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NASA Technical Memorandum'81232

USAAVRADCOM TR- 81- A- 23

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!NASA-Td-81222) (IAS-)

EXPBBIbBU1AL AUD A I A L Y T I C A L

STUDIES OF A MODEL BBLICOPTBB


6 1 p HC A O 4 / f l P

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11 HOVER CSCL O l A

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08413

Experimental and Analytical Studies of a Model Helicopter Rotor in Hover


F. X. Caradonna and C. Tung

September 1981

Nat~onal Aeronautics and Space Admlnlstrat~on

Un~ted States Army Aviation Research and Development Command

- 4 .

-USAAVRAOCOM TR-81-A23

NASA Technical Memorandum 81232

Experimentaland Analytical Studies of a Model Helicopter Rotor in Hover


F. X. Caradonna C. Tung, Aeromechanics Laboratory AVRADCOM Research and Technology Laboratories
A~nes Research Center, Moffett Field, California

1Jn1IedStates Army Aviallon Research and Development Command St LOUIS.Mlssour~63166

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIBS OF A XODBL HELICOPTER ROTOR IN HOVER

F. X. Caradonna and C. Tung


Aeromechanics Laboratory

U.S. Amy Research and Technology L a b o r a t o r i e s (AVRADCOH)

The present study is a benchmark test t o a i d t h e development of v a r i o u s r o t o r performance codes. The study involves simultaneous blade p r e s s u r e measurements and t i p v o r t e x surveys. Measurements were made f o r a wide range of t i p Mach numbers i n c l u d i n g t h e t r a n s o n i c flow regime. The measured t i p v o r t e x s t r e n g t h and geometry permit ef feccive blade loading p r e d i c t i o n s when used as i n p u t t o a p r e s c r i b e d wake l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code I t is a l s o shown t h a t w i t h proper inflow and boundary l a y e r modeling, t h e s u p e r c r i t i c a l flow regime may be a c c u r a t e l y predicted.

SYMBOLS
A

r a t i o of vortex c i r c u l a t i o n t o maximum blade-bound c i r c u l a t i o n aspect r a t i o

Ck s e c t i o n a l l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t
d
R

r a d i a l d i s t a n c e from a v o r t e x t o a flow-f i e l d p o i n t radius of t h e r o t o r blade r a d i a l d i s t a n c e from t h e r o t o r c e n t e r of r o t a t i o n vortex-induced v e l o c i t y r e s i d u a l v e l i ~ c i t yi n t h e wake r/R, nondimensional r a d i a l coordinate a x i a l d i s t a n c e from r o t o r r o t a t i o n a l speed

r
Vi

VR
y
z

Y YV

azimuthal angle measured from t h e p o i n t of b l a d e overhead passage vortex age, t h e azimuth angle, Y, when v o r t e x s t r i k e s t h e probe

*Presented a t the S i x t h European R o t o r c r a f t and Powered L i f t A i r c r a f t Forum, September 16-19, 1980, B r i s t o l , England.

1.

INTRODUCTION

The p a s t two decades have s e e n a c o n t i n u i n g development of methods t o p r e d i c t r o t o r hover performance w i t h i n c r e a s i n g accuracy. These methods i n c l u d e l i f t i n g l i n e ( r e f s . 1-3), l i f t i n g s u r f a c e ( r e f s . 4-6). and f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e ( r e f . 7) methods. P r a c t i c a l l y speaking, none of t h e s e methods is s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ; t h e y a l l r e q u i r e t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l l y o b t a i n e d wake d a t a ( s t r e n g t h and geometry) i n o r d e r t o have a c o r r e c t downwash d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n e v i t a b l y , t h e development o f t h e s e codes becomes a t u n i n g p r o c e s s i n which i t is determined j u s t how d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e a wake d e s c r i p t i o n must be. T h i s s t a g e of code development p l a c e s g r e a t r e l i a n c e on t h e a v a i l a b l e body of experimental r o t o r d a t a . The a v a i l a b l e r o t o r d a t a i n c l u d e a s i z e a b l e number o f tests where d e t a i l e d b l a d e l o a d i n g i s o b t a i n e d u s i n g s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r s ( r e f s 8-1 1) , and mre r e c e n t l y by laser d o p p l e r v e l o c i m e t r y ( r e f s . 12-14). There is a l s o a number of tests i n which t h e r o t o r wake geometry i s d e f i n e d by flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ( r e f s . 3 and 5) f o r a wide v a r i e t y of b l a d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Of t h e v a r i o u s wake s t u d i e s , o n l y Boatwright ( r e f . 15) and Cook ( r e f . 16) made d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of t h e wake flow s t r u c t u r e s . Cook's work is e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t he was a b l e t o measure t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e t i p v o r t e x by a c u r v e - f i t t i n g t e c h n i q u e u s i n g hot-wire d a t a . However, t h e r e seem t o be no u s e a b l e d a t a i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n which simultaneous b l a d e load d i s t r i b u t i o n and wake measurements a r e made.

