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THE RELEVANCE OF BACKYARD AND SMALL SCALE POULTRY PROJECTS TO SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD IN TWO PANCHAYATHS IN THRISSUR DISTRICT
Deepa G Menon

THESIS
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the course
APPRECIATION PROGRAMME ON SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE (Programme Code: APSS)

AN IGNOU INITIATIVE IN

FOR OUR SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

COLLABORATION WITH

M S SWAMINATHAN RESEARCH FOUNDATION, CHENNAI
2009

Indira Gandhi national Open University, Maidan Garhi, NewDelhi

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The relevance of backyard and small scale poultry projects to sustainable livelihood in two Panchayaths in Thrissur District

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CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that the project report entitled “The relevance of backyard and small scale poultry projects to sustainable livelihood in two Panchayaths in Thrissur District” submitted to the Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi – 110068 in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the programme is an original work carried out by Deepa G Menon with enrolment no 093569130 under the guidance of Dr P Anitha. The matter embodied in this project is genuine work done by the student and has not been submitted either to this University or to any other University / Institute for the fulfilment of the requirement of any course of study.

Date:25/05/09 Name Address & Designation of the student Name and Address of the Guide Deepa G Menon Assistant Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala Dr P Anitha Associate Professor, Centre for Advanced Studies in Poultry Science, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala

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Acknowledgements I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. P Anitha Associate Professor Department of Poultry Science, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy. Her understanding, present thesis. I wish to express my warm and sincere thanks to Professor E Nanu, Dean, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy for permitting me to join this course. I am deeply grateful to my Professors Dr. A Jalaludeen and Dr. P A. Peethambaran, Centre for Advanced Studies in Poultry Science for their detailed, constructive comments and important support throughout this work. I owe my most sincere gratitude to Dr U S. Ramachandran, whose ideals and concepts have had a remarkable influence on my entire career. I am thankful to Dr P D Suresh, Dr Baburaj,Dr Joy George, who gave me untiring help during my work. I warmly thank my colleagues Dr. Anish D, Dr Geetha R, and Dr. Radhika for their valuable encouraging and personal guidance have provided a good basis for the

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advice

and

friendly

help.

The

extensive

discussions around my work and interesting explorations in operations have been very helpful for this study. My warm thanks are due to Ambili, a good friend and colleague who was kind enough to help and support me. My sincere thanks are due to the official referees for their detailed review, constructive criticism and excellent advice during the preparation of this thesis. I also wish to Dr thank Joy Dr. Baburaj, for Dr their Sethumadhavan, George,

continued support and guidance has been of great value in this study. During this work I have collaborated with many colleagues for whom I have great regard, and I wish to extend my warmest thanks to all those who have helped me with my work. I owe my thanks to my family members, my sons Roshan and Aaryan. Without their encouragement and understanding it would have been impossible for me to finish this work. My special gratitude is

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due to Mr. Musa Isaacs and Mr. Farook Qureshi for their constant encouragement and affection.

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Sl No Page
1.

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION 11 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY 29 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31 RESULTS & DISCUSSION 36 RECOMMENDATIONS 75 CONCLUSION 79 SUMMARY 81 REFERENCES 84 APPENDIX 86

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3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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LIST OF TABLES
Table no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Title Year-wise Estimate of Egg production Profile of Thrissur District Observed frequencies and percentages of Variables studied among farmers Production performance of standard birds Observed frequencies and percentages of variables among integrators Details of poultry projects Panchayath-I Details of poultry projects in in Page 13 17 36 48 51 58 61 67 69 70

Panchayath-II Economics of backyard poultry units Economics of broiler production Ratings of constraints faced by poultry

9 farmers 11 Constraints felt by broiler farmers 71

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LIST OF FIGURES
Table no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Title Family size of the respondents Experience of the respondents in poultry rearing Details of pullets distributed in the last five years Details of pullets distributed in the last five years in Panchayath-II Split up of cost of production in backyard units Ratings of constraints faced by poultry farmers Ratings of Constraints felt by broiler farmers Page 37 38 58 62 68 70 71

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Preface This thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the course Appreciation Programme on Sustainability Science submitted to Indira Gandhi National Open University. The matter embodied in this project is genuine work done by me and has not been submitted to this University or to any other University / Institute for the fulfilment of the requirement of any course of study. This thesis is the final work of my study of done in collaboration with the Department of Animal Husbandry, Local self governments, Government of Kerala. It serves as documentation of my project work, which has been made from my detailed discussions with veterinarians, poultry farmers, kudumbasree members, trainees, entrepreneurs, and subject matter specialists. The study has been a part of my job as a scientist at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Poultry Science, Mannuthy. The thesis consists of ten chapters which cover various aspects of rural poultry production scenario in some Panchayaths of Thrissur district. My supervisor on the project has been Dr P Anitha of the Centre for Advanced Studies in Poultry Science, Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences of Kerala Agricultural University. The thesis has been made solely by me and there has been an attempt to provide in this work, references to similar studies done elsewhere.

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INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION
Poultry provides employment to about 1.5 million people and contributes about Rs. 350 Billion to the National GDP. Though poultry development in the country has taken a quantum leap in the last three decades, the growth has been mainly restricted to commercial poultry. Rural backyard poultry, contributing nearly 30% to the national egg production, is the most neglected one. This is in spite of the fact that their poultry eggs and meat fetch a much higher price than that from commercial poultry. For the poorest of the poor and the landless, Backyard the major issues are food any for can to security and risk spreading through subsidiary income. poultry is requiring a potent hardly tool infrastructure income improve stimulate set-up

upliftment of the poorest of the poor. Besides generation, food economic rural backyard has the of poultry potential resource self-sufficiency. growth Smallpoor

scale poultry

production

households. Poultry rearing can enhance household food security and contribute to poverty reduction through provision of supplementary food, income and employment. Poultry production in Kerala remains largely as a backyard venture with virtually no modern units. These backyard birds have low to medium productivity. There is, however, a market demand of 5063 million eggs in the State against the availability of a meager 1197 million eggs. The State food security project aims to enhance Egg

14 production in the State from the base level of 1196 (Million Nos.) to 2395 (Million Nos.). Its implementation integration governments, Increasing farmers nutritional number research of will of and the requires government several coordination departments, other of and and and local

institutions. small-scale and food enhance

productivity improve of the food, groups on

availability

content

security generally among the poor. There are a community focus individuals This the out how engaged poultry will production projects.

finding

projects are functioning, their socio economic status, profitability, constraints and strategies that can be employed to improve their success. The per capita availability of egg in Kerala is very low at 72 eggs/ year and that of poultry meat is at 0.9 kg/year against the world average of 147 eggs and 11 kg poultry meat /year, which is the level of recommended Nutrition. by the Census National figures Institute The

indicate that the chicken and duck population in Kerala reduced to half over a period from 1996 to 2003. However, there has been a significant improvement in the population of other species of poultry especially quail and turkeys. An overall 47% reduction in the poultry population was observed during the period. One of the biggest problems is the non-

availability of land. Kerala is already placed in India among the most thickly populated States. The agricultural land is also on the decline, which translates to a higher cost of feed

15 ingredients. Kerala which There make are no feed companies in

specific

poultry

feeds.

Therefore, many a times, feed has to be procured from other States. The availability of quality chicks is another problem in Kerala. Moreover, the cost is of labour another compared facilities small Over to neighbouring For are poultry far from units above, States farmers, lack constraint.

loan/credit

satisfactory.

Furthermore, coverage.

poultry and

insurance

Government has imposed a 12.5% Value Added Tax. Low production potential in the stocks maintained by the backyard farmers and small holders is yet another problem. However, the up gradation has to be gradual as the birds need to retain their hardiness, required for their scavenging nature and survivability feeding and in harsh rural conditions. aspects Proper birds. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT OF KERALA The Department being the nodal agency for poultry activity provides a nucleus for the implementation of schemes like SGSY (Ministry of Rural Development) as per their requirement. This Department Indian has taken of up in association with a Council Agricultural Research other managemental

will also help improve the productivity of the

targeted program for up-gradation of low-input technology birds Poultry Development activities in the State aim at increasing the production of egg, production and distribution of chicks and good quality poultry Poultry meat, Rearing impart and training on Scientific Management,

16 encouraging unemployed youth and members of

weaker sections of society to take up poultry rearing and gain self employment, assisting women to start backyard poultry units etc. To carry out the development activities there are nine poultry farms, Central one Broiler Farm, and two One Duck Farm, One Hatchery Intensive Poultry

Development Blocks under the Department.
Table 1 Year-wise Estimate of Egg production
Sl. No. Year India % change over previous year Kerala % contribution of Kerala

1 2 3 4 5 6

2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

38729 39823 40403 45201 46166 50663

5.72 2.82 1.46 1.87 2.13 9.74

2002 1347 1277 1197 1196 1199

5.2 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.4

Source: Economic Survey and Department of Animal Husbandry

In a country like India where the average level of nutrition is very low, chicken and eggs, which are not expensive, can contribute considerably towards improving diet as a source of animal protein. As per estimates available, the per capita availability of egg is very low at 41 eggs /year and poultry meat is 0.9 kg/year against the world average of 147 eggs and 11 kg poultry meat /year. Government of India has set a target for achieving production of over 52 billion eggs by 2011-12, at a growth rate of 4.3 per cent.

