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What are the causes of power frequency over voltages? 2. What are the causes of over voltages in power system? 3. What are the different types of fault that may occur on power lines? 4. Name the sources of switching surges?
5. 6. 7. 8. What are the advantages of HVDC over HVAC? State few high voltage applications. Define dielectric strength. What are the types of Dielectrics? State few examples. State few high voltage applications. UNIT 2: ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN IN GASES, SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are electronegative gases? Give some examples. Define Paschen’s Law for breakdown? What are the discharges that occur after breakdown of gaseous dielectric? Why SF6 is most widely used as gaseous dielectric? What is corona? What are the effects of corona? What are the practical considerations for selecting gases as dielectrics? Define Townsend’s Primary ionization coefficient. What are the different time lags that occur during breakdown? What are the discharges that occur after breakdown of gaseous dielectric?
UNIT 3: GENERATION OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH CURRENTS 1. Give some uses of HVDC. 2. State some applications of vande Graff generator. 3. What are the methods that are available to generate high DC voltages? 4. What are the drawbacks of cascaded voltage doubler circuit that led to the development of voltage multiplier circuits? 5. How are capacitances connected in an impulse current generator? 6. What are the general methods available for generation of A.C. voltages? 7. State the advantages of resonant transformer and high frequency Transformer. 8. State the principle of operation of Marx circuit for impulse voltage generation. 9. What are the components of impulse generators?
10. Draw a circuit diagram of a simple voltage doubler. (2) 11. What are the advantages of using Tesla coil for high AC voltage generation? 12. What are the drawbacks of RLC type impulse generator? 13. State the principle of operation of Marx circuit for impulse voltage generation.
UNIT 4: MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH CURRENTS
1. What are the factors that affect the spark over voltage of sphere gap? 2. State the measurement techniques that are suitable for measuring A.C. high frequency voltages and impulse. 3. What are the methods that are used to measure D.C. voltages?
4. What are the drawbacks in the series resistance with micro ammeter method? 5. State the advantages and limitations of generating voltmeters? 6. What are the advantages of parallel resonance test system over series resonance test system? 7. State the principle of operation of electrostatic voltmeters. 8. What are the elements that mainly constitute errors in potential dividers for impulse voltage measurement ? 9. State the measurement techniques that is suitable for measuring A.C. high frequency voltages and impulse 10. What are the methods that are used to measure D.C. voltages? 11. What are the drawbacks in the series resistance with micro ammeter method? 12. State the advantages and limitations of generating voltmeters? UNIT V: HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING & INSULATION COORDINATION 1. Define type test. 2. What is Basic Impulse Level (BIL)? 3. Define routine test. 4. Define withstand test voltage. 5. Define flashover voltage. 6. Name the tests conducted on surge diverters. 7. Give any two classification of test on cables. 8. Explain the porosity test on insulators. 9. What is a surge diverter? 10. Define creeping distance. 11. What is the importance of radio interference voltage measurements for extra high voltage power apparatus? 12. Name the test conducted on bushings. 13. Define partial discharge. 14. What is the function of surge arrester? 15. State the consequences of RIV. 16. What do you mean by radio interference? 17. Define an isolator. 18. Define a circuit breaker. 19. Define 50% flashover voltage. 20. Define 100 % flash over voltage. 21. State 2 standard tests to be conducted on HV Transformers. 22. What does the selection of BIL level for lines depend?
Part-B Questions UNIT 1:
1. Explain the lightning phenomena (or) charge formation in clouds? – (8) 2. Explain the Mechanism of lightning strokes? –(8) 3. Derive the expression for the transmission lline (or) derive the telegraphic equation?- (10) 4. What is meant by switching surge, how it originates and explain their characteristics?-(16)
5. How will you control the over voltages due to switching?-(8) 6. Explain the protection of transmission line against over voltage?-(16) 7. Explain the principles of insulation coordination of HV and EHVpower system? 8. Explain about the surge arresters and how will you select the surge arrester?-(8) 9. Explain the reflection of transmission waves at transient point?-(8) 10. Explain about the successive reflection and lattice diagram?-(10)
1. Explain about the primary and secondary isolation coefficient and derive the Townsend’s criteria?-(16) 2. Explain about : a) Streamer theory . (8) b) Paschen’s theory . (8) 2. explain about the vacuum breakdown?- (16) 3. Explain the conduction breakdown in pure liquids?-(8) 4. Explain the conduction breakdown in commercial liquids?-(16) a) Suspended particle theory. b) Cavitation and bubble theory. c) Stressed oil volume theory. 5. Briefly explain about the breakdown in solid dielectrics?- (8) 6. Briefly explain about the breakdown in composite dielectrics?- (8)
1. Explain about : (16) a) Voltage doubler circuit . b) Voltage multiplier circuit (Cock-Craft Walton) 2. Explain about : a) Deltetron circuit. –(8) b) Van-de-Graft generator. –(8) c) Electrostatic generator. –(8) 2. Explain the generation of High alternating voltages using Cascaded transformers? 3. Explain the generation of High frequency AC high voltages?- (8) 4. Explain the Multistage impulse generator (Marx-circuit) ? - (8) 5. Explain the impulse current generator? –(8)
1. Explain about the Sphere gap arrangement (or) Spark gap arrangement?- (16) 2. How will you measure the HVDC using series resistance with micrometer and resistance potential divider?- (10) 3. Explain about generating voltmeters ?- (8) 4. Explain about CVT- (Capacitance Voltage Transformer) ? –(8) 5. Explain about Electrostatic voltmeters? – (8) 6. Explain about Hall generator (AC,DC,Impulse current measurement)?- (8) 7. Explain about the Measurement of Impulse current (Rogowski coil)?- (8) 8. Explain about CRO for voltage and current measurement?- (8) 9. Write short notes on:
a) Resistive Shunts. –(8) b) Electromagnetic current transformer. –(8) c) Peak voltmeters. –(8)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Discuss the testing of Circuit breakers and Isolators. –(8) Explain about the testing of Bushings and Insulators.? –(8) Discuss about the testing of Surge arresters.? –(8) Briefly explain the testings of Transformers.? –(8) Discuss about the testing of Cables with necessary diagram. –(8) Explain briefly about the direct and synthetic test in Circuit breaker testing?-(8) Explain briefly about the Impulse testing at transformers?-(8)