.. .
,

I t i s t h e ~ n t e n t i o nof t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o h e l p f i l l t h i s gap i n tile l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s paper w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e experimental set-up i n which s t e a d y b l a d e p r e s s u r e s were obtained using hub-mounted t r a n s d u c e r s and t i p v o r t i c e s were measured u s i n g Cook's technique. The d a t a o b t a i n e d a r e f o r u n s t a l l e d flow ranging from t h e low s u b s o n i c t o t r a n s o n i c c o n d i t i o n s . I t is shown h e r e i n t h a t t h e measured wake geometry d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from p r c v i o u s l y published low-aspect-ratio d a t a ( r e f . 5). T h i s d i f f e r ence i s r e f l e c t e d i n a n i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t t h e measured b l a d e l o a d i n g ( u s i n g Summa's p r e s c r i b e d waki? l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code ( r e f . 6 ) ) when t h i s c l a s s i c a l wake geometry is used.

2.

THE EXPERIMENT

The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper were gathered i n t h e Army Aeromechanics Laborat o r y ' s hover t e s t f a c i l i t y , a l a r g e chamber w i t h s p e c i a l d u c t i n g designed t o e l i m i n a t e room r e c i r c a l a t i o n . The r o t o r , s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e chamber, w a s mounted on a t a l l column c o n t a i n i n g t h e d r i v e s h a f t ( f i g . 1 ) . The r o t o r employed two c a n t i l e v e r mounted, nlanually a d j u s t a b l e b l a d e s w i t h h a l f d e g r e e precone. These b l a d e s used a n NXCA 0012 p r o f i l e and were untwisted and untapered. An a s p e c t r a t i o of 6 was chosen i n o r d e r t o maximize Reynolds Number and a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n space. The b l a d e s were grooved t o accommodate 60 p r e s s u r e t u b e s each. These t u b e s connect t o a s p e c i a l A 856-15 t r a n s d u c e r s ) d r i v e n by one c l u s t e r of t h r e e 4888 Scanivalves ( u s i n g Statham P SS5-48 s o l e n o i d d r i v e mounted i n t h e r o t o r hub. T h i s arrangement p e r m i t s an ample number of p o r t s f o r f i v e measurement l o c a t i o n s - t h r e e r a d i a l l o c a t i o n s on each b l a d e , with one l o c a t i o n b e i n g i d e n t i c a l on b o t h b l a d e s f o r comparison purposes. The Scanivalve s t e p p e r motor was a c t u a t e d by a d i g i t a l d a t a system which acquired t h e d a t a , computed t h e c e n t r i f u g a l p r e s s u r e d r o p s , and d i s p l a y e d t h e f i n a l p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b i i t i o n . A f t e r manually a d j u s t i n g t h e two b l a d e s , t h e p r e s s u r e d a t a was a l s o used t o check t h e e q u a l i t y of l o a d i n g s . The p r e s s u r e d a t a a t t h e 0.8 R r a d i a l s t a t i o n o significant differences i n the a r e compared f o r t h e two b l a d e s i n f i g u r e 2. N