17 Poultry farming for egg production relaying on purchased feed are uneconomic in Kerala. Poultry rearing on commercial lines is therefore largely confined to broiler production. The egg production which reached 2054 million in 19992000 is continuously showing declining trend and in 2005-06 it reached a a lower level of of 1196 million recording drastic fall 41.75per

cent. During 2006-07 the situation is changing and a 0.25% increase over the previous year is recorded and egg production increased to 1199 million Nos. The per capita availability of egg based on production during 2003-04 is only 39/ year and from 2004--05 to 2006-07, it further declined to 36/year. The per capita consumption of egg during 2006-07 is 66/year. The gap is filled by importing eggs from neighbouring State. An alarming factor to be noted in this regard is that over the last three years the domestic production of egg is declining to a lower level than that of 1984 - 85. The decline in poultry population and hike in cost of feed were the major reason for the decline in production. During 2006-07, 1021 million numbers of eggs is imported to the State. The export during the year is 4.3 million numbers Backyard poultry system has good potential in the state. Animal Around 8-10 lakh chicks are and being Kerala introduced every year in the state. Apart from Husbandry department Agricultural University, KSPDC, a few NGOs and private farms are also involved. But the system is yet to develop to the required extent. The

18 functioning strengthened was of to the department the farms is to be

foster into a

backyard

poultry

system. On the contrary, in India as a whole it transferred vibrant scientifically organised industry. BROILER PRODUCTION Poultry production has undergone rapid changes during the past decades due to the introduction of modern intensive production methods, new breeds and improved preventive disease control and bio-security measures. Nearly 10-15 Private hatcheries, chicken working as satellite hatcheries direct broiler broilers, culls contribute to the local production of chicks and meat. is Approximately generated meat, broiler which and 40000-50000 through includes layer employment MT of

production. Apart from this, around 30000-40000 chicken chicks, layer parent,

etc. is being imported from neighbouring states. PEOPLES PLAN CAMPAIGN The State of Kerala flagged off the people’s plan campaign The in 1997. Poultry to projects any are being is implements right from the start of the campaign. greatest challenge Government alleviation of poverty in the rural areas of the State. Kerala State Planning Board, initiated a 'Peoples' Plan Campaign' within in order to improve areas the of Panchayaths and municipal bodies to draw up the Schemes their respective responsibility. the campaign Following are the objectives of

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To

evolve

economic and the in

planning

with

peoples' of local by of

participation resources

mobilization development

process

involving stake holders. To effect substantial relaxation beauracratic control and thus the empowerment of people. One of the important features of people's planning is that the major thrust of the Panchayaths sectors has been focused on and productive mainly agriculture

other activities followed by social sectors and infrastructures. THRISSUR DISTRICT PROFILE Thrissur is the cultural capital of Kerala State. Profile of the District is depicted in Table 2 below. The district lies between 100 101 X 100 461 latitude and 760 541 longitude in the central part of Kerala and is surrounded by (a) Arabian Sea on the West (b) Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu and Palakkad district of Kerala in the east (c) Malappuram and Palakkad district in the north and (d) Ernakulam and Idukki district in the South. It has an area of 3032 Sq km. is predominantly marginal. The district has moderate infrastructural facilities. well It has a busy railway station and is to other districts and states. connected The land holding

Two national high ways NH 47 and NH 17 passes through the district. The economic development of the district in the recent past has been more conspicuous in the tertiary sector. The flooding NRI remittance has helped development of new town

20 ships and growth centres at different parts of the district. The network leader. is an district Canara has a the well-developed lead bank of bank the

Bank,

district has been doing exceedingly well as the Among the public sector banks SBT, SBI industrially and a as and per commercially the in latest of rural rate developed the of the high and Canara bank have a major presence. Thrissur district. facilities district which, district Table 2 71.8 has The district has basic infrastructure census lakhs areas, and a has population live 29.74

percent 92.56%

literacy

percentage of skilled persons. Thrissur Districts’ Profile

District Came Into Existence District Head Quarters Geographical Area Parliamentary Constituencies Assembly Constituencies Taluks Villages Corporation Municipalities District Panchayath Block Panchayath Grama Panchayaths

1 st JULY 1949 Thrissur 3032 Sq.km 3 14 5 254 1 6 1 17 92

Table -2

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

22 2.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Studies in Bangladesh by Rahman and Hossain, (1995) showed that an intervention with poultry production created a relatively small decline in the overall poverty with the proportion of extreme poor declining from 31 to 23% and the moderate poor stagnating around 29%. `Todd, (1999) and Dolberg, (2001) opined

that poultry activity is to be considered as a learning process for the beneficiaries, but it has to be realised that one activity alone is not sufficient to lift a family out of poverty. The opportunities called as the enabling environment must be available for the beneficiaries to establish a small poultry enterprise, to minimize the risks and to take up other income generating activities. Jensen (2000) observed that about 70 % of the rural landless involved He be found one economically of these to women women in that are directly or indirectly activities. rearing sector sectors and is could if poultry homestead The most viable. the are under rearing poultry poultry trained, of

productive

properly

supported with credit and other necessary inputs made operate supervision extension workers. Poultry rearing is suitable for widespread implementation as it is of low cost, required and little can be skills, incorporated is highly into the productive

23 households work. Poultry is the only activity in which a large number of landless women can participate. In the small-scale poultry units, which support the landless, production per bird may be low, but distribution of benefits will be more equal and have great human is a development culturally impact. Poultry rearing

acceptable, technically and economically viable. Moreover, the ownership of poultry is entirely in the hands of women. Mack et al (2000) opined that in order to increase egg and poultry meat production there is a need for increased investment guided by policies and institutions that promote equitable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly longterm outcomes. As Backyard poultry make an important contribution to poverty mitigation, it should be considered as any strategy to improve rural livelihoods. Right policies and investment, well the on designed and participative poultry hygiene of development These and been programmes can overcome the constraints faced by smallholder proper health, type producers. and intensive production methods place high demands management has also require only a small, but very skilled labour force. This production adopted in developing countries but the scope of adoption has been limited due to the high inputs and skills required. The progress in industrial poultry production methods has however had little effect on subsistence poultry production methods in rural and peri-urban areas, where inputs into disease control remain minimal. Although this is

24 true in general, there are some geographical hot spots where industrial poultry production and small holder village poultry systems have both massively grown in close geographical proximity, notably in Thailand, Indonesia, and China. Del Ninno et al., (2001) described in their paper that rural poultry production protect poor people in Bangladesh will not against the

natural disasters that hit the country from time to time, but it can help them build up their asset base.

Jensen and Dolberg (2002)advocated for using poultry enabling services, as a tool in poverty must be alleviation. established and An by environment

providing access to feed, vaccine, vaccinations micro-finance, marketing other inputs and services. A village group, composed of members of socially equal status, is an excellent entity to disseminate entity improved to technology, a cost-effective loans. Karlan, (2002) opined that an enabling disseminate extension

messages, and a secure entity for disbursement of

environment would give all the villagers access to poultry farm input supplies and services; pave the way for disbursement of micro-credits in a cost-effective way; of associations livestock groups; facilitate easier formation through formalised village

help people acquire the skills

that are required for a business set-up ., form

25 the basis for a marketing organization for farm products and can be used by other NGOs, having the same target groups, to implement other development activities.

Dolberg (2003) reviewed poultry as a tool in poverty alleviation focusing on experiences from Bangladesh but survey and project work that has been undertaken in India. Animal husbandry and agricultural departments’ extension programmes are hardly known or used by most poor people for whom the poultry work is relevant. The work in Bangladesh is closely linked to the presence of NGOs and their capacity to reach out to poor people. component undertake Micro-credit in and the it is has been an that to important the NGOs distinguish interventions difficult

between the benefits from micro-credit and the benefits from poultry production in Bangladesh. In India, there but are of many NGOs that any are much closer to people than the government extension services, few them have poultry expertise. in some States, the commercial sector has a strong presence. He stresses that project ‘models’ need to be adapted to the conditions prevailing in different countries.

Gondwe et al (2003) found that rural poultry is raised and utilized by about 80 percent of the human population, poultry primarily species situated are in rural mostly areas and occupied by subsistence agriculture. Different raised,

26 indigenous to the area, except chickens, where traces of Black Australorp breed can be identified The paper describes a community-based project that aims to contribute to food selfsufficiency an among smallholder without system farmers through the of promotion and improvement of poultry species in integrated and system farming changing Distribution cultural

flocks by age groups was in favour of old birds (over 52 weeks) in chickens and ducks and growers (20-30 weeks) in pigeons. This showed that farmers keep their birds for a long time. The proportion of chicks and ducklings less than ten weeks old was small. This suggests high mortality rates caused by diseases and predators. This age group is vulnerable and needs care. In pigeons the number of squabs is low since this is the group that is mostly consumed. Growers, mature and old pigeons are used for breeding. Inbreeding within flocks is probably occurring because of the lack of a cockerel-exchange system and record-keeping. The major constraints to poultry production were outbreaks of Newcastle disease among chickens every in the months of September that fed to on December year; predators

pigeons, chickens and ducks; and poor housing and prolonged weaning periods for chickens and ducks. There is also haphazard sharing of breed stock among relatives, friends and others, within the village rather than between villages. Poultry in rural areas could play a role to contribute to the nutritional status of the people in these areas.

27 Bujarbaruah and Gupta (2005) reported that a flock size ranging from 25-250 birds are reared across the country under the village poultry system. They have low production potential with only 40-80 eggs per year but are less susceptible to most of the common diseases requiring less veterinary care. In order to meet the deficiency gap in poultry meat and egg sectors, adequate and sustained efforts will have to be made to improve the production efficiency of the rural poultry which has been responsible to produce 40% of meat and 44% of egg requirement from in the 75% country. of the Average productivity around

indigenous poultry population is 60-70 eggs per year per bird. The distribution of desi birds per square km is 71 with an average holding of 2.59 indigenous birds per family i.e. a production of 2.59 X 65 eggs = 168 per family per year. With an average family size of 5.5 in the region and projected requirement of 90 eggs per person per annum (50% of of 327 WHO eggs recommendation), per family. For the the requirement per family is 5.5 x 90= 495 i.e. a deficiency development of the region through family poultry, the need therefore is to increase the production potential of the indigenous birds through improvement measures like Sound and systematic breeding programs with improved breeds developed for backyard purpose. Slow but steady replacement of the existing indigenous birds with lower production potential with improved breeds like Vanaraja / Giriraja was recommended.

