!e 'olt are co&ple?. 8o e=er< for full% de=eloped plastic conditions< t!e distri'ution of s!ear stress is effecti=el% unifor& so t!at t!e s!ear strengt! is t!e product of t!e cross-section area of t!e 'olt in t!e s!ear plane and t!e s!ear strengt! of t!e &aterial.

If t!reads are e?cluded fro& t!e s!ear plane< t!e s!an> area &a% 'e used. 0t!er ise t!e stress area of t!e t!readed portion s!ould 'e used. In &odern detailing practice it is co&&on to use t!e s&aller area and not to contri=e to e?clude t!e t!reads fro& t!e s!ear plane.

## 3. DIMENSIONS OF T0E BO4TS

8e?agon !eaded 'olts and nuts are a=aila'le in a range of si9es up to a'out -/ && s!an> dia&eter.

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(!e 'olt si9es are indicated '% t!e designation + follo ed '% a nu&'er &ultiplied '% anot!er nu&'er< for e?a&ple< + 27 ? -7< !ere t!e dia&eter of t!e s!an> is 27 && and t!e lengt! of t!e s!an> O t!e t!readed part is -7 &&. (!e + stands for &etric. (!e lengt! of t!e 'olt s!ould 'e suc! t!at< after allo ing for tolerances< t!e t!readed s!an> ill protrude not less t!an one t!read 'e%ond t!e nut after tig!tening and at least one full t!read 4in addition to t!e t!read run-out5 ill re&ain clear 'et een t!e nut and t!e unt!readed part of t!e s!an>.

,. BO4T 5R6DES
Bolts and nuts are a=aila'le in steels of &ini&u& tensile strengt!s up to a'out 13.7 +#a. (!e grade of t!e 'olts is indicated '% t o nu&'ers. (!e &ost co&&on grades are \$.-< ,.-< -.,< -./< /./ and 17.6. According to 2urocode 3 425< t!e design %ield stress f%' and t!e design ulti&ate stress fu' of t!e usual 'olts are as gi=en in (a'le 1. Ta9le 1? Me\$ha!#\$al "ro"ert#es o7 9olts

\$.2\$7 \$77

,.377 ,77

## 17.6 677 1777

(!e design %ield stress f%' can 'e deri=ed fro& t!e grade '% &ultipl%ing t!e first nu&'er '% t!e second nu&'er ti&es 17. (!e design ulti&ate stress fu' is t!e first nu&'er ti&es 177 4stresses in +#a5. Bolts of grade /./ are used &ost freAuentl%.

## -. DI6METER OF T0E 0O4ES

Because of t!e tolerances in t!e positioning of !oles and t!e tolerances of t!e 'olt dia&eter 4d5 and t!e !ole dia&eter 4d'5< a clearance is necessar% 4Figure \$5. For 'earing-t%pe connections< t!is clearance &a% cause slip of t!e plates !en t!e% are loaded. In t!e case of alternating loading< t!is &o=e&ent &a% occur at eac! loading re=ersal. "or&all%< suc! &o=e&ent is not per&itted. 2?cept for fitted 'olts or !ere lo -clearance or o=ersi9e !oles are specified< t!e no&inal clearance in standard !oles s!all 'e:

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1&& for +12 and +1\$ 'olts 2&& for +1- to +2\$ 'olts 3&& for +2. and larger 'olts.

8oles it! s&aller clearances t!an standard !oles &a% 'e specified. 8oles it! 2&& no&inal clearance &a% also 'e specified for +12 and +1\$ 'olts< pro=ided t!at t!e design &eets t!e follo ing reAuire&ents:

for 'olts of strengt! grade \$./< ,./< -./ or 17.6< t!e design s!ear resistance F=<*d is ta>en as 7</, ti&es t!e =alue gi=en in for&ulae 435 to 4,5. t!e design s!ear resistance F=<*d 4reduced as a'o=e if applica'le5 is not less t!an t!e design 'earing resistance F'<*d.

8oles ill 'e for&ed '% drilling or punc!ing. #unc!ing !oles in steel or> is &uc! faster t!an drilling 'ut so&e crac>ing &a% appear in t!e &aterial and t!erefore< in so&e cases< !oles ill not 'e punc!ed full si9e 'ut &ust 'e punc!ed 2&& dia&eter less t!an full si9e and t!en rea&ed. "e punc!ing &ac!ines !ic! operate at !ig! speeds induce less distortion in t!e &aterial< and it is e?pected t!at &ore punc!ing ill 'e allo ed in t!e future. If t!ere is no specification< punc!ing is allo ed for &aterial up to 2,&& in t!ic>ness pro=ided t!at t!e !ole dia&eter is not less t!an t!e t!ic>ness of t!e &aterial. Burrs s!ould 'e re&o=ed fro& !oles 'efore asse&'l% e?cept t!at< !ere !oles are drilled in one operation t!roug! parts cla&ped toget!er !ic! ould not ot!er ise 'e separated after drilling< t!e% need to 'e separated to re&o=e t!e 'urrs.

## .. NOMIN64 6ND STRESS SECTIONS OF 6 BO4T

Bolts in structural steel or> &ust co&pl% it! I)0 /6/@1 415. Figure , defines t!e =arious dia&eters of suc! 'olts. t!e area of t!e s!an> t!at is used in design for&ulae is called t!e s!an> area A :

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A P d2@\$ 415 t!e area of t!e t!readed part t!at is used in design for&ulae is called t!e stress area As: As P ds2 @\$ 425 (!e stress dia&eter ds is so&e !at larger t!an t!e dia&eter of t!e core< 'ecause of t!e fact t!at a rupture plane al a%s includes at least one t!read. ds is t!e &ean =alue 'et een t!e core dia&eter 4dc5 and t!e flan> dia&eter 4df5 of t!e t!readK t!e flan> dia&eter is t!e &ean =alue 'et een t!e core dia&eter and t!e no&inal dia&eter 4d5:

df P

ds P (!e =alue of As for co&&on 'olt dia&eters is gi=en in (a'le 2. Ta9le 2? Stress area o7 9olts "o&inal dia&eter d' 4&&5 / "o&inal area A 4&&25 ,7<3 )tress area As 4&&25 3-<-

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17 12 1\$ 11/ 27 22 2\$ 2. 37

./<, 113 1,\$ 271 2,\$ 31\$ 3/7 \$,2 ,.3 .7.

,/<7 /\$<3 11, 1,. 162 2\$, 373 3,3 \$,6 ,-1

/. S0E6R RESIST6NCE
/.1 Nor al @o#!ts
)!earing tests on 'olts !a=e s!o n t!e s!ear strengt! to 'e a'out -7E of t!e tensile strengt!. (!e effecti=e s!ear strengt! of 'olts in Boints is reduced '% secondar% 'ending actions caused '% une=en 'earing of t!e plates and '% 'ending of t!e 'olt due to e?cessi=e !ole clearance. (!e reduction increases it! t!e lengt! of t!e 'olt for a gi=en dia&eter. It is particularl% significant in lap Boints it! a single 'olt< !ere t!e loading tends to straig!ten out t!e Boint and rotate t!e 'olt as s!o n in Figure -< causing 'ot! s!ear and tension in t!e 'olt and local 'ending stresses under t!e !ead and t!e nut. (!e reduction in s!ear resistance of a single fastener &a% 'e a'out 17E. Increasing t!e lengt! of t!e Boint< i.e. t!e nu&'er of 'olts< reduces t!e 'ending and !ence t!e loss of s!ear resistance.

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(!e local 'ending stresses under t!e !ead and t!e nut in t!e single 'olted connection of Figure - &a% gi=e poor perfor&ance in t!e case of fatigue loading. (!e design s!ear resistance of a 'olt 4F=.*d5 in nor&al conditions< per s!ear plane< is: 4a5 For t!e s!ear plane passing t!roug! t!e t!readed portion of t!e 'olt: F=<*d P 7<-fu'As@+' 435 for strengt! grades \$.-< ,.- and /./ F=<*d P 7<,fu'As@+' 4\$5 for strengt! grades \$./< ,./< -./ and 17.6 (!e coefficient 7<, is t!e result of a statistical e=aluation 'ased on a =er% large nu&'er of test results. It appears t!at 'olts of t!ese grades are less ductile and t!at t!e rupture occurs suddenl%. 4'5 For t!e s!ear plane passing t!roug! t!e unt!readed portion of t!e 'olt: F=<*d P 7<-fu'A@+' 4,5

## /.2 4o!& @o#!ts

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(!e distri'ution of load 'et een t!e 'olts in a Boint !en t!e !ole clearance !as 'een ta>en up depends on t!e lengt!< t!e relati=e cross-sectional areas of t!e Boined plates< t!e 'olt pitc! and t!e s!ear defor&ation capacit% of t!e 'olts and t!eir i&&ediatel% surrounding plate 4fastener fle?i'ilit%5. Figure . s!o s t!e distri'ution of loads 'et een t!e 'olts in a long Boint. (!e loads transferred t!roug! t!e outer 'olts 41 and 6 in t!e Figure5 are greater t!an t!ose t!roug! 'olts to ards t!e centre of t!e Boint. If t!e total area of t!e co=er plates e?ceeds t!at of t!e centre plate t!e distri'ution ill not 'e s%&&etrical< and 'olt 1 ill transfer &ore load t!an an% ot!er.

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W!en t!e fasteners %ield< t!eir fle?i'ilit% increases causing a &ore unifor& s!aring of t!e load 4t!e 'ro>en line in Figure .5. 8o e=er< for long steel or> Boints of nor&al proportions t!is 'e!a=iour ill 'e insufficient to produce an eAual load distri'ution. (!is t!e end-'olts ill reac! t!eir defor&ation li&it and so fail 'efore t!e re&aining ones !a=e 'een full% loaded. (!is ill result in progressi=e failure at an a=erage s!ear =alue per 'olt 'elo t!e single-'olt s!ear resistance. (ests !a=e confir&ed t!at Boint lengt!< rat!er t!an t!e nu&'er of 'olts< is t!e do&inant para&eter H3I. W!ere t!e distance LB 'et een t!e centres of t!e end fasteners in a Boint< &easured in t!e direction of t!e transfer of force 4see Figure /5< is &ore t!an 1,d< 4 !ere d is t!e no&inal dia&eter of t!e 'olts5 t!e design s!ear resistance of all t!e fasteners s!all 'e reduced '% &ultipl%ing it '% a reduction factor Lf< gi=en '%:

Lf P 1 'ut Lf 1<7 and Lf 7<.,. (!is pro=ision does not appl% !ere t!ere is a unifor& distri'ution of force transfer o=er t!e lengt! of t!e Boint< e.g. t!e transfer of s!ear force fro& t!e e' of a section to t!e flange.

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## '. BE6RIN5 RESIST6NCE

3ielding due to pressure 'et een t!e 'olt s!an> and plate &aterial &a% result in e?cessi=e defor&ation of t!e plate around t!e 'olt !ole and possi'l% so&e distortion of t!e 'olt.
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(!e area resisting t!e 'earing pressure is assu&ed to 'e t!e product of t!e plate t!ic>ness and t!e no&inal 'olt dia&eter. (!e distance 4e15 of t!e 'olt fro& t!e end of t!e plate &ust 'e sufficient to pro=ide adeAuate resistance to t!e s!earing-out &ode of failure s!o n in Figure 6< !ic! is go=erned '% t!e area of t!e s!ear pat!.

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(!e presence of t!reads in t!e grip does not significantl% affect t!e 'earing resistance 'ut ill cause so&e increase of t!e defor&ation. If t!e s!ear resistance is greater t!an t!e 'earing resistance of t!e plates< one of t!e failure &odes s!o n in Figure 6 ill occur. In t!is case< t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e connection is =er% large. (!e Boint !as a GductileG 'e!a=iour. In t!e ot!er case< !en t!e failure is due to t!e s!earing of t!e 'olts< t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e connection is =er% s&all and t!e Boint !as a G'rittleG 'e!a=iour. (!e design 'earing resistance of a 'olt H\$I is gi=en '%: F'.*d P 2<,fudt@+' !ere is t!e s&allest of: 4-5

or 1<7 (!is reduction coefficient is necessar%< 'ecause !en t!e end distance is s!ort< t!e capacit% of defor&ation is s&all. If t!e net section of t!e &e&'er is s&all< net section rupture &a% go=ern t!e failure load of t!e connection 4Figure 65. 2Auation 4-5 for t!e design 'earing resistance applies onl% !ere t!e edge distance e2 is not less t!an 1<, do and t!e spacing p2 4Figure 125 &easured trans=erse to t!e load direction is at least 3<7 do.

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If e2 is reduced to 1<2 do and@or p2 is reduced to 2<\$ do< t!en t!e 'earing resistance F'.*d s!ould 'e reduced to 2@3 of t!e =alue gi=en '% 2Auation 4-5. For inter&ediate =alues 1<2 do L e2 1<, do and@or 2<\$ do 3 do t!e =alue of F'.*d &a% 'e deter&ined '% linear interpolation.

). TENSION RESIST6NCE
A?ial tension resistance of a 'olt is 'ased on t!e stress area As and is gi=en '%: Ft P fu<' . As As a result of statistical e=aluation 'ased on a =er% large nu&'er of tests< t!e follo ing for&ula s!ould 'e adopted: Ft P 7<6 . fu<' . As

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(!e design tension resistance of a 'olt is gi=en '%: Ft.*d P 7<6fu'As@+' 4.5

Generall%< !en t!e line of action of t!e applied force is eccentric to t!e a?is of t!e 'olt< additional tension ill 'e induced in t!e 'olt '% pr%ing action. (!is action is &ost easil% illustrated in ter&s of t!e (ee stu'< loaded '% a tension force 2F s!o n in Figure 17. In t!e 'ending of t!e flanges of t!e (ee< t!e 'olts act as a pi=ot point so t!at t!ere is a co&pressi=e reaction 4;5 'et een t!e outer edges of t!e flanges< !ic! is defined as t!e #r%ing Force. (!e tension induced in t!e 'olts< for eAuili'riu&< is t!us F' P F O ;.

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(!e pr%ing ratio< ;@F< depends upon t!e geo&etr% and stiffness of t!e connected parts and t!e 'olt stiffness. An esti&ate of t!e pr%ing ratio< ta>ing full account of all t!e para&eters< goes 'e%ond t!e scope of t!is lecture. It ill 'e treated in Lecture 11.\$.

## 1+. BO4TS SUB@ECT TO S0E6R 6ND TENSION

Bolts &a% 'e su'Bect to co&'ined s!ear and tension stresses 4Figure 35. ( o forces are t!en acting in t!e s!ear planeK F= 4s!ear5 and Ft 4tension5. (!e interaction 'et een t!e t o forces !as 'een in=estigated in tests H,I and fro& t!e results it !as 'een found t!at 'olts su'Bect to s!ear and tensile force &ust satisf% t!e follo ing 'ilinear relations!ip.

1<7 (!us t!e full tensile resistance is a=aila'le for =alues of s!ear up to al&ost 37E of t!e s!ear capacit% F=.*d as s!o n in Figure 11. (!is feature is useful !en considering situations suc! as t!at s!o n in Figure 2 4+ and :5 or for 'olts B in Figure 3.

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(!e design resistances F=<*d and Ft<*d for s!ear and tension t!roug! t!e t!readed position are restricted to 'olts &anufactured in confor&it% it! t!e I)0 )tandard H1< -I. For ot!er ite&s it! cut t!reads< suc! as !olding-do n 'olts or tie rods fa'ricated fro& round steel 'ars !ere t!e t!reads are cut '% t!e steel or> fa'ricator and not '% a specialist 'olt &anufacturer< t!e rele=ant =alues s!ould 'e reduced '% &ultipl%ing t!e& '% a factor of 7</,. Due to t!e particular for& of t!e !ead of a countersun> 'olt 4see Figure 125 t!e design tension and 'earing resistance of suc! a 'olt !a=e to 'e reduced.

## 11. SP6CIN5 RE3UIREMENTS

11.1 Bas#s
(!e positioning of !oles for 'olts s!ould 'e suc! as to pre=ent corrosion and local 'uc>ling and to facilitate t!e installation of t!e 'olts. (!e positioning of t!e !oles s!all also 'e in confor&it% it! t!e li&its of =alidit% for t!e rules used to deter&ine t!e design resistances of t!e 'olts it! reference to 2urocode 3 425.

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## 11.2 Co!!e\$t#o!s o7 "lates

11.2.1 M#!# u

e!d d#sta!\$e

(!e end distance e1 fro& t!e centre of a fastener !ole to t!e adBacent end of an% part< &easured in t!e direction of load transfer 4see Figure 12a5< s!ould not 'e less t!an 1<2 do< !ere do is t!e !ole dia&eter. (!e end distance s!ould 'e increased if necessar% to pro=ide adeAuate 'earing resistance< see )ection /.

11.2.2 M#!# u

ed&e d#sta!\$e

(!e edge distance e2 fro& t!e centre of a fastener !ole to t!e adBacent edge of an% part< &easured at rig!t angles to t!e direction of load transfer 4see Figure 13a5< s!ould nor&all% 'e not less t!an 1<, do.

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(!e edge distance &a% 'e reduced to not less t!an 1<2 do pro=ided t!at t!e design 'earing resistance is reduced accordingl% as gi=en in )ection /.

11.3.3 MaA# u

## e!d a!d ed&e d#sta!\$es

W!ere t!e &e&'ers are e?posed to t!e eat!er or ot!er corrosi=e influences< t!e &a?i&u& end or edge distance s!ould not e?ceed \$7 && O \$t< !ere t is t!e t!ic>ness of t!e t!inner outer connected part. In ot!er cases t!e end or edge distance s!ould not e?ceed 12t or 1,7 &&< !ic!e=er is t!e larger. (!e edge distance s!ould also not e?ceed t!e &a?i&u& to satisf% local 'uc>ling reAuire&ents for an outstanding ele&ent. (!is reAuire&ent does not appl% to fasteners interconnecting t!e co&ponents of 'ac>-to-'ac> tension &e&'ers. (!e end distance is not affected '% t!is reAuire&ent.

11.2., M#!# u

s"a\$#!&

(!e spacing p1 'et een centres of fasteners in t!e direction of load 4see Figure 13'5 s!ould not 'e less t!an 2<2 do. (!is spacing s!ould 'e increased if necessar% to pro=ide adeAuate 'earing resistance< see )ection /. (!e spacing p2 'et een ro s of fasteners< &easured perpendicular to t!e direction of load< 4see Figure 13'5< s!ould nor&all% 'e not less t!an 3<7 do. (!is spacing &a% 'e reduced to 2<\$ do if t!e design 'earing resistance is reduced accordingl%< see )ection /.

11.2.- MaA# u

s"a\$#!& #! \$o "ress#o!

e 9ers

(!e spacing p1 of t!e fasteners in eac! ro and t!e spacing p2 'et een ro s of fasteners< s!ould not e?ceed t!e lesser of 1\$t or 277 &&. AdBacent ro s of fasteners &a% 'e s%&&etricall% staggered< see Figure 13'. (!e centre-to-centre spacing of fasteners s!ould also not e?ceed t!e &a?i&u& to satisf% local 'uc>ling reAuire&ents for an internal ele&ent.

11.2.. MaA# u

s"a\$#!& #! te!s#o!

e 9ers

In tension &e&'ers t!e centre-to-centre spacing p1<i of fasteners in inner ro s &a% 'e t ice t!at gi=en in )ection 17.2., for co&pression in &e&'ers< pro=ided t!at t!e spacing p1<o in t!e outer ro along eac! edge does not e?ceed t!at gi=en in )ection 17.2.,< see Figure 13c. Bot! of t!ese =alues &a% 'e &ultiplied '% 1<, in &e&'ers not e?posed to t!e eat!er or ot!er corrosi=e influences.

## 11.3 6!&les Co!!e\$ted 98 O!e 4e&

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In t!e case of uns%&&etrical or uns%&&etricall% connected &e&'ers suc! as angles connected '% one leg< t!e eccentricit% of fasteners in end connections and t!e effects of t!e spacing and edge deter&ine t!e design resistance. Angles connected '% a single ro of 'olts in one leg< see Figure 1\$< &a% 'e treated as concentricall% loaded and t!e design ulti&ate resistance of t!e net section deter&ined as follo s:

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## it! 1 'olt: "u<*d P 2<74e2 - 7<,do5tfu@+2 it! 2 'olts: "u<*d P 3Anetfu@+2

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it! 3 or &ore 'olts: "u<*d P 3Anetfu@+2 !ere 2 and 3 are reduction factors dependant on t!e pitc! p1 as gi=en in (a'le 3. For inter&ediate =alues of p1 t!e =alue of &a% 'e deter&ined '% linear interpolation< and Anet is t!e net section area of t!e angle. For an uneAual-leg angle connected '% its s&aller leg< Anet s!ould 'e ta>en as eAual to t!e net section area of an eAui=alent eAual-leg angle of leg si9e eAual to t!at of t!e s&aller leg. Ta9le 3 * redu\$t#o! 7a\$tors 2 a!d 3

## 11. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

(o design a 'olt< it is necessar% to al a%s =erif% !ic! plane is concerned< t!e s!an> or t!e t!readed part. (!e s!ear resistance of a 'olt is less !en t!e ratio 'et een %ield strengt! and ulti&ate tensile strengt! is larger. (!e 'earing resistance of t!e connected plates depends on t!e distance 'et een 'olts and on t!e distance 'et een a 'olt and t!e edge or t!e end of t!e plates. (!e tension resistance of a 'olt decreases !en t!e line of action of t!e applied force is eccentric. (!e presence of a?ial tension reduces t!e s!ear resistance and =ice =ersa. W!en angles are connected '% one leg< 'ending occurs in t!e profile< and t!e section &ust 'e reduced.

12. REFERENCES
H1I I)0 /6/@1 - International )tandard +ec!anical #roperties of Fasteners. #art 1: Bolts< scre s and studs. H2I DD 2": 1663-1-1: 1662< 2urocode 3 GDesign of )teel )tructuresG. #art 1: General *ules and *ules for Buildings. H3I Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8.< A Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted Joints< 2nd ed< 16/.< Wile%.

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H\$I 2uropean *eco&&endations for Bolted Connections in )tructural )teel or>. 2CC) pu'lication - Docu&ent "o. 3/. H,I )!a>ir-D!alil< 8 and 8o< C. +.< Blac> Bolts under Co&'ined (ension and )!ear< (!e )tructural 2ngineer< ,.B< "o \$ 416.65. H-I I)0 /6/@2 - International )tandard +ec!anical #roperties of Fasteners. #art 2: "uts it! )pecified #roof Load :alues.

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## Lecture 11.".2 : Connections %it& 'reloaded Bolts

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. L0AD (*A")+I))I0" 2.1 Friction Connections 2.2 (ension Connections 3. #*2L0AD I" B0L() \$. (IG8(2"I"G B0L() ,. "1() A"D WA)82*) -. 80L2) .. )LI# *2)I)(A"C2 /. )82A* A"D (2")I0" *2)I)(A"C2 6. #*0:I)I0") F0* F*IC(I0" G*I# C0""2C(I0") 17. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 11. *2F2*2"C2)

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1. INTRODUCTION
W!en a connection is su'Bect to a load re=ersal or to d%na&ic loading< a s!ear connection !ic! acts '% s!ear stress in t!e 'olt and 'earing stress in t!e plates< is not accepta'le 4Lecture 11.3.15. B% pretensioning of t!e 'olts< !o e=er< a cla&ping pressure occurs 'et een t!e connected parts !ic! ena'les load to 'e transferred '% frictional resistance. Figure 1 co&pares t!e effect of using 'earing and preloaded 'olts to &a>e-up a dou'le-co=er plate 'utt Boint. 1ntil slip occurs t!e connection !ic! uses preloaded 'olts - usuall% ter&ed 8ig! )trengt! Friction Grip 48)FG5 'olts - is seen to 'e &uc! stiffer t!an t!at !ic! e&plo%s 'earing 'olts. 0nce slip occurs t!e 8)FG connection progressi=el% 'eco&es a 'earing one and< after t!e !ole clearance !as 'een ta>en up< 'ot! t%pes of connection 'e!a=e in a si&ilar a%.

In t!e case of 'olts in a?ial tension< preloading i&pro=es t!e fatigue resistance '% reducing t!e effecti=e stress range.

2. 4O6D TR6NSMISSION
2.1 Fr#\$t#o! Co!!e\$t#o!s

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#reloaded 'olts e?ert a co&pressi=e stress on t!e connected plates. (!e co&pression gi=es rise to !ig! frictional resistance< !ic! ena'les load to 'e transferred 'et een t!e connected parts. W!en t!e applied load F in Figure 2 e?ceeds t!e frictional resistance !ic! is de=eloped 'et een t!e plates< t!e plates ill slip relati=e to eac! ot!er allo ing t!e 'olt to act in 'earing.

Bolts !ic! transfer load '% friction are >no n as 8ig! )trengt! Friction Grip 48)FG5 'olts. Controlled tig!tening of t!e 'olts allo s t!e frictional action to 'e Auantified for design. (!e &ain ad=antages of 8)FG 'olted connections are t!eir greater stiffness and t!eir a'ilit% to it!stand alternating forces. (!eir 'e!a=iour under fatigue loading is also 'etter t!an t!at of 'earing 'olted connections.

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Against t!ese ad=antages are t!e costs of 8)FG 'olted connections. (!e preparation of t!e friction grip surfaces and t!e controlled tig!tening reAuire additional care 4training of people5. (!e costs are greater t!an for 'earing connections. As a result< 8)FG 'olted connections are usuall% used onl% !ere t!e stiffness of t!e connection is i&portant< !ere alternating loading ould cause alternating slip< or !ere fatigue loading is present. (%picall% 8)FG 'olts are used in 'ridges< cranes and crane girders.

## 2.2 Te!s#o! Co!!e\$t#o!s

Figure 3 gi=es t!e relation 'et een t!e elongation of t!e 'olt and t!e s!ortening of t!e plate asse&'l% due to preloading. W!en an e?ternal tension force Fe is applied to t!e connection< t!e force in t!e 'olt Ft ill increase. At t!e sa&e ti&e t!e elongation of t!e 'olt increases< and t!e s!ortening of t!e plate asse&'l% decreases '% t!e sa&e a&ount. As a result< t!e force in t!e plate asse&'l% decreases. In practice< t!e stiffness of t!e plate asse&'l% is a'out \$ ti&es t!e stiffness of t!e 'olt.

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(!e relation 'et een t!e =arious forces can 'e illustrated '% t!e Gforce triangleG in Figure \$. In Figure \$4a5 contact is li&ited to t!e central region of t!e 'olted connection. (!ere is no increase in 'olt force until separation occurs. In Figure \$4'5< contact is li&ited to t!e edges of t!e 'olted connection. An% e?ternal tension ill increase t!e 'ending in t!e plate increasing 'ot! Fc and F'. Furt!er e?planation is pro=ided in C!apter 1. of *eference 1 and in *eference 2.

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(!e percentage of t!e force !ic! is trans&itted '% an increase in t!e force in t!e 'olts and t!e ot!er part !ic! reduces t!e cla&ping forces 'et een t!e plates depends on t!e elastic 'e!a=iour of t!e connection 4see Figure 35. )ince t!e elastic 'e!a=iour is t!e sa&e< t!e location of t!e contact pressure produced '% tig!tening of t!e 'olts is of crucial i&portance it! regard to 'olt fatigue 4see Figure \$5.

3. PRE4O6D IN BO4TS
In order to &a>e practical use of t!e friction effect< !ig! tensile steel 'olts 4usuall% grade 17.65 are used so t!at an adeAuate cla&ping force can 'e o'tained it! reasona'l% si9ed 'olts. (!e stress induced in t!e 'olts '% t!e pretensioning is at< or near< t!e proof stress. (!e design preloading force of a 'olt is gi=en '%: Fp.Cd P 7<. fu' . As !ere As is t!e tensile stress area of t!e 'olt 4see Lecture 11.3.15 and fu' t!e no&inal ulti&ate stress of t!e 'olt.

,. TI50TENIN5 BO4TS
(!ree &et!ods of tig!tening are a=aila'le: a. Tor<ue ethod

For t!is &et!od of tig!tening a cali'rated torAue renc! is reAuired !ic! &a% 'e !and operated or< for 'olts of larger dia&eters< po er operated. (!e torAue applied to t!e nut 4or t!e !ead5 is used partl% to o=erco&e friction 'et een t!e nut and t!e surface against !ic! it rotates< and partl% - appro?i&atel% !alf - to dri=e t!e t!reads up t!e !eli?< o=erco&ing t!e friction 'et een t!e &ating scre surfaces and t!e resol=ed co&ponent of t!e a?ial force. If t!e geo&etr% of t!e scre !ead and t!e coefficient of friction 'et een t!e =arious &ating surfaces ere >no n< it ould 'e possi'le to esti&ate t!e tension induced '% a gi=en torAue. (!e uncertainties concerning distri'ution of contact pressures< and t!e =aria'ilities of coefficients of friction in practice< do not Bustif% t!e use of an%t!ing ot!er t!an a si&ple rule suc! as: +a P > d Fp 415 !ere: +a is t!e applied torAue 4"&&5 d is t!e 'olt dia&eter 4&&5 Fp is t!e preload in t!e 'olt 4"5

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> is t!e coefficient of friction 'et een &ating surfaces In practice > =alues !a=e 'een &easured for ne 'olts !ic! =ar% 'et een 7<12 and 7<27. For t!e as - deli=ered condition< slig!tl% oiled t!e 2CC) reco&&endations H3I gi=e > P 7<1/ and< for case of t!e use of t!e t!read lu'ricant &ol%'denu& sulp!ide > P 7<1\$. It &a% 'e concluded fro& t!e a'o=e t!at t!e scatter in t!e preloads o'tained ill 'e large 4Figure ,5. If t!e coefficient > appears to 'e =er% lo < t!ere is a danger t!at t!e 'olt ill 'rea>. If > is une?pectedl% large< t!en t!e desired preload ill not 'e o'tained.

(!erefore< t!e torAue &et!od is not reco&&ended '% t!e 2CC) H3I and 2urocode 3 H\$I. If it is applied< t!en it is reco&&ended t!at tests are carried out 'efore erection. )pecial de=ices are a=aila'le 4G'olt force &etreG5 to &easure t!e 'olt force as a function of t!e torAue +a. '. Tur!*o7*!ut ethod

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(!is &et!od is 'ased on a predeter&ined rotation of t!e nut. (!e tig!tening can 'e ac!ie=ed in t o a%s as follo s:

t!e 'olt is first &ade G!and tig!tG and t!en turned furt!er '% a specified a&ount. (!e contact surfaces &ust fit snugl% 'efore t!e 'olts are tig!tened. using a percussion renc!< t!e 'olt is first tig!tened until t!e plies of t!e Boint ac!ie=e a snug fit 4 !en t!e percussion renc! goes o=er to !a&&ering5< after !ic! t!e nut is furt!er turned '% t!e a&ount:

P 67 O t O d 425 !ere: is t!e rotation in degrees t is t!e total t!ic>ness of connected parts in && d is t!e 'olt dia&eter in &&. (!e purpose of t!is &et!od is to rotate t!e nut sufficientl% to ta>e t!e 'olt ell into t!e plastic state 4Figure -a5. (!e s!an> tension is t!en co&parati=el% insensiti=e to =ariation in t!e nut rotation< !ile a large reser=e e?ists 'efore rupture occurs.

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It s!ould 'e re&e&'ered t!at t!e ductilit% of t!e 'olt largel% depends on t!e lengt! of t!e t!readed portion. Care &ust 'e ta>en it! s!ort 'olts !ic! !a=e onl% a s&all a&ount of t!read in t!e grip 4, t!reads is a &ini&u&5. (!e danger of o=erloading 4'rea>ing5 t!e 'olt in t!e turn-of-nut &et!od is far less t!an in t!e torAue &et!od. W!ere t!e plates are not flat and parallel as indicated in Figure -'< t!is &et!od !as t!e disad=antage t!at t!e preload ill not 'e reac!ed if t!e construction or>er does not pa% enoug! attention to closing t!e gaps. A reAuire&ent of t!e &et!od is t!at t!e contact surfaces &ust fit snugl% 'efore t!e 'olts are tig!tened up. c. Co 9#!ed ethod %the 9est(

In t!is &et!od t!e torAue &et!od and t!e turn-of-nut &et!od are co&'ined. 1. First tig!ten all 'olts to .,E of t!e full preload< using t!e torAue &et!od. B% appl%ing onl% .,E< t!e danger of o=erloading due to an une?pected lo friction 'et een nut and t!read is accepta'l% s&all. At t!e sa&e ti&e t!e cla&ping force is usuall% large enoug! to close an% gaps 'et een t!e plates. 2. (!en tig!ten '% a furt!er turn of 67 to 127 4t!e lo er =alue for s&all 'olt lengt!s and t!e larger =alue for large 'olt lengt!s5. (!is &et!od !as t!e ad=antage t!at it is not particularl% sensiti=e to:

=ariation in t!e friction 'et een t!e nut and t!e t!read. =ariation in t!e stiffness of t!e plate asse&'l% 4Figures , and -5. B% appl%ing t!e .,E torAue< one is &ore sure t!at t!e plates fit snugl% t!an it! t!e turn of nut &et!od.