loadings were seen f o r any o p e r a t i n g conditions. ( ~ d d i t i o m l i n d i c a t i o n of this loading e q u a l i t y is t h a t no c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e hro shed v o r t i c e s was found.) The r e s u l t i n g pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h r e t t i q p of So, 8'. and 12' a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 3, 4, and 5. These and o t h e r p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e tabulated i n appendix A. It is seen i n f i g u r e s 3, 4, and 5 t h a t t h e inboard pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e only s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d by r o t o r speed. However, t h e outboard s e c t i o n s show conside:.lble p r e s s u r e a l . t e r a t i o n and shock development as t h e t i p Mach number approaches near s o n i c values. O v e r a l l , however, t h e spanwise load d i s t r i b u t i o n (obtained by p r e s s u r e i n t e g r a t i o n ) is ranarkably l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by t i p Mach number ( f i g . 6 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t i p preesures were compared w i t h those of reference 11 and a r e seen i n f i g u r e 7 t o b e n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l . Wake d a t a were acquired w i t h a traverse-mounted DISA SSP01 hot-wire probe mounted beneath t h e r o t o r . The probe was o r i e n t e d with the wire being tangent t o t h e r o t o r t i p path. This permits measurement of t h e magnitude of t h e v o r t e x induced v e l o c i t y when the remainder of the r o t o r downwash is properly accounted f o r . I t a l s o excluded t h e e f f e c t of a x i a l v e l o c i t y on t h e induced v e l o c i t y measurement. Dzta from the wire a r e acquired a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s along t h e t i p v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r i e s and can give bcth the t i p vortex geometry and s t r e n g t h . One problem w i t h t h i s approach is t h a t t h e vr --tex t r a j e c t o r y is not steady and t h e probe l o c a t i o n (which is chosen by an on-thespot d e c i s i o n a s t o where the number of v o r t e x core " h i t s " is maximized) c o n t a i n s some a s yet undetermined e r r o r . The r e s u l t i n g d a t a stream has considerable v a r i a b i l i t y . However, i n o r d e r t o be c e r t a i n of t h e vortex l o c a t i o n , t h e only acceptable d a t a a r e chose where t h e v o r t e x core a c t u a l l y h i t s the prcbe. I n t h e d i g i t i z a t i o n process (done o f f - l i n e a t a reduced tape speed), t h e above-mentioned d a t a system was coded t o look f o r and accept only those d a t a which showed t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i g n a l d i p (wherein the m i r ~ i m u mv e l o c i t y i s very c l o s e t o the vortex t r a n s l a t i o n speed) which i n d i c a t e s a probe-vortex s t r i k e . This titrns out t o be a very small percentage of t h e t o t a l mount of d a t a a c t u a l l y recorded. A t y p i c a l hot-wire t r a c e d i s p l a y i n g t h e above-mentioned v a r i a b i l i t y i s shown i n f i g u r e 8.

3.

HOT WIRE D A T A ANALYSIS

The idea of t h e c u r r e n t d a t a a n a l y s i s i s t h a t a t i p v o r t e x should look l i k e an i n f i n i t e l i n e vortex t o a s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e probe. Unfortunatly, t h e probe meas u r c s not only t h e v e l o c i t y induced by the v o r t e x a t hand, V i , but a l s o t h a t induced by thc blade and the remainder of t h e wake system a s w e l l , VR. The problem i n analyzi n g the probe d a t a i s , then, how t o s e p a r a t e t h i s r e s i d u a l v e l o c i t y , VR, from the immediate vortcx-induced v e l o c i t y , Vi. Cook ( r e f . 16) handled t h i s problem by assumi n g t h a t the r e s i d u a l v e l o c i t y was constant and given by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n v e l o c i t y of t h e t i p vortex. Ht! then was a b l e t o find t h e v o r t e x s t r e n g t h by a f i t t i n g process. This s t r e n g t h was found t o be f a r l e s s than t h e computed maximum blade bound c i r c u l a t i o n of the s i n g l e , f u l l - s c a l e blade used i n t h a t t e s t . I t was a l s o found t h a t t h e v o r t i c e s measured were d i s t i n c t l y n o n c l a s s i c a l i n t h a t they contained a l a r g e rotat i o n a l region o u t s i d e of the viscnus core. In what follows, we s h a l l use a process very s i m i l a r to Cook's i n analyzing wake d a t a . F i r s t consideration i s given t o t h e v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r i e s . Figure 9 shows t h e .luial and r a d i a l components of t h e vortex t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r a p i t c h s e t t i n g of 8'. 'Chi5 f i g u r e gives d a t a f o r a wide range of r o t o r speeds, and i t i s apparent t h a t t h e t r a j e c t o r y is e s s e n t i a l l y independent of t i p speed even i n t o t h e t r a n s o n i c r e g h e . Flgr~re9 together with f i g u r e 6 suggests t h a t t h e nonlinear t r a n s o n i c flow on the b l n d c has l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e f a r - f i e l d induced flow as long a s t h e l o c a l l i f t is

not g r e a t l y a l t e r e d . Also p l o t t e d on t h i s f i g u r e i s t h e v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r y given by Kocurek's wake-fitting formula f o r r o t o r s i n f r e e a i r . Although t h e a x i a l component of t h e t r a j e c t o r y compares w e l l with Kocurek's formula, t h e r e appears t o b e a g r e a t e r discrepancy i n t h e c o n t r a c t i o n than can be explained by measurement e r r o r . The v o r t a x t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r p i t c h s e t t i n g s ranging from 5 O t o 12' a r e given i n figure 10, The present aim i n analyzing t h e r o t o r wake is only t o f i n d t h e v o r t e x s t r e n g t h and not a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s t r u c t u r e . This s t r e n g t h w i l l be found by f i t t i n g t h e wake d a t a t o t h e v e l o c i t i e s obtained from an a p p r o p r i a t e combination of i n v i s c i d , two-dimensional v o r t i c e s . The v e l o c i t y from one such v o r t e x i s given by