28 Mapiye carried 6 out and in Sibanda Zimbabwe (2005), revealed in a study on an

that

average, each household had a flock size of 30 ± chickens. Chickens that received full feed supplementation had highest flock sizes, hen and chick numbers. About 40.5 % of deaths recorded were due to predation, 30.2% due to disease, 8.8% due to accidents, 8.6% due to parasites and 12.9% due to unknown causes. Although 88% of the households were male-headed, women owned 95% of the chickens. Female-headed households had higher chicken flock sizes and lower mortalities than male-headed feeding (51.2%) feeding and and as households. of the cleaning health Women (37.2%). were the dominated Men in (43.5% households), watering mainly as of

dominated in shelter construction (60%). Housing, systems to identified expansion opportunities, and predation, diseases and chick mortality village of constraints chicken production. and Adequate disease of

control, reduction of chick losses, improvement husbandry practices implementation gender sensitive projects were recommended. Rai production from hens et in al (2005) and studied Nicobar the poultry and

Andaman in

Islands or

found that majority of eggs in the market come kept semi-intensive backyard systems in rural areas. Poultry keeping has a pivotal role in the economy of rural farmers. Of late there has been an increasing awareness among the farmers to adopt diversified agriculture, including livestock and poultry. Poultry flock size in the villages varies from 10-50. Women,

29 assisted in some cases by children, play key role in this sector, and they are main owners and managers of family poultry production. The birds are reared or either semi under free-range system. system The or backyard intensive owner

sometimes provides supplemental feed like rice, wheat and paddy. The amount of food provided to the birds depends on the financial status of the farmers and egg laying capacity of the birds. Constraints analysis of backyard poultry in

Erode, a district of TamilNadu done by Baskaran et al(2005), it was observed that the farmers predominantly had medium level (31-38) of constraints, while inferior number of respondents had low (< 30) and high (> 39) level. The results of correlation analysis revealed that out of 11 socio-economic experience in characteristics, backyard poultry education, farming,

possession of backyard poultry birds and contact with extension agency had significant negative relationship with the constraints faced by backyard poultry farmers. Further, the regression analysis revealed that all the 11 socio-economic characteristics put together contributed to the extent < of 81.20 and per the cent towards constraints namely, poultry level which was found to be highly significant (P 0.01) characteristics in backyard had occupation, contact with experience extension

farming, possession of backyard poultry birds and agency significant negative influence on constraints level among the respondents

30 Krishna Rao (2005) recorded that poultry are inseparable from mankind and in the rural scenario they do not need any land, are easy to manage, regularly lay eggs, disease resistant and well better stepped these adapted up to the harsh egg environment. production Only farming a in good the With be Night rural nutrition, their can

substantially. poultry

Shelter need to be provided to them. With all attributes environment can be a powerful tool for poverty alleviation and social justice. To the rural poor this can be Rainless Harvest with egg production and stock multiplication proceeding unhampered irrespective of rain or drought. It is women that are largely involved in poultry farming. In every village market and fairs poultry and eggs are major commodities. Huq and Mallik (1998) found that rural women in Bangladesh use poultry as a tool in poverty alleviation development and has concluded potential for that poultry the capturing

inequitable distribution of income and employment in rural areas. Women could operate and manage broiler, layer and duck farms efficiently with a high return on the investment. Poultry production on a smaller scale like in the are useful to improve the native backyard poultry systems, under where scavenging and semi-intensive

women traditionally play the most important role. Lack of quality feed supply, Lack of vaccines especially RD, Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Marek’s disease, Low price of dressed

31 broilers and eggs were pointed out as the

constraints faced by them. Singh and Jilani Himalayas poultry belonged to (2006) with old farmers conducted sample and age found a study of that in 100 most

Garhwal, backyard farmers social

size

category, the of

having

medium family size, low annual income and high participation. nonAmong constraints day old perceived availability

chicks/lack of suitable germplasm, Infrastructure facility, high price rate of day old chick, lack of technical and know-how, medicines, non-availability Government policy of and vaccine

credit facility of farmers were ranked as most important. The total improvement of this sector needs proper planning, and be al in and creation of adequate To make in infrastructure farmers should et monetary support.

backyard poultry rearing a profitable venture the adequately studied that had the low trained the scientific poultry rearing. Mandal poultry Pradesh, were from they (2006) found young, sized was land the and Backyard of Uttar of farming India Bareilly district

respondents level

predominantly the had medium labour marginal

education, belonged to Muslim religion and were nuclear major medium family. livestock Agricultural occupation;

holding with more than 6 years of poultry farming experience. The average flock size was 5 birds and they reared birds in free-range/backyard feeding. The system with little supplementary

production level was very low. Natural hatching

32 was the main source of chicks. No systematic care was taken with regard to the diseases and vaccination of the birds was also not carried out in any of the villages surveyed. Direct marketing was high prevalent incidence in of the area although diseases, middlemen lack of existed. The major constraints identified were poultry suitable germ-plasm and attack by predators. Choprakarn and Wongpichet(2007) reviewed the information on indigenous chickens describing the production systems, Their conservation and utilization. in Thailand, management, production

systems have been sustainable and about 6 million households, or 50 percent of Thais, keep poultry at home. Each family produces 30–50 birds of marketable size annually, which represents 100– 120 million birds for the country as a whole. These chickens kept as one cockerel and three to five rate, hens the per household. of Flock size varies the through the year, as it depends on the hatching availability natural feed, effects of endemic diseases, and the amount of time that the farmers have available to take care of their birds. Periods of seasonal change are critical times of high mortality; about 30–70% of birds in a flock die annually. About 50–70 % are raised for home consumption; the rest are for sale to provide cash income. Few are used for cultural and religious activities.

33

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

34

3.
In

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
of the progress in agriculture,

spite

India still faces a big challenge in job creation and maintenance of food security and women’s role in farming is still inadequately acknowledged. With increasing urbanisation and sky-rocketing of land prices everywhere due to population explosion and allied factors back-yard poultry units have vanished to a great extent from the middle-class and lower middle-class and lower middle-class people leaving poultry largely in the hands of rural poor in single digit numbers only who can only maintain these birds through a system deprived constitute of foraging sections and of of scavenging. our society social To these Poultry and

instruments

justice

measures for poverty alleviation. It is estimated active that women 78% are of India’s in

economically

involved

agriculture. Across the poor farming communities, care of animals is the women’s domain, but not in the rich families. nearly 30% Rural of poultry the sector egg contributes national

production in India and is the most neglected one. The rural households normally maintain the desi birds under scavenging or semi-scavenging conditions. During the past three decades, the popularity of scavenging chicken has reduced drastically due to low production of the native chicken used in this system.

35 Against this background of poultry ownership there are only the two major groups advanced of Poultry keepers, labourers therefore economically who commercial meager poultry

farmers and the economically poor rural farmers, etc., be supplement to term their the income by raising a few desi chickens. It may appropriate raised by the urban elite as Urban Poultry and the poultry raised by the rural poor the bulk of which belong to the desi group as Rural Poultry. Government of Kerala has implemented several poultry projects in the past and especially after the advent of the peoples plan campaign. It is expected that such projects will continue to be implemented in the future. There is the need to evaluate the success of these projects and to suggest measures to improve them. In this context a study has been undertaken to critically examine the after effects of poultry distribution projects in two important Panchayaths in Thrissur District. Along with this, an evaluation of integrated poultry units (broilers) prevalent in many parts of Thrissur will also be done to get an idea about study their will performance provide and feasibility. on This the information

profitability of these projects will act as a stimulus to attract more entrepreneurs to this field. Opinion of experts in this field will be collected to enlist the main problems faced by

36 poultry farmers and also the pitfalls in the

programmes taken up previously. The findings of the study will help the

local level planners to critically evaluate the projects implemented in past and restructure the future of poultry projects as in will needed. the be use for This will The food rural result in better profitability and streamlining poultry of production the more and study District. improved of the outcome security, resources poor.

sustainable increased

natural

income

37

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

38

4.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Keeping in mind the limitations of the various ongoing schemes and taking into account the need to have a deeper insight into the requirements of the rural poultry sector with focus aimed at the poorest of the poor the study was completed in two important Panchayaths of Thrissur District.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To analyse the situation of poultry rearing in the two Panchayaths 2. To evaluate the poultry projects implemented in the two Panchayaths during the past 5

years. 3. To determine the if socio-economic any consequent development to these

registered projects.

4. To investigate the profitability of backyard and small scale poultry projects. 5. To determine the constraints faced by the

poultry farmers. 6. To develop strategies to improve the success of poultry projects.

METHODOLOGY

39 Structured interview schedule was used to conduct the situational analysis of the two Panchayaths. Thirty covered households under the in the two The Panchayaths households were were

study.

selected at random. The variables as perceived by the rural poultry owners were recorded in the schedule prepared for the purpose of the study. The rank position of the constraints was decided on the basis of frequency distribution against each constraint. Data available with the Veterinary, Local self governments and Rural Development Departments

were collected and evaluated. Ten experts in the field and ten small scale poultry production unit owners were identified and information was

gathered from them. A total of 30 respondents were selected from the two Panchayaths Data by

purposive

sampling

technique.

collected

through personal interview was categorized and tabulated. standard The data was then by subjected finding to the

statistical

analysis

mean. Correlation and multiple-linear regression analysis by taking the total constraints score as the dependant variable and of the chosen sociopoultry

economic

characteristics

backyard

farmers as independent variable.

40 Variables studied with respect to rural

poultry farmers (a)Gender (b)Family size (c) Occupation (d)Experience (e)Flock Size (f)Management Practices (g)Feeding system (h)Flock Health (i)Diseases (j)Production particulars (k) Preferences of beneficiaries (l)Self help groups (m)Cost of production

Descriptive research was used in the study of integrated poultry units so as to obtain a

complete and accurate description of the schemes and the problems there in. Items of observation would include • • • • Socio Description of the project Cost of production Problems faced Profitability economic development in terms of

improvement in the following variables was also evaluated. • • • Increase in income Improvement in the skills Trainings received

41 • • Job satisfaction Improvement in the nutritional status of the households

42

RESULTS DISCUSSION

&

43

RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The results are expressed as answers to six major objectives and depicted below followed by a brief discussion of the same. 5.1. 5.1.1 Most Situation of poultry rearing in the two

Panchayaths General overview of the households rear village chickens

under scavenging system mainly as a source of income (39%) and food (36%). It could be seen that women own and mange most of the flocks (54%). But chicken meat is only consumed when important guests visit the family. Most farmers (59.5%) prefer chicken with brown plumage color mainly because it sells faster at the market. 5.1. 2 Variables observed are depicted in the Table 3 below Variables Gender Family size Major Occupation Experience years 2-5 11 >5 16 Flock Size <5 5 6-10 15 >10 10 Table. 3 Observed frequencies and percentages of variables 36.67 53.33 16.67 50.00 33.33 in Category Male Female <4 5-7 >7 Others
Poultry Rearing

No. of respondents 11 19 14 11 5 29 1 3

Percentage 36.67 63.33 46.66 36.67 16.67 96.67 3.33 1.00

<1

44 5.1.2.a Gender

It could be seen that a good majority of the respondents (63.33%) were females where as only 36.67% were males. The person in charge of the poultry unit in these houses was identified as the respondent in all of the cases. 5.1.2.b Family size

The data revealed that 46.67% of the respondents had a nuclear family with a family size less than four, whereas 36.67 % had a family size between five and seven. A 16.67 % lived as a joint family with family size above 7. The graph representing family size of the respondents is given as Fig 1 .