## (!e a'o=e is illustrated in Figure .:

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If after preloading to a no&inal 7<., Fp 4torAue &et!od5< t!e actual preload appears =er% !ig!< t!e turn-of-t!e-nut '% p gi=es no danger for rupture. If t!e actual preload is lo < t!e turn of nut '% p gi=es a preload t!at is !ig! enoug! for eit!er asse&'l%.

In connections it! se=eral 'olts 4Figure /5< it is necessar% to tig!ten t!e 'olts in t o stages:

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(orAue &et!od. First stage: all 'olts up to .,E of +a. )econd stage: all 'olts to 177E of +a. (urn-of-nut &et!od. First stage: all 'olts G!and tig!tG. )econd stage: all 'olts a second ti&e G!and tig!tG. Finall% t!e turn-of-t!e-nuts. Co&'ined &et!od. First stage: all 'olts up to .,E of +a. )econd stage: all 'olts a second ti&e up to .,E of +a. Finall% t!e 67 - 127 turn-of-t!e-nut.

(!e reason for t!e a'o=e is t!at after tig!tening t!e first 'olt up to .,E of Fp or e=en Fp< t!e contact surfaces &a% not fit snugl%. (!e fit depends on t!e i&perfections of t!e Boint 4t!e plates not 'eing flat5 and t!e stiffness of t!e plates< co&pared to t!e preload of t!e first tig!tened 'olt. If t!e contact surfaces do not fit snug after t!e first 'olt is tig!tened< tig!tening t!e second 'olt ill decrease t!e preload in t!e first 'olt< and so on. B% appl%ing t!e t o stage procedure< t!is effect is reduced to an accepta'le le=el.

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## -. NUTS 6ND W6S0ERS

Failure of t!readed fasteners due to o=er-tig!tening can occur '% 'olt s!an> fracture or '% stripping of t!e t!reads of t!e nut and@or 'olt. )!an> fracture is sudden and t!erefore easil% noticed. )tripping is gradual and t!erefore difficult to detect. It introduces t!e danger of partl% failed fasteners 'eing left in asse&'lies. Figure 6 gi=es t!e results of tension tests it! 'ot! failure &odes.

It ould 'e desira'le t!erefore to design t!readed connections so t!at t!eir &ode of failure ould al a%s 'e '% s!an> fracture. 1nfortunatel%< 'ecause of t!e &an% =aria'les !ic! go=ern stripping strengt! 4nut and 'olt &aterial strengt!s< t!read clearances< across-flats di&ensions< etc.5< nuts ould !a=e to 'e a'nor&all% t!ic> to guarantee t!is &ode in all cases. "uts it! a idt! across flats according to I)0 /6/@2 H,I are used for preloaded 'olts. (!eir no&inal !eig!t is al a%s greater t!an t!e classical =alue 7., dK it is often eAual to 7</ d and it can reac! 1<7 d. In t!is respect an i&portant Aualit% reAuire&ent arises. (!e 'olt it! its nut in a tensile test as indicated in Figure 6 &ust !a=e a rupture strengt! of at least t!e so-called Gproof stressG. (!e proof stress for I)0 /6/@1 H-I 'olts< for instance< differs so&e !at fro& t!e design =alues for fu'.

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A !ardened steel as!er is placed under t!e part t!at is rotated 4t!e nut or t!e !ead5. (!is leads to a &ore unifor& and not too !ig! friction 'et een t!e rotated part and t!e underl%ing plates. W!en t!e 'olt a?is is not nor&al to t!e contact surface 4difference of &ore t!an 35< an appropriate taper as!er &ust 'e used.

.. 0O4ES
Clearance =alues are t!e sa&e as for non-preloaded 'olts 4see Lecture 11.3.1.5. In nor&al circu&stances< t!e clearance is 2&& for dia&eters up to and including 2\$&& and 3&& for larger dia&eters. (o i&pro=e t!e resistance of t!e connection< !oles it! s&aller clearance t!an standard !oles &a% 'e specified. As a result costs ill 'e greater.

/. S4IP RESIST6NCE
8)FG 'olts in s!ear connections trans&it t!e force '% friction 'et een t!e contact faces 4Figure 15. (!e resistance of t!ese connections depends on t!e preload Fp.Cd< t!e slip factor and t!e nu&'er of friction faces n. (!e design slip resistance of a preloaded !ig! strengt! 'olt !as a =alue: Fs<*d P nFp.Cd @&s 435

(!e slip factor depends on t!e preparation of t!e surfaces. )o&e =alues 415 are: surface not treated surface 'lasted it! s!ot or grit< it! an% loose rust re&o=ed< no pitting surface 'lasted it! s!ot or grit and painted it! et!%l-9inc silicate coat 4t!ic>ness 37 - -7 &5 surface 'lasted it! s!ot or grit and !ot dip gal=anised #ainting &a% 'e necessar% to pre=ent rust in t!e period 'efore or during erection. *eference standard / of 2urocode 3 H\$I gi=es &ore details. Figure 2 co&pares t!e effect of using 'earing and 8)FG 'olts to &a>e up a dou'le co=er plate 'utt Boint. 1ntil slip occurs< t!e connection !ic! uses 8)FG 'olts is seen to 'e &uc! stiffer t!an t!at !ic! uses 'earing 'olts. 0nce slip occurs< t!e 8)FG connection progressi=el% 'eco&es a 'earing connection and< after t!e !ole clearance !as 'een ta>en up< 'ot! connections 'e!a=e in a si&ilar a%. (!e reason for t!e large decrease of t!e force trans&itted '% friction can 'e e?plained '%:

P7 P7 P7

P7

(!e decrease of t!e surface roug!ness during slip< !ic! gi=es a decrease in . (!e fact t!at t!e tensile stresses in t!e plates around t!e !oles increase !en 'earing 'eco&es effecti=e< reducing t!e t!ic>ness of t!e plates 4#oisson ratio5 and !ence decreasing t!e preload 4consider t!e different longitudinal stress patterns in Figure 15.

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For 'olts in standard no&inal clearance !oles and for 'olts in slotted !olts 4see Lecture 11.3.35 it! t!e a?is of t!e slot perpendicular to t!e direction of t!e load transfer< t!e partial safet% factor &s is ta>en as: &s P 1<2, &s P 1<17

for t!e ulti&ate li&it state for t!e ser=icea'ilit% li&it state

## '. S0E6R 6ND TENSION RESIST6NCE

If a slip resistant connection is su'Bected to an applied tensile force Ft in addition to t!e s!ear force F: tending to produce slip< t!e slip resistance per 'olt is ta>en as follo s: Fs<*d P n4Fp.Cd - 7</Ft5 @&s If< in a &o&ent connection< t!e applied tensile force is counter 'alanced '% a contact force on t!e co&pression side< no reduction of t!e slip resistance is reAuired.

## ). PRO2ISIONS FOR FRICTION 5RIP CONNECTIONS

(ests carried in se=eral countries !a=e s!o n t!at &ill scale ad!ering to t!e contact surfaces causes a su'stantial reduction in t!e coefficient of friction. +easures &ust t!erefore 'e ta>en to re&o=e it. Depending on t!e slip factor assu&ed< t!e contact surfaces s!all 'e cleaned and roug!ened '% 'lasting or s!ot peening it! an appropriate &aterial 4sand< steel grit< etc.5. (!e &aterial used for 'lasting s!ould 'e carefull% selected 4sand< steel s!ot< cast iron s!ot< ire s!ot< etc.5 and t!e treat&ent s!ould 'e carried out< &a>ing full use of all t!at is >no n of t!e process< so as to ac!ie=e a fa=oura'le slip factor. (!is treat&ent s!all 'e follo ed i&&ediatel% '% t!e application of an appropriate paint< if it is specified. W!en fla&e-cleaning is used< it is particularl% i&portant t!at full use s!ould 'e &ade of e?perience gained it! regard to 'urner action 4possi'le use of t o 'urners5< t!e gas-o?%gen &i?ture and t!e angle of inclination of t!e fla&e to t!e surface of t!e plate. #arts to 'e Boined it! preloaded !ig! strengt! 'olts &ust 'e protected against corrosion '% suita'le &easures designed to pre=ent &oisture penetrating to t!e contact surfaces and t!e 'olt !oles. )uc! a protection 4e.g. sealing5 &a% also 'e necessar% as a te&porar% &easure !en Boint faces are left !oll% or partiall% e?posed during erection. All necessar% precautions s!all 'e ta>en< during fa'rication and erection< to ensure t!at t!e slip factors assu&ed for t!e calculation are ac!ie=ed and &aintained. W!en t!e Boint is asse&'led t!e contact surfaces &ust 'e free fro& dust< oil< paint< etc. )pots of oil cannot 'e re&o=ed '% fla&e-cleaning it!out lea=ing !ar&ful residues and &ust 'e re&o=ed '% suita'le c!e&ical &eans. If t!e parts cannot 'e asse&'led as soon as t!e contact surfaces !a=e 'een treated< it is sufficient to re&o=e an% t!in fil&s of rust or ot!er loose

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&aterial '% 'rus!ing it! a soft steel 'rus!. During t!is process t!e prepared surface &ust not 'e da&aged< oiled or greased. If structural co&ponents in !ic! t!e contact surfaces !a=e 'een prepared for friction grip 'olting are stored for =er% long periods< t!ere is a ris> of rusting. 1nder certain circu&stances a lo er slip factor &ust 'e considered. An effecti=e &eans of protecting t!e contact surfaces is to appl% self-ad!esi=e or spra%ed-on fil&s of plastic. 1p to t!e present< !o e=er< no protecti=e coating is >no n !ic! does not affect t!e slip factor ad=ersel%.

## 1+. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

8)FG 'olted connections are =er% stiff and t!e% !a=e good perfor&ance under fatigue loading. (!ere are se=eral &et!ods of tig!teningK t!e 'est one is t!e co&'ined &et!od. (!e s!ear resistance of a connection it! 8)FG 'olts is deter&ined '% t!e co&pressi=e forces 'et een t!e plies< caused '% t!e pretension of t!e 'olts< and t!e slip factor of t!e &ating surfaces of t!e plates. (!e presence of an e?ternal tension reduces s!ear resistance and =ice =ersa. (!e control of t!e =alue of t!e slip factor 'et een t!e connected parts is =er% i&portant.

11. REFERENCES
H1I Dula>< G. L.< Fisc!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted JointsG< 2nd edition< Jo!n Wile% and )ons< 16/.. H2I Bou &an< L. #.< GFatigue of Bolted Connections and Bolts Loaded in tensionG< Delft 1ni=ersit% of (ec!nolog%< Depart&ent of Ci=il 2ngineering< *eport. --.6-6< Jul% 16.6. H3I 2uropean *eco&&endations for Bolted Connections in )tructural )teel or>. 2uropean Con=ention for Constructional )teel or> 42CC)5< #u'lication "o. 3/< 16/,. H\$I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructuresG: #art 1.1: General *ules and *ules for Buildings< C2"< 1662 4see C!apter -: Connections )u'Bected to )tatic Loading< and C!apter .: Fa'rication and 2rection5. H,I I)0 /6/@2< International )tandard +ec!anical #roperties of Fasteners. #art 2: "uts it! )pecified #roof Load :alues. H-I I)0 /6/@1< International )tandard +ec!anical #roperties of Fasteners. #art 1: Bolts< )cre s and )tuds.

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## Lecture 11."." : 'articular As#ects in Bolted Connections

. G2"2*AL C0")ID2*A(I0") 2. 0:2*)IR2 A"D )L0((2D 80L2) 3. FI( 0F C0"(AC( )1*FAC2) \$. D2(2*+I"A(I0" 0F (82 )LI# FAC(0* ,. FI((2D A"D I"J2C(I0" B0L() -. (C B0L() - L0AD I"DICA(0* WA)82*) -.1 A G(ension ControlG 4(C5 'olt !as a torAue control groo=e and a torAue control spline at t!e end of t!e t!readed part as s!o n in Figure -. W!en t!e torAue reac!es a definite =alue deter&ined '% t!e groo=e< t!e end of t!e scre 'rea>s and t!e tig!tening is stopped. -.2 A Load Indicator as!er is a speciall% !ardened as!er it! protrusions on one face< illustrated in Figure .. (!e protrusions 'ear against t!e underside of t!e 'olt !ead lea=ing a gap. As t!e 'olt is tig!tened t!e protrusions are flattened and t!e gap reduced. At a specified a=erage gap< &easured '% feeler gauge< t!e induced s!an> tension ill not 'e less t!an t!e &ini&u& reAuired '% )tandards. Figure / s!o s a standard asse&'l% in place 'efore and after tig!tening t!e 'olt. .. #LA(2) #*0(2C(2D AGAI")( C0**0)I0" /. #*0(2C(2D B0L() 6. 83D*0G2" 2+B*I((L2+2"( - )(*2)) C0**0)I0" 17. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 12. *2F2*2"C2)

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1. 5ENER64 CONSIDER6TIONS
(!e resistance of a connection s!ould 'e deter&ined on t!e 'asis of t!e resistance of t!e indi=idual fasteners. Bolts for structural steel or> are a=aila'le in =arious si9es and grades. "on-preloaded 'olts are used for t!e &aBorit% of structures. W!ere special reAuire&ents on t!e stiffness< t!e pre=ention of slip during load re=ersal or fatigue are to 'e &et< !ig! strengt! friction grip 48)FG5 'olts &a% 'e used. (!e resistance of a 4non-preloaded5 'earing connection depends on t!e s!ear resistance of t!e 'olt and on t!e 'earing resistance of t!e plates. If t!e 'earing resistance of t!e plates is lo er t!an t!e s!ear resistance of t!e 'olt< t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e Boint is large. (!is is particularl% i&portant in long Boints and !ere inaccuracies e?ist in t!e !ole patterns. (!e s!ear resistance of 8)FG 'olts is sensiti=e to t!e coefficient of friction and t!e applied preload. Lectures 11.3.1 and 11.3.2 descri'e standard connections it! t!e t%pes of 'olts &entioned a'o=e. Due to practical reAuire&ents it is often necessar% to use different constructional designs. In addition t!ere &a% 'e a co&'ination of forces on t!e connections &a>ing it difficult to e=aluate t!e stresses in t!e 'olts. #articular aspects of 'olted connection 'e!a=iour and design are re=ie ed !erein.

## 2. O2ERSIBE 6ND S4OTTED 0O4ES

*estricting t!e no&inal !ole dia&eter to t!e =alues gi=en in Lecture 11.3.1 4for e?a&ple< 2&& in e?cess of t!e no&inal 'olt dia&eter5 can i&pose rigid align&ent conditions 'et een structural &e&'ers< particularl% in large Boints. )o&eti&es erection pro'le&s occur !en t!e !oles in t!e plate &aterial do not line up properl%. 0ccasionall%< steel fa'ricators &ust preasse&'le structures to ensure t!at t!e Boint ill align properl% during erection. Wit! a larger !ole si9e< it is possi'le to eli&inate t!e preasse&'l% process and sa=e ti&e and &one%. An a=erage !ole pro=ides t!e sa&e clearance in all directions to &eet tolerances during erection. 8o e=er< if an adBust&ent is needed in a particular direction< slotted !oles can 'e used. )lotted !oles are identified '% t!eir parallel or trans=erse align&ent it! respect to t!e direction of t!e applied load. W!en o=ersi9e and slotted !oles are used< additional plate &aterial is re&o=ed fro& t!e =icinit% of !ig! cla&ping forces. (!e influence of t!is condition on t!e 'e!a=iour of connections it! preloaded 'olts !as 'een in=estigated e?peri&entall% H1I. (!e effect of o=ersi9e and slotted !oles on suc! factors as t!e loss in 'olt tension after installation and t!e slip resistance !as 'een e?a&ined. (!e use of o=ersi9e or slotted !oles reduces slig!tl% t!e &ean cla&ping force in t!e fasteners. (!is reduction is t!oug!t to result fro& plastic flo in t!e steel plates under t!e !ead of t!e
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'olt and t!e nut. (!e influence of plastic flo can 'e reduced '% using !ardened as!ers. (!e reduction of cla&ping force influences also t!e slip factors. (!e co&'ined effect of t!e c!ange of slip factor and reduction of t!e cla&ping force is esti&ated to cause a 1,E reduction in slip resistance for o=ersi9e and s!ort slotted !oles and a 37E reduction for long slotted !oles. (!e design for&ulae for slip-resistant Boints reflect t!e reduced slip resistance '% introducing a reduction factor >s. (!e design slip resistance of a preloaded !ig! strengt! friction grip 'olt is t!erefore gi=en '%: Fs<*d P H4>s5n@&sI. Fp.Cd 4see Lecture 11.3.2 for t!e design slip resistance in a connection !ere t!e !oles !a=e no&inal clearance5. (!e coefficient of reduction >s is eAual to 7</, for o=ersi9e and s!ort slotted !oles and to 7<.7 for long slotted !oles. (!e no&inal si9es of s!ort slotted !oles for slip resistant connections &a% not 'e greater t!an:

4d O 15 && '% 4d O \$5 && for +12 and +1\$ 'olts 4d O 25 && '% 4d O -5 && for +1- and +22 'olts 4d O 25 && '% 4d O /5 && for +2\$ 'olts 4d O 35 && '% 4d O 175 && for +2. and larger 'olts

!ere d is t!e no&inal 'olt dia&eter in &&. (!e no&inal si9es of long slotted !oles for slip resistant connections &a% not 'e greater t!an:

4d O 15 && '% 2<, d for +12 and +1\$ 'olts 4d O 25 && '% 2<, d for +1- and +2\$ 'olts 4d O 35 && '% 2<, d for +2. and larger 'olts

Long slots in an outer pl% &ust 'e co=ered '% co=er plates of appropriate di&ensions and t!ic>ness 4see a'o=e5. (!e !oles in t!e co=er plates &a% not 'e larger t!an standard !oles. (!e si9es reAuired for long slotted !oles for &o=e&ent Boints !a=e to 'e specified. )lots in an outer pl% &ust 'e co=ered '% co=er plates of appropriate di&ensions and t!ic>ness 4see a'o=e5. In t!ose cases !ere o=ersi9e or slotted !oles are used it! non-preloaded 'olts< t!en it is custo&ar% to assu&e no reduction in design resistances due to t!e o=ersi9e effects.

## 3. FIT OF CONT6CT SURF6CES

(!e &a?i&u& step 'et een adBacent surfaces in a Boint &a% not e?ceed 2&& in order to a=oid an% reduction of t!e resistance of t!e connection 4Figure 15. W!en using preloaded 'olts< t!e possi'le effects of lac> of fit !a=e to 'e considered and s&aller tolerances could 'e

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i&posed. If it is not possi'le to adopt s&aller tolerances< pac>ing plates s!ould 'e used in order to transfer properl% t!e load across t!e splice. (!e &ini&u& t!ic>ness of steel pac>ing s!ould 'e:

## 2&& if not e?posed to corrosi=e influences \$&& in outdoor conditions.

Because of practical difficulties suc! as t!e need to connect plates of different t!ic>nesses or poor fit-up after erection on site it is so&eti&es necessar% to insert t!in steel plates to act as pac>s. #ro=iding suc! pac>s are no &ore t!an a fe &illi&etres in t!ic>ness and good contacts are ensured< t!en structural perfor&ance s!ould not reall% 'e affected. Instances ill arise< !o e=er< !en t!eir presence cannot 'e ignored at t!e design stage: For connections &ade it! ordinar% 'earing 'olts t!e 'olt s!an> ill 'e su'Bected to an increasing degree of 'ending as t!e pac>ing t!ic>ness increases. (!is is co=ered '% 2C3< in t!e follo ing rule: W!ere 'olts trans&itting load in s!ear and 'earing pass t!roug! pac>ings of total t!ic>ness tp greater t!an one t!ird of t!e no&inal dia&eter d< t!e design s!ear resistance s!all 'e reduced '% t!e factor

W!en 8)FG 'olts are 'eing used for cla&ping lengt!s greater t!an 17 ti&es t!e 'olt dia&eter< t!e para&eters controlling t!e tig!tening &et!od &ust 'e deter&ined '% tests. For 8)FG 'olts creep and rela?ation effects &a% ell 'e !ig!er< leading to a larger loss of preload.

## ,. DETERMIN6TION OF T0E S4IP F6CTOR

(!e slip factor for t!e proposed &et!od of surface preparation &a% 'e o'tained directl% fro& pu'lis!ed infor&ation as e?plained in Lecture 11.3.2< 4generall% in=ol=ing a surface coating5. )o&eti&es< !o e=er it &a% 'e necessar% to deter&ine t!e slip factor '% tests< in accordance it! t!e follo ing procedure H2< 3I.

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(!e calculations &ust in t!is case 'e 'ased on t!e =alue reac!ed in 6,E of all tests. Wit! a nor&al distri'ution of t!e results< t!is =alue corresponds to &ean ti&es 1<-\$ ) 4) P standard de=iation5. (!e follo ing points &ust 'e o'ser=ed !en t!e tests are carried out:

(!e test speci&ens s!all confor& to t!e di&ensional details s!o n in Figure 2a or 2'. (!e steel &aterial s!all confor& to 2" 1772, grade Fe 2 2., or Fe 2 3,,. (o ensure t!at t!e t o inner plates are t!e sa&e t!ic>ness< t!e% s!all 'e produced '% cutting t!e& consecuti=el% fro& t!e sa&e piece of &aterial and t!e speci&en s!ould 'e asse&'led it! t!e& in t!eir original relati=e positions. (!e plates s!all not !a=e t!er&all% cut edges. (!e% s!all 'e sufficientl% flat to per&it t!e prepared surfaces to 'e in full contact !en t!e 'olts !a=e 'een preloaded. (!e preload applied to t!e 'olts s!all 'e t!e specified &ini&u& preload for t!e si9e and grade of 'olt used. An accurate &et!od of &easure&ent s!all 'e used to =erif% t!e actual =alue of t!e preload. (!e specified surface treat&ent and coating s!all 'e applied to t!e contact surfaces of t!e test speci&ens in a &anner consistent it! t!e intended structural application. (!e &ean coating t!ic>ness on t!e contact surface of t!e test speci&ens s!all 'e at least 7<7, && greater t!an t!e &a?i&u& &ean t!ic>ness specified for use in t!e structure. (!e speci&ens s!all 'e asse&'led in suc! a a% t!at t!e 'olts are 'earing in t!e opposite direction to t!e applied tension. (!e preload Fp to 'e applied &ust 'e calculated fro& Fp P 7<. fu' As. It &ust 'e pro=ed '% &easure&ents t!at t!e effecti=e preloads !ic! are applied< correspond to t!ese =alues. (!e displace&ents of t!e a-c lines it! respect to t!e ' points 4see Figures 2a and 2'5 &ust 'e deter&ined. (!e slip in t!e 'olted connection is denoted '% t!e a=erage of t!e displace&ent on 'ot! sides. (!e slip load 4Fs5 is defined as t!at load at !ic! a slip of 1,7 & is o'ser=ed. (!e slip factor can 'e calculated fro&:

P Fs@\$ Fp

(!e slip factor of t!e t o 'olt fastenings in one testpiece &ust 'e deter&ined. Fi=e testpieces 417 'olt fastenings5 &ust 'e tested. Four testpieces &ust 'e loaded at nor&al speed 4duration of t!e test appro?i&atel% 17-1, &in5. Wit! t!e fift! testpiece a creep test &ust 'e carried out it! a specific load of 67E of t!e a=erage slip load in t!e first four tests. If< in t!e ti&e 'et een fi=e &inutes and t!ree !ours after t!e application of t!e load< t!ere are no displace&ents< 45 M 2 &< t!e slip loads for t!is testpiece< too< can 'e deter&ined in t!e nor&al a%. If t!e standard de=iation of t!e ten =alues o'tained e?ceeds /E of t!e &ean =alue< furt!er tests &ust 'e carried out. (!e necessar% nu&'er of testpieces in t!is case is gi=en '% t!e for&ula:

n !ere: n is t!e necessar% nu&'er of testpieces 4t o fastenings eac!5 including t!e first tests

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) is t!e standard de=iation in first fi=e testpieces 417 =alues5 as a percentage of &ean =alue.

If creep occurs in t!e Boint in t!e fift! testpiece< furt!er creep tests &ust 'e carried out. It &ust 'e esta'lis!ed< '% &eans of at least 3 testpieces 4- fastenings5< t!at t!e load associated it! t!e slip factor on !ic! t!e calculation is 'ased does not cause displace&ents greater t!an 377 & during t!e life of t!e construction. (!e displace&ent-log ti&e cur=e 4Figure 2c5 can 'e linearl% e?trapolated as soon as t!e tangent can 'e ascertained it! sufficient certaint%.

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A useful su&&ar% of slip factor test results co=ering a range of different surface conditions t!at concludes it! a series of reco&&ended factors< is a=aila'le fro& t!e 2CC) 4\$5.

## -. FITTED 6ND IN@ECTION BO4TS

W!en t!e defor&ation of a connection under load &ust 'e =er% lo < it is possi'le to use fitted 'olts. (!e reAuire&ents concerning fitted 'olts are:

(!e dia&eter of t!e scre ed portion of turned 'arrel 'olts s!all 'e at least 1<, && s&aller t!an t!e dia&eter of t!e 'arrel. (!e specified dia&eter of t!e 'olts s!all 'e t!e no&inal dia&eter of t!e 'arrel. (!e dia&eter of t!e turned 'arrel s!all 'e it!in t!e dia&eter tolerances for 'olts as specified in I)0 \$.,6@1 H,I. (!e lengt! of t!e 'arrel s!all 'e suc! t!at it 'ears full% on all t!e connected parts. )teel plate as!ers not less t!an - && t!ic> it! a !ole dia&eter no&inall% 1<, && larger t!an t!e dia&eter of t!e 'arrel s!all 'e pro=ided under t!e nut of turned 'arrel 'olts. 8oles for fitted 'olts to 'e used s!all align it! !11 and 811 in I)0*2/- H-I. (!e difference 'et een t!e dia&eter of t!e 'olt s!an> and t!e side of t!e !ole s!all not e?ceed 7<3 &&.

(!e no&enclature !11 and 811 refer to t!e fits relating to de=iations. An alternati=e to t!e fitted 'olt is t!e inBection 'olt< i.e. 'olts !ere t!e clearance 'et een t!e 'olt and t!e all of t!e !ole is co&pletel% filled it! a t o co&ponent resin 4Figure 35 H.I. (!e 'olts &a% or &a% not 'e pretensioned.

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(!ese 'olts are used &ainl%: in ne rail a% 'ridges< in !ea=il% loaded crane run a% girders and to repair ri=eted connections in 'ridges. InBection 'olts are Gnor&alG 'olts it! a s&all !ole drilled in t!e !ead 4Figure \$5. (!e di&ensions of t!e ,<, && !ole in t!e top of t!e !ead offer sufficient support for t!e no99le of t!e inBection eAuip&ent. (!e ot!er part of t!e !ole< 3<2 &&< is ide enoug! for inBecting t!e resin.

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A !ardened as!er is placed under t!e !ead it! t!e inside &ac!ined as s!o n in Figure \$. (!e e?tra space under t!e !ead facilitates t!e flo of t!e resin around t!e 'olt< filling t!e clearance 'et een t!e 'olt and t!e plates co&pletel%. (!e inner dia&eter of t!e as!er &ust 'e at least 7<, && larger t!an t!e dia&eter of t!e s!an>. A !ardened as!er it! a groo=e is placed under t!e nut to ena'le t!e air to escape 4Figure \$5. (!e as!er &ust 'e placed it! t!e groo=e at t!e nut side. If t!e plates are painted< t!is position ill pre=ent t!e groo=e fro& 'eing filled it! paint during tig!tening.

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## (!e ad=antages of t!is t%pe of 'olt are:

InBection 'olts are a relia'le and relati=el% c!eap &eans of &a>ing non-slip s!ear connections 4Figure ,5. InBection 'olts 'e!a=e in al&ost t!e sa&e a% as fitted 'olts. 8o e=er< t!e% are &uc! c!eaper< especiall% in t!ic> plate asse&'lies< !ere rea&ing &a% 'e =er% e?pensi=e. Large !ole clearances are allo ed< !ic! are !elpful during t!e asse&'l% of large connections. W!ere t!ere are lo slip factors< e.g. !ot dip gal=anised or painted surfaces< inBection &a% G!elpG 8)FG 'olted connections considera'l%. Because of t!e greater design strengt! of 8)FG inBection 'olts< t!e nu&'er of 'olts in suc! connections can 'e reduced. )udden slip due to o=erloading is co&pletel% ruled out if inBection 'olts are used. InBection 'olts &a% 'e used as an alternati=e to 8)FG 'olts. )ince neit!er special tig!tening eAuip&ent nor s>illed personnel are reAuired for t!e pre-tensioning< cost sa=ings &a% 'e o'tained. Internal corrosion is eli&inated.

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## .. TC BO4TS * 4O6D INDIC6TOR W6S0ERS

+an% s%ste&s to control t!e preload in 'olts !a=e 'een testedK t!e &ost popular are G(C 'oltsG and GLoad Indicator as!ersG. (!eir use is =er% si&ple< 'ut t!e scatter of t!e preload &agnitude is large. (!e% represent an alternati=e to t!e direct &et!ods descri'ed in Lecture 11.3.2.

(.1 6 CTe!s#o! Co!trolC %TC( 9olt has a tor<ue \$o!trol &roo;e a!d a tor<ue \$o!trol s"l#!e at the e!d o7 the threaded "art as sho:! #! F#&ure .. Whe! the tor<ue rea\$hes a de7#!#te ;alue deter #!ed 98 the &roo;e> the e!d o7 the s\$re: 9reaDs a!d the t#&hte!#!& #s sto""ed.

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## (!is t%pe of 'olt !as t!e ad=antages:

it eli&inates t!e need for a 'ac>-up &an on t!e 'olt scre . it re&o=es t!e possi'ilit% of operator error and c!ec>ing is =er% rapid. t!e tool reAuires no cali'ration and tig!tening is not affected '% field conditions.

0n t!e ot!er !and< t!e reduction in preload is rat!er large and tig!tening in t o stages is not possi'le.

(.2 6 4oad I!d#\$ator :asher #s a s"e\$#all8 harde!ed :asher :#th "rotrus#o!s o! o!e 7a\$e> #llustrated #! F#&ure /. The "rotrus#o!s 9ear a&a#!st the u!ders#de o7 the 9olt head lea;#!& a &a". 6s the 9olt #s t#&hte!ed the "rotrus#o!s are 7latte!ed a!d the &a" redu\$ed. 6t a s"e\$#7#ed a;era&e &a"> easured 98 7eeler &au&e> the #!du\$ed sha!D te!s#o! :#ll !ot 9e less tha! the #!# u re<u#red 98 Sta!dards. F#&ure ' sho:s a sta!dard asse 9l8 #! "la\$e 9e7ore a!d a7ter t#&hte!#!& the 9olt.

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All t!e 'olts s!all 'e tig!tened in accordance it! t!e &anufacturers instructions and to t!e reAuired tension indicator gap reco&&ended '% t!e &anufacturer< as =erified '% cali'ration tests. (ig!tening s!all 'e carried out progressi=el% fro& t!e &iddle of t!e Boint to t!e free edges< to a=oid loosening pre=iousl% tig!tened fasteners.

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(ig!tening to t!e reAuired gap s!all 'e carried out in t o stages to ensure consistenc% of preloading. In t!e first stage .,E of t!e defor&ation of t!e protrusions of t!e tension indicator s!all 'e reac!ed. In t!e second stage of final tig!tening t!e reAuired gap s!all 'e reac!ed.