where t h e s t r e n g t h of the v o r t e x i s described by A, t h e r a t i o of t h e v o r t e x c i r c u l a t i o n t o t h e maximum bound c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e blade. (This could be determined by t h e pressure d a t a because t h e c i r c u l a t i o n peak i s not very s h a r p and is q u i t e c l o s e t o the t a p l o c a t i o n . ) To accomplish t h i s f i t t i n g , i t is f i r s t necessary t o convert t h e s p a t i a l l y dependent equation (1) i n t o a time-dependent expression, a s t h e vor ex d a t a a r e time-based, Assuming t h a t A i s constant (which seems t o be t r u e w i t h i n reasona b l e e r r o r bounds), t h e conversion t o a time-dependent function is accomplished by expressing d a s a function of time using t h e v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r y d a t a of f i g u r e 9. The next s t e p i s t h e d e t e r n i n a t i o n of the r e s i d u a l v e l o c i t y , VR, which must be vect o r i a l l y added t o Vi before a comparison can be made with t h e probe d a t a . W e have done t h i s i n two d i f f e r e n t ways:
1 ) The first way t o determine V R involves very young v o r t i c e s (about 50" o l d ) . For t h e s e i t was assumed t h a t VR was given by the v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r i e s ( f i g . 9). The f i t t i n g process always commenced when t h e vortex core h i t t h e probe and ended when t h e following blade passed over; t h i s assured t h e simplest p o s s i b l e flow f i e l d , a s t h e r e would be v o r t i c e s on only one s i d e o f t h e probe and minimal i ~ f l u e n c e of v o r t e x s h e e t s of probe d a t a with and blade bound v o r t i c i t y . Figure 11 shows some t y p i c a l con ~ r i s o n s t h e f i t t i n g expression. This f i g u r e shows the v o r t e x velocity-time t r a c e s f o r p i t c h s e t t i n g s of 8' and 1 2 " . I t i s seen here t h a t t h e f i t t i n g curve provides a good match t o the d a t a o u t s i d e of the immediate core region. Furthermore, t h e vortex s t r e n g t h is very c l o s e t o t h e maximum blade bound c i r c u l a t i o n .

2) A second means t o determine VR was required i n analyzing o l d e r v o r t i c e s (about 210" o l d ) . The flow i s more complex i n t h i s c a s e , a s t h e probe always l i e s between two v o r t i c e s i n the f i t t i n g region, and the expression f o r t h e vortex-induced v e l o c i t y i s correspondingly complicated. In f a c t , V i f o r t h i s case was determined using t h r e e v o r t i c e s - one outboard of t h e probe and two inboard. Again, t h e d a t a were f i t f o r t h e time period between a probe-vortex s t r i k e and the subsequent blade passage. It was found t h a t with VR determined by the v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r y d a t a , i t was trot p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a good f i t of t h e c l a s s i c a l v o r t e x expression t o t t ~ e wake d a t a . Instead, w e found t h a t a b e t t e r value f o r VR was found by w e of t h e minimum mebsured v e l o c i t y between two v o r t i c e s . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e vortex-induced v e l o c i t y is :.mall, but not zero (due t o the d i f f e r i n g instantaneous t r a n s l a t i o n v e l o c i t i e s of t h e t h r e e v o r t i c e s ) . The minimal induced v e l o c i t y i s c a l c u l a t e d (assuming some value of A) and s u b t r a c t e d flom t h e minimum measured i n t e r v o r t e x v e l o c i t y t o o b t a i n 1 ' ~ . This t a s k was rendcred q u i t e simple by t h e f a c t t h a t the r a d i a l component of t h e s e veloci t i e s t u r n s out t o be very small ( t h i s was checked by c a l c u l a t i o n s and measurements with a second probe). Since t h e two methods above do not give t h e same value f o r t h e r e s i d u a l v e l o c i t y , i t is c l e a r t h a t VR i s not a constant i n t h i s case. W e assume,