Family size of the respondents
50 40 30 20 10 0 <4 5-7 Number of individuals >7 16.67 Series1 % 46.67 36.67

Fig 1 Family size of the respondents 5.1.2.c A vast considered occupation. belonged to Occupation majority (96.67 most %)of of the as the a respondents subsidiary respondents with poultry Though the rearing farming

community,

45 agriculture as their major means of livelihood, only one farmer did not have any other means of livelihood.

5.1.2. d The

Experience revealed were that 10.00 less % of 1 the year having than

study

respondents

experience in poultry farming. A 36.67 % of the respondents had 2-5 years experience, whereas a majority (53.33%) had more than 5 years experience.

Years of Experience in Poultry Farming

10.00

53.33

<1
36.67

2-5

>5

Fig 2 Experience of the respondents in poultry rearing 5.1.2. e Flock Size

Average flock per household was eight birds with a sex ratio of four hens for one cock in around 60% of the households evaluated. Scavenging space is the criteria behind the decision of flock size. About 16.67 % of the households reared less than 5 birds, 50.00 % reared less than 10 birds and 33.33% reared more than 10 birds. Most of

46 the families (63.33 %) did not hatch eggs using a broody hen. Chicks were brought at day old stage and above in 36.67% of the households. Pullets and male birds were also purchased as growers below 2 months of age. At least one broody hen was always kept to maintain the flock. Rarely did they hatch eggs regularly. Some (19 %) households did not have a cock. opined that they About 65% of the families chicks only from purchased

reliable sources or through the local veterinary hospital/ dispensaries. 5.1.2. f Management Practices Most of the farmers housed the birds in their backyard. A temporary shelter was constructed in all the households Around with were 70 to % provide of the planks. shelter None to of system the made the of birds. shelters households households

wooden

following

intensive

management. All the respondents were using semiintensive system of housing. Around 42% of the respondents bedding were aware is of homestead in cages. No material provided the poultry

houses. Some have the habit of using cane baskets to protect and cover the birds. Few farmers have built pakka poultry houses but are mostly with inadequate spacing. Chicks when hatched were not given any artificial warmth. They are left with the mother hen under a bamboo basket at night. Most of the farmers let out chicks only after at least 10 days of age. In most of the houses there were not more than two broody hens. The birds are let out from as early as 7 am in the morning, and they are permitted to roam around till 6 pm

47 generally. Owners were not aware of the floor space requirements. 5.1.2. g Feeding Practices percent feed to of the farmers There is give no chicken.

Seventy-three supplementary

regular time for feeding of poultry though they are fed daily in most of the households. There is no proper idea about the nutritional requirements of poultry. When 63% opined that birds should be fed less than 25 g of feed every day, 30% opined that it should be between 25 and 50 g. About 7 % were of the view that this should be around 100g. Few farmers (23.33 %) give shell grit to improve the shell quality of eggs produced. The birds in backyard survive well on kitchen waste, coconut grating, feed insects, of and pests, cooked bran, wild rice, dried More seeds, kitchen fish, than grains, wastes, in the grasses and other vegetations. The supplemented consist flour and vegetables, feeds, vitamins rice commercial lacking 75% of

milling

wastes

proteins.

farmers were supplementing carbohydrates alone. There is no regular provision of protein sources to these chickens. The total quantitative On an supplementation this varies from 2.00 to 3.30 kg per week given mainly during harvest given time. average the expenditure mainly by comes to 20 to 33 rupees per week. Chickens are water in all households women. Water is also provided in basins inside the poultry shelters. These containers are seldom removed for cleaning and sanitation. Water is simply refilled when the level goes down. Few

48 household feed vitamins (13.33%) etc). No had the practice mixtures, deworming of giving was in

supplements

(mineral regular

B-complex

practice and usually the medicines were got from the local veterinary dispensary. Farmers also had the habit of purchasing medicines from the local medical shop without prescriptions. 5.1.2. h Flock Health

The mortality rate is often more than 50% rising to 100% in most of the households. Around 72% of the house hold reported disease incidences and mortality rates. Thirty percent of the farmers had noted a mortality of 100% over the past five years. Ninety-eight percent of the farmers treat sick chicken with diverse types of drugs including traditional medications. About 12.7 % were reported to use traditional methods, 66.9% used 68.9% modern drugs including chicks anti-biotics, while 14.5% and used vaccinated

pesticides to control external parasites.

5.1.2.h.1 Diseases The blood most in worrying droppings, disease closed symptoms eyelids, are mucus

respiratory distress, white, greenish

diarrhea,

exudates from the nostrils and mouth and gaping. Pox is a common incidence in almost all of the households. Few farmers reported that the cross bred birds distributed had poor immunity and seldom lived beyond 2 years. Some farmers also reported that some poultry developed dermatitis

49 problems and bumble foot, which were difficult to be cured. Farmers of the opinion that coloured birds have better livability. The death rates were found to be higher among chicks immediately after purchase, followed by birds above two years of age. The causes of mortality in chicks were predators (42.6 %), disease (31.3%), and accidents (26.1%).

From the symptoms described by farmers, it is probable that Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Fowl Pox, Chronic Respiratory distress, Coccidiosis, Fowl Typhoid and Pullorum Disease may be prevalent in the backyard poultry. Most (93.33%) of the households bury dead birds while the rest throw dead birds into pits, which are eventually picked up by scavengers.

5. 1.2.h.2 Vaccinations. All of the households had vaccinated their birds during the to RD vaccination for programme of under Animal Assistance the States Control by rest the of

Diseases of the Panchayath. Some farmers utilized vaccines supplied the Veterinary the periods. dispensaries during

There is no practice of any vaccination other than against Ranikhet Disease.

50 5.1.2.h.3 Avian Influenza awareness Farmers are aware of the zoonotics importance of the disease and are concerned about the control measures. None of the households were found to adopt any of the bio-security measures.

5.1.2.h.4 Constraints to managing chicks Main constraints to chicks in the backyard were found to be the lack of feed, disease outbreaks, predators and poor management in this order of importance. 5.1.2.i Flock Production Characteristics

Farmers opined that cross bred hens start laying at an age varying from 160 to 175 days. In some cases the egg production was nil. Hens lay an average of 15 eggs per clutch with an annual production varying from less than 100 to 140 per year. It could be noted that the birds are seldom kept for production beyond a period of two years. Households consume about 75 % of the eggs laid. Selling of eggs though birds is not common sell laying, among in in the the and households, Usually, the they after eggs stay

neighbourhood. around the house of the owner in search of feed and come back at dusk or by the call of the owner. 5.1.2. j Preferences of beneficiaries There is a better preference for brown shelled eggs. The average price obtained for each egg

51 during local sales varies from 3 to 4 rupees. Farmers are of the opinion that coloured birds fetch better price when sold. The price may vary from Rs 120 to 150 per kg live weight. Some birds did not produce any eggs and were sold for meat at around 8 months of age when they attain around 2 kg body weight. All the poultry owners reported that, the price of eggs and birds varied according to season and religious festivals

5.1.2. k Self help groups Among the respondents, 70% were members of

kudumbasree. Farmers believe that membership in Kudumbasree has helped them to be selected as beneficiaries of various plan schemes, increase their awareness about the plan, participate in various training programmes etc. 5.1.2.l Cost of production The farmers kept no records of the expenditure incurred in the rearing of backyard flock. So the calculation of cost of production could not be done accurately.

5.1.3 Discussion of the findings
The findings reveal that poultry is kept as a means of income and food by majority of the households. This is in agreement with the findings of Gondwe et al (2003). The results of

the present study indicated that a majority of the respondents were females. This is an asset

52 over which the poor women actually have control. This role activity in can therefore alleviation play and an important s may poverty also

contribute to an improvement in the income of the household. Jensen (2000) also reported similar findings. The fact that poultry meat is consumed only during special occasions indicated that their standards of living are not especially good. A good majority of the households did not have a big family and this is again in support of the general trend in Kerala. Respondents considered poultry as only a subsidiary income source. The fact that a vast majority of the farmers had more than 5 years experience in poultry rearing indicates that this system is prevalent in Kerala for many years and is generally accepted as a viable one. The proportion of new households is a positive sign as this indicates many new families coming into this sector in the recent days. The average flock size of 8 and a male

female ratio of 1:4 were reported. This is in tune with the ratio recommended by the Kerala Agricultural Scavenging the University space is for Backyard rearing. the major the of criteria land is behind a

decision of flock size. It is a known fact that non-availability constraint to commercial poultry production in Kerala. The same is again a restricting factor in rural also land. poultry takes The rearing indicating the the need for of a innovative techniques of poultry rearing which into fewer consideration number of scarcity holding families

53 broody hen is of of indicative artificial production of the increasing and owing the to

popularity realization broodiness.

incubation losses

Majority of the households raised cocks and this indicated that cocks are of demand among the farmers. These cocks are used for religious purposes and sold at a comparatively higher price than that of hens. There is also another positive finding that majority of the farmers did not buy chicks quality from the and unknown / road in of side vendors. about It the indicates increase awareness the chicks

acceptance

supplied

through government agencies among the farmers. This may be due to the fact that deaths reported within a period of one the month among chicks distributed through Panchayath veterinary

dispensaries / hospitals are replaced. Most of the families (63.33 %) did not hatch eggs using a broody hen and this indicates the need for hatcheries at the District level to hatch chicks as per the need of common farmers. Chicks were brought at day old stage and above in 36.67% of the households. Pullets and male birds were also purchased as growers below 2 months of age this indicates that there is scope for chick hatcheries and egger nurseries in the district. Around 70 % of the households made shelters with wooden planks which is the most economical system of housing possible in our conditions. All the respondents were using semi-intensive system of housing. Higher level of awareness about

54 homestead cages indicated that they can be

propagated among the needy farmers. The fact that the farmers were not aware of the floor space requirements has led to inadequate space being provided. Thus it is indicated that this problem need to be focused in future. There is the need to make farmers space aware in of the drawback The of inadequate poultry houses. facts

that Chicks were hatched without any artificial warmth and that they are let out from 10 days of age is owing to the higher atmospheric temperature in Kerala. The birds are let out from as early as 7 am in the morning, and they are permitted to roam around till 6 pm generally. So on an average a bird gets 813 hours for scavenging. The awareness feeding fact on for that the better 73% of the of farmers give

supplementary feed indicated the high level of importance productive of that concentrate in is a performance This give

rural poultry. There is no proper idea about the nutritional evident requirements the fact poultry. farmers from

quantity of feed %) give shell

which may be less than 25 g per grit and this is essential to

every day or as high as 100g. Few farmers (23.33 improve shell quality. Majority of the feed fed being carbohydrates and household wastes, lacking in vitamins and proteins, this alone is insufficient for the bird to perform to its full potential. The total quantitative supplementation varies from 2.00 to 3.30 kg per week given mainly during harvest time.