## /. P46TES PROTECTED 656INST CORROSION

(!e slip factor 'et een protected plates &ust 'e deter&ined '% tests if not specified. If t!e protecti=e coating is t!ic>er t!an 1, & 4!ot dip gal=anised plates< for e?a&ple5 preloaded 'olts &ust 'e retig!tened one or t o ti&es. (!e 'est procedure is to retig!ten t!e& once after 2 ee>s and a second ti&e after 3 &ont!s. All necessar% precautions s!all 'e ta>en during fa'rication and erection to ensure t!at t!e slip factor assu&ed for t!e calculation is reac!ed and &aintained.

## '. PROTECTED BO4TS

At t!e present ti&e< a ide range of structures are 'eing treated it! a protecti=e surface coating to pre=ent corrosion and reduce &aintenance costs. (o connect plates of eat!ering steel or plates it! a protection against corrosion< 9inc coated 'olts 4gal=anised 'olts5 or eat!ering steel 'olts are often used. (!e 9inc coating on t!e surface of a 'olt does not affect t!e 'olt static strengt!< 'ut it adds a frictional resistance on t!e t!reads. (!e effect of !ig! frictional resistance can 'e reduced su'stantiall% '% e&plo%ing lu'ricants on t!e t!reads of gal=anised 'olts< suc! as &ol%'denu&disulp!ide or 'eeCs a? for e?a&ple. #rotected 'olts are so&eti&es oiled '% t!e &anufacturers. Alt!oug! gal=anising pro=ides an e?cellent protection against corrosion of t!e 'olt< it &a% increase its suscepti'ilit% to stress corrosion and !%drogen e&'rittle&ent.

## ). 0YDRO5EN EMBRITT4EMENT * STRESS CORROSION

It is ell >no n t!at !ig! strengt! steels &a% 'e su'Bect to dela%ed fracture caused '% !%drogen H/I. (!erefore attention &ust 'e paid to t!e !%drogen content !en !ig! strengt! 'olts are used. (!e !%drogen in 'olts is a'sor'ed during &anufacture< for e?a&ple fro& electrogal=anising. In addition< it is also a'sor'ed fro& t!eir surroundings !ile in use< for instance< !%drogen produced during corrosion reactions. Crac>s generall% start at locations it! a se=ere tri-a?ial stress. W!en 'olts it! a tensile strengt! !ig!er t!an 11/7+#a are used< a &inute content of !%drogen &a% cause dela%ed fracture. (!is s&all content of !%drogen in 'olts cannot 'e Auantitati=el% anal%sed '% con=entional &et!ods.

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)tress-corrosion crac>ing &a% 'e defined as failure under co&'ined action of corrosion and stress< !et!er t!e stress 'e e?ternal 4applied5 or internal 4residual5. Crac>ing &a% 'e eit!er intergranular or transgranular< depending on t!e &etal and t!e corrosi=e &edia. +icroscopic e?a&inations of speci&ens fro& stress-corrosion tests on !ig! strengt! 'olts s!o t!at t!e crac> originates at t!e surface< !ere corrosion pits occur< and propagates transgranularl% and intergranularl% in a direction appro?i&atel% 67 degrees to t!e direction of t!e loading. (!e rust is localised in t!e area of t!e corrosion pit prior to t!e initiation of a stress-corrosion crac>. )uscepti'ilit% to stress-corrosion crac>ing in 'olts depends on 415 t!e a&ount of stress present< 425 t!e 'olt &aterial 4including its strengt! and corrosion resistance5< 435 !o t!e 'olt is processed< and 4\$5 t!e coating used to protect it against corrosion. La'orator% tests indicate t!at t!e !ig!er t!e strengt! of t!e steel< t!e &ore sensiti=e t!e &aterial 'eco&es to 'ot! stress corrosion and !%drogen e&'rittle&ent.

## 1+. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

In a connection it! o=ersi9e or slotted !oles t!e outer pl% &ust 'e co=ered '% a !ardened as!er or a co=erplate. (!e slip factor in slip resistant Boints it! o=ersi9e or slotted !oles !as to 'e reduced. In a Boint< t!e step 'et een adBacent surfaces &a% not e?ceed 2&&. (!e deter&ination of t!e slip factor &ust 'e doneK !en necessar%< in accordance it! t!e standard &et!od. Fitted 'olts and inBection 'olts reduce t!e defor&ation of a connection. #rotected 'olts &ust 'e lu'ricated it! an adeAuate product.

12. REFERENCES
H1I Dula>< L.<Fis!er J.W.<and )trui> J.8.- Design criteria for 'olted and ri=eted Boints - 2nd edition - Jo!n Wile% and )ons - 16/.. H2I 2uropean *eco&&endations for Bolted Connections in )tructural )teel or>. 2uropean Con=ention for constructional )teel or> 42CC) - #u'lication "o. 3/< 16/,. H3I DD 2": 1663-1-1: 1662 2urocode "o. 3: Design of )teel )tructures - #art 1 - General *ules and *ules for Buildings. H\$I 2CC) #u'lication "o. 3. G)lip Factors of Connections Wit! 8)FG BoltsG. H,I I)0 \$.,6@1: (olerances for Fasteners. #art 1: Bolts< scre s and nuts it! t!readed dia&eters 1.- and 1,7 && and product grades A< B and C. H-I I)0@*2/-: I)0 s%ste& for tolerances and adBust&ents. #art 1: General purposes< tolerances and gaps.
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H.I Bou &an< L. #.< )u&&ar% report of t!e researc! on inBection 'olts. )te=in La'orator% of t!e Delft 1ni=ersit% of (ec!nolog%. H/I 8irt!< F.W. and )pec>!ardt< 8.< GContri'ution de lC!%drogSne la fragilisation dCaciers de traite&ent t!er&iAueG< Le (refile< :ol. 26< "o. 3< 16.6< pp 6,-17, and :ol 26< "o. \$< 16.6< pp 1/2-1/..

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## Lecture 11.).1 : Anal*sis o! Connections I: Basic Deter+ination o! \$orces

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. D2(2*+I"A(I0" 0F F0*C2) 2.1 Forces on t!e Connection 2.2 Force Distri'ution in t!e Connection 2.3 Basic Load Cases for Local 2le&ents 3. DI)(*IB1(I0" 0F F0*C2) 3.1 Influence of )tiffness Differences 3.2 Free Centre of *otation and Forced Centre of *otation \$. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 ,. *2F2*2"C2) -. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
In Lecture 11.1.2 it as s!o n in general ter&s !o t!e structural adeAuac% of connections can 'e c!ec>ed '% considering t!e resistance of t!e local ele&ents of t!e connection. (!e resistance of a local ele&ent is deter&ined on t!e 'asis of t!e resistance of t!e indi=idual 'olts or elds and plates. (!e resistance of elds and 'olts is co=ered in Lectures 11.2 and 11.3. In t!is Lecture 11.\$.1 t!e resistance< stiffness and defor&ation capacit% of a nu&'er of co&ponents are discussed. (!us t!e &aterial of Lectures 11.1< 11.2 and 11.3 is 'roug!t toget!er to e?plain !o t!e indi=idual co&ponents in connections can 'e safel% proportioned. (!is in=ol=es 'ot! a deter&ination of t!e forces to !ic! eac! is su'Bected and t!e a%s in !ic!< acting in co&'ination< t!e parts of t!e connection transfer t!ese forces fro& t!e supported &e&'er to t!e supporting &e&'er. 8a=ing esta'lis!ed t!e principles< Lectures 11.\$.2 - 11.\$.\$ appl% t!ese to t!e consideration of t!e transfer of different t%pes of internal forces it!in connections e.g. direct tension< s!ear< tension as part of a &o&ent etc.< !ilst Lectures 11., - 11./ full% de=elop t!e ideas to co=er t!e design of particular connection t%pes.

2. DETERMIN6TION OF FORCES
2.1 For\$es o! the Co!!e\$t#o!
For t!e deter&ination of t!e forces on t!e connection< a static anal%sis is carried out. )uc! an anal%sis includes t!e deter&ination of t!e design loads on t!e structure and t!e definition of t!e design 'asis for t!e structure. In defining t!e design 'asis< consideration of t!e structural 'e!a=iour of t!e connections is necessar%. Are t!e connections pinned< or rigid< or se&i-rigidT Are t!e% partial strengt! or full strengt! connectionsT +ore details a'out t!e influence of t!e t%pe of connection on t!e distri'ution of forces in t!e structure are gi=en in Lectures 11.1< 11.,< 11.-< 11.. and 11./.

## 2.2 For\$e D#str#9ut#o! #! the Co!!e\$t#o!

After t!e deter&ination of t!e nor&al forces< s!ear forces and 'ending &o&ents on t!e connections< an internal distri'ution of forces in t!e connection is c!osen. (!e distri'ution of forces in t!e connection &a% 'e deter&ined in !ate=er rational a% is 'est< pro=ided t!at: a. (!e assu&ed internal forces are in e<u#l#9r#u it! t!e applied forces and &o&ents.

'. 2ac! part of t!e connection is capa'le of res#st#!& t!e forces assu&ed in t!e anal%sis. c. (!e defor&ations i&posed '% t!e c!osen distri'ution are it!in t!e de7or at#o! \$a"a\$#t8 of t!e fasteners< elds and ot!er parts of t!e connection.
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Figure 1 gi=es an outline of t!e deter&ination of t!e load on t!e indi=idual ele&ents of t!e connections< and t!e =erification of t!eir resistance.

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It is not necessar% and it is often not possi'le to deter&ine t!e real distri'ution of forces in t!e connection. A real#st#\$ assu "t#o! of internal forces< in eAuili'riu& it! t!e e?ternal forces on t!e connection< is sufficient. In fact selecting t!is assu&ption is t!e &ost difficult part of t!e anal%sis. It reAuires a sound understanding of t!e structural 'e!a=iour of t!e connection !en it is loaded. (!e follo ing rules appl%: a. The d#str#9ut#o! o7 7or\$es #! the "arts to 9e \$o!!e\$ted re<u#res \$o!s#derat#o! If< for instance< an I-section loaded in 'ending and s!ear< !as to 'e connected< t!en t!e s!ear force is largel% concentrated in t!e e'< !ilst t!e flanges carr% &ost of t!e 'ending &o&ent. A si&ple and usuall% accepta'le assu&ption for t!e load transfer in t!e connection is to connect t!e e' for t!e full s!ear force and t!e flanges for t!e full 'ending &o&ent< see Figure 1. '. The st#77!ess o7 the ;ar#ous "arts #! the \$o!!e\$t#o! re<u#res \$o!s#derat#o! Defor&ations caused '% loads acting in t!e plane of a plate are &uc! s&aller t!an t!ose produced '% loads acting perpendicular to a plate 4nor&al force =ersus 'ending &o&ent5. In &an% cases t!e understanding of t!e influence of t!e stiffness ratio on t!e force distri'ution can 'e i&pro=ed '% considering t!e situation after a s&all defor&ation of t!e connection !as occurred. (!is approac! is illustrated in )ection 3 '% e?a&ples. c. The assu ed 7or\$e d#str#9ut#o! ust 9e \$o!s#ste!t 7or all "arts #! the \$o!!e\$t#o!

:iolations against t!is rule &a% occur if a separate calculation is carried out for t!e different parts in t!e connection. An e?a&ple is gi=en in Figure 2. (!e indicated distri'ution of forces for t!e calculation of t!e 'olts is not consistent it! t!e distri'ution of stresses in t!e 'ea& assu&ed to design t!e elds 'et een t!e 'ea& and t!e end plate. 0=erloading of t!e elds in t!e top flange of t!e 'ea& results.

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## 2.3 Bas#\$ 4oad Cases 7or 4o\$al Ele e!ts

(!e anal%sis of t!e structural 'e!a=iour of connections can 'e carried out '% considering a nu&'er of 'asic load cases for local ele&ents. For a (-connection t!is anal%sis is de&onstrated in Figure 3. (!e load transfer in nearl% e=er% t%pe of connection can 'e &odelled it! t!e fi=e 'asic load cases. 1se of t!ese cases per&its a s%ste&atic and clear presentation of t!e calculation &et!ods< despite t!e ide =ariet% of possi'le connection t%pes. 2urocode 3 4C!apter - and Anne? J5 follo s t!is approac!.

In Lectures 11.\$.3 and 11.\$.\$ calculations for t!e fi=e 'asic load cases are presented for a nu&'er of connection designs. For eac! part of t!e connection< a nu&'er of possi'le failure &odes can 'e identified. (!e% &a% refer to:

t!e fasteners 4 elds or 'olts5. t!e &e&'ers !ic! are connected. e?tra parts in t!e connection< e.g. plates and angle cleats.

It !as to 'e de&onstrated t!at t!e ea>est lin> in t!e connection s%ste& 4c!ain5 is strong enoug! to carr% t!e load t!at acts on it. (!e design of t!e fasteners 4 elds and 'olts5 is dealt it! in Lectures 11.2 and 11.3. (!e design of ot!er parts in t!e connection is dealt it! in t!e present Lectures 11.\$.

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3. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
3.1 I!7lue!\$e o7 St#77!ess D#77ere!\$es
W!en distri'uting nor&al forces< s!ear forces and 'ending &o&ents in t!e connection< t!e stiffness differences in t!e connection &ust 'e ta>en into account. In particular< t!e defor&ations due to nor&al forces in t!e plane of a plate are &uc! s&aller t!an t!e defor&ations due to forces acting perpendicular to it. A calculation for t!e e?a&ple of Figure \$ gi=es a good de&onstration of t!is principle. (!e plate 177 177 17 &&< cla&ped on one side< is loaded it! 1777 " perpendicular to t!e plate surface.

## (!e deflection follo s fro&:

P 7<2 &&

43-15

(!e sa&e plate is loaded it! an in-plane tensile force of t!e sa&e &agnitude. (!e displace&ent of t!e end of t!e plate is no :

l P

## P 7<777, && 43-25

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Bot! plates are no connected< see Figure ,< causing 'ot! displace&ents at t!e interface to 'e eAual. A load of 1777 " is applied to t!is structure. (!e load is carried '% 'ot! plates< s!ared in proportion to t!e stiffness ratio. (!e plate loaded in tension is 7<2@7<777, P \$77 ti&es stiffer t!an t!e plate t!at is 'ent. ConseAuentl%< nearl% t!e !ole load is carried '% t!e plate loaded in tension< see Figure ,'.

(!is >no ledge is used to deter&ine t!e distri'ution of forces for t!e 'race connection s!o n in Figure -< e.g. in a floor structure. In t!is connection &an% distri'utions of t!e forces in t!e connections< eac! o'e%ing eAuili'riu&< are possi'le.

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First it is assu&ed t!at t!e force is carried '% 'ot! connections< !ilst t!e direction sta%s t!e sa&e< see Figure .. For t!e anal%sis< t!e force 7<, F is resol=ed as Fs P 7<3, F and Ft P 7<3, F.

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(!e defor&ation in t!e s!ear direction 4Fs5 is &uc! s&aller t!an t!e defor&ation in t!e tensile direction 4Ft5. (!e result is t!at t!e defor&ation 1 at point 415 is =er% different fro& t!e defor&ation 2 at point 425. (!e defor&ations 1 and 2 cannot 'e acco&&odated '% t!e gusset plateU (!is &eans t!at t!e defor&ation at point 415 caused '% Fs 4)15 &ust 'e t!e sa&e as t!e defor&ation at point 425 caused '% Ft 4)25. (!erefore< Fs is &uc! larger t!an Ft. (!e distri'ution of forces in Figure . is #!\$orre\$t. (!e correct distri'ution is indicated in Figure /. (!e force F effecti=el% causes onl% s!ear in t!e 'olt groups 415 and 425. (!e tension load in t!e 'olts can 'e ignored.

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Co!\$lus#o!? If large differences in t!e stiffness 'et een t o possi'le t%pes of load transfer e?ist< t!en ignore t!e load transfer t!at gi=es t!e larger defor&ations 4'ending defor&ation of t!e plate5< and assu&e t!at all load is transferred in t!e a% t!at gi=es t!e s&aller defor&ations 4defor&ation in t!e plane of t!e plate5. (!is approac! also applies to elded structures< e.g. see Figure 6 !ic! illustrates t!e connection of a plate to a sAuare !ollo section. (!e assu&ed force distri'ution !ere t!e elds are onl% loaded in s!ear is correct.

(!e stiffness ratio in t!e connection &a% influence t!e assu&ption for t!e calculation of t!e 'ending &o&ents. An e?a&ple is gi=en in Figure 17. In t!e connection in Figure 17a< t!e rotation of t!e 'olted connection is larger t!an t!e rotation of t!e plate !ic! is elded in t!e plane of t!e e' of t!e colu&n. (!erefore< t!e !inge for t!e calculation of &o&ents is
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assu&ed to 'e t!e 'olt ro . (!e 'olts are loaded '% a s!ear force :. (!e elds &ust 'e designed for a s!ear force : and a 'ending &o&ent :.e.

In t!e connection in Figure 17'< t!e plate is elded to t!e non-rigid all of t!e sAuare !ollo section. 8ere t!e &ore logical place for t!e !inge is t!is all. (!e eld is no onl% loaded in s!ear and conseAuentl%< t!e 'olt ro is loaded in s!ear 4:5 and 'ending 4:.e5.

## 3.2 Free Ce!tre o7 Rotat#o! a!d For\$ed Ce!tre o7 Rotat#o!

a. Free \$e!tre o7 rotat#o! (!e plates in Figure 11 are connected '% 'olts arranged in an ar'itrar% pattern. (!e connection is loaded '% a 'ending &o&ent +. (!e plates are assu&ed to 'e rigid< co&pared

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it! t!e stiffness of t!e fasteners. (!erefore< t!e rotation 'et een t!e plates is t!e result of t!e defor&ation of t!e fasteners. (!e plates rotate around t!e centre of rotation.

In t!e case of s&all defor&ations of t!e fasteners< a linear relation 'et een t!e 'olt forces *i and t!e displace&ents i &a% 'e assu&ed< gi=ing 'olt forces Fi proportional to t!e distance ri to t!e centre of rotation and t!e rotation < see Figure 12.

i P ri *i P 4ri@r&a?5*&a?

43-35 43-\$5
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## *?i P 4%i@ri5*i P 4%i@r&a?5*&a? *%i P 4?i@ri5*i P 4?i@r&a?5*&a?

43-,5 43--5

If t!e load on t!e connection is a pure 'ending &o&ent< eAuili'riu& reAuires t!at t!e resultant forces in t!e ? and % directions &ust 'e 9ero: *?i P *&a?@r&a? %i P 7 %i P 7 43-.5 *%i P *&a?@ r&a? ?i P 7 %i P 7 43-/5 (!e centre of rotation is t!erefore located at t!e centroid of t!e 'olt group. + P ri . *i P (*&a?@ r&a?5 . *&a? P 4*&a?@r&a?5 ri2 43-65

*&a? P

43-175

(!is situation it! t!e centre of rotation at t!e centroid of t!e 'olt group is called G7ree \$e!tre o7 rotat#o!G. If an eccentric force acts on a 'olt group it! free centre of rotation< t!e follo ing anal%sis can 'e carried out< see Figure 13.

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(!e eccentric force F can 'e replaced '% a 'ending &o&ent + P F . e and a force F t!roug! t!e centre of rotation. (!e loads on t!e 'olts are t!e su&&ation of t!e loads caused '% + 4as e?plained a'o=e5 and t!e loads caused '% F. For n 'olts< eac! 'olt carries F@n. (!e resultant force on eac! 'olt can 'e deter&ined '% resol=ing t!e forces caused '% + and F in t!e ?direction and in t!e %-direction: F? P F?+ O F?F 43-115 F% P F%+ O F%F 43-125 *P 43-135

For an ar'itrar% 'olt pattern it is not eas% to deter&ine in ad=ance !ic! 'olt is t!e &ost !ea=il% loaded. )e=eral 'olts !a=e t!erefore to 'e c!ec>ed. In practice< !o e=er< t!e 'olt pattern is usuall% regular and t!e &ore se=erel% loaded 'olts are readil% identified. '. For\$ed \$e!tre o7 rotat#o! In an end plate connection of t!e t%pe s!o n in Figure 1\$< t!ere is an i&portant difference 'et een t!e stiffness of t!e tension 9one and t!e co&pression 9one.
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In t!e co&pression 9one< t!e co&pression force is trans&itted directl% fro& t!e flange of t!e 'ea& to t!e e' of t!e colu&n. (!e defor&ations in t!e co&pression 9one are =er% s&all co&pared to t!e defor&ations in t!e tension 9one< !ere 'ending of t!e end plate and 'ending of t!e colu&n flange occurs. Because of t!is difference in t!e stiffness< t!e centre of rotation is effecti=el% located at point 415 in Figure 1\$. )o&eti&es< to 'e &ore conser=ati=e< t!e centre of rotation is ta>en as t!e lo est 'olt ro . If t!e end plate is t!ic> and t!erefore stiff< t!en t!e centre of rotation &a% also 'e assu&ed at t!e lo er end of t!e plate. (!e a'o=e situation< !ere t!e centre of rotation is not in t!e centre of t!e 'olt group< is called a connection it! a G7or\$ed \$e!tre o7 rotat#o!G. Assu&ing t!at t!e stiffness at eac! 'olt ro is t!e sa&e< t!e forces in t!e 'olt ro s are directl% proportional to t!eir distance fro& t!e centre of rotation. Wit! t!e centre of rotation at point 415< t!e follo ing anal%sis can 'e carried out: !1 2(1 O !2 2(2 O !3 2(3 O !\$ 2(\$ O !, 2(, O !- 2(- P + 43-1\$5 Wit! eAual 'olt si9es:

2(2 P 2(1

2(3 P 2(1
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2(\$ P 2(1

2(, P 2(1 Fro& t!ese eAuations< t!e 'olt force (1 in t!e &ost !ea=il% loaded 'olt can 'e deter&ined:

43-1,5 In realit%< t!e stiffness of t!e 'olt ro s &a% differ considera'l%< e.g. t!e e?tended part of t!e end plate a'o=e t!e 'ea&Cs top flange in Figure 1, is less stiff t!an t!e part 'elo t!e top flange !ere t!e e' of t!e 'ea& !as a stiffening effect. As a result< 'olt ro nu&'er 2 ill trans&it a !ig!er load t!an 'olt ro nu&'er 1.

For t!in end plates t!e differences in t!e stiffness of different 'olt ro s is &ore pronounced and t!e distri'ution of forces in t!e 'olt ro s is &ore =aria'le. Wit! Gnor&alG di&ensions of t!e end plate< it is reasona'le to assu&e t!at t!e tension force in t!e top flange of t!e 'ea& is eAuall% distri'uted 'et een 'olt ro s 1 and 2. If an end plate connection is loaded '% a co&'ination of 'ending &o&ent + and a tensile force F8< t!e situation it! a forced centre of rotation &a% occur< 'ut also a free centre of rotation is possi'le. (!is depends on t!e &agnitude of F8< see Figure 1-.

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If t!e centre of rotation is forced 4F8 is s&all5< t!en F8 is transferred t!roug! t!e rigid point 415. (!e 'ending &o&ent a'out 415 is:

+1 P + O F8 . P !ere

!i2 43-1-5

a is t!e distance 'et een t!e centre line of t!e 'ea& and t!e co&pression point 415. Fro& t!e condition of !ori9ontal eAuili'riu& it follo s t!at:

DP If:

!i - F8 43-1.5

F8 P

!i 43-1/5

t!en D P 7. Wit! D L 7< t!ere is no longer a forced centre of rotation. Fro& 2Auations 43-1-5 and 43-1.5 it follo s t!at if:

43-165

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43-275

## t!ere is a free centre of rotation.

,. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

## All connection designs &ust satisf% t!ree funda&ental reAuire&ents:

i. Internal forces &ust 'e in eAuili'riu& it! t!e e?ternal applied forces and &o&ents. ii. 2ac! part of t!e connection &ust 'e capa'le of safel% resisting t!e forces in it assu&ed '% t!e anal%sis. iii. (!e defor&ations reAuired '% t!e assu&ed internal force distri'ution &ust 'e it!in t!e defor&ation capa'ilities of t!e co&ponent parts.

1sing , 'asic load cases t!e force transfers present in =irtuall% e=er% for& of connection &a% 'e o'tained '% suita'le co&'ination. Load transfer follo s routes in !ic! t!e &aBorit% of load follo s t!e stiffer pat!s. +o&ent transfer '% &eans of a group of fasteners &a% in=ol=e eit!er a Gfree centre of rotationG or a Gforced centre of rotationG.

-. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructuresG 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1.1< General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662.

.. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< G)tructural )teel or> ConnectionsG< Butter ort!s N Co. 4#u'lis!ers5 Li&ited< 16/6. 2. Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted JointsG< Wille% - Interscience< 2nd 2dition< 16/.. 3. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F. +.< G(!eor% and Design of )teel )tructuresG< C!ap&an N 8all 16/3. \$. W. F. C!en GJoint Fle?i'ilit% in )teel Fra&esG Journal of Constructional )teel *esearc! :olu&e /< 16/..

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Lecture 11.).2 : Anal*sis o! Connections: Distri,ution o! \$orces in Grou#s o! Bolts and Welds
1. DI)(*IB1(I0" 0F F0*C2) 1.1 L0"G C0""2C(I0") 1.2 Distri'ution of Forces in Weld Groups 1.3 "on-Linear Distri'ution of Bolt Forces 1.\$ Co&'ination of Different (%pes of Fasteners 2. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 3. *2F2*2"C2) \$. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
1.1 4ON5 CONNECTIONS

## 1.1.1 Long ,olted connection loaded in longitudinal direction

W!en se=eral 'olts are placed in a ro < as is indicated in Figure 1< t!en assu&ing elastic 'e!a=iour< an une=en distri'ution of forces occurs. (!is distri'ution can easil% 'e de&onstrated !en t o e?tre&e situations are considered< see Figure 2.

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a. 6ssu e the 9olts are #!7#!#tel8 st#77 a!d the "lates are :eaD (!e 'olts do not defor&. (!e% re&ain straig!t and parallel to eac! ot!er. 2ac! piece of plate 'et een a pair of 'olts t!erefore !as t!e sa&e lengt!< t!e sa&e strain and conseAuentl% also t!e sa&e stress. In t!e e?a&ple of Figure 2< t!is &eans t!at t!e forces in t!e plates 'et een 'olt 1 and 'olt 2 are: 7<, F< 1<7 F and 7<, F. But t!is also applies to t!e plates 'et een 'olts 2 and 3 and 'et een 'olts 3 and \$. Co!\$lus#o!: t!e 'olts 1 and \$ trans&it t!e full load F. (!e ot!er 'olts are not loaded< see Figure 2a. '. 6ssu e the "lates are #!7#!#tel8 st#77 a!d the 9olts are :eaD (!e plates 'et een t!e 'olts do not defor&. In ot!er ords< e=er% 'olt !as t!e sa&e defor&ation and t!erefore is loaded to t!e sa&e e?tent. 2=er% 'olt carries 7<, F< i.e. 7<2, F per s!ear area. (!e real distri'ution of forces is 'et een t!ese t o e?tre&es< as is indicated '% t!e solid line 4GelasticG5 in Figure 2c. (!e difference 'et een t!e forces in t!e outer 'olts and t!e inner 'olts is greater !en t!e stiffness of t!e plates is lo . (!is situation occurs !en t!e connection is longer 4&ore 'olts5 and t!e plate t!ic>ness co&pared to t!e 'olt dia&eter is s&all. For practical ratios of plate t!ic>ness to 'olt dia&eter and practical =alues for t!e pitc!< t!e follo ing appro?i&ate distri'utions 4E5 of 'olt forces appl%: - it! four 'olts 26-21-21-26 - it! si? 'olts 2,-1,-17-17-1,-2, - it! eig!t 'olts 2\$-13-/-,-,-/-13-2\$ Des#&! re\$o e!dat#o!

(!e part of t!e connection 'et een t!e outer 'olts &ust 'e designed to 'e as s!ort and stiff as possi'le< in order to &ini&ise t!e differences 'et een t!e 'olt forces. In practice< !o e=er< it is nor&all% per&issi'le to assu&e an e=en distri'ution of forces< o ing to t!e plastic defor&ation capacit% of t!e 'olts and plates. W!en a 'olt is o=erloaded< or a plate in 'earing is o=erloaded< it ill defor& plasticall%. (!en< t!roug! redistri'ution of forces< a &ore e=en distri'ution of t!e forces in t!e 'olts is o'tained. (!e a&ount of defor&ation capacit% t!at is needed< is greatl% influenced '% t!e lengt! of t!e connection:

A unifor& distri'ution of forces is assu&ed if t!e distance 'et een t!e outer 'olts is not &ore t!an 1,d< !ere d is t!e no&inal dia&eter of t!e 'olt. (!is &eans si? 'olts at a pitc! of 3d.

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For longer connections< t!e design =alue of t!e s!ear force F=.*d per 'olt and per s!ear plane &ust 'e reduced '% a factor Lf< see also Figure 3. 41-15

## Lf P 1 - 4LB - 1,d5@277d 'ut Lf 1<7 and Lf 7<.,.

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(!e defor&ation capacit% is pro=ided '% t!e 'olt 4'ending and s!ear5 and@or '% t!e plates 4%ield of net area< o=ali9ation of t!e 'olt !ole caused '% 'earing stresses5. Anot!er cause of une=en distri'ution of forces and t!us of a need for defor&ation capacit% is t!e possi'ilit% of &isalign&ent of 'olt !oles. Because of fa'rication tolerances t!e dia&eter of t!e !oles is c!osen as t!e dia&eter of 'olt plus a clearance. For an +27 'olt< t!e nor&al !ole dia&eter is 22 &&. Due to t!is clearance< it is possi'le t!at at lo loads 4elastic defor&ations5 onl% one 'olt in t!e connection of Figure 2< for e?a&ple< carries t!e !ole load. Des#&! re\$o e!dat#o!

Because t!e defor&ation capacit% of plates is generall% &uc! 'igger t!an t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e 'olts< it is reco&&ended t!at t!e connection 'e designed suc! t!at %ielding of t!e plates in 'earing occurs 'efore %ielding of t!e 'olts in s!ear.

## 1.1.2 Distri,ution o! s&ear stresses in long %elds

In longitudinall% loaded elded connections an une=en load distri'ution occurs< si&ilar to t!at Bust descri'ed for 'olted connections. (!e !ig!est stresses occur at t!e ends of t!e elds< see Figure \$.

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In t!is case also a unifor& distri'ution of forces 4stresses5 &a% 'e assu&ed< pro=ided t!at t!e defor&ation capacit% is sufficient to allo for t!e reAuired redistri'ution of stresses. In a si&ilar a% as for long 'olted connections< t!e differences in t!e stress distri'ution depend on t!e stiffness ratio of t!e connectors 4 elds5 and t!e platesK t!e longer t!e connection t!e &ore une=en t!e stress distri'ution. As it! 'olted connections< t!e defor&ation capacit% is pro=ided '% t!e connector 4t!e elds5 and@or t!e adBacent plate &aterial< see Figure \$a. Clearl% t!e defor&ation capacit% of a t!ic> eld is greater t!an t!at of a t!in eld.

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(!e plastic 9one and t!e defor&ation capacit% of a eld are proportional to t!e eld t!ic>ness. In addition t!e ductilit% of t!e eld &etal and t!e strengt! of t!e eld &etal co&pared it! t!e strengt! of t!e plate< !a=e an influence on t!e defor&ation capacit%. If t!e %ield strengt! of t!e eld &etal is !ig!er t!an t!e %ield strengt! of t!e plate &aterial< t!en plasticit% occurs &ainl% in t!e plates. (!is is usuall% t!e case in co&&on lo er grades of steel 4up to )2.,5< !ere Go=er&atc!edG eld &etals are applied 4as reAuired '% 2urocode 35. In !ig!er strengt! steels it is so&eti&es difficult to !a=e an o=er&atc!ed eld &etal it! sufficient ductilit%. (!en an Gunder&atc!edG eld &etal it! 'etter ductilit% properties t!at is easier to eld &a% 'e considered. (!e conseAuence is t!at t!e plastic defor&ations tend to concentrate in t!e eld &etal. (!e defor&ation capacit% depends on 4a5 t!e si9e of t!e plastic 9ones in t!e eld and t!e adBacent plates and 4'5 on t!e ductilit% of t!e &etal in t!ese 9ones. If due to under&atc!ing eld &etal t!e plastic 9ones in t!e plate are s&all< t!en for t!e sa&e defor&ation t!e strains in t!e eld &etal are great. (!is &eans t!at t!e ductilit% reAuire&ents for under&atc!ed eld &etals s!ould 'e !ig!er t!an for o=er&atc!ed eld &etals. (!erefore< it depends on ductilit% and %ield strengt! of plate and a=aila'le eld &etals !at situation is fa=oura'le: under&atc!ed or o=er&atc!ed eld &etals. (!e effect of t!e lengt! of t!e eld on t!e distri'ution of stresses along t!e eld !as 'een in=estigated '% &eans of finite ele&ent calculations. (o illustrate t!is t!e results of a nu&erical si&ulation carried out '% Feder H2I are presented in Figure ,. (!e stress distri'ution and t!e s!ear defor&ations in side fillet elds !a=e 'een deter&ined for se=eral =alues of t!e lengt! l< see Figure ,. For t!e eld &etal< a linear relation 'et een t!e s!ear stress 1 and t!e relati=e displace&ent P l@a is assu&ed. For ot!er circu&stances 4geo&etr%< cross-section of t!e plates< eld t!ic>ness< strengt! of eld &etal and plate &etal< etc5< ot!er results ill 'e o'tained.