however, t h a t i t changes s u f f i c i e n t l y slowly t o render t h e f i t t i n g proceee meaningf u l . I n f a c t , t h e r e s u l t s thus obtained a r e c o n e i s t e n t w i t h t h e young v o r t e x d a t a . Figure 12 shows some t y p i c a l comparisons of t h e o l d e r v o r t e x d a t a w i t h t h e f i t t i n g expressions. T h i s f i g u r e shows t h e f i t t i n g s f o r p i t c h s e t t i n g s of S o , 8'. and 12'. It is seen t h a t t h e 8' and 12' cases show v o r t e x s t r e n g t h s which match t h e maximum blade-bound v o r t i c i t y very w e l l . A t 5' p i t c h , however, t h e s t r e n g t h is seen t o b e considerably smaller.
It seems from t h e above d a t a , which a r e taken at a low r o t o r speed, t h a t t h e t i p Although v o r t e x develops i t s f u l l s t r e n g t h very e a r l y i n l i f e (mainly b e f o r e 50'). t h e r e is a f a i r amount of v a r i a b i l i t y between vortices, it is r a t h e r s t r i k l n g t h a t very many v o r t i c e s c l o s e l y approach a c l a s s i c a l Rankine v o r t e x i n appearance. Furthermore, t h e v o r t i c e s (except f o r t h e So c a s e ) seem t o c o n t a i n a l l of t h e blade c i r c u l a t i o n . This v o r t e x s t r e n g t h and s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r s markedly from t h e r e s u l t obtained by Cook and probably r e f l e c t s t h e considerable d i f f e r e n c e s i n b l a d e geome t r i e s . A s r o t o r t i p speed i n c r e a s e s ( f i g . 13). however, t h e r e appears t o be an i n c r e a s i n g d e p a r t u r e from t h e Rankine v o r t e x appearance. Nevertheless, t h e nondimens i o n a l v o r t e x s t r e n g t h seems unaffected by t i p speed.

, .

.\

4.

COMPARISON OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

I n order t o i n t e g r a t e t h e present wake and loading d a t a i n t o a b e l i e v a b l e whole,


e have i t i s necessary t o be a b l e t o reproduce t h e blade loading computationally. W chosen t o do t h i s u s i n g A.M. I. ' s l i f t i n g s u r f a c z code ( r e f . 6 ) . T h i s i s a very
f

f l e x i b l e , compressible, l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code which can handle e i t h e r prescribed o r f r e e wakes. I n i t i a l e f f o r t s t o compute t h e b l a d e loading were done u s i n g t h e Kocurek wake geometry ( r e f . 5 ) . The r e s u l t i n g computed t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t was t o o high by about 20%. The next s t e p was t o compute t h e loading u s i n g t h e measured v o r t e x l o c a t i o n s and s t r e n g t h . Figure 14 shows a comparison of t h e measured and computed loading using t h e measured v o r t e x parameters f o r a c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h of 8' ( t h e t r a j e c t o r y is given by f i g . 9 and we choose A = 1.0). The comparison is now considerably improved and t h e t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t i s overpredicted by l e s s than 5%. I n view of t h e previously mentioned u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n t h e v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r y measurements, t h e s e computations were a l s o performed with t h e e n t i r e v o r t e x t r a j e c t o r y perturbed such t h a t a t Y = 180, the a x i a l and r a d i a l p e r t u r b a t i o n s were t0.025 R. The r e s u l t s derived from a l l p o s s i b l e conbinations of t h e s e a x i a l and r a d i a l changes f i l l t h e shaded a r e a i n f i g u r e 14. That t h e above measured and computed r e s u l t s a r e roughly centered on t h i s shaded region i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r t h i s c a s e t h e measured t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e f a i r l y accur a t e . However, t h e b e s t comparison w i t h t h e measured loading occurs when t h e v o r t e x r a d i a l l o c a t i o n ( a t Y = 180') is increased ( t h a t i s , t h e c o n t r a c t i o n is decreased) by 0.025 R. The i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was found t o occur i n computations of t h e 12" p i t c h cases; t h a t i s , t h e b e s t comparison occurred when t h e r a d i a l v o r t e x l o c a t i o n was increased by 0.025 R over t h e measured value ( f i g . 15). For t h e 5' c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h c a s e , t h e s i t u a t i o n was a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t a reasonable comparison of computation and loading d a t a could not be made u n t i l t h e v o r t e x s t r e n g t h was reduced t3 A = 0.75. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e v o r t i c i t y which would otherwise have been i n t h e t i p vortex was now included i n t h e v o r t e x s h e e t model. (For a complete d e s c r i p t i o c )f the assumed v o r t e x sheet model s e e r e f . 6.) T h i s r e s u l t is c o n s i s t e n t with t h e measured v o r t e x s t r e n g t h and g i v e s t h e comparison shown i n f i g u r e 16.