55

Chickens are given water inside the poultry shelters, but these containers are seldom removed for cleaning and sanitation. This practice is to be instilled in their minds as contaminated water will be a good source for spread of diseases. Few household (13.33%) had the practice of giving feed supplements, which though would increase the cost of production, are certainly found to be beneficial to the health of the birds. There is the need to stipulate the regular local deworming veterinary programmes through

dispensaries. They should be instructed to use broad spectrum dewormers in the correct dosage. Farmers’ habit of purchasing medicines from the local medical shop without prescriptions needs to be curtailed as indiscriminate use of drugs would lead to the development of resistance. The mortality rate is often more than 50% after supply probably due to the stress of transportation and heat. Thirty per cent of the farmers had noted a mortality of 100% over the past five years with some outbreaks. So the disease diagnosis and surveillance system has to be fortified further to reduce economic losses to farmers. reported These by results et are al similar to those and Gondwe (2003), Mapiye

Sibanda (2005). The disease symptoms reported are suggestive of chronic respiratory distress, Fowl Pox, Ranikhet disease, Coccidiosis, syngamosis, ectoparasitism, dermatitis problems and bumble foot.

56 This is in agreement with the findings of Huq and Mallik (1998), who found that lack of quality feed supply, vaccines especially RD, Infectious Bursal price Disease of (IBD) and Marek’s and disease, were low the dressed broilers eggs

constraints faced by farmers. There is the need to educate the farmers on the proper disposal of wastes RD the as well as dead birds. under the All of the to this in households had vaccinated their birds during the vaccination Panchayath programme indicates with the Assistance of States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD) of success Animal Central Government programme, conducted

collaboration Department.

Husbandry

The study also shows that, the death rate was high in chicks followed by growers and adult birds and diseases contributed markedly to high flock mortalities recorded during rainy season. These results are in agreement with reports from other developing countries( Kitalyi 1998, Minga et al 1989). Dessie and Ogle (1996) recommended that diseases spread faster in large flocks compared to smaller flocks. High disease levels were probably due to exposure of chickens to the natural environment, interaction of different of new and entities, within and among flock contacts during scavenging, chickens or uncontrolled movement introduction stocks, contacts through exchange or sale of live between households villages (Mapiye and Sibanda 2005) There is the need to ensure regular supply of Ranikhet disease and Fowl Pox vaccines to the

57 farmers as these two diseases create havoc in the rural poultry production systems. Though the farmers were aware of contagious and zoonotics diseases, the fact that none of the households adopt bio-security measures, are a matter of serious concern. Main constraints to rearing chicks being the lack of feed, disease outbreaks, predators and poor management, if proper attention is directed towards be these, their in one mortality of the of rates can be by brought down considerably. Chick mortality could controlled the Panchayaths antiadopting administration stress

medications and glucose to them immediately after reaching the farmers premises. Cross varying bred 160 hens to start 175 laying at an is age much

from

days,

which

better than the desi hens. In some cases, the egg production was nil. This might be due to the poor nutritional indicated status in of the of birds the prior to the no start of lay. The analysis of feeding practices that most households protein source is fed to the birds. feed. Mostly birds

in lay alone have access to ample quantities of Hens lay an average of 15 eggs per clutch with an annual production varying from less than 100 to 140 per year. The expected production of various crosses distributed in the District from Kerala Agricultural University is as given below in Table 4. A comparison indicated that most of the birds were performing far below the benchmarks.

58

Characteristics Age at sexual maturity in days Age at 50% egg production Annual egg production (upto 72 weeks of age) in numbers Body weight at 72 weeks in kg Egg weight in g Egg Colour Livability in % Purpose Feeding

Gramalakshmi 160 180 180-200 1.8 50 Light Brown 95 Backyard

Gramasree 152 175 190-200 2 52-55 Brown 95 Backyard

Gramapriya 150 180 200-225 1.8 55 tinted 95 Backyard

Scavenging + 25-30 Scavenging + Scavenging + 25g balanced layer ration 25-30 g balanced layer 30 g balanced layer ration

ration Table 4 Production performance of standard birds Households consume about 75 % of the eggs laid and this definitely improves the plane of nutrition at the household level. There shelled that, they is are a better to better in preference age the old for brown and

eggs

owing

the

misconcept

nutritional

medicinal value.

The average price obtained for

each egg being Rs.3 to 4 is comparatively higher indicating that there is the preference for farm fresh eggs in the District. Value addition may be resorted returns to to at various levels birds to improve did the not farmer. Those which

produce any eggs were sold for meat at around 8 months of age when they attained around 2 kg body weight. All the poultry owners reported that, the price of eggs and birds varied according to

59 season and religious festivals like Easter, Eid etc. A good majority of the respondents were

kudumbasree members and they were provided with training in poultry rearing and financial support from banks to start poultry enterprises. As the farmers kept no records of the expenditure incurred production only approximates be of the cost Under of the could calculated.

prevailing conditions in Kerala, backyard system of rearing seems to be the ideal solution to improve egg and meat production and thus ensure food security.

5.2 Evaluation of Broiler Integrators in the Panchayath
5.2. 1. Socio-economic Profile of Respondents The broiler unit owners according to their age were categorized into three groups, i.e., young, middle and old. The data presented in Table below reveals that majority of the poultry owners (46.67%) belonged to the middle age group, while 30 per cent poultry owners were from older age

60 group and 23.33 per cent hailed from the young age group. Majority of the respondents were well educated and all of them could read and write. A majority of the respondents (50%) belonged to the schedule caste. About 56% of the respondents had a medium family size. A vast majority (83.33%) of the

respondents lived as joint families. About 60% of the respondents had agriculture and animal

husbandry as their major occupation. Fifty–three per cent of the respondents were

marginal farmers, 33% small farmers and the rest were large scale farmers. About 43.44% of the respondents had more than 3 years experience and 33.33% had more than 8 years experience in this field. Seventy three per cent of the farmers had moderate to high level of satisfaction in their job. These farmers reared flocks of a size ranging from 1000 to 10000. Birds are housed in units of size 900 to 1200 per shed. Most of the farmers owned multiple sheds. The observations made with respect to the variables studies is given in the table 5 below. Variables Category No. of respondents Percentage

61 Young (less than 32 yrs) Age Middle (3247yrs) Older (more than 47 yrs) Primary Education High school Pre-degree Graduate and above Religion Hindu Muslim Others Christian Caste General Schedule caste Schedule tribe Other backward caste Family type Nuclear Joint Family size Small (less than 4 members) Medium (5-7 members) Large (more than 8 members) 7 14 9 4 9 14 3 16 2 0 12 12 15 0 3 5 25 10 17 3 23.33 46.67 30.00 13.33 30.00 46.67 10.00 53.33 6.67 0.00 40.00 40.00 50.00 0.00 10.00 16.67 83.33 33.33 56.67 10.00

62 Major Occupation Agriculture Animal Husbandry Service Business Labour Land holding Landless Marginal ( 10 cents) Small (25 cents) Large Flock size Small <2000 10 8 2 3 7 0 16 10 4 6 20 4 7 13 10 8 13 9 15 23 12 19 33.33 26.67 6.67 10.00 23.33 0.00 53.34 33.33 13.33 20.00 66.67 13.33 23.33 43.34 33.33 26.66 43.34 30.00 50.00 76.67 40.00 63.33

Medium 20015000 Large Experience >5001

< 3 year 4-8 years 8 years

Level of Low satisfaction Moderate High Constraints Diseases Waste Disposal Lack of space Taxation

63 Table 5 Observed frequencies and percentages of variables 5.2. 2 5.2.2.1 There Panchayath General rearing practices Type of farm unit- Integration are who more are than 50 farmers in this in type the of

involved

projects. The major integrator is Thompson group. Day old chicks are supplied to trained farmers according to their potential to rear birds as well as the availability of land. The vaccinations are done as follows 0-5 day 10- 14 days 20 days- 25 days Feed, are feeders – RDF Vaccine – IBD Vaccine – RD Lasota Vaccine waterers, on daily on vaccines basis. to etc are are and the

provided by the integrators. B- Complex vitamins administered visits by There ensure regular veterinary request supervisors

veterinarians

visit

health of the birds. Medicines and disinfectants are also provided by the integrators. The farmer has to provide the shed, put in the labour and do the management. The birds are reared to a period varying from 35 to 50 days and they may weigh from 1.60 kg to 3 kg. The farmers get a remuneration varying from Rs.2 to 3.60 per kg depending upon the prevailing market rates. Five to six batches

64 of birds are reared in a year with a down time of 10-15 days in between. 5.2.3 the Discussion of the findings The data obtained poultry owners revealed that majority of (46.67%) belonged to the

middle age group, The fact that backyard poultry farmers are mostly not from the old age group is conducive, since they will be more malleable to change. It is obvious that in today's world of the younger generation will modernization,

obviously have more scientific orientation and consequently, adopt more number of technologies. Education is one of the important factors which promote the development of any enterprise. Education results in changes in overall behaviour. Majority of the respondents were well educated and all of them could read as suggested by the high literacy rates in Kerala. About 10 per cent were graduates indicating that, educated people are also taking up poultry rearing as a means of livelihood. A majority had a of the respondents size. A (50%) vast as

belonged to the schedule caste. About 56% of the respondents majority medium of the family (83.33%) respondents lived

joint families. About 60% of the respondents had agriculture and animal husbandry as their major occupation. The role of the poultry owners in a family largely depends on the type and size of the family. The time available with the members of the household largely depends on the number of members as well as the type of family. It is

65 clear that most of the respondents had a family size above four and belonged to joint families, and as the number of individuals involved in the business are more, birds get better care throughout the day. Fifty–three per cent of the respondents

were marginal farmers, 33% small farmers and the rest were large scale farmers. There was equal participation poultry the are from kept all in the castes, the but usually villages. of only rural

There is the need to propagate poultry rearing in suburbs through popularization homestead cages. Poultry rearing is accepted as a subsidiary occupation by majority of the rural households. As pointed out by Dr. M S Swaminathan, India now needs sticks to to have the old a campaign tradition of for achieving related nutritional security and if the rural population caste occupation; this would most definitely hamper the progress. The findings of the study further shows that backyard poultry farming was found to be a subsidiary occupation for all the respondents. The findings are in consonance with the findings Panda and Nanda (2000) and Saha (2003). Thus, this enterprise could prove to be an excellent source of income to support their livelihood. It could provide gainful employment to the family members and utilize the land available with the farmers. In most of the cases in the present study, the families had more than one occupation