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Figure , s!o s t!at up to a certain li&ited lengt! of t!e eld 4lli&5 %ielding of t!e !ole eld is possi'le. W!en t!e lengt! of t!e eld is eAual to lli&< % is reac!ed in t!e &iddle of t!e eld< at t!e sa&e ti&e as t!e ulti&ate s!ear stress u and t!e rupture displace&ent u are attained at t!e ends. (!en t!e a=erage stress< u< at t!e start of rupture is o'tained '% ta>ing t!e a=erage of a para'ola as: u P 4u O 2%5@3 41-25

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For l M lli& t!e central region of t!e eld ill not !a=e reac!ed %ield !en t!e rupture starts at t!e ends of t!e eld. Figure - gi=es results for a side fillet eld in steel )3,, H2I. (!e &e&'ers !a=e t!e sa&e cross-section area A1 P A2. (!e assu&ed 11- diagra& is also gi=en in Figure -.

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For t!e rupture strain 4u5 t!e =alue 7<117 is ta>en. For a eld it! , && t!roat t!ic>ness< a displace&ent of 7<,, && is o'tained. A furt!er assu&ption is t!at t!e plates do not %ield at t!e gross cross-section !en rupture of t!e eld occurs. 1nder t!ese assu&ptions< lli&P237a < !ere a is t!e t!roat t!ic>ness of t!e eld. Wit! increasing eld lengt! t!e a=erage s!ear stress at rupture decreases rapidl%. W!en l M 377a< t!e stress in t!e &iddle of t!e eld re&ains 9eroU According to 2urocode 3< t!e design resistance of a fillet eld in a lap Boint s!ould 'e reduced '% a factor L .1 to allo for t!e effects of non- unifor& distri'ution of stress along its lengt! !en it is longer t!an 1,7a according to t!e relations!ip:

.1

P 1<2 - 7<2

41-35

!ere LB is t!e o=erall lengt! of t!e lap Boint in t!e direction of force transfer. In practice< lap Boints it! fillet elds longer t!an 177a or 1,7a are seldo& used 4for a P , &&< a lengt! 1,7 a &eans .,7 &&U5. 0f course< !en t!e distri'ution of applied loads on t!e eld is e=enl% distri'uted along t!e eld< t!e a'o=e li&itation does not appl%. 2?a&ples are t!e elds 'et een t!e e' and t!e flange of elded 'ea&s and t!e connection of t!e e' of a 'ea& to a colu&n< see Figure ..

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## 1.2 D#str#9ut#o! o7 For\$es #! Weld 5rou"s

(!e design of eld groups 4Figure /5 is tac>led '% considering t!e strengt! of t!e indi=idual elds.

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For t!is< t o approac!es 'ased on t!e design assu&ptions of Clause -.1.\$ of 2urocode 3 can 'e follo ed: 1. Calculation 'ased on t!e stresses in t!e parent &aterial in t!e =icinit% of t!e eld. 2. Calculation 'ased on t!e load acting on t!e elded Boint as a !ole. (!e calculation 'ased on t!e stresses in t!e parent &aterial is easier and Auic>er t!an t!e second &et!od. (!e stresses in t!e =icinit% of t!e eld can 'e directl% o'tained fro& t!e structural design calculations. Because of t!e direct lin> 'et een t!e anal%sis for t!e parent &aterial and t!at of t!e elds< it is clear t!at t!e stresses in t!e eld are consistent it! t!ose in t!e parent &aterial. 0f course< it is necessar% t!at in deter&ining t!e stresses in t!e parent &aterial< t!e stresses &ust 'e consistent it! ot!er parts in t!e connection 4Lecture 11.\$.1 )ection 2.2 and Figure 25. 1se of t!e first &et!od is reco&&ended. 8o e=er< t!ere are cases !ere t!e first &et!od cannot 'e applied 'ecause t!e stresses in t!e adBacent parent &aterial cannot 'e si&pl% deter&ined and t!e second &et!od &ust 'e used. 2?a&ples are:

## 1. Cal\$ulat#o! 9ased o! the stresses #! the "are!t

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In a dou'le fillet eld s!o n in Figure 6< t!e follo ing stresses act on t!e t!roat area 4see also Lectures 11.2.2 and 11.2.35.

## P P Q7<,t9 7<,2F@a P Ht@42a25I9 @@ P 4t@2a59%

41-\$5 41-,5

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Wit! t!e alternati=e &et!od of Anne? + of 2urocode 3 it follo s: 4t@2a5H92@2 O 392@2 O 39%2I fu@4 + 5 or: 4t@2a5H292 O 39%2I fu@4 + 5 41--5

(!e second reAuire&ent fu@+ is onl% decisi=e if is s&all< i.e. if t!e resultant force is o'liAue to t!e plate. If in t!e parent &aterial onl% 9 is present t!en it follo s: 49@fu54 + 5t@2 For )23,: 7<.149@ fu5t For )3,,: 7</749@ fu5t 41-.5 41-/5 41-65

If t!e t!eor% of plasticit% is used for t!e design of t!e structure and t!e connection is located at a point !ere a plastic !inge &a% de=elop< t!en t!e &ini&u& t!roat t!ic>ness &ust 'e 'ased on 9 P f%: (!is gi=es for )23,: a 7<\$- t 41-175 and for )3,,: a 7<,, t 41-115 (!is reAuire&ent also applies for staticall% indeter&inate structures t!at are designed using t!e t!eor% of elasticit%. It is i&portant to re&e&'er t!at also in an elastic design< it is assu&ed 4i&plicitl%5 t!at t!e &e&'ers and t!e connections !a=e sufficient defor&ation capacit% to acco&&odate loads and stresses t!at usuall% are not e?plicitl% ta>en into account in t!e design calculations 4e.g. stresses due to une=en settle&ents of t!e supportsK te&perature loadingK tolerance during fa'ricationK local o=erloading '% li=e loads< etc.5 and furt!er to allo for t!e appro?i&ations in!erent in t!e design &odels. (!erefore< it is necessar% t!at t!e connected parts can %ield 'efore rupture of t!e elds. W!en t!e design for&ulae of 2urocode 3 H1I are applied it! 9 P f%< t!en t!e real rupturing strengt! of t!e eld is at least t!e real rupturing strengt! of t!e plate. In ot!er ords< actual rupture occurs in t!e plate and not in t!e eld. (!us< for t!e a'o=e reAuire&ent 4%ield in t!e plate 'efore rupture in t!e eld5< t!e design of t!e eld can 'e 'ased on: 9 P 4f%r@fur5f% 41-125

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!ere f%r is t!e &easured %ield strengt! and fur t!e &easured ulti&ate strengt! of t!e plate &aterial. For t!e design =alues of t!e %ield strengt! and t!e ulti&ate strengt!< it follo s for )3,,:

9 P

41-135

Because t!e actual =alue of f%r @fur can 'e !ig!er t!an 7<.7< it is reAuired t!at: If defor&ation capacit% is necessar%< t!e elds &ust 'e designed to transfer at least /7E of t!e %ield force in t!e 4 ea>est5 connected &e&'er. (!is reAuire&ent gi=es t!e follo ing =alues for t!e &ini&u& t!roat t!ic>ness of a dou'le fillet as presented in Figure 6: For )23,: a 7<3. t 41-1\$5 For )3,,: a 7<\$\$ t 41-1,5 It s!ould 'e noted t!at< using t!e &ean stress &et!od according to 2urocode 3< C!apter -< greater t!roat t!ic>nesses are found for end fillet elds. (!e difference is a factor of 1<22U (!us t!e application of t!e &ean stress &et!od results in 1<222P1<, ti&es &ore eld &etal t!an necessar%. 2. Cal\$ulat#o! 9ased o! the load a\$t#!& o! the :elded Eo#!t as a :hole (!is &et!od &ust 'e applied if t!e first &et!od is not applica'le. For t!e deter&ination of t!e strengt! of a eld group< t!e design =alues for t!e strengt! of t!e separate elds &a% 'e added< pro=ided t!at t!e eAuili'riu& reAuire&ents are fulfilled. (!is approac! is 'ased on t!e assu&ption t!at t!e elds can %ield to per&it t!e redistri'ution of stresses necessar% to acco&&odate local o=erloading. In ot!er ords< t!e elds &ust posses sufficient defor&ation capacit%. (o gain so&e idea of t!e defor&ation capacit% of elds under =arious loading co&'inations< tests H3I !a=e 'een carried out as indicated in Figure 17. In t!ese tests< t!e elds ere t!in co&pared it! t!e plates in order to ensure %ielding in t!e elds and not in t!e plates. (!e &easuring lengt! lo is gi=en in Figure 17. (!e defor&ation of t!e plates as su'tracted fro& t!e &easured =alues< to o'tain t!e defor&ation of t!e eld and t!e parent &aterial in t!e direct =icinit% of t!e eld< see Figure \$a.

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As alread% discussed< it appears t!at t!e defor&ation 4&&5 at t!e sa&e stress in t!e eld is proportional to t!e t!roat t!ic>ness. (!us< !en t!e t!ic>ness of a eld is dou'led< not onl% is its strengt! dou'led< 'ut also its defor&ation capacit%. (!is is t!e reason !% t!e defor&ations are gi=en as l@a on t!e !ori9ontal a?is in Figure 11.

(o de&onstrate t!e i&portance of t!e a'o=e findings< t!e lap Boint of Figure 12 is anal%9ed. )uppose t!at t!e plates are infinitel% stiff co&pared it! t!e stiffness of t!e elds. W!en t!e t!ic>nesses of t!e end fillet eld and t!e side fillet elds are a'out t!e sa&e< t!en< at t!e start of rupture 4in t!e elds5< t!e forces in all elds are practicall% eAual to t!eir ulti&ate load. (!is can easil% 'e seen !en t!e lines for 11 and are co&pared. Wit! aside P aend and l for t!e side eld and end eld a'out t!e sa&e< l@a is t!e sa&e for side eld and end eld. (!erefore< t!e ulti&ate strengt! of 'ot! elds &a% 'e added. (!is &a% not 'e true if one of t!e elds is =er% s&all< co&pared to t!e ot!er. It can 'e concluded t!erefore< t!at t!e ulti&ate strengt! of t!e lap Boint is eAual to t!e su& of t!e ulti&ate strengt!s of t!e separate elds.

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"o suppose t!at t!e t!roat t!ic>ness aend of t!e end fillet eld is onl% 17E of t!e t!roat t!ic>ness aside of t!e side fillet elds. At t!e start of rupture of t!e end fillet eld< t!e elongation lP177.17-3. aendP17.17-3 aside< see Figure 11. (!e stress 11 corresponding to l@aside P 17 . 17-3 is a'out 237"@&&2< !ilst t!e rupture strengt! for 11 is a'out 3,7"@&&2. In t!is case< t!e ulti&ate strengt! of t!e lap Boint is less t!an t!e su& of t!e ulti&ate strengt!s of t!e separate elds. As a result< it is reco&&ended t!e follo ing design rule is used:

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Des#&! re\$o

e!dat#o!

(r% to gi=e t!e end fillet eld and t!e side fillet eld t!e sa&e t!ic>ness< and ne=er design t!e end fillet eld to 'e less t!an 7<, ti&es t!e t!ic>ness of t!e side fillet elds. (!e use of a t!in eld at t!e front of t!e lap Boint 4point A in Figure 125< e.g. to pre=ent corrosion< &ust 'e a=oided. If suc! a eld is necessar%< t!en it s!ould 'e gi=en t!e sa&e t!ic>ness as t!e ot!er elds. (!is is particularl% i&portant 'ecause t!e plates are in realit% not infinitel% stiff co&pared it! t!e elds. (!e reAuired defor&ation capacit% t!erefore is larger at t!e front 4point A5 t!an at t!e 'ac> of t!e lap Boint 4point B5.

## 1.3 No!*4#!ear D#str#9ut#o! o7 Bolt For\$es

In )ection 3.2 of Lecture 11.\$.1 it as assu&ed t!at t!e 'olt forces *i are proportional to t!e displace&ent P r . (!is assu&ption is 'ased on linear 4elastic5 'e!a=iour of t!e connection. In t!e sa&e a% as for t!e design of elded connections< t!e t!eor% of plasticit% &a% 'e used also for 'olted connections< see Figure 13.

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W!en t!e force on t!e connection increases< t!e force on t!e &ost !ea=il% loaded 'olt increases until t!e %ield force *% is reac!ed. (!en< it! increasing displace&ent< t!e 'olt force sta%s constant until strain !ardening starts. After t!e start of %ielding at t!e &ost !ea=il% loaded 'olt< t!e 'olt forces in t!e 'olts !ic! are nearer to t!e centre of rotation increase it! increasing rotation. (!e &o&ent increases until all 'olts !a=e reac!ed t!e %ield force. Fro& tests it &a% 'e concluded t!at t!e GplasticG &o&ent of suc! 'olted connections is nor&all% reac!ed at accepta'le displace&ents. (!erefore< in staticall% loaded structures< t!e design of suc! 'olted connections &a% 'e 'ased on t!e t!eor% of plasticit%.

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In a plastic distri'ution of 'olt forces< t!e centre of rotation does not need to 'e located at t!e centroid of t!e 'olt group. (!is can 'e de&onstrated as follo s 4co&pare Figures 1\$ and Lecture 11.\$.1 Figure 125.

(!e GplasticG 'olt force *% &a% 'e distri'uted in t!e ?-direction and %-direction:

*%.?i P

41-1-5

*%.%i P

41-1.5

If onl% 'ending &o&ent is present< t!e follo ing conditions &ust 'e fulfilled:

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*%.?i P 7 or:

*%.%i P 7 or:

## P 7 or: cos i P 7 41-165

For t!e general case< a direct solution for t!e position of t!e centre of rotation is not easil% found< as as t!e case for an elastic 'olt force distri'ution. 1suall%< t!e solution &ust 'e found '% trial and error. 8o e=er< in practical cases< t!e 'olt pattern is nearl% al a%s s%&&etric. For suc! cases it can 'e concluded t!at t!e centre of rotation lies on t!e intersection point of t!e a?es of s%&&etr% 4 !ic! is also t!e centroid5. If t!e 'olt group is su'Bected to a co&'ination of s!ear force and 'ending &o&ent< t!en t!e follo ing approac! can 'e follo ed. (!e 'olts near t!e centre of rotation !a=e a s&all &o&ent ar&< and t!erefore do not contri'ute =er% &uc! to t!e &o&ent resistance of t!e connection. It is econo&ical t!erefore to use t!ese 'olts for t!e transfer of s!ear force :< and to use t!e outer 'olts to resist t!e 'ending &o&ent +. )e=eral possi'ilities are s!o n in Figure 1,. (!e final c!oice depends on t!e proportions of t!e loads !ic! &ust 'e carried: :)d and +)d.

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(!e a'o=e design &odel is 'ased on an ele&entar% principle in t!e t!eor% of plasticit%: An% distri'ution of forces< !ere t!e internal forces 4'olt forces5 are in eAuili'riu& it! t!e e?ternal forces in suc! a a% t!at no !ere is t!e internal load-carr%ing resistance 4t!e design resistance of t!e 'olts5 e?ceeded< gi=es a lo er 'ound to t!e design resistance of t!e connection. (!is principle is onl% =alid if sufficient defor&ation capacit% is a=aila'le. In 'olted connections t!is capacit% can 'e assured '% designing t!e 'olts suc! t!at t!e% are not t!e controlling ite& of t!e strengt! of t!e connection:

In s!ear and 'earing: let 'earing 'e decisi=e< 'ecause t!e defor&ation capacit% in 'earing of t!e plate is &uc! 'igger t!an t!e defor&ation capacit% in s!ear of t!e 'olt. In tension: let %ielding of t!e plates in 'ending 'e decisi=e rat!er t!an rupture of t!e 'olt.

## 1., Co 9#!at#o! o7 D#77ere!t T8"es o7 Faste!ers

In general< t!e load defor&ation 'e!a=iour of different fasteners is suc! t!at t!eir design resistances are reac!ed at different defor&ations< see Figure 1-. For t!is reason t!e use of &ore t!an one t%pe of fastener in t!e design calculations is not nor&all% allo ed. In t!is respect t!e defor&ation capacit% of t!e t%pes of fastener used is an i&portant factor.

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In t!e case of elds acting in co&'ination it! preloaded 'olts t!at are preloaded after elding is co&pleted< t!e design resistances are reac!ed at a'out t!e sa&e defor&ation. (!erefore< in t!is case it is per&issi'le to add t!e design resistances of t!e preloaded 'olts and t!e elds !en deter&ining t!e design resistance of t!e connection. For all ot!er arrange&ents onl% one t%pe of fastening &a% 'e assu&ed to 'e Gacti=eG and all load &ust 'e transferred '% t!is e.g. for a connection &ade originall% it! 'olts t!at &ust 'e strengt!ened to it!stand a !ig!er load t!e elds &ust 'e designed to carr% t!e !ole of t!e load 4not Bust t!e additional part5.

2. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

Long connections s!ould 'e designed in suc! a a% t!at t!e forces in t!e fasteners 4'olts and elds5 are< as far as possi'le< eAual. For eld groups< design s!ould< !ere=er possi'le< 'e 'ased on an approac! !ic! uses t!e stress in t!e parent &aterial in t!e =icinit% of t!e eld as t!e controlling para&eter. Bolt groups &a% 'e designed using a plastic approac! pro=iding sufficient defor&ation capacit% to per&it full redistri'ution of forces is present. Defor&ation capacit% &a% 'e ensured '%:

i. for 'olts in s!ear and 'earing< ensure t!at 'earing go=erns. ii. for 'olts in tension< ensure t!at %ield of t!e plates in tension go=erns.

W!ere &ore t!an one t%pe of fastener is used to transfer t!e sa&e load 'et een t!e sa&e t o co&ponents in a connection< t!e design s!ould nor&all% assu&e t!at all load is transferred '% one t%pe of fastener onl%.

3. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructuresG 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1.1< General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662. H2I Feder< D. and Werner< G.< AnsVt9e 9ur (raglast'erec!nung =on )c! eiss=er'indungen des )ta!l'aus. )c! eissen und )c!neiden< 26 416..5< 8eft \$. H3I Ligten'erg< F. D. and :an +elle< F.< 0nder9oe> naar de =er=or&ing =an statisc! 'elaste !oe>lassen. 8eron 12 416-\$5 "o. 1 4Dutc!5. In=estigation in t!e defor&ations of )taticall% Loaded Fillet Welds.

,. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< G)tructural )teel or> ConnectionsG< Butter ort!s N Co. 4#u'lis!ers5 Li&ited< 16/6. 2. Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted JointsG< Wille% - Interscience< 2nd 2dition< 16/..

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3. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F. +.< G(!eor% and Design of )teel )tructuresG< C!ap&an N 8all 16/3. \$. C!en< W. F.< GJoint Fle?i'ilit% in )teel Fra&esG< Journal of Constructional )teel *esearc! :ol /< 16/..

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Lecture 11.)." : Anal*sis o! Connections: Trans!er o! Direct Tension or Co+#ression and S&ear
1. (*A")F2* 0F AWIAL (2")IL2 0* C0+#*2))I:2 F0*C2) 1.1 Butt Welds 1.2 (ransfer of A?ial Loads using Co=er #lates 1.3 Connections to Gusset #lates 2. (*A")F2* 0F )82A* F0*C2) 3. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 \$. *2F2*2"C2) ,. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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## 1. TR6NSFER OF 6FI64 TENSI4E OR COMPRESSI2E FORCES

1.1 Butt Welds
(!e 'utt elded connections of Figure 1 reAuire no real calculation< since 'utt elds are designed to !a=e at least t!e sa&e strengt! as t!e connected plates.

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## 1.2 Tra!s7er o7 6A#al 4oads us#!& Co;er Plates

Figure 2 s!o s so&e connections in !ic! t!e tensile force in t!e flanges or in t!e e's is transferred '% &eans of co=er plates. (!ese co=er plates can 'e present on one side 4single5 or on 'ot! sides 4dou'le5. (!e% can 'e connected it! 'olts or elds.

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Dou'le sided co=er plates !a=e t!e ad=antage t!at eccentricities in t!e load pat! and associated eccentric defor&ations are e?cluded. In t!e elded flange plate in Figure 3< t!e design strengt! &a% 'e go=erned '% eit!er t!e plate or '% t!e elds.

Plate? F 'p tp f% 41-15 Welds? (!e design resistances of t!e end fillet eld and t!e side fillet elds &a% 'e added 4see )ection 1.2 of Lecture 11.\$.25. W!en t!e &ean stress &et!od 42C3 &ain test5 is applied< it follo s: F 42lp O 'p5 . a . f= !ere: lp is t!e lengt! of t!e side eld 'p is t!e lengt! of t!e end eld f=
.d .d

41-25

P fu@43 + 5

41-35

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For Fe2 23,: F 42lp O 'p5 . a . 27/ 41-\$5 If t!e stress co&ponent &et!od according to Anne? + of 2urocode 3 H1I is applied< t!en f= is t!e sa&e for t!e side fillet elds< 'ut for t!e end fillet elds< f= greater< see (a'le 1.
.d .d

is a factor

## Fe2 23, Fe2 2., Fe2 3,, Fe2 \$7 f= f=

.d.end .d.side

H"@&&2I H"@&&2I

2,, 27/

2/23\$

321 2-2

32/ 2-/

Ta9le 1? Des#&! ;alues 7or the stress #! e!d 7#llet :elds a!d #! s#de 7#llet :elds %9ased o! 6!!eA M o7 EC3( Wit! t!e stress co&ponent &et!od it follo s: F 2 lp a f=
.d.side

O 'p a f=

.d.end

41-,5

For Fe2 23,: F 2 lp a 27/ O 'p a 2,, H"@&&2I 41--5 Fla!&e? (!e force is transferred fro& t!e flange =ia t!e elds into t!e co=er plate. (!e design resistances of t!ese ele&ents &ust 'e consistent: a . f=
.d.side

tf . 7<,/ f% 41-.5
.d.side

a 7<,/f%tf @f=

41-/5 41-65

## For Fe2 23,: a 47<,/ . 23, @ 27/5tf P 7<-,tf

(!is reAuire&ent &eans t!at design of =er% s!ort and =er% t!ic> elds is not allo ed< 'ecause t!e adBacent plate &aterial is o=erloaded. For t!e 'olted flange in Figure \$< t!e follo ing c!ec>s s!ould 'e carried out:

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## "et section II-II: F !ere do P !ole dia&eter Bolts?

41-115

If t!e lengt! of t!e connection is less t!an 1, d< t!en t!e force &a% 'e assu&ed as unifor&l% distri'uted o=er all 'olts. (!us< for t!e connection in Figure 3a:

Fs.d P

41-125

(!e 'olt force Fs.d &ust not e?ceed eit!er t!e s!ear resistance F=.d or t!e 'earing resistance Fc.d according to C!apter - of 2urocode 3< see also Lecture 11.3.1.

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(!e 'earing resistance of 'ot! t!e flange plate it! t!ic>ness tp and t!e flange it! t!ic>ness tf &ust 'e c!ec>ed. In t!e design of dou'le co=er plates 4Figure \$'5 it is usuall% assu&ed t!at eac! co=er plate carries !alf t!e force to 'e transferred. In t!is case t!e 'olts !a=e t o s!ear planes< !ic! &eans t!at t!e design s!ear resistance F=.d per 'olt is t ice t!at for t!e case of a single co=er plate. For connections longer t!an 1,d< see )ection 1.1 of Lecture 11.\$.2. For t!e design of a splice in rolled &e&'ers< t!e follo ing general rules s!ould 'e applied: a. Design t!e parts of t!e connection according to t!e stress situation in t!e connected &e&'ers< and &a>e t!e connections as s!ort as possi'le. For t!e 82 section in Figure \$ t!is rule &eans t!at t!e flanges &ust 'e connected and also t!e e'. (!e connection of t!e flanges &ust 'e designed to transfer t!e force in t!e flanges !ilst t!e connection of t!e e' &ust 'e designed to transfer t!e force in t!e e'. '. A=oid eccentricities as &uc! as possi'le. (!oug! t!e design resistance of t!e connections a and ' in Figure , does not differ =er% &uc! 4apart fro& t!e s!ear resistance of t!e 'olts5< t!e defor&ations differ considera'l%< especiall% !en t!e load approac!es t!e design resistance of t!e connection. )%&&etr% can pre=ent unfa=oura'le defor&ations< see Figure -a. In connections it! angles< t!e eccentricit% &o&ents usuall% can 'e carried '% t!e ot!er leg. 1sing co=er plates on t!e outside or a so&e !at t!ic>er angle section on t!e inside< assists in a=oiding large defor&ations due to eccentricit%< see Figure -'.

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## 1.3 Co!!e\$t#o!s to 5usset Plates

Braces are often connected =ia gusset plates to t!e &ain structure< e.g. t!e connection of t!e 'races in Figure .. Gussets are also used in trusses for t!e connection of 'races to t!e c!ords.

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In t!e connection of a c!annel-section to a gusset as s!o n in Figure /< all ele&ents in t!e load pat! &ust 'e c!ec>ed:

(!e resistance of t!e c!annel-section. (!e resistance of t!e eld configuration. (!e resistance of t!e section I-I in t!e gusset plate.

(!e design resistance of t!e eld configuration can 'e c!ec>ed in t!e sa&e a% as discussed in )ection 1.2. (!e eccentricit% 'et een t!e force F in t!e c!annel-section and t!e gusset plate !as little influence on t!e resistance< and &a% nor&all% 'e disregarded. For t!e c!ec> of t!e gusset plate 4section I-I in Figure /5 it follo s t!at: F 42 l tp . 7<,/ f% O ' tp f%5 41-135

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If instead of t!e %ield strengt!< t!e ulti&ate strengt! is ta>en for t!is c!ec> 4 !ic! is consistent it! t!e ot!er design calculations for connections5< t!en as an alternati=e t!e follo ing &a% 'e applied.

41-1\$5

In t!e elded connection of an angle to a gusset plate 4Figure 65< t!e forces in 'ot! side fillet elds &ust 'e in eAuili'riu& it! t!e a?ial force in t!e angle section. Because of t!e eccentric position of t!e centroid of t!e angle relati=e to t!e elds< t!e forces F1 and F2 are not eAual.

F1 P

and F2 P

41-1,5

(!us< t!e side fillet eld 415 &ust 'e t!ic>er t!an eld 425. 1suall% also an end fillet eld is applied. For reasons of defor&ation capacit%< t!e t!ic>ness of suc! an end fillet eld s!ould 'e c!osen to 'e eAual to t!e t!ic>er side fillet eld 415< as e?plained in )ection 1.2 of Lecture 11.\$.2. Alternati=el%< t!e lengt!s could 'e adBusted to produce a 'alanced arrange&ent. In practice one of t!e follo ing is usuall% adopted: - gi=e eld 2 t!e sa&e t!ic>ness and lengt! as eld 1K - gi=e eld 2 t!e sa&e t!ic>ness as eld 1< 'ut reduce its lengt!K - ignore t!e eccentricit% according to -.-.17 of 2C3.

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In a 'olted connection of angles to a gusset plate 4Figure 175< it is not possi'le to position t!e 'olts on t!e centre line of t!e angle 'ecause space is reAuired for t!e 'olt !ead or nut and for access for t!e tig!tening eAuip&ent.

(!e eccentricit% &o&ent 4F4 -e55 in Figure 11 causes e?tra forces in t!e 'olts. (!e &a?i&u& 'olt force is: *P !ere: 41-15

8P

and : P

41-1.5

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In practice t!e effect of eccentricit% &a% 'e appro?i&atel% accounted for '% &eans of a &ultiplication factor on t!e force 8. For usual di&ensions of t!ese connections< t!e follo ing =alues &a% 'e used:

For 2 'olts P 1<27 For 3 'olts P 1<17 For &ore t!an 3 'olts< t!e effect of eccentricit% is nor&all% neglected.

In order to pre=ent t!e defor&ation caused '% eccentricities in t!e action line of t!e force and t!e gusset plate 4Figure 65< see also )ection 1.2< design t!e &e&'er it! t o angle sections or c!annel-sections< see Figure 12.

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An e?ception can 'e &ade for secondar% &e&'ers< e.g. 'racings it! onl% s&all loads. In trussed &e&'ers it! a C&aterial-freeC a?is< i.e. t!e centroidal a?is does not coincide it! an% part of t!e &e&'er< connected it! t o gusset plates< t!e defor&ation caused '% eccentricit% can 'e pre=ented '% &eans of a 'atten plate< see Figure 13.

In Lecture 11.3 it is e?plained t!at< for t!e deter&ination of t!e design resistance in angle sections connected on onl% one flange< t!e net section &ust 'e reduced to allo for t!e =er% une=en stress distri'ution. A si&ilar pro'le& arises in truss &e&'ers it! an I-section< !ere onl% t!e flanges are connected 4Figure 1\$5. (!is pro'le& can 'e sol=ed '% gi=ing t!e connection sufficient lengt! to ena'le t!e force transfer fro& t!e e' to t!ose parts of t!e flange !ere t!e force in t!e flange itself alread% !as 'een transferred partl% to t!e gusset plate.

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In t!e design of gusset plates t!e spread of forces acting on t!e plates &ust 'e ta>en into account. Figure 1, s!o s t!e stresses t!at are caused '% a point load on a plate< !en t!e t!eor% of elasticit% is applied.

Instead of t!e une=en stress distri'ution of Figure 1,< t!e concept of an effecti=e 'readt! &a% 'e adopted< as is illustrated in Figure 1-.

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## 2. TR6NSFER OF S0E6R FORCES

Figure 1. s!o s a nu&'er of connections !ic! are designed to transfer s!ear force onl% fro& a 'ea& into a colu&n. (!e designs 4c5 and 4d5 !o e=er< &a% also 'e used in &o&ent connections< see for e?a&ple Figure 3.

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In t!e design of 4a5 and 4'5< it &a% 'e assu&ed t!at t!e fasteners 4 elds and@or 'olts5 are loaded '% s!ear force onl%. (!e design of t!e fasteners is =irtuall% t!e sa&e as in t!e design of t!e co=er plates in )ection 1.2. Apart fro& t!e fasteners< t!e s!ear strengt! of t!e adBacent part of t!e e' of t!e 'ea& and t!e s!ear strengt! of t!e end plate &ust also 'e c!ec>ed. For e?a&ple< for t!e flus! end plate in design 4'5 t!e follo ing c!ec>s &ust 'e carried out. Gross section: : 2 !p tp 7<,/ f% "et section: : 24!p - 2d!5 tp 7<- fu@1<2, 42-15 42-25

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In t!e designs 4c5 and 4d5< t!e connection to t!e colu&n or t!e connection to t!e 'ea& &ust 'e designed for t!e eccentricit% &o&ent< 'ecause t!e distance 'et een t!e centroids of t!e fasteners is too 'ig to 'e ignored. (!e c!oice of t!e point !ere t!e 'ending &o&ent is assu&ed to 'e 9ero< deter&ines !ic! fasteners &ust 'e designed for t!e eccentricit% &o&ent. In Lecture 11.\$.1: )ection 3.1 it as s!o n t!at t!e stiffness ratio s!ould deter&ine t!is c!oice< see also Lecture 11.\$.1: Figure 17. In Figures 1.c and 1.d< t!e point !ere t!e &o&ent is assu&ed to 'e 9ero 4t!e G!ingeG5< is indicated. (!e design of t!e eld 4Figure 1.c5 !ic! connects t!e e' plate to t!e colu&n &a% readil% 'e conducted using t!e stresses in t!e parent &aterial 4see Lecture 11.\$.2: )ection 1.25. (!e &a?i&u& stresses are:

?% P

and 9 P

42-35

(!e design of t!e eld configuration in Figure 1.d &ust 'e 'ased on t!e load acting on t!e elded Boint as a !ole 4see Lecture 11.\$.2: )ection 1.25. (!is design can 'e carried out in t o a%s< &et!ods 4a5 and 4'5< see Figure 1/.