The previous comparisons have been made a t low t i p dach numberr. The l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code used should be a p p l i c a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e e p a a s i e e m d chordwira l o a d i n 8 up t o t h e o n s e t of s u p e r c r i t i c a l flair. Beyond t h i r p o i n t , l i n e a r a e r o d p n r r i c r are not a p p l i c a b l e on t h e blade and a more complete flow d e s c r i p t i o n is r e q u i t e d . AD a preliminary e v a l u a t i o n of t h e high-rpeed flow d a t a , two-dimensional computations were made of t h e flow a t t h e 80%r a d i a l s t a t i o n . This was done w i n g H o l e t ' s f u l l - p o t e n t i a l code ( r e f . 17). I n o r d e r t o perform t h i s computation, an a n g l e of a t t a c l r i a required. Since t h e region of supersonic flow is l o c a l i t e d ( i . e . , l i m i t e d t o t h e i a n e d i a t e v i c i n i t y of t h e upper blade s u r f a c e ) , i t should be p o s s i b l e t o f i n d t h e awle o f a t t a c k u s i n g t h e l i n e a r l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code. Of course, the l i f t i n g s u r f a c e code require. t h e measured v o r t e x l o c a t i o n and s t r e n g t h as awntioned previously. With t h e a n g l e of a t t a c k obtained thereby, t h e Holst code produced t h e r e e u l t s shown i n f i g u r e 17. T h i s f i g u r e shows two ccmputed r e s u l t s - an i n v i a c i d r e s u l t and one w i t h a v i s c o u s rampboundary l a y e r model ( r e f . 18). It i s seen t h a t a shock-boundary l a y e r i n t e r a c t i o n model is very necessary and i n t h i s c a s e very e f f e c t i v e .
5.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The present study was intended a s a benchmark t o a i d i n t h e development of hasrrr performance codes. The g o a l was eo o b t a i n s i m l t a n e o u s measurements of blade loail d i s t r i b u t i o n and t i p vortex geometry and s t r e n g t h u s i n g f a i r l y standard techniqries. I n s p i t e of some u n c e r t a i n t i e s (due mainly t o wake unsteadiness), l i f t i n g s u r f a c e computations show t h a t t h e p r e s e n t measured loads and wake measurements are generally consiscent w i t h each o t h e r . The main conclusions from t h j s study a r e :
1. The Cook vortex measurement technique seems t o be q u i t e e f f v c t l v e Ic7r t w bladed r o t o r s .

I _

2 . A t low r o t o r speeds, an untwisted, untapered, double-blade4 rot:~l;prcriuces t i p v o r t i c e s which can c l o s e l y resemble a c l a s s i c a f . Rankine vortex. % s c r t ~ i ~o ir the ~ U D bound lowest p i t c h s e t t i n g s , t h i s v o r t e x s t r e n g t h c l o s e l y approaches t h e ; I I P T ~ ~blade c i r c u l a t i o n . A t higher ti; speeds, t h e i n n e r v o r t e x s t r u c t u r e appear? ?r:creasingly n o n c l a s s i c a l ; however, t h e s t r e n g t h i s u n a l t e r e d .

3. I t is not p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e blade-spanwise-load d?..itr' i6:.t:.f~n without accurate vortex l o c a t i o n and s t r e n g t h d a t a . The present meaaurA v o l i , ( u l o c ~ t i o n d a t a were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( f o r p r e s e n t l y unknown re.ss<iru+ :rorLtbc~r'li;ssical d a t a i n the l i t e r a t u r e . However, t h e s e measurements were sr..o?a:;ei?s;S',e io obtaining a reasonable comparison of theor- and experiment.

4 . For t h e present r o t o r found t o have no e f f e c t on t h e t o r i e s . The chordwise loading only be simulated by nonlinear l a y e r interaction model.

and speed range t e s t e d , r :e Q R S ~ : ' o f i'ar.do LC LOW was spanwise loading d i s t r burio:: jrld rlw vc., t;lx crrrjecis profoundly a l t e r e d t y elit7 C Y ~ ; : : ' -7.' and can ' = * ? , ! v s, ,;~oc.kboundary aerodynamic techniya*:.a uhf: ,

% .

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work represents the contributions of many excellent people. We would like to extend our thanks to W. D. Vann (Ft. Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Applied Technology Laboratory) and H. Jones (U.S. Army Research and Technoloey Laboratories) who were instrumental in initiating our computational studies. Special acknowledgment is due to Georgene Laub who tirelessly and ably assisted in the running of the test. Thanks also to M. Summa (Applied Mechanics, Inc.) who wrote the lifting surface code i,ind assisted us in running it; S. C. Lee (University of Missouri) and T. L. Holst i h e s Research Center) who provided us with the finite difference computations. REFERENCES
1.

Crimi, P . : Theoretical Prediction of the Flow in the Wake of a Hovering Rotor. CAI. Report No. BI-1994-S-1 and No. BB-19944-2, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 1965. Landgrebe, A. J.: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Helicopter Rotor Hover Performance and Wake Geometry Characteristics. USAAMRDL Technical Report 71-24, Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Eustis, Va., June 1971. Landgrebe, A. J. ; Moffett, R. ; and Clark, D . : Aerodynamics Technology for Advanced Rotorcraft, Part 1. J. American Helicopter Soc., vol. 22, no. 2, Apr. 1977. Johnson, W.: A Lifting Surface Solution for Vortex I~ducedAirloads and Its Application to Rotary Wing Airloads Calculations. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aeroelastic and Structures Research Laboratory, TR 153-2, Apr. 1970. Kocurek, J. D.; and Tangler, J. L.: A Prescribed Wake Lifting Surface Hover Performhnce Analysis. Presented at the 32nd Annusl National Forum of the American Helicopter Society, preprint 1001, May 1976.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. Summa, J. M.; and Clark, D. R.: A Lifting-Surface Method for Hover/Climb Loads. Presented at the 35th Annual F o r m of the American Helicopter Society, Washington, D. C., preprint 79-1, May 1979.