66 for their source of income. The earnings from all sources of income were, however, pooled in the family. Many farmers had batches with more than 2000 birds, this indicates the high level of business these farmers are involved in. The study shows that all the respondents kept poultry of medium size units. Since, diversification is the need of the hour, thus, given the present scenario, rural poultry can offer an excellent avenue of employment. The most important problem faced by the

broiler farmers is that of waste disposal. Due to the lack of space many farmers cannot get rid of the wastes hygienically. There is the need to probe into measures for proper waste disposal and propagate the same among these entrepreneurs. It is a known from to fact them that many a good farms in and were the the closed down in Kerala due to the hazardous waste coming liable creating the problems waterways neighbourhood. They if not treated properly are contaminate surroundings leading to a serious health problem. Value added tax imposed by the government of Kerala is yet another major problem faced by the farmers. A good portion of the profit will have to be remitted as tax. This can lead to all the farmers trying to reduce their profits to evade tax to the extend possible. This in turn will lead to all farmers restricting the number of batches or the total number of birds reared. So, due to under utilizing of space, optimum

67 production will not happen and thus the cost of production can go up. Incidence of diseases continue to be a big problem and there is the need to educate them more on the hygienic precautions and bio-security measures to be adopted in farms. This point has a greater significance in the dawn of Avian Influenza threat in all parts of the world. The study by Mandal (2006) revealed that mortality rate in desi birds due to Ranikhet disease was highest, followed by Fowl and pox, other Coccidiosis, miscellaneous respiratory problems

diseases, which corresponds with the findings of Saha (2003). The study also shows that, the death rate was high in chicks followed by growers and adult birds and diseases contributed markedly to high flock High mortalities levels recorded were during rainy due to and season (Mandal2006). disease of probably exposure of chickens to the natural environment, interaction among through different contacts or sale entities, during of live within flock exchange scavenging, chickens or

uncontrolled introduction of new stocks, contacts movement between households and villages(Mapiye and Sibanda 2005) Lack of space leads to smaller stocks and this will increase the cost of production, and lesser profits. The commodity prices would go up leading to fewer purchases.

68

Evaluation of poultry projects implemented in the two Panchayaths during the past 5 years.
5.3.1 Pullet Distribution schemes projects have been regularly

Poultry

implemented in the Panchayaths of Kerala through the Animal Husbandry Kerala Department, Poultry Local self

governments,

State

Development

Corporation and some private players. In Panchayath – I, poultry projects are being implemented for the past five consecutive years. The details of beneficiaries, type of project are given below in Table 6. The findings indicate that there is a good proportion of beneficiaries from the under privileged sector of the society. There number has of been birds considerable distributed increase in the in the

Panchayath

during the last year owing to the implementation of Pullet Distribution schemes (SEP) under the tsunami rehabilitation programme of the

government. In the first three years, all the poultry distribution was done without any Plan Fund.

There has been considerable improvement in the poultry population in the Panchayath as evidenced

69 by the latest census reports. As the farmers are not with the habit of keeping records of

production only estimates of production could be obtained. projects In have this been Panchayath envisaged more and poultry

implemented

owing to the increased demand from the society. Two egger nurseries have been started by the

middle of the last financial year taking into consideration the increase demand for chicks in the Panchayath.

Panchayath

I

st

IInd year 124000 96 28
Pullet distribution

IIIrd year 60000 163 34
Pullet distribution

IVth year 1,65,000 78000 115 55
School poultry club

Vth year 1,45,000 25000 222

I year Plan Fund Beneficiary 55000 contribution Beneficiaries 110 SC/ST 24 beneficiaries Pullet Types of distribprojects
ution

Egger nurseries2 nos Pullet Pullet distributi distribut on ion

No of birds 550 distributed Table 6 Details Panchayath-I

980 of poultry

815 projects

575 in

1100

70

1200 1000 No of birds distributed 800 600 400 200 0 I II III IV 550 980 815 575

1100

V

Fig 3 Details of pullets distributed in the last five years 5.3.2 Performance of the Egger Nurseries in

the Panchayath The higher demand for pullets has led to an egger nursery At project present being two envisaged in the have

Panchayath.

beneficiaries

been selected and trained or the same by the Animal Husbandry Department. It is expected that units of 1000 bird capacity will help to address the problem of non-availability of quality chicks in the Panchayath. Chicks are purchased from the Kerala Agricultural University. On the day of

purchase they are given B-complex vitamins and glucose in the drinking water. This practice has helped the farmers to reduce the chick mortality to bare minimum (1%).

71 These chicks are brooded for a period of 15 days and then are reared for a period of at least 40 days of age. the Vaccinations are carried out as per of the Centre for Advanced are

stipulations in

Studies

Poultry

Science.

The

birds

dewormed, vaccinated against Ranikhet Disease and distributed to beneficiaries who had booked for the same with the local veterinary surgeon. All the pullets are sold before 45 days of age. The farmers are obtaining on an average a profit of Rs. 6000/- per batch. The birds which are supplemented with

compounded feed were found to start laying at 160 days of age on an average. The egg production was again found to vary from nil to 160 eggs per annum. The average egg weight was found to be around 50g.Though there are no egg cooperatives in the Panchayath, there has been an attempt to collect eggs from the households. Each egg

fetches a minimum of Rs 2.50/-. This egg is being utilized in the mid day meal programme for school going children in the Panchayath. At present

there are two schools implementing this project. This has been a stimulus for the farmers to

produce table eggs, as there is good and regular demand for the same in the Panchayath.

72

5.3.3

School Poultry Club Project

During the last financial year, this project with an outlay of in around the Rs 1 lakh Each has been

implemented

Panchayath.

selected

student is given 5 birds free of cost (1 male: 4 females). Some quantity of compounded feed was also given to the beneficiaries. This project is implemented among students from the Below Poverty Line Category with the objective that it would help to improve the nutritional status of these children. It is expected that the eggs produced will be available for consumption for their

households and thus the children will have an access to an additional protein source in their diet. Vaccination and deworming programmes have been implemented to augment production and thus ensure better productivity. for the Training student programmes prior to were the

conducted

distribution of birds. Enclosures for these birds were constructed at the houses under the

supervision of the project supervisor. Steps were taken meeting to ensure of the that club there will be and monthly regular

members

evaluation of the progress of the programme.

73 This scheme has been implemented only in the last financial year and hence the critical evaluation of the same can be done only ion a later stage. It could be seen that there is a belief among farmers that brown shelled eggs are better for health than white shelled ones. Farmers preferred coloured birds to white feathered birds in their backyard. Highest livability was seen in the case of Gramapriya followed by Gramasree. In Panchayath – II, poultry projects are being implemented for the past five consecutive years. The details of beneficiaries, type of project are all given below in table 7. Years => Items Plan Fund Beneficiaries SC/ST beneficiaries Type of project I 1,02,000 97 3 Backyard poultry II 60,000 53 25 Backyard poultry III 25 IV V 125000 300 50 Backyard poultry

106 Backyard poultry

No of birds distributed Table 7

488

372

125

539

2500

Details

of

poultry

projects

in

Panchayath-II

5.3.4 Panchayath-II

74 The evaluation of the projects implemented in Panchayath –II indicated that during the last year, more than 2500 birds have been distributed to the beneficiaries. There are no broiler units in the Panchayath. The trend is that there is an increase in the demand for chicks from year to year.

Birds distributed in the last 5 years
3000 2500 2000 1500 2500

number of birds

1000 500 0 I II 488 372 539 0 III Years IV V

Fig 4 Details of pullets distributed in the last five years in Panchayath-II

The local veterinary surgeon had devised the project in such feed at a way is the that also time some quantity to of the of

compounded

supplied of

beneficiaries

distribution

pullets to the farmers. So also they will be provided with B-complex vitamins and glucose on that day. The Panchayath had distributed

75 Gramapriya and Gramalakshmi with good acceptance by the farmers.

5.3.5

Financial Matters

The cost of a pullet from 45 to 60 days age varies from Rs. 50 to 75. A farmer rearing 1000 pullet for egg purpose under moderate conditions gets a gross profit of around Rs 6000 to 10000. This indicates that more ,egger nursery projects may be envisaged and implemented in the

Panchayath to create job opportunity and income for the local farmers, cater to the needs of the farmers through supply of chicks and thus

increase the poultry wealth and egg production in the state. The Veterinarians of both Panchayaths opined that there is the need to ensure year round

supply of quality chicks to the farmers. It is necessary that these chick nurseries get ample number of day old chicks from the government

farms and approved agencies for the perpetuation of the project in the years to come.

76 5.4 Socio-economic development (SED) registered

if any consequent to these projects. The principal measures of SED are education,

nutritional standards, occupation, and income or combinations of these. • • • Improvement in knowledge level/ skills Increase in income Improvement in the nutritional status of the households • • Trainings received Job satisfaction

5.4.a

Knowledge level

Knowledge level is an important measure because it does not usually after change (as occupation adulthood can be or and

income

might)

young

information easily. broiler

about

education

obtained from were the well

There farmers

information indicated

gathered that they

aware about the management of birds, diseases and Biosecurity measures.

5.4. b. Nutritional Aspects It could be noted that the eggs produced in the house holds are consumed by the family members

77 themselves (75%) and the rest is being utilized for local sales. sales Though of the income eggs is generated not too

through

the

these

significant, the improvement in the nutritional status of the households need to be considered. A family with 5 hens on an average with 150 eggs each would produce 750 eggs in the production cycle. If 10 per cent of all these eggs are lost, from among the remaining 675, 25% is locally

sold. These 169 eggs sold @ Rs 2.50 each would generate an income of Rs 422/- per family. The rest, i.e. 506 eggs are consumed in the

household. The cost of this would come to Rs 1266/-. This in other words on an average would come up to 25 kgs of eggs and proportionate

amount of protein. The findings of this study is in agreement with the findings of Mandal(2006), who reveals that majority of the poultry owners(85%) did not sell the eggs and used them for domestic consumption, whereas, only 15 per cent respondents sold the surplus eggs. However, with regard to selling of birds' majority of the poultry owners (90%) sold birds and only 10 per cent respondents did not sell birds.

78 Mandal (2006) reported an average selling price

of Rs.2.75 for desi, whereas, in case of birds the average selling price was Rs.120 when it

attained a body weight of about (1.5-2)kg.