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+et!od 4a5 is 'ased on t!e assu&ption of a si&ple< eAuili'riu& s%ste& of forces. It is assu&ed t!at t!e =ertical eld transfers t!e s!ear force : t!roug! s!ear. (!e eccentricit% &o&ent is accounted for '% s!ear forces in t!e !ori9ontal elds:

F1 P : and F2 P

42-\$5

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A disad=antage of t!is &et!od is t!at t!e calculated eld t!ic>ness &a% differ considera'l% for t!e =ertical and !ori9ontal elds. +et!od 4'5 is 'ased on t!e sa&e principle as t!e &et!od discussed in Lecture 11.\$.1: )ection 3.2 for t!e design of a 'olt group it! a free centre of rotation< see Lecture 11.\$.1: Figure 13. (!e s!ear force : is transferred to t!e centroid of t!e eld configuration. (!is force : is e=enl% distri'uted o=er t!e elds and gi=es a s&all force p1 per unit of eld lengt!< see Figure 1/'. (!e re&aining design resistance of t!e elds p2 P f=
.d

- p1 42-,5

&ust allo for t!e eccentricit% &o&ent. It is assu&ed t!at t!e forces p2 are perpendicular to t!e line fro& t!e centre of rotation 4t!e centroid5< and t!erefore contri'ute to t!e &o&ent resistance '% r . p2. (!is &et!od is &ore accurate and can 'e applied for eld groups it! constant eld t!ic>ness. A disad=antage is t!at t!is &et!od is too la'orious for &anual calculations. In co&puter calculations t!is disad=antage is a'sent. Anot!er possi'ilit% is t!e use of design c!arts t!at are 'ased on t!is &et!od. Figure 16 s!o s suc! a design c!art.

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Figure 27 s!o s se=eral t%pes of 'ea&-to-'ea& connections. (a>ing into account t!e =er% lo torsional rigidit% of t!e &ain 'ea& 4I-section5< it &a% 'e assu&ed t!at t!e line of action of t!e s!ear force is at t!e e' of t!e &ain 'ea&.

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Follo ing t!is assu&ption< t!e design of t!e =arious fasteners and c!ec>s can 'e carried out as discussed a'o=e. If t!e top flanges of 'ot! 'ea&s &ust 'e situated at t!e sa&e le=el< and it is desired to >eep t!e eccentricit% &o&ent as s&all as possi'le< t!en a part of t!e flange of t!e secondar% 'ea& &ust 'e cut a a% to for& a notc!. If t!e &ain 'ea& and t!e secondar% 'ea& !a=e t!e sa&e dept!< t!is or> &ust 'e carried out on t!e top flange and on t!e 'otto& flange. (!e section in t!e secondar% 'ea& !ere t!e flange4s5 is 4are5 cut a a%< are ea>ened. (!e ea>ened section &ust 'e c!ec>ed. Figure 21 s!o s t!e t o sections t!at can 'e critical. (!e gross section II-II &ust 'e c!ec>ed for t!e co&'ination of s!ear forces and 'ending &o&ent. Furt!er< t!e net section I-I &ust 'e c!ec>ed for 'loc> s!ear using Anet to 2urocode 3< see Figure 21.

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In )ection 1 of Lecture 11.\$.3< t!e use of splices to transfer an a?ial force as discussed. )plices in 'ea&s nor&all% transfer s!ear force and &a% also 'e reAuired to transfer a 'ending &o&ent. 8o e=er< in &an% designs t!e splices are positioned at t!e point !ere t!e 'ending &o&ent is 9ero. In suc! cases< onl% t!e 'ea& e's need to 'e connected< 'ecause t!e s!ear force is located t!ere< see also )ection 2 of Lecture 11.\$.1. Figure 22 s!o s t o possi'ilities. Design 4a5 is t!e &ore co&&on. )ince 'ot! 'olt groups I and II !a=e t!e sa&e stiffness< it is logical to select t!e place !ere t!e 'ending &o&ent is 9ero as t!e centre of t!e splice. Bot! 'olt groups &ust t!erefore 'e designed for t!e s!ear

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force : and t!e eccentricit% &o&ent : . a. For t!e deter&ination of t!e 'olt forces see Figure 1, of Lecture 11.\$.2.

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If< in addition to t!e s!ear force :< a 'ending &o&ent +sp &ust also 'e transferred< t!en t!e flanges &a% also need to 'e connected. (!is connection &a%< !o e=er< not 'e necessar% if t!e &o&ent is sufficientl% s&all t!at it can safel% 'e transferred =ia t!e e' co=er plates alone i.e. +sp + e' in Figure 23a.

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(!e &o&ent +sp is transferred partl% '% t!e flanges and partl% t!e e'< in proportions depending on t!e relati=e contri'utions to t!e stiffness of t!e !ole 'ea& 4Itot5.

+o&ent in t!e flanges: +fl P 4Iflanges@Itot5.+sp 42--5 +o&ent in t!e e': + e' P 4I e'@Itot5. +sp 42-.5 (!e force in t!e flanges is t!erefore: Ffl P +fl@4! - tfl5 42-/5

(!e 'olt group II in Figure 23a is t!e &ore !ea=il% loaded group in t!e e' and &ust 'e designed for t!e s!ear force : and a 'ending &o&ent: + e' O : . a. Anot!er possi'ilit% is to assu&e t!at t!e !ole of t!e 'ending &o&ent +sp is transferred '% t!e co=er plates on t!e flanges as illustrated in Figure 23' suc! t!at: +fl P +sp@4! - tfl5 42-65

In t!is case t!e e' plates need onl% transfer t!e s!ear force : 4including t!e eccentricit% effect5. (!e loading and design calculations are t!en t!e sa&e as for t!e splice in Figure 22a.

3. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

W!en transferring a?ial tension '% &eans of splices< connections s!ould 'e as s!ort as possi'le and eccentricities s!ould 'e a=oided. For connections designed to trans&it s!ear< t!e c!oice of position at !ic! t!e s!ear force is actuall% transferred deter&ines t!e arrange&ent of eccentricit% &o&ents for !ic! certain of t!e fasteners &ust 'e designed. W!en connecting 'ea&s of si&ilar dept! suc! t!at notc!ing is reAuired< t!e reduced net section &ust 'e c!ec>ed against t!e possi'ilit% of failure '% 'loc> s!ear. :arious possi'ilities e?ist for apportioning t!e load 'et een co&ponents in splices designed to trans&it s!ear and 'ending.

,. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructures 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1.1< General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662.

-. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< G)tructural )teel or> ConnectionsG< Butter ort!s N Co. 4#u'lis!ers5 Li&ited< 16/6. 2. Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted JointsG< Wille% - Interscience< 2nd 2dition< 16/.. 3. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F. +.< G(!eor% and Design of )teel )tructuresG< C!ap&an N 8all 16/3. \$. *eprinted fro& Journal of Constructional )teel *esearc! :ol /< 2dition W. F. C!en GJoint Fle?i'ilit% in )teel Fra&esG.

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Lecture 11.).) : Anal*sis o! Connections: -esistance to .o+ent ,* Co+,ined Tension and Co+#ression

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. (*A")F2* 0F (2")IL2 F0*C2) 2.1 Criteria 2.2 #lastic Failure of t!e Colu&n Flange 2.3 3ield@*upture of t!e Colu&n We' 3. (*A")F2* 0F C0+#*2))I0" F0*C2) \$. (*A")F2* 0F )82A* F0*C2) 4)82A* R0"25 ,. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 -. *2F2*2"C2) .. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
(!e transfer of &o&ent t!roug! a connection &a% 'est 'e appreciated '% 'rea>ing t!e &o&ent do n into a pair of localised tensile and co&pressi=e forces acting at a suita'le le=er ar& so as to produce a couple< see for e?a&ple Figs. 2 and 3 of Lecture 11.\$.1. (!e si&plest for& for t!is in a 'ea& to colu&n connection ould 'e one in !ic! onl% t!e 'ea&Cs flanges are attac!ed to t!e colu&n so t!at one flange trans&its tension< t!e ot!er trans&its co&pression and t!e le=er ar& is clearl% t!e distance 'et een flange centroids. 4An% coe?isting s!ear could< of course< 'e transferred t!roug! a e' cleat or finplate arrange&ent of t!e sort illustrated in Fig. 1. of Lecture 11.\$.35. (!e introduction of t!ese localised forces into t!e colu&n reAuires a careful consideration of t!e possi'le for&s of failure and t!is topic is addressed in t!e first part of t!is lecture. W!en t!e colu&n is su'Bect to un'alanced &o&ent e.g. 'ecause a 'ea& is present onl% on one side< t!en t!e &o&ent4s5 also produce a s!earing effect on t!e panel of t!e colu&n corresponding to t!e dept! of t!e 'ea&4s5< see for e?a&ple Fig. 3 of Lecture 11.\$.1. (!is panel 9one effect is considered in t!e second part of t!e lecture.

## 2. TR6NSFER OF TENSI4E FORCES

2.1 Cr#ter#a
Figure 1 s!o s =arious for&s of unstiffened 'ea&-to-colu&n connections intended to transfer &o&ents. In t!e tension 9one< &ar>ed it! a circle< t!e tensile force &ust 'e transferred fro& t!e flange of t!e 'ea& to t!e e' of t!e colu&n.

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(!e si9e of t!e tensile force !ic! can 'e transferred it!out stiffening t!e colu&n depends on t!e resistance at t!is 9one of t!e connection to a series of possi'le for&s at failure. (!ese possi'ilities are indicated in Figure 2 for elded connections and for 'olted connections.

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Design consists of recognising t!at Ct!e strengt! of t!e c!ain is deter&ined '% t!e ea>est lin>C. For eac! of t!e potential failure possi'ilities< t!e design resistance ( is calculated. *ules

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for t!ese calculations are gi=en in Anne? J of 2urocode 3 H1I. (!e s&allest of t!e calculated =alues for ( controls. (!e presentation in Anne? J of 2urocode 3 is 'ased on 'ea&-to-colu&n connections. 8o e=er< se=eral calculation rules are also applica'le for ot!er t%pes of connections. (!e calculation of t!e design resistance of t!e indi=idual fasteners< elds and 'olts< discussed in Lectures 11.2 and 11.3. Indi=idual fasteners are co=ered '% criteria 3 and \$ in Figure 2. (!e ot!er criteria are discussed 'elo . #ossi'ilities for strengt!ening t!e connection and t!e design of suc! strengt!ened connections are also descri'ed.

## 2.2 Plast#\$ Fa#lure o7 the Colu ! Fla!&e

6. Welded \$o!!e\$t#o! Figure 3 s!o s a design &odel for a elded connection to a colu&n flange.

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A part of t!e tensile force is transferred '% direct nor&al stresses it!out 'ending t!e flange. (!e idt! of t!is part is t cO2rc. (!e tensile force t!roug! t!is part is: Ftl P f%' . tf' 4t c O 2 rc5 41-15 (!e re&aining part of t!e tensile force &ust 'e transferred =ia 'ending of t!e colu&n flange to t!e e' of t!e colu&n. For t!is load case a design &odel can 'e adopted< as indicated in Figure 3< 'ased on a plate cla&ped at t!ree edges it! a line load in t!e &iddle.

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Application of %ield line t!eor% gi=es a failure load t!at is proportional to t!e plastic &o&ent resistance of t!e plate &p. Ft2 P 2 C &p 41-25

&p P

Ft2 P 2 C

## f%c tfc2 41-\$5

(!e coefficient C is deri=ed fro& tests H2I. A safe lo er 'ound appears to 'e: C P 1\$. (!erefore< t!e total design resistance of t!e unstiffened colu&n flange follo s fro& 2Auations 41-15 and 41-\$5: Ft P f%' tf' 4t c O 2 rc5 O . f%c tfc2 41-,5 or: Ft P f%' tf' 'eff 41--5 it!: 'eff P t c O 2 rc O . 4f%c@f%'54tfc2@tf'5 41-.5

(!is eAuation for 'eff is also discussed in Lecture 11.2.3. Because of t!e li&itations of t!e tests H3I !ic! !a=e 'een carried out to deter&ine C< t!e effecti=e idt! for t!e deter&ination of Ft2 is li&ited to . tfc: Ft f%' tf' 4t c O 2 rc O . tfc5 41-/5 In order to pro=ide sufficient defor&ation capacit%< it is necessar% t!at t!e flange of t!e 'ea& %ields 'efore rupture of t!e eld or rupture of t!e flange of t!e colu&n occurs. (o o'tain t!is 'e!a=iour t!e design resistance of t!e unstiffened colu&n flange &ust 'e at least .7E of t!e %ield force of t!e 'ea& flange: Ft 7<. F%.'f P 7<. f%' tf' 'f' 41-65 If t!is reAuire&ent is not fulfilled< t!en t!e connection &ust 'e strengt!ened '% elded stiffening plates as indicated in Figure \$.

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(!e application of s!ort stiffening plates offers ad=antages during fa'rication< 'ecause t!eir di&ensions do not need to correspond to t!e actual distance 'et een t!e colu&n flanges. (!e t!ic>ness and t!e steel grade of t!e stiffening plates are nor&all% c!osen to 'e eAual to t!ose of t!e 'ea& flange. B. Bolted \$o!!e\$t#o! In contrast to t!e situation for a elded connection< !en using a 'olted arrange&ent t!e total tensile force to 'e transferred =ia t!e colu&n flange causes onl% 'ending &o&ents 4no direct load transfer5< see Figure ,.

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(o gain insig!t into t!e =arious forces present in t!is t%pe of connection< it is useful to consider first a &ore si&ple case. ( o (-stu's are c!osen< connected '% t o 'olts and loaded '% a tensile force Ft< see Figure -.

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Initiall%< it is assu&ed t!at t!e force in eac! 'olt is 7<, Ft and t!at t!e flange is designed to transfer t!ese 'olt forces =ia 'ending< see Figure .. (!e necessar% t!ic>ness tf follo s fro&:

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## FB P 7<, Ft 41-175 7<, Ft . & P +pl 41-115

Ft P

41-125

ft P

41-135

Ft P

41-1\$5

tf P

41-1,5

In t!e a'o=e 2Auations< t!e di&ensions of t!e 'olts and t!e flange are suc! t!at t!e tensile resistance of t!e 'olts go=erns t!e strengt! of t!e connection. At t!e onset of failure< t!e flanges separate fro& eac! ot!er o=er t!e entire area. If t!e 'olts are c!osen to 'e stronger< t!en t!e ulti&ate tensile force increases a'o=e t!e =alue gi=en in 2Auation 41-1\$5. Wit! stronger 'olts t!e flanges of t!e (-stu's %ield< !ile t!e 'olt defor&ation is reduced< see Figure /.

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"o at t!e onset of failure t!e flanges do not separate o=er t!e entire area< 'ut contact forces de=elop at t!e edges. (!ese contact forces are called pr%ing forces. (!ese pr%ing forces produce an e?tra 'ending &o&ent in t!e flanges. W!en t!e pr%ing forces are sufficientl% large< t!is 'ending &o&ent is eAual to t!e plastic &o&ent &pl. In t!is situation four %ield lines are present. (!e follo ing anal%sis can no 'e carried out: 7<, Ft . & P 2 +pl 41-1-5

Ft P

41-1.5

Ft P

41-1/5

Ft P

41-165

tf P X4Ft&@lf%5 41-275

;P

41-215

;P

41-225

Ft O 2 ; P FB P Ft.u 41-235

Ft O 7<, it!:

Ft P Ft.u 41-2\$5

41-2,5

it follo s:

Ft P

41-2-5

Bet een t!e t o e?tre&es 4Figures . and /5< t!ere is an inter&ediate case !ere pr%ing forces are present< 'ut !ere t!e 'olts rupture 'efore t!e &ec!anis& in t!e flanges it! four %ield lines !as full% de=eloped.
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Wit! t!e aid of t!e a'o=e 2Auations< a diagra& can 'e dra n s!o ing t!e relation 'et een plate strengt! and 'olt strengt! and t!e acco&pan%ing failure &odes< see Figure 6. In Figure 6< and !a=e t!e follo ing &eaning:

## 'ut 1<2, 41-2.5

41-2/5

It is reco&&ended t!e connection is designed suc! t!at failure &ode 415 Bust controls< P 2 @ 41 O 25< 'ecause t!en t!e defor&ation capacit% is pro=ided in t!e 'est a% and t!e 'olt strengt! is consistent it! t!e flange strengt! 4&5. In failure &ode 435 t!e defor&ation arises &ainl% fro& t!e 'olt elongations. (!ese defor&ations are s&all co&pared it! t!e plastic defor&ations of t!e flanges in failure &ode 415. (!e defor&ation capacit% of failure &odes 425 and 435 can 'e increased '% selecting 'olts it! t!reads o=er t!e entire lengt! of t!e 'olt. According to Anne? 8 of 2urocode 3 H1I< t!e tension 9one of an unstiffened colu&n flange s!ould 'e assu&ed to act as a series of eAui=alent (-stu's it! a total lengt! eAual to t!e total effecti=e lengt! leff of t!e 'olt pattern in t!e tension 9one of t!e connection.

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1sing %ield line t!eor%< t!e effecti=e lengt! leff appropriate for eac! of t!ose (-stu's &a% 'e calculated< see Figures 17 and 11.

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If t!e distance 'et een t!e 'olt ro s is large< t!en a separate %ield line pattern around e=er% 'olt is for&ed< see Figure 17. (!e circle pattern go=erns if e is large it! respect to &< i.e. if e M 1</ & 41-265 (!e =alues for leff are:

## For a co&'ined (-stu':

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leff P 7<, p O 2 & O 7<-2, e 41-325 leff P 7<, p O & 41-335 In contrast to elded connections< it is possi'le !en using 'olted connections to strengt!en t!e connection it! stiffening plates suc! t!at t!e force can 'e transferred fro& t!e 'ea& flange into t!e colu&n e' it!out 'ending of t!e for&er< Figure 12.

If stiffening plates are used< t!e stiffness and strengt! of t!e colu&n flange is increased. (!e increase is 'eneficial for t!e design strengt! of t!e 'olt ro s near suc! stiffening plates. (!e strengt! of suc! 'olt ro s can 'e calculated '% introducing a (-stu' it! an eAui=alent lengt! leff. According to Anne? J of 2urocode 3< t!e =alue of leff eAuals: leff P &1 41-3\$5 :alues for are gi=en in Figure 13. (!is diagra& is esta'lis!ed on t!e 'asis of %ield line t!eor% and test results H\$I. (!e =alue of depends on t!e geo&etr% near t!e stiffening plate.

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In t!e eAuation for 1 and 2 4t!e =alues on t!e !ori9ontal and t!e =ertical a?es in Figure 135< &1 is t!e distance 'et een t!e 'olt and t!e colu&n e'< and &2 is t!e distance 'et een t!e 'olt and t!e stiffening plate. Alternati=el% t!e colu&n flange &a% 'e strengt!ened '% using loose 'ac>ing plates as indicated in Figure 1\$.

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(!e lengt! of t!e 'ac>ing plates s!ould 'e at least t!e lengt! of leff for t!e 'olt pattern considered. (!e 'ac>ing plates increase t!e plastic &o&ent on t!e %ield line t!roug! t!e 'olts< 'ut not t!e plastic &o&ent at t!e Bunction of t!e flange it! t!e e'< see Figures . and /. Clearl% 'ac>ing plates are onl% effecti=e if failure &ode 415 in Figure 6 is decisi=e< see also Figure /. 2Auation 41-1.5 can 'e &odified to account for t!e e?tra %ield line:

Ft P

41-3,5

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Ft P

41-3-5

Ft P

41-3.5

It s!ould 'e noted t!at< 'ecause of t!e appearance of onl% one %ield line< a factor 2 &ust 'e used for 2 +p.'p in 2Auation 41-3,5. Fro& t!e a'o=e 2Auations< it &a% 'e concluded t!at< if tf P t'p< t!e use of 'ac>ing plates gi=es an increase of ,7E in t!e design resistance of t!e colu&n flange.

## 2.3 Y#eldGRu"ture o7 the Colu ! We9

(!e force Ft spreads in t!e colu&n e' o=er a lengt! 'eff< see Figure 1,.

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It is assu&ed t!at t!e failure load is reac!ed if t!e a=erage stress due to Ft o=er t!e lengt! 'eff eAuals t!e %ield stress:

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Ft P f%c t c 'eff 41-3/5 For a elded connection< t!e sa&e e?pression for 'eff is used in t!e tension 9one as in t!e co&pression 9one. Alt!oug! tests H,I !a=e s!o n t!at t!e strengt! in t!e tension 9one is usuall% greater t!an in t!e co&pression 9one< t!e sa&e eAuation is c!osen for reasons of si&plicit%. According to 2urocode 3< 'eff for a elded connection is gi=en '%: 'eff P tf' O 2 a' O , 4tfc O rc5 41-365

For a 'olted connection< t!e effecti=e lengt! of t!e colu&n e' in t!e tension 9one is ta>en eAual to t!e total effecti=e lengt! of t!e eAui=alent (-stu's 4see )ection 1.25. (!e colu&n e' can 'e strengt!ened '% stiffening plates and@or '% elded supple&entar% e' plates< see Figure 1-.

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If t!e e' plate is onl% single sided and is connected '% 'utt elds< onl% !alf of t!e plate t!ic>ness &a% 'e used for t!e calculation of t!e design resistance. (!e reasons are t!e eccentricit% and t!e design of t!e elds. If fillet elds are present< so&e spaces &ust 'e left 'et een t!e flange and t!e edge of t!e plate to per&it a reasona'le e?ecution of t!e eld. For t!is reason< t!e force &ust 'e transferred t!roug! initiall% t!e t!ic>ness of t!e e'. (!erefore< t!e effecti=e t!ic>ness of t!e co&'ined colu&n e' and supple&entar% e' plate s!ould not 'e ta>en greater t!an 1<\$ ti&es t!e e' t!ic>ness 41<\$ t c5.

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## 3. TR6NSFER OF COMPRESSION FORCES

(!e action of a co&pression force on an unstiffened colu&n &a% cause local 'uc>ling of t!e colu&n e'. 1sing tests on special test speci&ens H,I< as s!o n in Figure 1.< and on co&plete 'ea&-to-colu&n connections< researc! !as 'een carried out to esta'lis! a design &odel. (!e deri=ed &odel is t!at t!e colu&n e' starts 'uc>ling if t!e a=erage stress o=er a certain effecti=e lengt! eAuals t!e %ield stress. (!is &odel< t!erefore< is 'asicall% t!e sa&e as t!e &odel for t!e transfer of a tensile force in t!e e'< as discussed a'o=e.

Fc P f%c t c 'eff 42-15 In Figure 1/ t!e eAuations for 'eff are gi=en !ic! appl% for =arious designs of t!e co&pression 9one. (!e 'asic assu&ption in t!ese eAuations is t!at t!e spread in t!e colu&n flange and t!e colu&n radius !a=e a slope 2<, : 1< and t!e slope in ot!er parts of t!e connection is 1 : 1.

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In t!e &odel of Figure 1/' and Figure 16 it! t!e e?tended end plate< it is assu&ed t!at t!e end plate under t!e 'ea& flange %ields 'efore t!e 'uc>ling load in t!e colu&n e' is reac!ed. In t!is case< t!e co&pression force Fc spreads o=er t!e t!ic>ness of t!e end plate.

(!e proBection of t!e end plate s!ould o'e% t!e follo ing condition: f% Wpl.endplate Fc le 42-25

f%

## 'p tp2 Fc le 42-35

le

42-\$5

If t!e condition of 2Auation 42-\$5 is not fulfilled< t!en a !ard point is for&ed at t!e edge of t!e end plate. (!e effecti=e lengt! 'eff is t!en s&aller: 'eff P , 4tc O rc5 42-,5 (!e &o&ent ar&< !o e=er< 'et een t!e tensile force in t!e tension 9one and t!e co&pression force is so&e !at greater. (!is is an ad=antage.

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In t!e case of large a?ial forces in t!e colu&n< t!e local 'uc>ling load in t!e co&pression 9one is reduced. As long as t!e a?ial stress n is s&aller t!an 7<, f%< t!e influence can 'e ignored. For greater =alues of n< t!e design resistance for t!e co&pression force Fc s!ould 'e calculated it! t!e follo ing eAuation: Fc P f%c t c 'eff H1<2, - 7<,n @ f%cI 42--5

In t!is eAuation t!e second part is t!e reduction factor: * P 1<2, - 7<, Hn @ f%cI 'ut * 1<7 42-.5 (!e colu&n can also 'e strengt!ened in t!e co&pression 9one it! stiffening plates 'et een t!e flanges or it! a supple&entar% e' plate.

## ,. TR6NSFER OF S0E6R FORCES %S0E6R BONE(

In non-s%&&etric connections< suc! as (- and corner connections< t!e colu&n e' is also loaded '% a s!ear force F=. Loading '% a s!ear force also occurs in s%&&etric connections t!at are loaded as%&&etricall%. For instance in t!e (-connection of Figure 27< t!e tensile force in t!e upper flange of t!e 'ea& &ust 'e transferred t!roug! t!e s!ear panel to 'e in eAuili'riu& it! t!e co&pression force in t!e lo er flange of t!e 'ea&.

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Assu&ing t!at t!e e' is sufficientl% stoc>% for s!ear 'uc>ling not to occur< t!e design resistance of t!e s!ear panel is:

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F= P

!c t c 43-15

(!e colu&n e' can 'e strengt!ened it! diagonal plates or it! one or t o supple&entar% e' plates< see Figure 21. W!en diagonal plates are designed< care s!ould 'e ta>en to a=oid pro'le&s it! t!e installation of t!e 'oltsK see for e?a&ple Figure 21'.

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(!e action of stiffeners so&eti&es can 'e 'etter understood !en t!in>ing in ter&s of tension and co&pressionK see for e?a&ple t!e arrange&ent in Figure 22.

-. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

In order to transfer &o&ent a connection &ust 'e capa'le of resisting local tensile and co&pressi=e forces. Design &ust address eac! ite& in t!e Gc!ainG of co&ponents in=ol=ed in transferring t!e loads< it! connection resistance 'eing controlled '% t!e ea>est lin> in t!e c!ain.

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For 'olted connections a (-stu' &odel pro=ides a satisfactor% e?planation of all i&portant aspects of 'e!a=iourK %ield line t!eor% supported '% test e=idence for&s t!e 'asis for detailed rules. For se&i-continuous fra&ing< an accepta'le 'alance 'et een tensile resistance and adeAuate ductilit% &a% 'e ac!ie=ed '% arranging for &ode 1 failure to controlK t!is corresponds to %ielding of t!e plates it!out t!e de=elop&ent of e?cessi=e 'olt pr%ing forces. In ot!er &o&ent resisting fra&es< it is usuall% &ore econo&ic to use connections t!at are go=erned '% +ode 2 or +ode 3< i.e. it! t!ic>er end-plates. For uns%&&etrical 'ea&-to-colu&n connection arrange&ents< including un'alanced loading of s%&&etrical connections< t!e resistance of t!e colu&n e' panel in s!ear s!ould 'e c!ec>ed.

.. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: Design of )teel )tructures: 2uropean #restandard 1663-1-1: #art 1.1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< C2"< 1662. H2I Wood< *. 8.< G3ield Line (!eor%G< *esearc! #aper nr. 22< Building *esearc! )tation< Watford< 2ngland< 16,,. H3I Roete&eiBer< #.< )u&&ar% of t!e researc! on 'olted 'ea&-to-colu&n connections< Delft 1ni=ersit% of (ec!nolog%< Facult% of Ci=il 2ngineering< )te=in La'orator% report --67-72< 1667. (!is report is also pu'lis!ed as a 'ac>ground report for 2urocode 3< C!apter -. H\$I W*C and A)C2< GCo&&entar% on #lastic Design in )teelG< #rogress *eport -: Connections< Journal 2ng. +ec!< Di=.< A)C2< /-< 2+2< April 16-7< pp 17.-1\$7. H,I Gra!a&< J. D.< )!er'ourne< A. ".< D!a''a9< *. ".< and Jensen< C. D.< Welded Interior Bea&-to-Colu&n Connections< Welding *esearc! Council Bulletin nr -3< August 16-7.

/. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5
1. 0 ens< G. W. and C!eal< B. D.< G)tructural )teel or> ConnectionsG< Butter ort!s N Co. 4#u'lis!ers5 Li&ited< 16/6. 2. Dula>< G. L.< Fis!er< J. W. and )trui>< J. 8. A.< GGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and *i=eted JointsG< Wille% - Interscience< 2nd 2dition< 16/.. 3. Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F. +.< G(!eor% and Design of )teel )tructuresG< C!ap&an N 8all 16/3. \$. W. F. C!en GJoint Fle?i'ilit% in )teel Fra&esG< Journal of Constructional )teel *esearc! :ol /< 16/..

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## Lecture 11./ : Si+#le Connections !or Buildings

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. B2A+-(0-B2A+ C0""2C(I0") 3. B2A+-(0-C0L1+" C0""2C(I0") \$. C0L1+" )#LIC2) ,. B*ACI"G C0""2C(I0") -. C0L1+" BA)2) .. B2A+-(0-C0"C*2(2 WALL C0""2C(I0") /. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 6. *2F2*2"C2) 17. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
)i&ple connections are defined as Boints 'et een &e&'ers t!at !a=e not 'een designed it! t!e intention t!at t!e% trans&it significant &o&ents. (!eir purpose is to transfer load fro& t!e supported &e&'er into t!e supporting &e&'er in suc! a a% t!at essentiall% onl% direct forces are in=ol=ed< e.g. =ertical s!ear in a 'ea& to colu&n or 'ea& to 'ea& connection< a?ial tension or co&pression in a lattice girder c!ord splice< colu&n 'ase or colu&n splice connection. (!e% &a%< t!erefore< onl% 'e used in situations !ere sufficient 'racing is present t!at< !en t!e Boints are assu&ed to function as pins< adeAuate o=erall structural resistance is present. #opular arrange&ents include lattice girders and 'racing s%ste&s or connections 'et een 'ea&s and colu&ns in rectangular fra&es in !ic! lateral loadings are resisted '% stiff s%ste&s of s!ear alls< cores or 'raced 'a%s. Figures 1a and 1' illustrate &ultistore% fra&es in !ic! si&ple connections &a% 'e used for eac! of t!e - different reAuire&ents A-2 listed alongside Figure 1a. (!us t!e structural idealisations suita'le for deter&ining t!e distri'ution of &e&'er forces ill 'e as s!o n in Figure 1c and 1d< it! all lateral loading 'eing resisted '% t!e 'racing or s!ear all. W!en considering t!e design of t!e fra&e to it!stand gra=it% loading< t!e assu&ption of pin connections &a>es t!e o=erall structural anal%sis particularl% straig!tfor ard< since loads can 'e traced fro& floors into 'ea&s into colu&ns and e=entuall% into t!e foundations using a si&ple statical process.

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)i&ple Boints also lead to easier fa'rication and erection and as e?plained in Lecture 11.1.1 are< t!erefore< li>el% to produce t!e &ost cost-effecti=e steel fra&es. (a>ing t!e e?a&ple of a 'ea& to colu&n connection< t!e si&ple Boint &ust:

transfer t!e 'ea& reaction into t!e colu&n in s!ear !a=e sufficient fle?i'ilit% not to transfer ot!er t!an s&all &o&ents into t!e colu&n< e.g. due to so&e s&all eccentricit% in t!e lines of force transfer possess sufficient rotation capacit% to per&it t!e 'ea& to de=elop its Gsi&pleG deflected s!ape.

(!us< in ter&s of t!e classification s%ste& introduced in Lecture 11.1.2.< t!e connection s!ould function as Gno&inall% pinnedG for 'ot! &o&ent capacit% and rotational stiffness and t!e onl% for& of load transfer reAuired ill 'e t!e =ertical s!ear illustrated in Figs. 6425 and 11 of t!at Lecture. )i&ple connections ill nor&all% 'e eit!er full% 'olted< e.g. t!e arrange&ents using angle cleats of Fig. 17 of Lecture 11.1.1< or ill in=ol=e a co&'ination of s!op elding and site 'olting< e.g. t!e fin plate and end plate arrange&ents of t!e sa&e Figure. 2?cept for connections su'Bect to =i'ration< e.g. in foundations for &o=ing &ac!iner% or in crane support structures< untorAued 'olts in clearance !oles s!ould 'e used. (!is lecture discusses t!e structural design of se=eral e?a&ples of eac! of t!e - connection arrange&ents listed in Figure 1. In doing t!is it &a>es use of 'asic &aterial on eld strengt! and 'olt strengt! presented in Lectures 11.2 and 11.3 respecti=el%< as ell as t!e approac! to t!e anal%sis of connections gi=en in Lecture 11.\$.