7.

Caradonna, F. X . : The Transonic Flow on a Helicopter Rotor. Stanford U., Stanford, Calif., March 1978.

Ph.D. Thesis,

8. Rabbott, J. P., Jr.: Static-Thrust Measurements of the Aerodynamic Loading on a Helicopter Rotor Blade. NACA TN 3688, Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Langley Field, Va., Feb. 1956. 9. Scheiman, J.; and Kelley, H. L. : Comparison of Flight-Measured Helicopter Rotor-Blade Chordwise Pressure Distributions with Static Two-Dimensional Airfoil Characteristics. NASA TN D-3936, 1967,

1 0 . Brotherhood, P.; and Young, C . : The Heaeurement and Interpretation of Rotor Blade Pressures and Loads on a Puma Helicopter in Flight. Pferented at the Fifth European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Mrcraft F o M ~ , Amtardam, The Netherlands, Sept, 1979.

h . n o y r K, R,; and 8 r , H . L . : Surfbca Preerure 11, Gray, R. B.; McHahon, H. M.; S Measurements at Two Tipe of a Model Helicopter Rotor in Hover. NASA CP-3281, May 1980. 12. Sullivan, J. P . : Experimental Investigation of Vortex Ringe and Helicopter Rotor Wakes Using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter. D. S, Diaeertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1973. . : Effect of Tip Shape on Blade Bsllard, J. D.; Orloff, K. L.; and Luebs, A. B Loading Characteristics. Presented at the 35th Annual N~tionalForum of the American Helicopter Society, Washington, D. C., preprint 79-1, May 1979.

13.

14. Landgrebe, A. J.; and Johnson, B. V . : Mearurements of Model Helicopter Rotor Flow Velocities with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter. Tech. Note, J. American Helicopter Soc., vol. 19, no. 2, July 1974.
15. 16. 17. Boatwright. D. W.: Measurement of Velocity Component in the Wake of a Full Scale Helicopter Rotor in Hover. USAAMRDL TR 72-33, Aug. 1972. Cook, C. V.: The Structure of Rotor Blade Tip Vortex. AGARD CP-111, Sept, 1972.

Holst, T. L.: A Fast, Conservative Algorithm for Solving the Transonic FullPotential Equation. AIAA Paper 79-1456, July 1979. Preliminary

18. Lee, S. C.: Effect of Turbulent Roundary Layer on Transonic Flows. Report, NASA Interchange Number NCA24R450-001, Aug. 1979.

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40

ORH31NAL PAGE IS
OF 'POOR QUALIW

C \
HUB-SCANIVALVE ASSEMBLY

7.5ft

BLADE CONST RUCTtON

I
HOT W!RE WAgE TRAVERSE
,-

6 in. 143m)

>

I 120 in. (3.068rn3

, WAKE
EXHAUST DUCT

4 '

Figure 1.- The model and experiments1 set-up.

UPPER SURFACE

UPPER SURFACE LOWER SURFACE

.5

1.0

0 .5 1.o
xlc

xlc 52 = 1750 rpm


Mtip = 0.612

-1

. , .

UPPER SURFACE

R = 2250 rpm
Mtip = 0.794

R = 2500 rpm Mtip = 0.877

-1
C~

,/

UPPER SURFACE LOWER SURFACE

UPPER SURFACE

0
1

.5

1.0

.5

xlc

xlc

1.o

Figure 2.- Comparison of measured pressure distributions at r/8 = 0.8 from each ' (solid line = right blade, open symbol = left blade; collective pitch Bc = 8 blade).

figure 3.- Measured pressure distributions; collective pitch

8,

5'.

-------$2

= 1250 rpm

M T l p 0.439 CT '0.00459
r/R = 0.80

--R

= 1750 rpm MTIP= 0.612 CT " 0.00455

.5
X/C

5'2

= 2250 rpm MTlp= 0.794 CT = 0.00462

1.0

--- $2

= 2500 rpm M ~ l p 0.877 =

CT = 0.00473

Figure 4 . - Measured pressure distributions; c o l l e c t i v e pitch

8 ,

8'.