5.4.c . Financial Aspects It is clear that as a consequence of the project there will be considerable improvement in the

nutritional status of these families as well as provides an additional income when their salvage value is realized at the end of production. In the case of males, higher are the returns as birds sold during the festivals and for religious purpose fetch around Rs 250/- each. The few eggs which are kept aside for hatching are utilized to either propagate the flock or for local sales.

5.4.d. Trainings received All the farmers had received training in poultry rearing farmers Animal about from the integrator. received the Local poultry from

regularly Husbandry diseases,

training

Department. their

Their

awareness vaccination

control,

techniques were all very high.

5.4.e

Job satisfaction

79 The findings on the table in page 37 indicated that 73.37 % of the respondents had moderate to high level of satisfaction with their job. The low satisfaction was on account of the objections raised by the neighbours like foul smell and

absence of a provision for proper waste disposal.

80 5.5. To investigate the profitability of backyard and small scale poultry projects. 5.5.a Projects Items of production cost of ie the expenses, etc in income, backyard Profitability of Backyard poultry

profit,

production

poultry production is given in the Table 8 given below.
Table 8 Economics of backyard poultry units

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Item Expenses Cost of a pullet (60 days old ) Feed Requirement Shelter/ Miscellaneous TOTAL Expenses Income Egg Production Salvage value females Male TOTAL Income Profit per unit Profit per bird Cost of production of one egg

Nos 10 @ 15 kg/ bird 1 10

Unit in Rs 75 15

cost Total in Rs 750 225

Cost

1000 5

1000 50 2025

135 x 9 9 1

2.5 50 112

3038 450 112 3600 1575 157.5

Rs 1.67

81
Cost of pullets FeedCost Shelter/ Miscellaneous
50 (2%) 750(37% )

Cost of egg production in Backyard

1000(50% )

225(11% )

Fig 5 Split up of cost of production in backyard units

The data shown above points out that when the mortality rate is nil, a unit of 10 birds reared by the farmer is capable of producing an income upto Rs 3600/-. In that case the

profitability per bird would be as high as Rs 157.50/-This seems to be a nominal income and hence may be suggested as a means to improve the income of the rural poor.

5.5.b

Profitability

of

Broiler

integration

projects There is seasonal variation in the cost of

broiler meat. All the fluctuations in cost levels in the neighbouring state like TamilNadu affect the price of chicken in the District. Usually

82 integrators get a profit varying from Rs.2 to 3.60 per kg depending upon the prevailing market rates. So a farmer with 1000 birds in a batch and 6 such batches per year on an average makes a profit of 30000 annually.

5.5.c farmers The

Profitability

of

small

scale

broiler

estimates to per

of

expenditure units of

and size

income 1000

with and 6

respect batches

broiler year,

undertaken

entirely

by

the

farmer and birds sold locally for meat indicated the following. The economics of production are depicted in Table 9 below. Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Item Average Cost of production of 1 kg meat Average weight of a broiler bird Average Cost of production of a broiler bird Amount (Rs) 42.00 1.9 kg 79.80 50.00 8.00 8000.00 48000.00

Average selling price of 1 kg of broiler Average profit per bird Average profit for 1000 birds reared Profit per year

Table 9 Economics of broiler production

83 5.6 The constraints faced by poultry farmers. faced by the farmers with egger

Problems

nurseries were as follows ( table 10),(fig 6).
Problems of Sales & Marketin g Value added tax imposed by the government

Problems

NonAvailability of Feed

NonAvailability of Birds

Threat from predators

Threat from Diseases

Lack of space

Problems of Waste Disposal

Complaints from neighbours

Mean Scores Rank

3.47 6

3.73 5

5.03 2

5.63 1

4.67 3

3.00 7

2.47 9

2.89 8

4.18 4

Table 10 farmers

Ratings of constraints faced by poultry

Threat greatest predators,

from

diseases of

continue by

to

be

the from from

problem lack

followed space,

threat

complaints

neighbourhood, non availability of quality chicks as per the need and at the proper time. This finding points out the fact that there is the need to strengthen the disease control measures like vaccination and other hygienic precautions like disposal of wastes and dead birds.
Ratings 6.00 5.03 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 3.47 3.73 3.00 2.47 2.89 5.63 4.67 4.18 Ratings

Feed

B irds

Predators

Diseases

Space

Disposal

Constraints

Sales &M ktg

V AT

C omplaints

84 The major constraints felt by broiler farmers as expressed in percentage is given below in Table 11, Fig 6.

Table 11 Constraints felt by broiler farmers

85

Constraints faced by broiler farmers
Percentage of farmers 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Constraints Diseases Other State chicks Neighbour Tax Space Subsidy Waste feed Marketing 65.35 60.08

54.74

50.1 49.35 32.26 30.65 28.76

27

25.6

Fig 7 Constraints felt by broiler farmers

Threat from predators have been highlighted as a bigger problem because of the in so the called coastal

unidentified

animal

attacks

Panchayaths during last year. This was later on identified as packs of street dogs and necessary steps were taken to control this menace. Lack of space is the / major constraint farmer from the or faced by any in are

livestock Kerala.

poultry

entrepreneur

Complaints

neighbourhood

mostly on account of improper disposal of wastes and dead birds. Lack of space might have led to this problem. Non availability of quality chicks can be solved only by steeping up the production of birds through satellite farms and hatching

them through hatcheries at the Panchayath level.

86 It is understandable that Government an quasi

government institutions in this arena are not in a position to completely satisfy the demand.

87

RECOMMENDATIONS

88 6. To develop strategies to improve the success Recommendations Service Regional Centres basis to may be

of poultry projects. • Poultry Farmers on

established

provide

need based service to farmers be it Quality chicks, Feed, Biologicals, and Medicines on subsidised rates and Technical Advice. • Health coverage to the birds in the rural areas needs to and be strengthened. Timely with

vaccinations strict

medication, measures

coupled are

bio-security

needed.

Availability of vaccines and drugs, as also their safety in terms of acceptable levels in end products for human consumption are other issues needed to be tackled. • Special emphasis is needed for creating a marketing network of rural poultry produce. There is a need and to improve of processing, eggs and

preservation

marketing

poultry products. It needs to be supported by providing infrastructure for meat and

processing,

packaging,

preservation

marketing with value addition of products and maintaining a cold chain till the

product reaches the consumer.

89 • With intensive production, environmental

pollution abatement and bio-waste management strategies have to be worked out. Exemption of VAT (value added tax) on poultry and

better insurance coverage to poultry units to mitigate natural disasters and disease incidences farming. • Duck production the is a feasible of choice the for will help to promote poultry

ensuring

food

security

rural

poor. This improves the nutritive status via egg and meat and improves economic activity by giving supplementary income. • Strengthening of other species like quail and turkey for eggs and meat will enable us to ensure food security. • Farm fresh egg and meat production is

another option to maximize the returns to farmers in poultry sector. • Organic egg and meat production will add to the returns of the farmers and also ensure the health of the members of the society. Kerala has tremendous potential in organic poultry because of the existence of

traditional backyard system. Thus with the

90 help of appropriate approach and technology, the backyard system of poultry rearing can be transformed into a successful organic

venture. • Considering the impact of the rural poultry on poverty alleviation it is essential for Government programmes chicken initial on to of a launch development long-term comprehensive of the Given Desi the

basis.

all-round

support

such

dynamic

programmes can gain momentum and can move on their own steam. If these programmes are

started, within one decade the country can make a Rural Poultry Revolution pushing a large percentage of the poor above the

Poverty Line. • Methods for proper disposal of poultry waste and dead birds are to be devised and

propagated among the farmers. • There is the need to ensure strict bio-

security measures in all the small and even backyard units as a precautionary measure against Avian Influenza threat. • There is the need for a detailed evaluation of the poultry projects implemented in all

91 the Panchayaths. Social and performance is to be undertaken on a regular basis. Impact assessment should be in a uniform manner so that the performance of different

Panchayaths can be directly compared. • There is the need to keep record of the production performance of the hens in the backyard system so as to get the exact cost of production and profitability details. • Need based projects have to be devised and implemented in the Panchayaths. Resource

mapping may be done to utilize the locally available feedstuff in the formulation of concentrate feed to the birds. • Measures for value addition may be instilled in the minds of the farmers to make poultry farming more profitable.

92

CONCLUSION

93

CONCLUSION
Backyard Poultry Farming plays a significant role in rural people's life. These birds in addition to cash income have nutritional, feeding, which birds. cultural breeding led as the to well as Increasing and and poor the the of social functions. The rural poultry owners had poor knowledge of new and about the management performance awareness on practice,

technologies consequently On-farm

recommended practices can help to maximize the productivity poultry income of farmers. training rural

poultry owners is also necessary so as to bring about changes in their practices. The middleman needs to be trained and included in the extension programme need for backyard to be poultry able to farming. Farmers training

control disease, improve management and increase size of flock. Most of the farmers were reluctant to rear large flocks as they lacked skills and capital. Inputs like feed, training on processing, support for marketing are to be provided to sustain the farmers in this field. Backyard poultry farming utilizing the varieties and cross breds developed for this purpose and can help to improve of the the rural nutritional economic status

poor, women and unemployed youth.

94

SUMMARY

95

SUMMARY
Poultry production in Kerala remains largely as a backyard venture with virtually no modern units. These backyard birds have low has to medium productivity. introduction methods, study was new Poultry of production undergone production preventive projects

rapid changes during the past decades due to the modern and to intensive improved breeds

disease control and bio-security measures. This conducted evaluate the implemented in past and restructure the future poultry projects as needed. This will result in better profitability and streamlining of poultry production in the District. A vast majority (96.67 %) of as the a respondents subsidiary

considered

poultry

rearing

occupation. Seventy-three percent of the farmers give supplementary feed to chicken. There is no regular time for feeding of poultry as well as there is no proper idea about the nutritional requirements of poultry. Cross bred hens start laying from 160 to 175 days. Households consume about 75 % of the eggs laid. Selling of eggs is not common. Price of eggs and birds varied according to season and religious festivals. Farmers had no proper idea about the nutritional requirements of poultry, proper disposal of wastes as well as dead birds. Regular supply of Ranikhet disease and Fowl Pox vaccines is to be ensured.