2. BE6M*TO*BE6M CONNECTIONS
Floor dec>s in 'uildings are usuall% supported '% &eans of grids of secondar% 'ea&s and &ain girders si&pl% connected to eac! ot!er. )o&e t%pical connections are illustrated in Figure 2. (%pes A and C< !ic! &a>e use of e' cleats 'olted to 'ot! t!e girder and t!e 'ea&< are t!e &ost co&&on for&s. (%pe B it! t!e cleats 'olted to t!e girder and elded to t!e 'ea&< and t%pes D and 2 !ere a flus! end plate is adopted< &a% cause lac>-of-fit pro'le&s during erection due to t!e di&ensional tolerances. Connection t%pes D and 2 possess so&e predicta'le stiffness and strengt!< 'ut t!eir conseAuent partial continuit% is usuall% neglected in design.

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As s!o n in t%pes C and D< t!e 'ea& end &a% 'e coped re&o=ing part of one or 'ot! flanges< !en t!e 'ea& and girder flanges &eet at t!e sa&e le=el. (!e 'ea& is t!us locall% ea>ened. (!e appropriate c!ec>s &ust 'e &ade as discussed 'elo . "e=ert!eless< t!is solution is less e?pensi=e t!an t%pe 2< !ic! reAuires t!at a tee stiffener is elded to t!e girder. As a =ariant to A t!e e' angles &a% 'e replaced '% a fin plate< as s!o n in (%pe F< a single plate !ic! is s!op elded to t!e pri&ar% 'ea& and site 'olted to t!e secondar% 'ea&. A fin plate connection is particularl% si&ple to 'ot! fa'ricate and erect< 'ut it reAuires careful design if it is to function as a notional pin H1I. In particular< t!ere is a need to decide !ere t!e G!ingeG is located as e?plained in )ection 3 of Lecture 11.-. For e' cleated connections< it is good practice to place t!e angles as close as possi'le to t!e upper flange of t!e girder in order to &ini&ise crac>ing of t!e concrete floor sla' due to t!e 'ea& rotation. Bolts and elds in connections s!ould 'e a'le to resist t!e 'ea& reaction and an% rele=ant &o&ent due to t!e eccentricit% of t!e force to t!e centerline of t!e connecting co&ponents as e?plained in )ection 2 of Lecture 11.\$.3. W!en a 'ea& is coped< as in connection t%pe C< it s!ould 'e =erified t!at no failure &a% occur at t!e section t!at !as 'een ea>ened 4'loc> s!ear5 as e?plained in )ection 2 of Lecture 11.\$.3.

3. BE6M*TO*CO4UMN CONNECTIONS
)e=eral for&s of si&ple 'ea&-to-colu&n connections are illustrated in Figure 3.

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(%pe A< !ic! is s!o n as full% 'olted< &a% also 'e configured '% elding t!e cleats to t!e 'ea& end. For lig!tl% loaded 'ea&s< a single sided cleat &a% 'e used 'ut t!e additional eccentricities &ust t!en 'e allo ed for !en c!ec>ing 'olt strengt!< etc. (!e finplate (%pe B reAuires t!e sa&e for& of attention !en deciding on t!e design &odel as discussed in t!e pre=ious section !ere its use in 'ea& to 'ea& situations as discussed. It is one of t!e fe arrange&ents o'=iousl% suita'le for use it! )8) 4eit!er *8) or C8)5 colu&ns as no 'olting to t!e colu&n is necessar%. Bot! t%pes A and B pro=ide so&e allo ance for tolerance 4t!roug! t!e clearance in t!e 'ea& e' !oles5 on &e&'er lengt!. (%pe B per&its 'ea&s to 'e lifted in fro& one side. (%pes C and D reAuire a &ore strict control of 'ea& lengt! and of sAuareness of t!e crosssection at t!e end of t!e 'ea&. (!e flus! end plate sc!e&e of t%pe D is so&eti&es preferred to t!e part dept! end plate 4t%pe C5 in order to reduce t!e c!ances of da&age during transportation. #artial dept! endplates s!ould not nor&all% 'e less t!an a'out 7.- ti&es t!e 'ea& dept! or t!e end torsional restraint to t!e 'ea& &a% 'e reduced. Figure \$ illustrates !o fle?i'ilit% and rotation capacit% is pro=ided. Depending on t!e details< t!e connection 'e!a=iour of t%pe D could c!ange fro& a notational pinK it &a% 'e &ore appropriate to ac>no ledge t!is se&i-rigid 'e!a=iour 4see Lecture 11..5. (!is &a% 'e a=oided '% >eeping t!e endplate t!ic>ness do n to a &a?i&u& of /-17 && and &a>ing t!e 'olt cross-centres as large as is practical so as to ensure adeAuate fle?i'ilit% and rotation capacit%.

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As for 'ea&-to-'ea& connections< t!e 'olts and t!e elds s!ould 'e a'le to resist t!e 'ea& reactions and t!e rele=ant &o&ent due to t!e eccentricit% of t!e force to t!e centreline of t!e connecting &aterial as e?plained in Lecture 11.\$.3. )ince t!is eccentricit% is relati=el% s&all t!e colu&n 'ending &o&ent for suc! a connection is &uc! s&aller t!an fro& a &o&ent connection as discussed in Lecture 11.-. )ince t!e general approac! to t!e design of all for&s of si&ple connections is essentiall% t!e sa&e< it ill 'e sufficient to consider onl% one t%pe in so&e detail. Figure , illustrates t!e possi'le failure &odes for a finplate connectionK t!e load carr%ing capacit% for eac! &ust 'e calculated and t!e lo est =alue co&pared it! t!e design reAuire&ents. +et!ods for doing t!is !a=e alread% 'een presented in Lectures 11.\$. It is also necessar% to ensure - usuall% '% &eans of appropriate detailing - t!at t!e connection ill function in t!e &anner intended< i.e. ill not 'e too stiff and ill possess adeAuate rotation capacit%. (!is &a% 'e ac!ie=ed '%:

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## ensuring t!at strengt! is go=erned '% a ductile &ode of failure.

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Bearing of t!e 'olts in eit!er t!e finplate or t!e 'ea& e' is usuall% arranged to for& t!e go=erning condition. W!en perfor&ing t!e structural c!ec>s it is necessar% to 'e consistent in t!e assu&ption of t!e location of t!e line of s!ear transfer< i.e. t!e G!ingeG line. 0ne approac! 415 t!at re&o=es t!e need for a decision is to design 'ot! t!e 'olt group and t!e elds for t!e co&'ination of s!ear and eccentricit% &o&ent. Alternati=el%< t!e location can 'e c!osen as t!e 'olt group for t!e stiff support arrange&ent illustrated in Figure , or t!e eld if t!e support is &ore fle?i'le as ould 'e t!e case< for e?a&ple< if a *8) colu&n ere used 4due to 'ending of t!e colu&n face as a plate5.

,. CO4UMN SP4ICES
In si&ple fra&es colu&ns are predo&inantl% stressed in co&pression. In t!eor% no splice connection is reAuired< since t!e co&pression force is trans&itta'le '% direct 'earing. Due to t!e presence of geo&etric i&perfections 4lac> of straig!tness of t!e colu&n5 as ell as of una=oida'le eccentricities< and to t!e fact t!at e=en carefull% &ac!ined surfaces ill ne=er assure full contact< connections !a=e to 'e pro=ided. (!e% s!ould 'e designed to resist t!e internal forces 4ot!er t!an co&pression5 deter&ined in t!e colu&n at t!e point !ere t!e% are located. 2=en !en t!e colu&n is su'Bect to si&ple co&pression< and full contact in 'earing is assu&ed< codes specif% stiffness and strengt! reAuire&ents to 'e fulfilled. 2urocode 3 prescri'es t!at t!e splice s!ould pro=ide continuit% of fle?ural stiffness a'out 'ot! a?es< and s!ould 'e a'le to carr% a force< acting at t!e a'utting ends in an% direction perpendicular to t!e a?is of t!e &e&'er< not less t!an 2<,E of t!e co&pression. (!e location of t!e splice s!ould 'e selected so t!at an% ad=erse effect on colu&n sta'ilit% is a=oided< i.e. t!e distance of t!e connection fro& t!e floor le=el s!ould 'e >ept as lo as possi'le. A li&it of 1@,t! of t!e store% !eig!t is usuall% accepted. If t!is reAuire&ent cannot 'e fulfilled< account s!ould 'e ta>en of t!e 4second order5 &o&ent induced '% &e&'er i&perfections. +ore significant 'ending resistance &a% 'e reAuired in splices !en colu&ns are su'Bect to pri&ar% &o&ents< as in a fra&e &odel assu&ing !inges at< or outside< t!e colu&n outer face. In addition< in colu&ns acting as c!ords of cantile=er 'racing trusses< tensile forces &a% arise 4uplift5 in so&e loading conditions< !ic! &ust 'e trans&itted '% splices. (%pical colu&n splices suita'le for use in si&pl% designed fra&es are s!o n in Figure -. (!e% are of t o 'asic t%pes: A< B and C all trans&it t!e !ole of t!e force t!roug! t!e co=er plates< !ilst D-G rel% on direct 'earing.

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W!en a 'olted solution is adopted 4t%pes A< B and C5< 'ot! flanges and t!e e' are usuall% connected. (%pe A uses a dou'le co=er plate< !ilst t%pe C uses single co=er plates for t!e
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flanges. (!ese &a% 'e positioned on t!e outside faces of t!e flanges so as to reduce t!e plan area occupied '% t!e splice. Forces are distri'uted a&ong t!e connecting plates in proportion to t!e stress resultant in t!e cross-sectional ele&ents< e.g. for si&ple co&pression in proportion to t!e areas of t!e flanges and of t!e e'. Differences in colu&n flange t!ic>ness &a% 'e acco&&odated '% t!e use of pac>s. W!en t!e surfaces of t!e end cross-sections of t!e t o colu&n s!apes are sa n and considered to 'e flat< and sAuareness 'et een t!ese surfaces and t!e &e&'er a?is is guaranteed< t!e a?ial force &a% 'e assu&ed to 'e trans&itted '% 'earing. Fillet elds 4t%pe D5 or lig!t co=er plates 4t%pe 25 are pro=ided to resist possi'le secondar% s!ear force and 'ending &o&ent !en t!e upper and lo er colu&ns differ in serial si9e. A plate &a% 'e interposed< and elded to 'ot! colu&n sections as in connection t%pe F< or< alternati=el%< t o elded plates 'olted to eac! ot!er &a% 'e used 4t%pe G5. #lates are flattened '% presses in t!e range of t!ic>nesses up to ,7&< and &ac!ined '% planing for t!ic>nesses greater t!an 177&&. For inter&ediate t!ic>nesses eit!er or>ing process &a% 'e selected. W!ere t!ere is a significant =ariation of cross-sectional di&ensions in t!e arrange&ent of t%pe F< t!e plate4s5 &ust 'e c!ec>ed for 'ending resistance. A possi'le conser=ati=e &odel assu&es t!e plate is a cantile=er of 'readt! eAual to t!e idt! of< and cla&ped to< t!e upper colu&n flange. (!e a?ial force< !ic! is trans&itted 'et een t!e corresponding colu&n flanges< is applied as an e?ternal load at t!e &ean plane of t!e flange of t!e lo er colu&n. Full details of t!is approac! are presented in ref. 2< fro& !ic! it is clear t!at if plate t!ic>nesses are to re&ain reasona'le< t!en onl% &oderate offsets of t!e order of t!e colu&n flange t!ic>ness are possi'le. For larger differences in colu&n si9e< a s!ort =ertical stiffener &a% 'e located directl% 'elo t!e flange4s5 of t!e upper colu&n to directl% assist in transferring t!e locall% !ig! force.

-. BR6CIN5 CONNECTIONS
Connections it!in t!e 'racing s%ste& or 'et een t!e 'racing s%ste& and t!e &ain fra&ing !a=e to transfer forces 'et een a nu&'er of differentl% oriented &e&'ers. )ince t!e triangulated 'racing arrange&ent ill !a=e 'een designed on t!e 'asis t!at eac! &e&'er carries onl% a?ial forces 4apart fro& an% relati=el% s&all 'ending effects due to noncoincidence of centroidal a?es5< t!e design reAuire&ent for t!e 'racing connections is essentiall% t!e transfer of direct forces 'et een a nu&'er of differentl% oriented &e&'ers. ( o 'asic arrange&ents are illustrated in Figure .: (%pe A attac!es t!e 'racing to t!e &ain fra&ing< (%pe B is an internal 'racing connection. (%pes C and D co&'ine 'ot! functions '% &a>ing t!e 'ea&s part of t!e 'racing s%ste&. Details of t!e design considerations and t!e calculations necessar% to effect t!ese !a=e alread% 'een pro=ided in )ection 1.3 of Lecture 11.\$.3.

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.. CO4UMN B6SES
A colu&n 'ase connection al a%s consists of a plate elded to t!e foot of t!e colu&n and 'olted do n to t!e foundations. A second< usuall% rat!er t!ic>er< steel plate is nor&all% incorporated into t!e top of t!e foundation< as illustrated in Figure /. It !elps 'ot! to locate t!e foot of t!e colu&n accuratel% and in spreading t!e load into t!e ea>er 4concrete or &asonr%5 foundation &aterial.

Baseplate connections in si&ple construction are generall% &odelled as pins< and designed to transfer eit!er concentric force 4co&pression or tension5 or a co&'ination of a?ial and s!ear force 4usuall% !en t!e colu&n is part of t!e 'racing s%ste& 4Figure /c55. In so&e instances t!e% &a%< !o e=er< 'e designed to trans&it also 'ending &o&ents due to &oderate load eccentricit%< or for erection sta'ilit%. (!e plate is al a%s attac!ed to t!e colu&n '% &eans of fillet elds. 8o e=er< if t!e colu&n carries onl% co&pression loads< direct 'earing &a% 'e assu&ed< pro=ided t!at t!e contact surfaces are &ac!ined or can 'e considered to 'e flat. "o =erification of t!e elds is t!en reAuired. +ac!ining &a% 'e o&itted if loads are relati=el% s&all. W!ere t!ere are &oderate tension forces or no net tension t!e !olding do n 'olts are usuall% cast into t!e foundation 4Figure 65. (!e% anc!or t!e 'aseplate '% 'onding 4Figure 6a5< '% 'onding and 'earing 4Figure 6 '< c5< or '% 'earing 4Figure 6d5.

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W!en tensile forces are significant< it is necessar% to pro=ide appropriate anc!orage to t!e 'olts. For e?a&ple t!readed 'olts &a% 'e used in conBunction it! c!annel sections e&'edded in t!e concrete. In tension connections t!e 'aseplate t!ic>ness is often dictated '% t!e 'ending &o&ents produced '% t!e !olding do n 'olts. (!e 'ending &o&ents &a% reAuire t!e use of stiffeners 4Figures /c and /d5. )uc! an arrange&ent significantl% increases t!e fa'rication content and t!erefore t!e cost of t!e colu&n 'ase as co&pared it! t!e Gsi&pleG case.

## /. BE6M*TO*CONCRETE W644 CONNECTIONS

In !ig!-rise 'uildings it &a% 'e con=enient to co&'ine t!e steel structure resisting gra=it% loads it! a concrete core resisting !ori9ontal forces. Attac!ing t!e steel fra&e to a concrete core is &ainl% a practical pro'le&< since t!e t o s%ste&s are 'uilt it! di&ensional tolerances of a different order of &agnitude. )pecial care s!ould 'e ta>en to account for t!e relati=e seAuence of erection of t!e concrete and steel s%ste&< t!e &et!od of construction of t!e core 4on !ic! concrete tolerances also depend5< as ell as t!e feasi'ilit% of co&pensating for &isalign&ents. (!e connection s!ould 'e a'le to transfer to t!e core =ertical forces< :< due to loads applied to t!e 'ea&< and !ori9ontal forces< 8< due to ind and fra&e geo&etrical i&perfections 4lac> of =erticalit%5. )o&e connection t%pes are illustrated in Figure 17. It is i&portant to stress t!at t!e details in t!e concrete all &ust 'e suita'l% designed to disperse connection forces safel%. In particular t!e details are especiall% i&portant !en deep 'ea&s are reAuired to trans&it !ig! =ertical loads.

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(!e t%pe s!o n in Figure 17a< it! poc>ets in t!e all< is con=enient for ease of adBust&ent< 'ut co&ple? in ter&s of core erection. (%pes illustrated in Figures 17' to 17! !ere part of t!e connection is encased in t!e core all during concrete pouring< &a% 'e prefera'le. (!e steel plate &a% 'e flus! it! t!e all surface< as in t%pes '-f< or e?tended out ards as in t%pes g and !. In t!e first case< !ic! is usuall% t!e &ore con=enient 'ecause t!e steel plate can 'e supported on t!e inside face of t!e for& or>< a single e' plate is elded on site to !ic! t!e steel 'ea& is t!en attac!ed. In t!e latter case t!e 'ea& can 'e connected directl% to t!e encased plate. *einforcing 'ars 4re'ars5 and@or !eaded studs can 'e used in order to trans&it 'ot! co&ponents of t!e 'ea& action. Full penetration elds are preferred !en t!e re'ars are connected directl% to t!e flus! plate 4Figure 17d5< so t!at eccentricit% of t!e force it! respect to t!e eld&ent is a=oided 4Figure17c5. C!ec>ing of t!e =arious co&ponents it!in t!e connection s!ould 'e conducted in a consistent &anner< ensuring t!at t!e principles of connection design< e.g. t!e assu&ed distri'ution of forces satisfies eAuili'riu&< are o'ser=ed. As an illustration of t!is< consider t!e structural reAuire&ents for t!e arrange&ent of Figure 17!. Assu&ing t!at t!e s!ear transfer plane< ie. t!e G!ingeG location of t!e si&ple connection< is t!e &id-plane of t!e all< t!en t!e set of !eaded studs &ust resist onl% s!ear. Alternati=el%< if t!e G!ingeG is assu&ed as t!e all face< t!en t!e studs s!ould 'e designed to resist a co&'ination of s!ear and &o&ent. (!is general reAuire&ent for a consistent approac! to &odelling t!e force transfers is furt!er e?plained in Figure 11< !ic! details t!e load transfer for t!e arrange&ent of case 17e. (!e s!ear force : is assu&ed to 'e resisted entirel% '% t!e s!ear studs< !ilst t!e &o&ent + is carried '% a couple consisting of tension in t!e upper re'ars and co&pression trans&itted '% contact stresses 'et een t!e concrete and t!e steel plate. W!ic!e=er arrange&ent is adopted< !o e=er< t!e &ain reAuire&ent is to ensure a proper dispersion of forces into t!e core all.

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## '. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

)i&ple connections s!ould 'e designed to transfer loads fro& t!e supported &e&'er into t!e supporting &e&'er as directl% as possi'le. Apart fro& s&all &o&ents arising fro& non-coincidence of certain lines of force transfer< no significant 'ending actions are in=ol=ed. )i&ple connections are suita'le for t!e - different tas>s identified in Figure 1. (!eir structural design s!ould 'e underta>en using t!e &et!ods of Lecture 11.\$.3 specificall% t!e sections dealing it! connections to gusset plates and transfer of s!ear forces. W!en connecting a steel fra&e to concrete - eit!er at a colu&n 'ase or to a core - care &ust 'e ta>en to a=oid o=erstressing t!e ea>er concrete. Load spreading using steel plates for co&pressi=e forces and proper transfer using anc!ored re'ars< !olding do n 'olts< s!ear studs or anc!ored plates for tensile forces &ust 'e considered.

). REFERENCES
H1I. BC)A@)CI GJoints in )i&ple ConstructionG< :olu&e 1: Design +et!ods 42nd edition5 1663 pp /1@6\$ #ro=ides an e?planation of 'asic 'e!a=iour< suggested proportions for t!e >e% co&ponents and detailed rules for c!ec>ing t!e structural adeAuac% of 'ea& to 'ea&< 'ea& to colu&n< colu&n splice and colu&n 'ase connections. H2I Ballio< G. and +a99olani< F.+.< G(!eor% and design of steel structuresG< C!ap&an and 8all< London 16/3. Co&pre!ensi=e te?t on t!eor% and design of steel structures. Deals e?tensi=el% it! connections.

## 1+. 6DDITION64 RE6DIN5

1. 8a% ard< A. and Weare< F.< G)teel Detailers +anualG< B)# #rofessional Boo>s< 0?ford< 2ngland< 16//. General pro'le&s of elding and 'olting as ell as detailing practice are e?tensi=el% co=ered. Basic design guidance and e?a&ples of different t%pes of structures ranging fro& 'uildings to to ers and 'ridges are also gi=en. 2. 8art< F.< 8enn< W. and )ontag< 8.< G)ta!l'au Atlas - Gesc!oss'autenG< Internationale Arc!ite>tur Do>u&entation< +unic!< 16/2. (!is 'oo> presents a ide range of practical solutions for connections in steel and co&posite 'uildings. It is a=aila'le in four different 2uropean languages 4Frenc!< 2nglis!< Dutc! and Italian5.

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3. Connection 'et een steel< concrete and &asonr%. (!e )teel Construction Institute 166\$. Descri'es a =ariet% of practical connections 'et een steel< concrete and &asonr%< including colu&n 'ases and connections to e?isting concrete and &asonr% for refur'is!&ent proBects. \$. 8ogan< (.J. and Fir>ins< A.< G)tandardised structural connectionsG< Australian Institute of )teel Construction< 16/1. #resents design &odels and resistance ta'les for t!e &ain connection t%pes. ,. Blodgett< 0.W.< GDesign of elded structuresG< Ja&es F Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation< Cle=eland< 0!io< 1)A< 16.2. Infor&ati=e and ell illustrated reference &anual co=ering all aspects of elded design and construction. -. 2": 1663: 2urocode 3: Design of steel structures< #art 1: General rules and rules for 'uildings< 1662. C!apter - co=ers t!e design of fasteners< and of connection co&ponents. Appendices J and L deal it! t!e design of 'ea&-to-colu&n and colu&n 'ase connections respecti=el%. .. ... Dula>< G.L.< Fis!er< J.W. and )trui>< J.8.A.< GGuide to design criteria for 'olted and ri=eted BointsG< Wile% N )ons< "e 3or>< 16/.. Gi=es a co&pre!ensi=e appraisal of t!e 'e!a=iour of 'olted Boints< and re=ie s in detail &et!ods for design anal%sis.

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## Lecture 11.( : .o+ent Connections !or Continuous \$ra+ing

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. *2)1+ 0F W8A( CC0"(I"101)C I+#LI2) 3. *IGID A"D F1LL )(*2"G(8 C0""2C(I0") I" #*AC(IC2 3.1 Full )trengt! Connections 3.2 *igid Connections \$. +2A") 0F F0*+I"G C0""2C(I0") ,. )(*2"G(8 D2)IG" 0F C0""2C(I0") ,.1 Calculation of Bolt (ension ,.2 (!e 2Aui=alent (-stu' Concept ,.3 +ultiple Bolt *o s ,.\$ Justification for t!e #lastic Bolt Force Distri'ution -. (82 #I(C82D-*00F #0*(AL F*A+2 .. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 /. *2F2*2"C2)

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1. INTRODUCTION
Building fra&es can 'e designed it!out &o&ent connections. C)i&ple ConstructionC< in !ic! t!e connections are Cno&inall% pinnedC and lateral resistance is pro=ided '% so&e for& of 'racing< is econo&ical and popular. 8o e=er< t!ere are &an% practical structures in !ic! &o&ent-resisting connections are necessar%. 1n'raced fra&es are an o'=ious e?a&ple< 'ut e=en in 'raced fra&es t!ere &a% 'e a reAuire&ent for a cantile=er or a &idspan 'ea& splice. In !ig! rise fra&es continuit% can 'e ad=antageous in controlling lateral deflection. +o&ent connections are usuall% reAuired to trans&it s!ear force - and so&eti&es a?ial force as ell< 'ut in practice &o&ent tends to 'e t!e pri&e concern. CContinuousC fra&ing i&plies connections !ic! are sufficientl% Cperfor&ingC 4in ter&s of stiffness and@or strengt!5 for t!eir influence on fra&e 'e!a=iour to 'e ignored. In ot!er ords< t!e% are accepta'l% close to t!e t!eoretical CidealC connection< and t!eir c!aracteristics need not 'e part of t!e input for t!e glo'al anal%sis. "ot all &o&ent connections Aualif%. (!ose !ic! do not are classed as Cpartial strengt!C or Cse&i-rigidC and are t!e su'Bect of Lecture 11... (!is Lecture is concerned it! connections !ic! are CFull )trengt!C and@or C*igidC.

## 2. RESUME OF W06T HCONTINUOUSH IMP4IES

Classification of &o&ent connections is co=ered in Lecture 11.1.1 Connections in Buildings. In t!is section< recall t!at t!e &et!od of anal%sis deter&ines !ic! attri'ute is rele=ant. 2lastic glo'al anal%sis i&plies *igid connections. #lastic glo'al anal%sis i&plies Full )trengt! connections. Alt!oug! &an% practical connections ould Aualit% as 'ot! *igid and Full )trengt!< it is i&portant to recognise t!at t!is is not essential. An elasticall% anal%sed continuous fra&e could incorporate connections !ic! are *igid and #artial )trengt!< 4pro=ided of course t!at t!e% are sufficientl% strong to resist t!e &o&ent !ic! results fro& t!e anal%sis5. )i&ilarl%< a plasticall% anal%sed continuous fra&e could incorporate connections !ic! are Full )trengt! and )e&i-*igid 4t!oug! it &ig!t 'e necessar% to ta>e account of connection fle?i'ilit% !en ser=icea'ilit% and sta'ilit% are under consideration5. )o&e of 2urocode 3Cs predecessors !a=e o'scured t!is i&portant distinction.

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"ota'l%< t!e ord C*igidC !as 'een e?pected to do dou'le dut%< 'eing applied to all connections for continuous fra&ing. 4In so&e conte?ts< it is e=en used to &ean no &ore t!an Cresistant to rotation< i.e. not pinned.5 In 2urocode 3< and in 2)D2#< it applies strictl% to t!e rotational stiffness of t!e connection. (raditionall%< nearl% all &o&ent-resisting fra&es !a=e 'een designed as continuous. )e&icontinuous design !as 'een esc!e ed on account of additional co&ple?it% in t!e anal%sis process< 'ut &a% 'eco&e &ore popular in t!e future 4Lecture 11.. co=ers it5. Continuous design - 'e it elastic or plastic - pre=ails in practice. Designers t!erefore see> to ensure t!at connections are *igid or Full )trengt!. Bot! t!ese attri'utes are relati=e to t!e connected &e&'er. A connection &ig!t 'e full strengt! relati=e to a 'ea& !ic! is )2., 'ut not to a 'ea& !ic! is )3,,. It &ig!t 'e *igid if t!e 'ea& is 17& long< 'ut not if t!e 'ea& is /& long. 2urocode 3Cs C*igidC standard is considera'l% &ore de&anding in t!e case of an un'raced fra&e< as can 'e seen fro& Figure 1 4 !ic! reproduces Fig. -.6./. of t!e standard5.

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Finall%< it s!ould 'e noted t!at t!e i&portance of t!e continuous@se&i-continuous distinction is confined to !%perstatic 4indeter&inate5 fra&es. W!en t!e situation is staticall% deter&inate t!e connection can 'e designed for strengt! alone.

## 3. RI5ID 6ND FU44 STREN5T0 CONNECTIONS IN PR6CTICE

+an% of t!e features !ic! &a>e a connection *igid also &a>e it strong. In practice< a connection designed to 'e *igid &a% 'e indistinguis!a'le fro& one designed as full strengt!< and as alread% &entioned< it &a% =er% ell 'e 'ot!. "e=ert!eless< t!e correlation 'et een strengt! and stiffness is far fro& perfect.

## 3.1 Full Stre!&th Co!!e\$t#o!s

A full strengt! connection can generall% 'e ac!ie=ed '% elding< using stiffeners as necessar%. Indeed< it is ad=isa'le 4staticall% deter&inate situations e?cepted5 t!at elded connections s!ould generall% 'e designed as full strengt!< since undersi9ed elds &a% fail in 'rittle fas!ion if e?posed to greater t!an e?pected &o&ent resulting fro& 4e.g.5 differential settle&ent. In 'olted connections< it is all 'ut i&possi'le to ac!ie=e a full strengt! connection it!in t!e dept! of t!e 'ea&. Bolts outside t!e tension flange< e.g. in an e?tended end plate< can deli=er full strengt! up to &ediu& dept! 'ea&sK t!e li&it depends on t!e strengt! of t!e 'ea& and t!e 'olts 'ut is co&&onl% around \$-,77&&. 4Incidentall%< C!ig! strengt!C 'olts - /./ or 17.6 - are practicall% o'ligator% in &o&ent connections< and designers &ust often resort to +2\$ or e=en larger si9es.5 Be%ond t!is dept! it is necessar% to increase t!e le=er ar&< '% elding on a !aunc! or gusseted e?tension. 8aunc!es are co&&onl% al&ost as deep as t!e 'ea& itself 4freAuentl% t!e% are cut fro& t!e sa&e section5< 'ut suc! deep !aunc!es are not al a%s necessar%. (!e possi'ilit% t!at t!e 'ea& ill 'e significantl% o=erstrengt! 4&a>ing t!e Cfull strengt!C connection into a Cpartial strengt!C one5 s!ould not 'e o=erloo>ed. 2urocode 3 suggests t!at o=erdesigning t!e connection '% 27E ould a=ert t!is ris>< 'ut t!is is easier said t!an done. It ould 'e reasona'le to adopt a conser=ati=e approac! to si9ing t!e co&ponents particularl% at ris>< !ic! are t!e 'olts and elds.

## 3.2 R#&#d Co!!e\$t#o!s

Calculating t!e &o&ent resistance of a connection< to =erif% t!at it Aualifies as Cfull strengt!C< is a routine procedure and one !ose results can 'e regarded it! a fair degree of confidence. (!e sa&e cannot 'e said of t!e rotational stiffness classification. In principle< t!is can 'e calculated nu&ericall%< and 2urocode 3 Clause J.3.. gi=es a for&ula for application to end plate connections. It s!ould 'e noted t!at t!e present 42": 16635 for&ula gi=es inconsistent results< and is li>el% to 'e c!anged in t!e definiti=e =ersion. In practice< as &entioned in t!e preceding section< a Aualitati=e Budge&ent re&ains t!e al&ost uni=ersal approac!. W!at are t!e features t!at &a>e a connection C*igidCT #er!aps it is &ore instructi=e to approac! fro& t!e opposite direction< and consider !at features introduce fle?i'ilit%. (!e

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fle?i'ilit% of t!e connection is t!e su& of t!e co&ponent fle?i'ilities< and one or t o undul% fle?i'le co&ponents can o=ers!ado t!e rest. Direct load pat!s are 'est< in=ol=ing a?ial tension or co&pression< not 'ending< in t!e co&ponents. For t!is reason< =irtuall% all t!e usual t%pes of elded connection< certainl% all full% stiffened ones< ill Aualif% as *igid. It is in 'olted connections t!at fle?i'ilit% is !ard to a=oid. W!ere 'olts are su'Bect to s!ear< and are not preloaded< so&e degree of slip is to 'e e?pected. If t!is occurs on t!e &o&ent resisting Cload pat!C of a connection< it can !ardl% 'e regarded as *igid. For t!is reason< a?iall% loaded 'olts are fa=oured in &o&ent connections< and 'olts su'Bect to s!ear 4suc! as t!ose in co=er plated splices5 s!ould 'e preloaded if t!e connection is reAuired to 'e *igid. A 'olt loaded in tension su'Bects t!e plates it passes t!roug! 4suc! as t!e end plate and t!e flange of t!e colu&n5 to 'ending. (o &ini&ise fle?i'ilit%< it is ad=antageous to:

place t!e 'olts Cco&pactl%C< i.e. as close as practical to t!e e' and flange of t!e 'ea& pro=ide additional stiffeners< also located close to t!e 'olts a=oid e?cessi=el% t!in plates &a?i&ise le=er ar&< e.g. '% use of !aunc!.