---a -a

= 1250rpm
MTIP 0.00796 CT

r/R = 0.80

-1

-1750rpm 0.610 CT a 0.00807

---.5 x/c

52

= 2279 rpm

MTIP' 0 ~ 7 9 ~ CT "0.00792

1.o

-2

.
C~

r/R = 0.50

r/R = 0.68

-1

.5 x/c

1.o
xlc

Figure 5.- Measured pressure distributione; collective pitch

0 ,

12'.

TEST DATA, 8, = 8"

SZ = 1250 rpm, CT = 0.00460


0 ! 2 = 2050 rpm, CT = 0.00461 0 $2 = 2500 rpm, CT = 0.00464 REGION OF LOADING VARIATION DUE TO RPM CHANGES

.4

.6 .8 RADIAL STATION, r/R

1.O

F i g u r e 6.- E f f e c t of r o t o r speed on blade span loading.

PRESENT TEST DATA, 0, = 12", MT QPe,r/R 496 0 GRAY'S TEST DATA, Oc = 1l.So, MT = 4260. r/R = 0.966

PRESENT TEST DATA, 8, = 5 ,MT = 0.226, r/R = 0.96 0 GRAY'S TEST DATA, Oc = 6.18', MT = 0.250, r/R = 0.966

x/c

Figure 7 . - Comparison of present r e s u l t s with s i n g l e blade t i p loading data.

4 '

'VORTEX

TRAJECTORY

(TOP VIEW)

PROBE-VORTEX CORE INTERSECTION POINT


/

VOR1 EX SHEET

Figure 8.- Typical wake probe data.

0
A

P:
a

S2=650rpm 52 = 1250 rpm 52 = 2540,2414 rpm 52 = 2250 rpm CURVE FIT OF PRESENT DATA

KOCUREK, TANGLER DATA, Cp0.0046

50

100

150 200 250 VORTEX AGE, JI,

300
&g

350

400

4%

Figure 9 . - Wake geometry measurements for various rotor speeds and comparison with 8". c l a s s i c a l data; c o l l e c t i v e pitch Bc

50

100

150 200 VORTEX AGE, ,$ ,

250 deg

300

350

Figure 10.- Wake geometry for various pitch settings.

Figure 1 1 . - Typical - ~ r t e x velocity-time trace and 1/R curve f i t for various pitch s e . t i n g a ; vortex age = 50' (nominal), fi = 1250 rpm.

Figure 12.- Typical vortex ve1ocit::-time trace and 1/R curve f i t for various ~ i t c ! . s e t t i n g s ; vortex age = 200' (nominal), R = 1250 rpm.

Figure 13.

Typical velocity-time trace and 1/R curve fit for vartous rotor 50"-65'. speeds; collective pitch Bc = 8'. vortex age QV

.5

.4

TEST DATA 8, = 8", OR = 150 m/s (491 fpr), CT

0.0046 AM1 LIFTINGSURFACE THEORY


. ... . ' . I _ . ..: .... .. .

, , VORTEX

MEASURED WAKE GEOMETRY, CT = 0.0048 CONTRACTION REDUCED BY 0.025 R, CT = 0.0047 REGION OF Cp VARIATION DUE TO WAKE GEOMETRY CHANGES

u"
I -

5 U .
&

.3-

8 U
t J J

a z 9
k

-2

V)

I
0

.2

.4 .6 RADIAL STATION, r1R

.8

1.O

Figure 1 4 . - E f f e c t of vortex p o s i t i o n on loading computation.

- ---

TEST DATA 6, = 12". QR = 150 mls (491 fps), CT = 0.079 A.M.I. CODE, USING MEASURED WAKE GEOMETRY, CT1 0.0083 A.M.I. CODE, VORTEX CONTRACTION REDUCED BY 0.025 R, CT = 0.0080 / @ I \
I
\

.3 1 0

.2

.4 .6 RADIAL STATION, r/R

.8

Figure 15.- Comparison of measured and computed loading.

-----

TEST DATA, 6, = 5", a R = 150 mls (491 fps), CT = 0.0021 MEASURED WAKE, A = 1.0, CT 0.0024 CONTRACTION REDUCED BY 0.02R A = 1.0, CT = 0.0025 CONTRACTION REDUCED BY O.02R A = 0.81, CT = 0.0023

/-\

i -

---...---

.2

.4 .6 RADIAL STATION, r/R

.8

1.O

Figurc 1b.-

Comparison of mec~sured a n d computcd l o a d l u g .

O
-1.0
0--

TEST DATA AT 0.8R MT = 0.877


a = 2.10 (FROM A M.I. CODE)

FINITE DIFFERENCE CODE,INVISCID FINITE DIFFERENCE CODE WITH VISCOUS EFFECT

[T. HOLSTI

C~

Figure 17.- Comparison of measured and computed chordwise pressure distribution.