96 The average price obtained for each egg being Rs.3 to 4. Broiler integration farmers and their situation were studied in detail. As the farmers are not with the habit of keeping records of production only estimates of production could be obtained. Today, more poultry projects have been envisaged and implemented owing to the increased demand from the society. Vaccinations are carried out as per the stipulations of the Centre for Advanced Studies in Poultry Science. Each egg fetched a minimum of Rs 2.50/.Farmers preferred coloured birds to white feathered birds in their backyard. envisaged. received Department. Poultry Farmers on Service Centres to may be need More, the egger nursery from projects Animal may be Local poultry farmers regularly Husbandry

training

established

Regional

basis

provide

based service to farmers be it Quality chicks, Feed, Biologicals, and Medicines on subsidised rates and Technical Advice. Special emphasis is needed for creating a marketing network of rural poultry produce. There is a need to improve processing, preservation and marketing of eggs and poultry products. Exemption of VAT on poultry and better insurance coverage to poultry units to mitigate natural disasters and disease incidences will help to promote poultry farming. Duck production is a feasible choice for ensuring the and food security of the rural poor. by egg This giving and meat improves the nutritive status via egg and meat improves economic income. Farm activity fresh supplementary

97 production, to control Organic disease, egg production are other and

viable options. Farmers need training to be able improve management increase size of flock.

98

REFERENCES

99

REFERENCES
Books Rahman, H. Z and Hossain. M (1995)

(eds)(1999). Rethinking Rural Poverty:Bangladesh as a case study. UPL, Dhaka. Sage publications New Delhi. Journal Article Gondwe, poultry T.N.P., Ambali, in A.J.D., and Chilera, Mzuzu.

F.C., Lwesya, H. & Wollny, C.B.A. (1999). Rural biodiversity Lilongwe Agricultural Development Divisions (ADD), Malawi. Malawi J. Science and Technol., 5: 17-25. Conference proceedings Todd, H. (1999). Women Climbing out of

Poverty through Credit; or what do Cows have to do with it? In: F. Dolberg and P. H. Petersen (eds.) workshop, Landboskole, Women March in Agriculture 30-April 3, and 1998, Modern of a Tune Communication Technology. Proceedings

Denmark.

www.husdyr.kvl.dk/htm/php/tune98/2-HelenTodd.htm. (Also published in Livestock Research for Rural Development http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd10/3/todd103.htm Jensen, Visions: H. Askov for (2000). Poultry Paradigm Production and in

Network

Developing Countries. In: F. Dolberg and P. H.

100 Petersen (eds.) and of a Poultry as a of Tool in Poverty Equality 1999, Denmark.

Eradication Proceedings Tune AJensen.htm

Promotion workshop, Landboskole,

Gender

March

22-26,

http://www.husdyr.kvl.dk/htm/php/tune99/3-

K.M.Bujarbaruah and J.J.Gupta (2005) Family poultry for the development of NEH region ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,Umiam, Barapani, Meghalaya IPSACON-2005 Email: kmbujarbaruah@123india.com C. Krishna Rao (2005) A rural poultry

revolution for poverty alleviation in rural India Former Animal Husbandry Commissioner, Govt. of India, H.No. 110, Jaya Nagar , New Bowenpally, Secunderabad – 500 011 IPSACON-2005 Book Chapter C Mapiye and S Sibanda Livestock Research for Rural Development 17 (10) (2005) Constraints and opportunities of village chicken production systems in the smallholder sector of Rushinga district of Zimbabwe , Department of Agriculture, Bindura University of Science Education. P. Bag 1020, University of Bindura, Zimbabwe, P.O Box MP Zimbabwe 167, Mt cmapiye@yahoo.co.uk*Department of Animal Science, Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Fao publication

101 M K Mandal, N Khandekar and P Khandekar in an

(2006) Livestock Research for Rural Development 18 (7) 2006 Bareilly Backyard of poultry Uttar farming India: district Pradesh,

analysis malayjammu@yahoo.com Singh C.B. and Jilani M.H.(2005) Animal Science poultry Section, farming in GBPUA&T, Garhwal Hill Campus, Animal Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal- 249 199 (UA) Backyard Himalayas Science Section.

Internet Resource Md Fazlul Huq and. Kabir Mallik (1998) The Role of Women in Poultry Development: Proshika Experiences, mail: Proshika, Dhaka, Bangladesh , E, proshika@bdonline.com

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/AC154E/AC154E04.htm S. Mack, D. The Hoffmann and J. of of Otte (2000) to

Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture, rural contribution Organization *Corresponding poultry the development United author:

Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome,Italy Simon.Mack@fao.org del Ninno, C., Dorosh, P. A., Smith, L.C. and Roy, D.K and (2001). The 1998 Floods in Food Bangladesh. Strategies, Policy Disaster Impacts, Household Coping

Response.

International

Research

Institute,

Washington.

http://www.ifpri.cgiar.org/ pubs/abstract/abstr122.htm

102 Dolberg, F. (2001). A livestock development approach that contributes to poverty alleviation and widespread improvement of nutrition among the poor. Livestock Research for Rural Development: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd13/5/dolb135.htm Karlan, Group D. S. (2002). Social Capital and from

Banking.

Downloaded

http://web.mit.edu/spencer/www/soccappaper.pdf Frands Dolberg(2003) The Review of Household Poultry Production as a Tool in Poverty Reduction with Focus on Bangladesh and India ProPoor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI)Website: http://www.fao.org/ag/pplpi.html pdf(English): http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/projects/en/pplpi /docarc /wp6.pdf 2 , http:// 8, www.poultrysolutions.com/ pserv/DetailedNews?news_id=508 2003). Timothy N.P. Gondwe, Clemens B.A. Wollny, A.C.L. Safalaoh, (2003) in F.C. Chilera and Mizeck G.G. of Chagunda and Community-Based Malawi. Promotion of (September Working Paper

Rural Poultry Diversity, Management, Utilization Research Department Animal Science, Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, PO Box 219, Lilongwe, Malawi. (E-mail: tgondwe@chirunga.sdnp.org.mw) Choprakarn Faculty of and Kitti Wongpichet Ubon (2007)

Agriculture,

Ratchathani

University, Thailand, Kreingkrai. Village chicken

103 production systems in Thailand. E-mail address of corresponding author: kreingkraicho@yahoo.com

104

APPENDICES

105

APPENDIX-I
POULTRY POPULATION IN KERALA AS PER 2003 CENSUS
Sl No Districts

Total Ducks
14,459 72,135 30,763 251,132 70,338 11,114 63,365 49,214 33,120 39,367 12,057 4,040 7,828 1,677 660,609

Total Fowls

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Thiruvananthapuram Kollam Pathanamthitta Alappuzha Kottayam Idukki Ernakulam Thrissur Palakkad Malappuram Kozhikode Kannur Wayanad Kasargod TOTAL 2002-03

1,027,219 690,352 615,825 594,197 926,868 413,099 991,734 1,192,016 1,132,467 1,444,351 754,803 449,951 320,870 438,080 10,991,832

ANNUAL POULTRY PRODUCTION
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 10922.083 1033.855 11955.938 55921 27609 195372 Egg (in lakh no.s) Fowls Ducks Total eggs Total Animal Meat in the organised sector Total poultry meat Total meat production (including unorganised Sector) 12475.45 993.43 13468.88 42804 52611 181023 11704.57 1063.57 12768.14 47663 39327 182316 10948.63 1025.54 11974.17 54189 32704 195271

ANNEXURE-II

106 GENERAL STRATEGY FOR BACKYARD POULTRY UNIT SCHEMES of KERALA STATE POULTRY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION The egg production is planned through backyard rearing system. The hatching eggs of the parent stock maintained at the farms will be used for producing day old chicks. The Day old Chicks will be reared in egger nurseries of the Self Help Groups or farmer or private individuals, which are acting as a satellite farm. The birds when they attain 45-60 days will be procured from the above farm and supplied to beneficiaries . In case of shortage of birds, birds will be procured from reputed firms outside the state. The eggs thus produced and procured will be marketed through the societies formed for the specific purpose at remunerative price to the producer. The feed produced by Kerala State Poultry Development Corporation will be supplied for the scheme (the installed capacity for feed production is 16 Mt per shift). The feed ingredients will be purchased on annual rate contract for all the facilities. Beneficiaries will be selected by the Panchayaths The Panchayaths and local bodies will be directed to distribute pullets to the women beneficiaries. Project activity (Monitoring & Coordination) This project activity will be entirely handled by the Corporation for proper and effective implementation. Required personnel will be provided on contract basis to Co-ordinate and

• •

• •

107 Supervise the Programme during its implementation stage for its effectiveness in implementation within the time scheduled. The project will have a Programme Coordinator and supported by programme Supervisors for properly maintaining the accounts and other details. The Programme Supervisors will be responsible for organizing the SHG’s and to guide in all areas. They will be supported by Voluntary Extension Workers at the grass root level selected from among the KEPCO Club Members for linking the beneficiaries with Supervisors / Coordinators. The Programme Supervisors will have good liaison with local Veterinary Surgeons for providing timely health cover and other technical guidance. ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETIES A KEPCO Club will be organized for every 20 beneficiaries and a Marketing Outlet is organized comprising 20 KEPCO Clubs and one Society in each Block. The Societies are formed as per Charitable Societies Act, 1955 and Organizing Body. All beneficiaries will be the members of the Society formed. Each Society will have 7 Governing Body Members including one President, Secretary and Treasurer. The organization of various activities will be managed by the Societies. The societies will also be responsible for the inspection of equipments, various assets provided to the beneficiaries, distribution of feed, birds, etc and co-ordination of all the Sales Outlet Units of the respective Block.

108

The activities of the Societies will be as below: • To guide and supervise the primary level societies. • The primary societies will have sub centers in the Panchayat for the purpose of egg collection, distribution of other inputs. • The eggs collected can be hatched using the proposed mini hatchery in the societies. • The chicks will be sold to the beneficiaries on cost from the second year onwards as replacement stock. • The egger nurseries or integration farms under KSPDC shall rear the chicks. • The egg marketing will be done by the society at block level. • Each member has to contribute Rs.10/towards the membership fee. The cost of eggs sold by the beneficiary can be deposited in the society, which can be utilized as thrift loan to needy members. The amount can be utilized by KEPCO Clubs to take up other income generating activities. Since no subsidy is provided during 2nd year, the Society should remit the full cost of birds collected from beneficiaries to KSPDC.

109

Once the market and remunerative price is assured to the producers the growth of the segment can be assured, as the growth is market pulled. The birds required to be distributed for the backyard poultry scheme is to be reared in 45 nurseries involving the SHGs and private entrepreneurs. The SHGs and individuals having shed to rear the birds will be supplied chicks and feed and will rear the birds under strict protocol of vaccination and health care and the birds will be procured and issued to the selected beneficiaries of the local body through the Veterinary institutions of the Panchayat.

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