In practice< pro=ided t!at t!e 'olt la%out is Cco&pactC and t!e plates passed t!roug! are eAual in t!ic>ness to t!e 'olt dia&eter< all !aunc!ed connections and &ost e?tended end plates are co&&onl% regarded as *igid. Flus! end plates are de'ata'le. )o&e designers ould ensure t!at t!e connection ac!ie=es a &ini&u& of -7E of full strengt!< or so&e ot!er proportion. In doing so t!e% are appealing to t!e correlation 'et een stiffness and strengt!. Alt!oug! t!is is i&perfect< it &ust 'e conceded t!at practical alternati=es are elusi=e. 2urocode 3Cs =er% &uc! &ore rigorous criterion for un'raced fra&es - o=er t!ree ti&es as &uc! stiffness as de&anded for t!e C*igidC appellation - is inco&pati'le it! current practice< !ic! tends not to distinguis! 'et een 'raced and un'raced fra&es. It is i&portant to understand t!at in 'ot! cases t!ere is no i&plication t!at t!e fra&e suddenl% ceases to perfor& if one or &ore of its connections do not &eet t!e Aualif%ing standard. All t!at it &eans is t!at connection fle?i'ilit% &ust 'e ta>en into account in t!e glo'al anal%sis. In ot!er ords< se&irigid anal%sis is called for.

## ,. ME6NS OF FORMIN5 CONNECTIONS

+ost 'uilding fra&es consist of =ertical colu&ns and !ori9ontal 'ea&s. It is a fact of life for t!e connection designer t!at t!e &e&'ers !a=e to 'e connected at pea> &o&ent regions !ere t!e 'ea&s &eet t!e colu&nsY. "or&all% t!ese &e&'ers occup% t!e sa&e plane - it ould 'e difficult to trans&it &o&ent 'et een t!e& if t!e% did not - and onl% one can pass t!roug! t!e connection uninterrupted. Because t!e colu&n !as a?ial co&pression as ell as &o&ent to 'ear< it is gi=en precedence in &ultistore% construction. (!ere &a% also 'e a reAuire&ent for end-to-end colu&n splices to 'e designed as continuous.

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(!e feet of colu&ns &a% 'e connected to t!e concrete su'structure '% &o&ent connections. It is per!aps &ore usual to treat t!is Boint as no&inall% pinned. 8o e=er< pro=ided t!e su'structure and< if necessar%< t!e soil< can resist t!e &o&ent 4and do so C*igidl%C if elastic anal%sis so de&ands5< a Cfi?ed footC &a% 'e designed. 2nd-to-end 'ea& splices are occasionall% reAuiredK so&eti&es it is necessar% for one 'ea& to cross anot!er< at t!e sa&e le=el< in anot!er direction. In t!ese cases t!e reAuire&ent &a% 'e to trans&it &o&ent fro& one &e&'er to its continuation< s!ear alone 'eing trans&itted to t!e 'ea& Cpassed t!roug!C. (!e popular 'olted &o&ent connections used in practice are:

2nd plate connections Bea& to Colu&n< Bea& to Bea&< Colu&n to Colu&n 4flus!< e?tended< gusseted< !aunc!ed ..5 (-sections attac!ed to 'ot! flanges Bea& to Colu&n Co=er plate splice connections Bea& to Bea&< Colu&n to Colu&n

For 'ase connections 4to concrete5 a =ariant of t!e end plate connection is generall% used< t!oug! poc>eted connections 4in !ic! a suita'le dept! of t!e colu&n is si&pl% e&'edded in t!e concrete5 can 'e c!osen. #opular elded &o&ent connections are:

All elded Welded flanges< 'olted e' 4a !%'rid< for ease of erection5

## Figure 2 illustrates a selection of t!ese connection t%pes.

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(!is discussion !as related specificall% to &o&ent connections. For &ore general discussion on t!e relati=e &erits of elded and 'olted connections of different t%pes< reference s!ould 'e &ade to Lecture 11.1.2: Introduction to Connection Design.

## -. STREN5T0 DESI5N OF CONNECTIONS

All &o&ent connections are designed for strengt! in t!e sa&e a%< irrespecti=e of !et!er t!e% are reAuired to 'e *igid or full strengt!. (!e process is one of ensuring t!at all t!e co&ponents of t!e connection are capa'le of resisting t!e effects of t!e applied &o&ent. )i&ultaneousl%< t!e connection is usuall% reAuired to resist an applied s!ear force< and so&eti&es an a?ial force< 'ut &ore often t!an not &o&ent is do&inant. (a>e as an e?a&ple a t%pical 'ea&-to-colu&n connection. +o&ent is trans&itted '% coupling co&pression at or near 'otto& flange le=el it! tension in t!e upper part of t!e connection. In t!e a'sence of a?ial force in t!e 'ea& t!ese t o forces are eAual. In a elded connection< it is custo&ar% 4and not too far fro& t!e trut!5 to assu&e t!at t!e tension and co&pression are concentrated in t!e flanges. Alt!oug! t!is assu&ption< in a connection at or near full strengt!< =iolates t!e %ield criterion< t!ere is e?peri&ental Bustification for it. In t!e elded flange@'olted e' connection< a !%'rid t%pe popular in "ort! A&erica< t!e Co=erstressC in t!e 'ea& flange &a% 4depending on t!e section5 e?ceed \$7E. In a 'olted connection t!e upper 'olts &ust resist t!e tension< and t!e co&pression is usuall% assu&ed to 'e trans&itted '% direct 'earing of t!e 'otto& flange. A nu&'er of ot!er co&ponents &a% li&it t!e strengt! of t!e connection< and Figure 3 illustrates t!ose !ic! appl% to an end plate connection. 2ac! &ust 'e c!ec>ed in turn. In so&e cases a deficienc% can 'e re&edied '% adding CstiffenersC 4strengt!eners< reall%5 or so&e ot!er for& of reinforce&ent. 2?a&ples are s!o n in Figure \$.

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(!e e' of t!e colu&n is su'Bect to concentrated lateral forces in t!e tension and co&pression 9ones< and is c!ec>ed using e&pirical for&ulae !ic! prescri'e an effecti=e area of e'. In t!e co&pression 9one< 'uc>ling as ell as crus!ing &ust 'e c!ec>ed. For t!is purpose restraint fro& surrounding structure ill usuall% Bustif% an effecti=e 'uc>ling lengt! of 7.. dept! 'et een fillets of colu&n. )!ear in t!e colu&n e' panel can 'e significant< particularl% in a one-sided connection or in an un'raced fra&e. 0n t!e ot!er !and< in a t o-sided connection in a 'raced fra&e< t!e effects induced '% t!e t o opposing 'ea&s &a% partiall% or co&pletel% 'alance out. Depending on t!e t%pe of fra&e< t!erefore< t!is co&ponent &a% eit!er 'e go=erning or insignificant.
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*ules for t!e detailed c!ec>s touc!ed on a'o=e are a=aila'le in 2urocode 3 Anne? J< for 'ot! elded and 'olted end plate connections. (!e% are largel% self e?planator%K t!e scope of a single lecture cannot e&'race t!e&< and t!e rules for stiffeners and ot!er for&s of reinforce&ent 4suc! as supple&entar% e' plates5< in detail.

## -.1 Cal\$ulat#o! o7 Bolt Te!s#o!

8o e=er< t!e procedures for deter&ining t!e distri'ution of 'olt force in end plate connections it! &ultiple tension 'olt ro s are an%t!ing 'ut self e?planator%. (!e co&&entar% !ic! follo s descri'es t!e principlesK &ore detail can 'e found in Lecture 11.\$.\$. (!e force a 'olt ro can trans&it 4its Cpotential resistanceC5 &a% 'e li&ited '% eit!er t!e plate passed t!roug!< t!e strengt! of t!e 'olt itself or a co&'ination of t!e t o. If t!e plate 4 !ic! &a% 'e eit!er t!e colu&n flange or t!e end plate5 is t!in< it ill defor& '% 'ending. If it is t!ic>< t!e 'olt ill 'rea> 'efore t!e plate !as %ielded. In t!e inter&ediate t!ic>ness range< t!e failure &ec!anis& in=ol=es %ielding of 'ot! t!e plate and t!e 'olt.

## -.2 The E<u#;ale!t T*stu9 Co!\$e"t

#late 'ending is co&ple? and t!ree-di&ensional in nature. (o &a>e t!e pro'le& tracta'le< 2urocode 3 introduces t!e CeAui=alent (-stu'C approac!. )e&i-e&pirical for&ulae gi=e t!e lengt! of (-stu' !ic! is supposed to correspond to t!e actual pattern of %ield lines for 'ot! single 'olt ro s and groups !ose %ield patterns co&'ine. (!is (-stu' is free fro& stiffeners< 'ea& flanges and ot!er co&plicationsK t!eir effects !a=e 'een allo ed for in calculating its lengt!. It 'ends in t o-di&ensional fas!ion< along lines parallel to its e'. (!e t!ree &odes of failure descri'ed a'o=e can no 'e =isualised rat!er si&pl%K see Figure ,. (!e first< la'elled +ode 1< in=ol=es Cdou'le 'endingC along t!e 'olt line and adBacent to t!e fillet. +ode 2 co&'ines %ielding of t!e 'olts it! a single %ield line at t!e fillet. +ode 3 is 'olt failure alone. (!e &odal for&ulae result fro& si&ple plastic t!eor% and statics< and naturall% it is t!e one !ic! gi=es t!e lo est effecti=e 'olt force !ic! go=erns.

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It &a% 'e noted t!at onl% in +ode 3 is t!e full resistance of t!e 'olt a=aila'leK in ot!er &odes part of it is ungainfull% occupied in resisting pr%ing force. At 'est< +ode 1 can &a>e a=aila'le onl% a'out .7E of t!e 'oltCs tensile =alue.

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## -.3 Mult#"le Bolt Ro:s

W!at co&plicates &atters is t!at 'olt ro s are co&&onl% placed close enoug! to co&pete for t!e a=aila'le plate 'ending resistance. ConseAuentl%< a pair of 'olt ro s ill &o'ilise less t!an t ice t!e force t!at eac! could singl%< and so on. 2urocode 3Cs Anne? JJ gi=es priorit% to t!e outer 'olt ro s !ic! '% =irtue of t!eir greater le=er ar& are in a position to con=ert t!is resistance into &o&ent &ore effecti=el%. It can per!aps 'e &ore readil% understood '% in=erting t!e descri'ed procedure. (!e potential resistance of t!e outer ro is calculated as if t!e ot!er tensile ro s ere not present. (!e second ro is credited it! t!e potential resistance of ro s 1 and 2 ta>en as a group< &inus t!at of ro 1 - or< if less< t!at of ro 2 alone. And so on< considering 4in principle at least5 all possi'le groupings. 4)tiffeners< if present< restrict t!e nu&'er of ro s !ose %ield patterns &a% co&'ine.5 At t!e conclusion of t!is procedure a set of 'olt ro potential resistances !as 'een esta'lis!ed. (!e% are CpotentialC 'ecause so&e ot!er co&ponent of t!e connection 4&ost often in t!e colu&n e'5 &a% li&it t!e total force trans&itted. Force is deducted fro& t!e inner&ost ro 4s5 if t!is is t!e case. Finall% t!e connection &o&ent resistance is calculated as HFti !iI !ere Fti is t!e 'olt ro force and !i is its le=er ar&< &easured to t!e centre of co&pression !ic! is generall% ta>en as coincident it! t!at of t!e C'otto&C flange.

## -., @ust#7#\$at#o! 7or the Plast#\$ Bolt For\$e D#str#9ut#o!

It s!ould 'e noted t!at t!is calculation is 'ased on a CplasticC distri'ution of 'olt force< !ic! reAuires t!at t!ere is sufficient rotation for t!e inner tensile 'olt ro s< as ell as t!e outer ones< to de=elop t!eir ulti&ate %ield patterns. In connections it! &ultiple 'olt ro s< t!is assu&ption 'eco&es less reasona'le as t!e end plate and colu&n flange t!ic>nesses increase< and 'ot! t!ese plates 'eco&e relati=el% un%ielding. An alternati=e procedure is 'ased on a &ore traditional CtriangularC distri'ution of 'olt force< in !ic! 'olt ro force is restricted in proportion to le=er ar&. For t!is distri'ution t!ere is no restriction on plate t!ic>ness< 'ut at present its use is restricted to full strengt! connections. #articularl% !en &ore t!an one load co&'ination &ust 'e considered< t!e design of a &o&ent connection is an in=ol=ed process. Ine=ita'l%< it is 'ased on trial and error. (!e use of specialist soft are is reco&&ended< in preference to la'orious &anual =erification. (!ere is also a role for predesigned standard &o&ent connections< !ose &o&ent resistance is ta'ulated '% 'ea& si9e for Auic> reference.

## .. T0E PITC0ED*ROOF PORT64 FR6ME

(!e pitc!ed-roof portal fra&e< often plasticall% anal%sed< is a =er% econo&ical and popular 'uilding t%pe. )ince it is pro'a'l% t!e largest &ar>et for t!e t%pe of connections it! !ic! t!is lecture is concerned< it deser=es special &ention.

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8aunc!ed end plate connections are al&ost uni=ersal in portal fra&esK t!ese adapt readil% to angles of intersection ot!er t!an 67. It is custo&ar% to &a>e t!e ea=es !aunc! dept! 4al&ost5 eAual to t!at of t!e 'ea&< and to e?tend it so&e a% along t!e span. (!e !aunc! geo&etr% is deter&ined '% o=erall fra&e design rat!er t!an purel% a &atter of connection detailing. Ape? !aunc!es are usuall% of &ore &odest si9e. Figure - illustrates t%pical portal fra&e connections.

Wit! e?tended ea=es !aunc!es< it 'eco&es a &oot point !et!er t!e connection is full strengt! 4relati=e to t!e plain 'ea& section5 or partial strengt! 4relati=e to t!e section as increased '% t!e !aunc!5. (!is is usuall% resol=ed '% ensuring t!at t!e latter is sufficientl%
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Co=ersi9edC to force t!e plastic !inge to occur at t!e !aunc! end< and designing t!e connection for t!e &a?i&u& &o&ent t!at t!is 4deter&inate5 situation can induce. For t!e usual range of roof pitc!es< t!e ea=es connection &a% 'e designed in t!e sa&e a% as an eAui=alent 67 'ea&-to-colu&n connection< it! t!e co&pression ta>en as t!e !ori9ontal co&ponent of !aunc! flange force. A?ial co&pression in t!e 'ea& ill generall% 'e nonnegligi'leK t!is can 'e added to 'otto& flange force it! t!e design &o&ent adBusted to account for its offset. 2?cept at t!e interior colu&ns of &ulti-'a% fra&es< e' panel s!ear is li>el% to e?ceed t!e capacit% of t!e colu&n section. 4(!e colu&n is =er% li>el% to 'e an I rat!er t!an an 8 section.5 )tiffeners are usuall% called for< and a co&&on c!oice is t!e C+orrisC stiffener s!o n in Figure -a. (!is acts si&ilarl% to a con=entional diagonal stiffener< it! t!e ad=antage t!at access for t!e 'olts is not i&peded. Additional Cri'C stiffeners &a% 'e used to reinforce t!e colu&n flange 'et een lo er 'olt ro s. (!e end plate t!ic>ness can of course 'e c!osen to a=oid t!e need for suc! stiffening< 'ut t!e% are so&eti&es used on t!e 'ea& side to en!ance e' tension resistance.

/. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

Connections for continuous fra&ing !a=e to 'e *igid or Full )trengt!< depending on t!e &et!od of anal%sis. Welded connections &a% &ore readil% 'e &ade *igid and@or Full )trengt! t!an 'olted ones !ic! tend to 'e relati=el% ela'orate and< t!erefore< e?pensi=e. 4(!is gi=es t!e designer an incenti=e to consider se&i-continuous fra&ing< or< !ere conditions per&it< 'raced fra&es of Csi&pleC construction using no&inall% pinned connections.5 C*igidC is a ord to 'e approac!ed it! caution. In t!is conte?t< 2urocode 3 gi=es it a precise &eaning to descri'e a standard of rotational stiffness< relati=e to t!at of t!e connected &e&'er. (!is standard is !ig!er for un'raced fra&es. For elastic anal%sis< connections &a%< in principle< 'e s!o n to 'e *igid '% testing or calculation. In practice< t!e% are custo&aril% Budged *igid '% e?perience. Calculation of strengt! is al a%s necessar%< irrespecti=e of t!e &et!od of anal%sis. For plastic anal%sis< connections are designed to 'e Full )trengt! relati=e to t!e connected &e&'er. Design rules for t!e strengt! calculation for co&&onl% used t%pes of elded and 'olted &o&ent connection are gi=en in 2urocode 3 Anne? JJ. A connection &a% 'e regarded as a set of Cco&ponentsC !ic! toget!er &a>e up t!e load pat!s '% !ic! &o&ent and force are trans&itted. Broadl% spea>ing t!e strengt! of t!e connection is t!at of its ea>est co&ponent< and t!e fle?i'ilit% of t!e connection 4t!e in=erse of its rotational stiffness5 is t!e su& of t!e fle?i'ilties of t!e co&ponents. Anne? J of 2urocode 3 is under re=ie at t!e ti&e of preparation of t!is Lecture and c!anges are to 'e anticipated !en t!e definiti=e =ersion of t!is design standard is issued. In t!e &eanti&e it is instructi=e to stud% t!e rele=ant clauses of t!e 2": =ersion.

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'. REFERENCES
H1I 2urocode 3: Design of )teel )tructures 2": 1663-1-1: #art 1.1< General *ules and *ules for Buildings. H2I 0 ens< G. W< and C!eal< B. D.< )tructural )teel or> Connections< Butter ort!s< 0?ford 16/6.

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## Lecture 11.0 : 'artial Strengt& Connections !or Se+i Continuous \$ra+ing

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 2. D2FI"I"G (2*+) 3. #LA)(IC A"D 2LA)(IC GL0BAL A"AL3)I) \$. W8A( +AD2) A C0""2C(I0" )1I(ABL2T ,. (82 "22D F0* *IGIDI(3 -. )(A"DA*DIR2D C0""2C(I0" D2)IG") .. CALC1LA(I0" 0F C0""2C(I0" #*0#2*(I2) /. 2C0"0+ICAL C0""2C(I0" D2)IG" 6. 1"B*AC2D F*A+2) 17. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 11. *2F2*2"C2)

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1. INTRODUCTION
For 'ea&-to-colu&n connections of t%pical 'uilding fra&es< !ic! &a% 'e 'raced or un'raced< t!ere !a=e traditionall% 'een t o c!oices: Csi&pleC 4no&inall% pinned connections5 or CcontinuousC 4&o&ent-resisting connections5. )i&ple construction reAuires t!at t!e fra&e is 'raced< eit!er '% triangulation or '% so&et!ing li>e a reinforced concrete core to !ic! it is connected at eac! le=el. In practice< continuous construction is associated it! un'raced fra&esK it is rarel% used in 'raced fra&es e?cept in !%'rid !ig!-rise designs and locall% in ot!er fra&es. Wh8 se #*\$o!t#!uous 7ra e des#&!I (!e use of se&i-continuous fra&e design is a &atter of econo&ics. Continuous fra&ing i&plies eit!er rigid or full strengt! connections. Bot! are e?pensi=e to fa'ricate. W!ile Csi&pleC connections are c!eap< 'ea&s designed as si&pl% supported are 'igger t!an t!e% ould ot!er ise need to 'e. (!e se&i-continuous approac! offers a &iddle course. It is 'ased on des#&!er \$ho#\$e of a con=enient 'ea& end &o&ent< as illustrated in Figure 1. (!is end &o&ent is usuall% set eAual to t!e resistance of a suita'le not-too-ela'orate connection detail. (!e 'ea& is t!en si9ed for &idspan + P + F*22 - + C0"". (!e connection is< t!erefore< t!e >e% to se&i-continuous fra&e design.

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2. DEFININ5 TERMS
Figure 2 de&onstrates t!e definition of &o&ent connections '% strengt!< rigidit% and ductilit%.

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(!e i&portant features of a connection in se&i-continuous fra&ing are t!at it is du\$t#le and "art#al stre!&th. Du\$t#le? \$a"a9le o7 a\$t#!& as a "last#\$ h#!&e. Ductilit% of a connection is s%non%&ous it! rotat#o! \$a"a\$#t8 4t!e ter& used in 2urocode 35< and s!ould not 'e confused it! ductilit% of a &aterial suc! as steel. Part#al Stre!&th? 69le to res#st less tha! the "last#\$ o e!t o7 the 9ea .

)ince< in continuous fra&es< &a?i&u& &o&ents occur at t!e 'ea& ends< it is =irtuall% ine=ita'le t!at a partial strengt! connection in t!is location ill 'e Co=erloadedC. It &ust 'e capa'le of rotating plasticall% to t!e e?tent necessar% for co&pati'ilit% it! 'ea& end 4and possi'l% colu&n5 rotations under design load. (!e 'ea& &a% not re&ain elastic. Around &idspan< t!ere is lia'le to 'e an al&ost full% de=eloped plastic !inge. (!e rotation !ic! t!e connection &ust acco&&odate t!erefore =aries it! t!e circu&stances 'ut &a% 'e as &uc! as 7<72 to 7<7\$ radians. In practice< t!e c!osen &o&ent resistance of t!e connection is often in t!e range 37E to ,7E of t!e plastic &o&ent resistance of t!e 'ea&.

## 3. P46STIC 6ND E46STIC 54OB64 6N64YSIS

Design of se&i-continuous fra&es< as outlined a'o=e< is 'ased on "last#\$ glo'al anal%sis. In principle< se&i-continuous elastic anal%sis could also 'e perfor&ed. (!is i&plies t!at rotational springs of appropriate stiffness 4rigidit%5 are used to &odel t!e connections. 2lastic glo'al anal%sis is a relati=el% unattracti=e proposition to t!e designer of a se&icontinuous fra&e. *elia'le prediction of rotational stiffness is difficult< and t!e 'ending &o&ent distri'ution depends on t!is. (!e interaction 'et een ele&ent and connection stiffness and t!e distri'ution of &o&ents in t!e fra&e &a>es it =er% difficult for t!e designer to control t!e design and ac!ie=e o=erall econo&%. (!e &ain reason for &entioning elastic anal%sis is to introduce t!e ter&:Se #*r#&#d? too 7leA#9le to <ual#78 as R#&#d> 9ut !ot a "#!. A *igid connection is stiff enoug! for t!e assu&ptions &ade in con=entional elastic anal%sis to 'e =alid. (!e perfectl% rigid connection does not e?ist< 'ut practical connections can approac! t!is ideal sufficientl% closel% for t!eir fle?i'ilit% to 'e neglected in t!e anal%sis. In ot!er ords t!e 'ending &o&ent distri'ution re&ains accepta'l% close to t!e t!eoretical one !ic! results fro& elastic anal%sis. Codes =ar% in t!eir definition of !ere to Cdra t!e lineC for t!is purpose. (!e distinction is onl% rele=ant to elastic anal%sis of !%perstatic fra&es. (!is special &eaning of t!e ord C*igidC is e&p!asi9ed< in t!is lecture< '% t!e use of t!e capital C*C.

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It is i&portant to understand t!at a connection can 'e rigid enoug! to perfor& its function in t!e structure it!out Aualif%ing as *igid according to t!e code definition. )e&i-rigid connections can 'e adeAuatel% rigid. It is necessar% to 'e a are t!at Bust as t!e ter& rigid is so&eti&es used loosel% to &ean not!ing &ore t!an Crotation-resistantC< t!e ter& se&i-rigid is so&eti&es used to descri'e se&icontinuous construction in general. (!is is unfortunate. Alt!oug! t!e connections !ic! are t!e su'Bect of t!is lecture :#ll often 'e se&i-rigid< !at &atters is t!at t!e% are Part#al Stre!&th and Du\$t#le. (!e neutral ter& C#artial *estraintC< &eaning C#artial )trengt! and@or )e&i-rigidC< ill also 'e encountered.

## ,. W06T M6=ES 6 CONNECTION SUIT6B4EI

In order to deli=er t!e necessar% rotation capacit%< so&e co&ponent of t!e connection &ust %ield in a controlled a%. #lates in 'ending and colu&n e's in s!ear are suita'le candidates. +ost i&portantl%< ot!er parts of t!e connection &ust 'e pre=ented fro& failing< 'ecause t!e% ould do so a'ruptl%. Welds< and 'olts in tension< are in t!is categor%. For t!is reason all- elded connections< apart fro& so&e uncon=entional ones< are not generall% co&pati'le it! t!e se&i-continuous approac!. (o protect t!e 'rittle co&ponents< e.g. elds and 'olts in tension< it is necessar% for at least one ot!er co&ponent of t!e connection to 'e designed as a deli'erate C ea> lin>C. 1nusuall% in structural design< t!e &a?i&u& strengt! as ell as t!e &ini&u& strengt! of t!is co&ponent &ust 'e li&ited. A freAuentl% c!osen connection is t!e 'olted end plate< eit!er Cflus!C or Ce?tendedC< see Figure 3. 0t!er st%les of connection &a% 'e suita'le< 'ut t!is one is uniAue in t!at it is supported '% aut!oritati=e design rules in 2urocode 3 Anne? J H1I.

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"ot all end plate connections are ductile. Figures \$ and , de&onstrate t!e 'e!a=iour t!at is reAuired. Generall% onl% +ode 1 'e!a=iour ac!ie=es t!e reAuired ductilit%.

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It is usuall% found necessar% to restrict t!e end plate t!ic>ness to appro?i&atel% -7E of t!e 'olt dia&eter 4assu&ing 'olts not ea>er t!an /./5. (!ic>er end plates ould trans&it &ore &o&ent 'ut it! t!e ris> of pre&ature failure due to t!e 'olts snapping 'efore t!e reAuired degree of rotation !as ta>en place. 2nd plate connections designed it! regard for strengt! alone usuall% !a=e end plates !ose t!ic>ness eAuals or e?ceeds t!e 'olt dia&eter. (!e% are non-ductile. For e?a&ple< as s!o n in Figure ,< a 2, && t!ic> end plate is necessar% to de=elop t!e full strengt! of +2\$ /./ 'olts. 8o e=er< in all respects ot!er t!an t!ic>ness< t!e ductile end plate can loo> identical to full strengt! end plates. Apart fro& t!e ine=ita'le relati=e inefficienc% in 'olt utilisation< it s!ould 'e recognised t!at t!e t!inner end plate &a>es t!e ductile connection less rigid t!an its ort!odo? counterpart.

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## -. T0E NEED FOR RI5IDITY

*igidit%< used !ere as a s%non%& for rotational stiffness< is significantl% &ore i&portant in un'raced fra&es t!an in 'raced ones. In t!e for&er< it contri'utes to fra&e sta'ilit% and s a% resistance. In 'raced fra&es< its contri'ution is less crucialK it !elps li&it 'ea& deflection and restrains colu&n rotation. (!e rigidit% reAuired to &aintain sta'ilit% and@or ser=icea'ilit% of an un'raced fra&e =aries according to t!e circu&stances - a &ulti'a% lo rise fra&e o'=iousl% reAuires less t!an a slender one< ot!er t!ings re&aining eAual. 8o e=er< it is generall% less< &a%'e &uc! less< t!an t!at reAuired 4according to code rules5 for t!e connection to 'e designated C*igidC for t!e purpose of elastic anal%sis. It is !ard to i&agine circu&stances in !ic! too &uc! rigidit% ould 'e an e&'arrass&ent< irrespecti=e of !et!er t!e fra&e is 'raced. )tandard details can< t!erefore< 'e designed to &a?i&ise it. For t!is purpose< Cco&pactC 'olt arrange&ents< in !ic! t!e 'olts are placed as close to t!e flange and e' as is practical< are prefera'le. In relation to c!oice of end plate t!ic>ness< rigidit% and ductilit% are in direct opposition. )tiffness of t!e end plate< !ic! tends to 'e t!e &ost fle?i'le co&ponent of t!e connection and< t!erefore< do&inant< is proportional to its t!ic>ness to t!e po er of t o if not t!ree. Ductilit% &ust not 'e co&pro&ised< so larger and@or stronger 'olts< !ic! per&it a t!ic>er end plate< are ad=antageous. (!e co&'ination of 1,&& t!ic> end plates it! +2\$ 'olts 4/./ or 17.65 is often found suita'le.

## .. ST6ND6RDIBED CONNECTION DESI5NS

*ecalling t!at t!e connections in se&i-continuous design are t!e su'Bect of des#&!er \$ho#\$e< it can 'e seen t!at a standardi9ed approac! !olds a special attraction. It is frustrating for t!e designer to select a particular trial connection &o&ent< sa% 37E of t!e free &o&ent< onl% to disco=er after pages of calculation t!at a connection using t o tensile 'olts Bust fails to ac!ie=e it. A relati=el% s&all range of standard details< 'ased on preferred geo&etries< can 'e presented it! ta'ulated &o&ent resistances for eac! 'ea& si9e. (!is s!ortcuts t!e process of trial and error c!oice of 'ea& si9e and connection st%le< and retains &uc! of t!e si&plicit% of traditional Csi&pleC design. Figure - s!o s an e?a&ple of standard details fro& t!e 1nited Dingdo& H2I for ductile partial strengt! connections.

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## Figure -. 2?a&ple of a standard detail

+0+2"( *2)I)(A"C2 +.*. 4in "&5 P 163 ? H! - 7<, tf O \$7I O 31, ? H! - 7<, tf - -7I O 2/. ? H! - 7<, tf - 1,7I Di&ensions for detailing 4&&5 *elati=e to top of steel a1 a2 a3 a\$ a, ac .27 \$7 -7 1,7 36, \$/, ,/, // \$7 -7 1,7 367 \$/7 ,/7 67 \$7 -7 1,7 3/. \$.. ,.. 62 \$7 -7 1,7 3/3 \$.3 ,.3 63 \$7 -7 1,7 3./ \$-/ ,-/ 621<3 ,\$\$<1/</ ,36<, 1.<\$ ,3-<. 1,<- ,33<1 13<2 ,2/<3 d tf ! )erial si9e@+ass per &etre ,33 ? 217 122 Z 176 Z 171 62 /2 3.1 3-/ 3-3-\$ 3-1 +o&ent *esistance 4>"&5

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-,7 \$7 -7 1,7 31. \$7. ,7. 61 \$7 -7 1,7 31\$ \$7\$ ,7\$ 63 \$7 -7 1,7 317 \$77 ,77 6, \$7 -7 1,7 37. 36. \$6. 6\$7 -7 1,7 37\$ 36\$ \$6\$ 6/ -,7 \$7 -7 1,7 31, \$7, ,7, 62 \$7 -7 1,7 311 \$71 ,71 6\$ \$7 -7 1,7 37. 36. \$6. 6\$7 -7 1,7 37, 36, \$6, 6/ \$7 -7 1,7 377 367 \$67 177 ,67 \$7 -7 1,7 2-3 3,3 \$,3 /6 \$7 -7 1,7 2,6 3\$6 \$\$6 67 \$7 -7 1,7 2,- 3\$- \$\$- 62 \$7 -7 1,7 2,3 3\$3 \$\$3 6\$ ,/7 \$7 -7 1,7 2,2 3\$2 \$\$2 /6 \$7 -7 1,7 2\$. 33. \$3. 61 11<2 \$72<3 /<- 36.<3 1-<7 \$12</ 1\$<3 \$76<\$ 12</ \$7-<\$ 17<6 \$72<1/<6 \$-,<1 1.<7 \$-1<3 1,<7 \$,.<2 13<3 \$,\$<. 17<6 \$\$6</ 16<- \$-.<\$ 1.<. \$-3<1-<7 \$-7<2 1\$<, \$,.<2 12<. \$,3<-

\$,. ? 161 6/ Z /6 /2 .\$ -. \$,. ? 1,2 /2 Z .\$ -. -7 ,2 \$7- ? 1./ .\$ -. -7 ,\$ \$7- ? 1\$7 \$36 2-1 2,/ 2-/ 2-2-\$ 2-2 37/ 3737\$ 372 266 317 37/ 3737\$ 372

Z - W!ere [tf\ M 1/ use 2F#(BW to flange - If 'ea& is )2., use 2F#(BW to flange CO4UMN 4IMIT6TIONS F /76 >"
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)3,,

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## /. C64CU46TION OF CONNECTION PROPERTIES

(!e strengt! 4&o&ent resistance5 of t!e connection is calculated e?actl% as for an% ot!er end plate &o&ent connection< see Lecture 11.1.2. (!e sa&e is true of t!e rigidit% 4rotational stiffness5 for !ic! 2urocode 3< Anne? J gi=es a for&ula H1I. (!e relia'ilit% of t!e predictions of rotational stiffness !ic! are not 'ased on tests is< !o e=er< li&ited. W!ile ser=icea'ilit% calculations &a% reasona'l% 'e 'ased on predictions< t!e present state of t!e art is not suc! as to encourage t!eir use to deter&ine t!e design 4Culti&ateC5 'ending &o&ent distri'ution. :erification of connection ductilit% 4rotation capacit%5 is outlined in t!e ne?t section. It s!ould 'e understood t!at in practice t!ese c!ec>s are nor&all% &ade using purpose-designed soft are or '% reference to ta'les of standard details. 2er#7#\$at#o! o7 Du\$t#l#t8 As s!o n in Figure .< 2urocode 3< Anne? J prescri'es t!at a connection &a% 'e regarded as ductile< i.e. it ill possess sufficient rotation capacit% to act as a plastic !inge< !ere su'Bect to one of t!e follo ing conditions:4i5 )!ear 9one of t!e colu&n li&its t!e &o&ent resistance 4ii5 Colu&n flange 4in 'ending5 li&its t!e &o&ent resistance it! +ode 1 failure 4iii5 2nd plate 4in 'ending5 li&its t!e &o&ent resistance it! +ode 1 failure
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+ode 1 failure is t!e Cdou'le 'endingC &ode !ic! go=erns if t!e plate is relati=el% t!in. 0nl% in t!e special case of one-sided connections< e.g. peri&eter colu&ns< is it realistic to design on t!e 'asis of option 4i5. W!ere t!ere is a 'ea& on eac! side of t!e colu&n< t!e &o&ents can oppose one anot!er< reducing t!e s!ear in t!e e' panel - per!aps to 9ero.

Generall%< t!e colu&n is alread% si9edK an% scope t!at t!e connection designer !as to alter it is in t!e up ards direction onl%. FreAuentl%< t!erefore< 4ii5 ill not 'e an a=aila'le option eit!er. 0ption 4iii5< designing for +ode 1 failure in t!e end plate< is t!e onl% uni=ersall% a=aila'le route to satisf%ing t!e reAuire&entK standard details can 'e 'ased on t!is. As illustrated in Figure /< it s!ould 'e noted t!at 2urocode 3 Anne? J offers a for&ula '% !ic! rotation capacit% &a% 'e calculated and co&pared it! t!e designerCs assess&ent of !at t!e situation reAuires. (!is for&ula is applica'le to connections in !ic! +ode 2 pre=ails< i.e. t!e end plate is so&e !at t!ic>er t!an t!e li&it for +ode1. In practice< it is rat!er unproducti=e of rotation capacit%< e?cept for t!e s!allo est of 'ea&s. In an% case< t!e

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designer generall% prefers to a=oid Auantif%ing t!e reAuired rotation capacit%. )atisf%ing condition 4i5< 4ii5 or 4iii5 a'o=e &eans t!at t!e connection is CductileC - its rotation capacit% ill 'e a&ple for all nor&al circu&stances.

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## '. ECONOMIC64 CONNECTION DESI5N

It is funda&ental to t!e et!os of t!e se&i-continuous approac! t!at< !ere it is in co&petition it! Csi&pleC fra&ing< t!e connections are little< if an%< &ore costl% t!an t!eir Cno&inall% pinnedC counterparts< see Figure 6.

A larger end plate< a slig!tl% larger eld or an e?tra pair of 'olts can 'e accepted. 8o e=er< if stiffeners 'eco&e necessar% in t!e colu&n< or a !aunc! in t!e 'ea&< it is li>el% t!at t!e point !as 'een &issed. A sa=ing in t!e 'ea& si9e is unli>el% to 'e su'stantial enoug! to co&pensate for t!ese la'our-intensi=e additions. Indeed< it is al&ost al a%s prefera'le to increase t!e eig!t of a colu&n rat!er t!an to eld in stiffeners. 0ne for& of colu&n reinforce&ent< loose flange 'ac>ing plates< Figure 17 can< !o e=er< 'e Bustified as a &eans of upgrading t!e resistance of a t!in-flanged colu&n at &odest cost.

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(!e &essage is t!at t!e designer s!ould e?ercise !is@!er freedo& to c!oose t!e connection &o&ent it! due regard for t!e cost effects of t!is decision.

). UNBR6CED FR6MES
1n'raced fra&es designed according to t!e ind-&o&ent &et!od !ic! is traditional in so&e countries< i.e. connections proportioned to resist ind &o&ent onl%5 are< !et!er t!eir designers recognised it or not< precursors of t!e se&i-continuous un'raced fra&e. (!e satisfactor% ser=ice perfor&ance of nu&erous structures of t!is t%pe< not all of !ose connections ould 'e Budged ductile according to t!e application rules of 2urocode 3< encourages confidence in t!e accepta'ilit% of se&i-continuous un'raced fra&es. "e=ert!eless< un'raced fra&es it! ductile partial strengt! connections s!ould 'e approac!ed it! so&e caution. It is necessar% to ensure t!at connection rigidit% is not unaccepta'l% lo for ser=icea'ilit% or sta'ilit% of t!e fra&e. Ideall%< t!e connection stiffness is predicted and t!e fra&e is anal%sed it! t!e connections &odelled as rotational springs. 4For&ulae are a=aila'le to &odif% 'ea& 'ending stiffness so t!at t!is can 'e perfor&ed it! progra&s !ic! do not offer rotational spring ele&ents5. (!is anal%sis gi=es s a% predictions !ic! can 'e co&pared directl% it! code li&its< pro=ided second order effects are negligi'le< i.e. t!e fra&e is non-s a%. If t!e% are not negligi'le< second order anal%sis is reAuired. (!is approac! de&ands >no ledge of t!e rotational stiffness of t!e connections< !ic! &a% not 'e relia'l% a=aila'le. It a&ounts to se&i-continuous elastic glo'al anal%sis. #ro=ided t!at t!e structure is lo rise and of reasona'l% nor&al proportions< a si&pler approac! can 'e follo ed< Figure 11. #ara&etric studies H3I !a=e s!o n t!at it is accepta'l% accurate to appl% an ar'itrar% &ultiplier of 1<, to t!e s a% predicted '% a con=entional continuous elastic glo'al anal%sis< su'Bect to certain conditions.

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(!ese points are co=ered in earlier Lectures. (!e% are repeated !ere as a re&inder t!at rigidit% could influence connection design in certain cases< leading per!aps to e?tended or stiffened end plates !ere 4for strengt! alone5 less ela'orate configurations ould suffice. In t!e case of an un'raced fra&e< t!e o'Becti=e is to a=oid 'racing rat!er t!an to &a>e sa=ings in t!e 'ea&s. (!e econo&ic co&parison is it! t!e full strengt! and@or rigid connections of t!e co&peting CcontinuousC design. (!e e&p!asis on a=oiding costl% elded stiffeners and ot!er la'our-intensi=e fa'rication re&ains =alid.

## 1+. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

W!at &a>es t!e se&i-continuous approac! ort! pursuing is t!e freedo& to use relati=el% unco&plicated and lo cost &o&ent connections. (!e connections are "art#al stre!&th and are reAuired to 'e du\$t#le. (!e% are li>el% to 'e se&i-rigid 'ut t!is is of little conseAuence in a 'raced fra&e. In an un'raced fra&e< connection rigidit% is i&portant in relation to sta'ilit% and ser=icea'ilit%. (!e se&i-continuous approac! to design< as recognised in t!is lecture< is 'ased on se&i-continuous "last#\$ anal%sis. It offers des#&!er \$o!trol of t!e 'ending &o&ent diagra& to opti&ise o=erall econo&%.

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11.

REFERENCES

H1I 2urocode 3: GDesign of )teel )tructures: #art 1.1: General *ules and *ules for BuildingsG< 2": 1663-1-1< 1662. H2I 8ug!es< A. F. et al< GDuctile Connections for Wind-+o&ent Fra&esG )teel Construction Institute< Ascot< 1D 4to 'e pu'lis!ed5. H3I Anderson< D. A. et al< GWind-+o&ent Design for 1n'raced Fra&es< )teel Construction Institute< #u'lication #7/2< Ascot< 1D< 1661.

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## Lecture 11.1 : S#lices in Buildings

1. I"(*0D1C(I0" 1.1 (%pes of )plices 1.2 Loads in )plices 1.3 )cope of #resent Lecture 2. )#LIC2) I" (2")I0" +2+B2*) 2.1 Bolted )plice #lated Connections 2.1.1 Bearing-t%pe connections 2.1.2 )lip *esistant Bolts 2.1.3 (ension 'olted connections 2.2 Welded )plice Connections 2.3 )pecial Connections 3. )#LIC2) I" C0+#*2))I0" +2+B2*) 3.1 Bolted )plice #lated Connections 3.2 Bolted 2nd #lated Connections 3.3 Full% Welded Connections 3.\$ Additional Co&&ents \$. )#LIC2) I" +2+B2*) )1BJ2C( (0 B2"DI"G ,. )#LIC2) I" +2+B2*) )1BJ2C( (0 C0+BI"2D AWIAL F0*C2 A"D B2"DI"G -. C0"CL1DI"G )1++A*3 /. ADDI(I0"AL *2ADI"G

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 T8"es o7 S"l#\$es
A spliced connection is a Boint &ade it!in t!e lengt! of a stanc!ion< a 'ea& or an% ot!er structural &e&'er. It is ai&ed at transferring t!e internal forces fro& one structural part to t!e adBacent one it!out 'eing a ea> point of t!e structure in relation to strengt!< stiffness and< ductilit%. (!is transfer is nor&all% &ade t!roug! different >inds of transitional plate ele&ents !ic! are appropriatel% fastened onto t!e &e&'er parts. (!e reasons !% splices are reAuired as ell as t!e ad=antages and disad=antages of t!e respecti=e t%pes of fasteners !a=e 'een discussed else !ereK see Lectures 11.1. As it! an% ot!er >ind of connection< splices s!ould 'e designed to t!e general principles< and design concepts presented earlier< see Lectures 11.1. (!ere are &an% a%s of &a>ing splices. For e?a&ple< traditional co=er plates &a% used for full load transfer or Bust for continuit%K elds or 'olts &a% 'e c!osen as fasteners. +ost splices transfer loads fro& one structural &e&'er to t!e adBacent part of a si&ilar structural &e&'er t!roug! eit!er co=er plates or end plates. Co=er plates &a% 'e single< it! 'olts in single s!ear< or dou'le it! 'olts in dou'le s!ear 4Figure 1a5.

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W!ere end plates are used in a splice t!e% are usuall% positioned perpendicular to t!e &e&'er a?es and fi?ed '% fillet elds 4Figure 1'5.
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In o=erlapped splices t!ere is no need for co=er plates. )uc! connections are used especiall% !en splicing single plates or s!eeting co&ponents. (!e plate parts are si&pl% o=erlapped and connected to eac! ot!er '% 'olts or fillet elds 4Figure 1c5< or e=en '% scre s for =er% t!in plates or s!eeting. )uc! ele&entar% splice arrange&ents are not considered furt!er in t!is lecture. In a 'utt elded splice< full continuit% of t!e section is &aintained across t!e Boint crosssection. )uc! splices are used !en asse&'ling &e&'ers of t!e sa&e or nearl% t!e sa&e serial si9e 4Figure 1d5. +an% factors influence t!e c!oice of t%pe of splice< e.g. t%pe of loads to 'e transferred< t!e t%pes of structural sections - open or closed sections< ease of access< nature of t!e loading static or d%na&ic< it! or it!out load re=ersal - and stiffness. (!e splices s!o n in Figure 1 illustrate &ost of t!e possi'le arrange&ents.

(!e internal forces to 'e trans&itted '% a specified splice are firstl%< t!e a?ial force< 'ending &o&ent and@or s!ear force !ic! occur in t!e Boint 'ased on elastic or plastic structural anal%sis of t!e structure< assu&ing continuit% t!roug! t!e Boint. )econdl%< consideration s!ould 'e gi=en to an% second-order effects due to geo&etric non-linearities and i&perfections. Good practice s!ould reAuire t!at spliced parts 'e arranged so t!at an% eccentricit% 'et een t!eir respecti=e centroidal a?es is a=oided. W!ere eccentricities cannot 'e pre=ented< t!en rele=ant additional forces and &o&ents s!ould also 'e ta>en into account. In addition< !en considering t!e load pat!s of t!e internal forces t!roug! t!e co&ponents of t!e splice< due attention s!ould 'e paid to possi'le c!anges in t!e &agnitudes of t!e le=er ar& !en t!e load transfers fro& t!e structural part into t!e splice co&ponents< i.e. t!e internal forces s!ould 'e carefull% identified and t!e &agnitudes of load co&ponents deter&ined so t!at eAuili'riu& is satisfied. W!ere t!e loading is predo&inantl% static< i&plicit allo ance is nor&all% &ade for plastic redistri'ution. (!e stress resultants &a% t!us 'e transferred according to a staticall% ad&issi'le sc!e&e. (!is approac! is nor&all% accepta'le for &ost 'uilding structures. In contrast 'ridges are su'Bect to repeated loads. )ince t!is raises t!e possi'ilit% of fatigue< t!e a'o=e si&plification it! its i&plied stress redistri'ution is not applica'le to 'ridge construction to t!e sa&e e?tent.

## 1.3 S\$o"e o7 Prese!t 4e\$ture

(!is lecture relates to splices in 'uilding structures. (!e splice arrange&ents< guidelines and design concepts de=eloped !ere are also applica'le to 'ridge structures 'ut su'Bect< in addition< to t!e reser=ations descri'ed a'o=e. An% splice in a 'uilding structure< !ic! &a% 'e e?posed to fatigue loading s!ould< of course< 'e su'Bect to t!e sa&e consideration.
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)plices in structural &e&'ers of 'uilding structures can 'e su'Bect to a?ial forces< to 'ending and s!ear or to co&'ined a?ial force and 'ending. 0nl% t!e 'asic cases are e?a&ined 'elo < i.e. respecti=el% tensile or co&pressi=e a?ial force< on t!e one !and< and unia?ial 'ending it! s!ear< on t!e ot!er !and. If a splice is su'Bect to a co&'ination of t o or &ore of t!ese 'asic action effects< t!en t!e co&'ination s!ould 'e considered appropriatel%< see Lecture 12./.

## 2. SP4ICES IN TENSION MEMBERS

Co&pared it! co&pression &e&'ers< !ic! are usuall% designed for 'uc>ling resistance< tension &e&'ers are generall% &uc! &ore slender and !a=e a s&aller cross-sectional area. (ension &e&'ers !ic! are li>el% to 'e spliced include: a. tension c!ords and e' &e&'ers in trusses and lattice girders '. tension 'races and 'racing &e&'ers c. !angers d. ropes An% t%pe of structural s!ape - open or !ollo < single or co&pound - is appropriate for tension &e&'ers. (!e &ost co&&on sections used in t!is respect are: rods< flats< c!annels and angles. For large tensile forces< 8 and I sections and circular or rectangular !ollo sections can 'e used. (ensile force is trans&itted '% t!e plate ele&ents of t!e structural tension &e&'er in proportion to t!eir cross-section areas. (!e splice plate4s5 associated it! eac! plate ele&ent s!ould 'e designed to resist t!e rele=ant tensile force co&ponent. +ost splices in tension &e&'ers use splice plates and o=erlapped connections. Butt- elded splices are e?ecuted in special circu&stancesK end-plated splices are not freAuentl% used e?cept for !ollo sections.

## 2.1 Bolted S"l#\$e Plated Co!!e\$t#o!s

(!ere are t o t%pes of 'olted splices for tension &e&'ers< t!e% &a>e use of: a. 'earing 'olts< !en no special consideration is gi=en to slip in t!e splices< '. slip-resistant 'olts< !ic! pre=ent an% slip in t!e splice under ser=ice conditions and possi'l% at t!e ulti&ate li&it state of t!e connection. ConseAuentl% t!e% pro=ide t!e Boint and t!e tension &e&'er it! a larger e?tensional rigidit%. In 'olted connections< t!e ulti&ate &e&'er strengt! is reduced '% t!e 'olt !olesK it &a% also 'e reduced '% t!e partial effecti=eness and secondar% 'ending due to eccentricit% in t!e connection. In design t!e influence of t!e 'olt !oles is ac>no ledged '% c!ec>ing t!e net section. )o&e account is ta>en of strain !ardening so t!e design strengt! &a% still &atc! t!at

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of t!e gross section. #artial strengt! and eccentricit% effects are co=ered '% e&pirical rules. Bot! topics are addressed in Lecture 11.\$.2.

## 2.1.1 Bear#!&*t8"e \$o!!e\$t#o!s

Basicall% suc! connections are c!ec>ed it! reference to t!e design rules de=eloped in Lecture 11.3.1< !ic! are rele=ant for all t!e potential failure &odes. (!oug! it is desira'le t!at t!e splice a=oids load eccentricit% 4Figure 2a5< t!ere are cases !ere t!e tensile force is trans&itted eccentricall% 4Figure 2'5. #ro=ided t!e load eccentricit% is >ept s&all< t!e effects of secondar% 'ending on t!e ulti&ate strengt! of 'ot! &e&'er and splice &a% 'e disregarded< as a result of plastic redistri'ution. (!us &ost of t!e splices in tension &e&'ers are designed to resist tension onl%. W!en t!e eccentricit% of t!e force is not negligi'le< t!en eit!er a safe appro?i&ate allo ance s!ould 'e &ade for 'ending effects or e?plicit account s!ould 'e ta>en of t!e latter !en designing t!e splice. For instance< !en angles are spliced t!roug! one leg onl%< t!e outstanding leg is not full% effecti=e and t!ere is a &o&ent due to eccentricit% in t!e connection 4Figure 2c5K of course t!e splice illustrated in Figure 2d is far &ore ad=isa'le in t!is respect.

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In 'earing-t%pe connections< 'olts are designed to resist s!ear. (!e 'asic pro'le& lies in t!e force distri'ution a&ongst t!e successi=e ro s of 'olts o=er t!e Boint lengt!. 2?cept for long Boints 4see Lecture 11.\$.25 full plastic redistri'ution is assu&ed to ta>e place< !ic! allo s a unifor& load distri'ution 'et een all t!e 'olts of t!e splice.
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## Four failure &odes &a% 'e considered 4Figure 35:

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a. (earing at t!e net cross-section of t!e parent plate and@or t!e splice plate '. )!earing of t!e 'olt s!an> or t!readed region c. Bearing 'et een t!e plate and t!e 'olts d. )!earing of t!e plate 'e%ond t!e end fastener. (!e last failure &ode 4d5 s!ould not occur pro=ided t!at t!e end distance fro& t!e centre of a fastener !ole to t!e adBacent end of an% structural part &easured in t!e direction of load transfer is not less t!an 1<2 do< !ere do is t!e !ole dia&eter. Assess&ent of t!e resistance of t!e splice co&ponents it! regard to ot!er failure &odes is e?plained in Lecture 11.3.1. Attention &ust 'e paid to t!e net cross-section. W!ere !oles are arranged in parallel ro s located perpendicular to t!e tensile force< t!e net section is o'tained '% deducting fro& t!e gross area t!e largest total !ole area in an% cross-section. )!ould t!e 'olts 'e staggered t!en t!e cross-section to 'e considered can 'e an% diagonal or 9ig-9ag line e?tending progressi=el% across t!e plate it! an appropriate correction to ta>e into account t!e !oles not 'eing perpendicular to t!e direction of load transfer< see Lectures 11.\$.\$. 2it!er ordinar% 'olts or !ig! strengt! 'olts 4up to grade 17.65 &a% 'e used. 0rdinar% 4\$.-5 'olts are no onl% used for &inor connections.

## 2.1.2 Sl#" Res#sta!t Bolts

)plice connections using preloaded !ig! strengt! 'olts it! controlled tig!tening are usuall% designed to 'e slip-resistant at t!e ser=icea'ilit% li&it state. In suc! connections 'olts &a% co&e into 'earing at a load larger t!an t!e ser=ice load 'ut lo er t!an t!e ulti&ate load. (!erefore< t!ere is a need to c!ec> slip resistance against t!e design ser=icea'ilit% s!ear load and s!ear resistance of 'olts and 'earing resistance at t!e ulti&ate s!ear load. (!e net section of co=er plates is not necessaril% t!e ea>est co&ponent 'ecause load is transferred '% friction.

## 2.1.3 Te!s#o! 9olted \$o!!e\$t#o!s

(ension splices are rarel% designed using tension 'olted connections apart fro& !ollo section splices. W!ere suc! connections are adopted< !ig! strengt! 'olts 4up to grade 17.65 are usuall% used. Bolt preloading is ad=isa'le !en t!e splice is freAuentl% su'Bect to c!anges in &agnitude of tensile load. #reloading is reAuired !en fatigue resistance go=erns t!e design. Appropriate arrange&ents s!ould 'e &ade to li&it t!e &agnitude of possi'le pr%ing forces. #reloaded tension 'olted connections are li>el% to pro=ide t!e splice it! a !ig!er rigidit%. (!e end plate &aterial s!ould 'e carefull% selected in order to a=oid la&ellar tearing.

## 2.2 Welded S"l#\$e Co!!e\$t#o!s

(ensile forces can 'e transferred eit!er '% 'utt elds !ic! restore t!e continuit% of t!e &aterial or '% fillet elds used in conBunction it! o=erlap4s5 or co=er plate4s5.

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For t!e design of elds< see Lectures 11.2. Welded connections allo &e&'er parts to 'e full% tensioned< t!ere'% producing full-strengt! Boints. For practical and econo&ic reasons< elding is not generall% used for site splices.

## 2.3 S"e\$#al Co!!e\$t#o!s

W!en rods and 'ars are used as tension &e&'ers t!e% &a% 'e t!readed at t!e ends and spliced '% connecting t!e& directl% t!roug! a coupler. (!e strengt! is deter&ined '% t!e tensile stress area at t!e t!read. *opes are connected t!roug! end-soc>ets or ter&inals !ic! de=elop t!e full static strengt!.

## 3. SP4ICES IN COMPRESSION MEMBERS

Colu&ns< struts< so&e e' &e&'ers in trusses and lattice girders< and 'racings are a&ongst t!e &ost co&&on co&pression &e&'ers. )ince t!e% !a=e a tendenc% to 'uc>le< co&pression &e&'ers are nor&all% &ore stoc>% t!an tension &e&'ers. *olled or fa'ricated sections are &ost appropriate. )plices in co&pression &e&'ers &a% use arrange&ents Auite si&ilar to t!ose for tension &e&'ers. Co=er plates and fasteners s!ould 'e designed 'ased on si&ilar guidelines and design rules. )ince t!e% are su'Bect to co&pression forces< t!e plate co&ponents of t!e splice s!ould 'e carefull% e?a&ined it! regard to plate 'uc>ling. In contrast to tension &e&'ers - !ere load pat!s necessaril% in=ol=e fasteners - co&pressi=e loads can 'e transferred '% direct 'earing of t!e adBacent ends of t!e co&pression &e&'ers to 'e spliced. (!e faces do not need to 'e &ac!ined pro=iding t!e% are flat it!in appropriate tolerances. )uc! tolerances can usuall% 'e satisfied '% cutting it! a &illing sa .

## 3.1 Bolted S"l#\$e Plated Co!!e\$t#o!s

W!en t!e &e&'ers are designed as end 'earing< t!e co&pressi=e force is full% trans&itted in t!at a%. )uc! a splice can of course 'e used !en t!e connected &e&'ers are of t!e sa&e serial si9es 4Figure 3a5. Alternati=el% a si&ilar arrange&ent can 'e designed it! a gap 'et een t!e colu&n ends< in !ic! case all load &ust 'e trans&itted '% t!e co=er plates. Longer plates and &ore 'olts ill t!erefore 'e reAuired. W!en necessar%< s!i&s or pac>ing plates s!ould 'e introduced 'et een t!e &e&'er flanges and co=er plates to co&pensate for fa'rication tolerances or differences in rolling eig!t si9e. (!oug! satisfactor% for strengt!< 'earing does not pro=ide continuit% of 'ending stiffness. (!erefore t!e splice s!ould include co=er plates !ic! restore continuit% in fle?ure a'out 'ot! principal a?es and resist an% tensile force t!at ould possi'l% result fro& secondar% &o&ents. )plice &aterial and fasteners s!ould 'e proportioned to resist a notional force acting at t!e a'utting ends< in an% direction perpendicular to t!e a?is of t!e &e&'er< and !ose &agnitude s!ould not 'e less t!an 2<,E of t!e co&pressi=e force in t!e &e&'er< see Figure 3d.

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Bolted splice plated connections &a% also 'e used !en t!e &e&'er ends are not prepared for 'earing. (!en t!e full co&pressi=e force &ust 'e transferred t!roug! t!e co=er plates and fasteners< si&ilarl% to tension &e&'ers. #ac>ings s!ould 'e used to co&pensate for significant c!ange in si9e of t!e &e&'ers. Bear in &ind t!at a'o=e a certain t!ic>ness pac>ing reduces t!e s!ear =alue of t!e 'olts.

## 3.2 Bolted E!d Plated Co!!e\$t#o!s

C!anges in serial si9e can result fro& considerations of econo&%. +aBor c!anges occur !ere colu&ns !a=e to support !ea=% additional loads o=er a portion onl% of t!eir !eig!t. In suc! situations< to o'tain sound load transfer a di=ision plate is reAuired !ic! is fi?ed onto t!e deeper &e&'er using site 'olted cleats or s!op elding. (!e splice is co&pleted '% additional co=er plates and 'olts and possi'l% pac>s 4Figures 3' and 3c5. Alternati=el% t!e arrange&ent of Figure 3e can 'e usedK t o end plates elded onto t!e adBacent &e&'ers are asse&'led '% 'olting. (rans&ission of a?ial load in 'earing reAuires t!e faces to 'e flat it!in certain defined tolerances. Di=ision plates are ai&ed at transferring t!e co&pressi=e force fro& t!e s&aller &e&'er into t!e deeper one. A dispersion angle not less t!an \$, s!ould 'e assu&ed !en deter&ining load pat!s and 'earing stresses. It is usual practice for di=ision plates or end plates to !a=e a t!ic>ness not less t!an 27&&. In addition to co&pressi=e load< t!e splice co&ponents s!ould co&pl% it! t!e reAuire&ents for stiffness and notional strengt! discussed in )ection 3.1.

## 3.3 Full8 Welded Co!!e\$t#o!s

Full% elded splice connections can 'e &ade '% 'utt elds of all t!e &e&'er plate co&ponents< !en t!e &e&'er parts are of t!e sa&e or =er% si&ilar si9e 4Figure 3f5. W!en splices &ust allo for a c!ange in serial si9e< 'ot! &e&'er parts are prefera'l% elded onto a di=ision plate of appropriate t!ic>ness 4Figure 3g5. Butt elds s!ould 'e proportioned to restore t!e continuit% of t!e &aterial. Full% site elded splices 4Figures 3f and 3g5 reAuire special consideration during erectionK t!e adBacent structural parts &ust 'e te&poraril% gu%ed or propped until site- elding is co&pleted. (e&porar% cleats are !elpful in t!is respect. W!ere t!ere is an apprecia'le c!ange in serial si9e and !ea=% co&pressi=e loads< an a'nor&all% t!ic> di=ision plate can 'e reAuired. As an alternati=e< a t!inner< di=ision plate &a% 'e used it! additional stiffeners to assist in diffusing t!e load t!roug! t!e splice as s!o n in Figure \$.

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Because di=ision plates are su'Bect to trans=erse forces< t!eir t!ic>ness is &ainl% go=erned '% 'ending strengt!. (!eir &aterial s!ould 'e c!osen la&ination free< ot!er ise t!e 'ending resistance could 'e co&pro&ised.

3., 6dd#t#o!al Co

e!ts

Co&pression &e&'ers are seldo& su'Bect to pure a?ial force onl%. +ost freAuentl% t!e% !a=e also to resist so&e additional 'ending and s!ear. )upple&entar% effects s!ould 'e ta>en into account '% t!e use of t!e guidelines in )ection \$ and appropriate design rules !a=e 'een pro=ided Lectures 11.\$. )plices in colu&ns are &ost often located at t!eir foot close to t!e floor le=el. W!ere necessar% t!e% can 'e &as>ed it!in t!e floor dept!.

## ,. SP4ICES IN MEMBERS SUB@ECT TO BENDIN5

In &e&'ers !ic! are predo&inantl% su'Bect to 'ending< splices are nor&all% placed close to points of contrafle?ure< i.e. at sections !ere 'ending is t!e least. In addition to t!e reasons for using splices alread% &entioned< t!e designer &a% is! to use splices as an aid to preca&'ering or to c!ange sections to ac!ie=e econo&% '% reducing &e&'er si9es in regions of lo &o&ent.
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Bea& splices are ai&ed at transferring 'ending and associated s!ear. 2it!er elded or 'olted splice connections are possi'le and< for t!ese latter< eit!er s!ear connections or tensile connections can 'e used. (!e &ost co&&on t%pes of splices !en 'ea& parts !a=e t!e sa&e serial si9e are s!o n in Figure ,.

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Full% elded splices using full-penetration groo=e elds 4Figure ,d5 are co&&on in 'uilt-up &e&'ers and plate girders and possi'l% in rolled 'ea&s. (!e% are e?ecuted in t!e or>s!op. Alternati=el% fillet elded connections it! one sided or dou'le sided elded co=er plates &a% 'e used 4Figure ,c5. (!is t%pe of connection &a% 'e preferred to 'utt elds !en e?ecuted on t!e site< especiall% !en di&ensional control is a critical factor. Full-penetration 'utt elds are at least as strong as t!e 'ase &aterial. (!erefore no strengt! c!ec> is necessar% pro=ided t!e elds restore at least t!e rele=ant plate t!ic>ness. W!en splices use 'olted connections< !ig! strengt! 'olts are co&&onl% used in order to reduce t!e splice lengt!. #reloaded 'olts ill pro=ide a 'etter stiffness and reduce deflections 'ecause t!e% pre=ent slip. )uc! a consideration can 'e of &aBor i&portance !ere ser=ice conditions deter&ine t!e 'ea& design. 2ac! plate co&ponent of t!e splice s!ear connection s!ould 'e designed to transfer t!e forces in t!e ele&ents it connects. Co=er plates are nor&all% placed 'ot! sides of e's and on one or 'ot! sides of flanges. For t!e sa>e of si&plicit% and 'ased on t!e static t!eore& of plastic design< reference is co&&onl% &ade to a staticall% ad&issi'le force distri'ution< !ere t!e 'ending &o&ent is resol=ed into a pair of eAual 'ut opposite flange forces !ile t!e e' pro=ides resistance to s!ear onl%. W!ere t!e 'ea& splice is at a c!ange in serial si9e t!en t!e a'o=e arrange&ents &a% 'e used pro=ided due allo ance is &ade for appropriate pac>s and possi'l% e' stiffeners to diffuse flange forces. )uc! situations so&eti&es arise fro& arc!itectural considerations or tig!t local !eadroo& reAuire&ents. W!ere< rarel%< t!e 'ea& splice is located at a point of &a?i&u& &o&ent it is i&portant to ensure t!at t!e splice !as a rotation capacit% t!at is consistent it! t!e glo'al anal%sis of t!e o=erall structure. W!ere< as is usuall% t!e case t!e splice is located at a region of lo &o&ent no special consideration of rotation capacit% is reAuired. 2nd plates s!all 'e la&ination free.

## -. SP4ICES IN MEMBERS SUB@ECT TO COMBINED 6FI64 FORCE 6ND BENDIN5

)plices in &e&'ers su'Bect to co&'ined a?ial force and 'ending s!ould 'e proportioned '% ta>ing appropriate account of t!e guidelines listed in t!e a'o=e sections for t!e respecti=e co&ponents of loading. )pecial care s!ould 'e ta>en !en identif%ing t!e load pat!s as ell as t!e forces to 'e trans&itted '% eac! splice co&ponent.

.. CONC4UDIN5 SUMM6RY

)plices are Boints &ade it!in t!e lengt! of an% structural &e&'er. )plices s!ould 'e designed to allo for t!e transfer of stress resultants e?isting in t!e Boint< it! due allo ance for second order effects< i&perfections and load eccentricities.
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