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Sustainable Building Materials

Wayne A Morris

A brief overview of available renewable building materials, their history, their uses in modern building design and who supplies them (within Australia)

Renewable Materials ............................................................................................................... 3 Wool ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Timber ............................................................................................................................................ 5 Cork................................................................................................................................................. 6 Bamboo .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Straw ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Silk................................................................................................................................................... 9 Spider Silk ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Kirei Board .................................................................................................................................... 11 Paper............................................................................................................................................. 12 Plywood ........................................................................................................................................ 13 Cotton ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Thatch ........................................................................................................................................... 15 Linoleum ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Soy ................................................................................................................................................ 17 Hemp ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Rubber .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Palm .............................................................................................................................................. 20 Green Paints ................................................................................................................................. 21 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 22 Appendix ............................................................................................................................... 23 Resources ..................................................................................................................................... 23 Suppliers ....................................................................................................................................... 26 Bibliography .................................................................................................................................. 31

1.

We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them Albert Einstein

This is by no means a comprehensive compilation of renewable building materials as I am sure there are a number of other materials available as well as other materials in the design process or still to come that can be made from using renewable materials, however the following is a guide to what materials one might look at using if wishing to construct a dwelling using as many renewable and environmentally friendly resources as possible. In order for a material to be renewable it would most likely be derived from some form of biological source whether it be animal or plant. Other materials such as clays, sand or other minerals may still be considered renewable but operate on a much longer timeline to more conventional renewable materials such as living organisms and as such I have omitted them from my research. I have attempted here to organise a list of materials which can be categorized and accessed as simply as possible so that each material is easily allocated to a specific use within a building or in some instances a number of uses can be found for a single material Each materials is written on its own fact sheet with each sheet indicating the materials name, the materials classification, information about the material, suppliers of the material or where more information can be obtained regarding the material, material suitability tabs indicating which components of a building the materials can be used for as well as a preview image of the material at the top of each sheet to help identify what the material is or what it may look like.

Suppliers with a stamp next to them indicate that they are recognised by the Australian Good Environmental Choice Program and are certified as suppliers of Good Environmental Choice Products and have been listed on the Australian Green Procurement database which can be found at www.greenprocurement.org

Preview Image of Material

Material Name Material Classification

Information about the material

Suppliers of the material or links to more information

Material Suitability Tabs

3.

Wool is produced by several animals including sheep, llamas, goats and rabbits although because of the ease of domestication of sheep and their ability to grow large quantities of Wool
(about 25 mm each month. Adult sheep can be expected to cut in the order of 6-7 kg per year and 1 a yield of 78-80% is typical ) sheep wool is the most common source for wool used in the

building, flooring and clothing industry at present. The qualities of wool that suit it to a range of different applications include its ability to be fire resistant up to higher temperatures than other materials such as cotton and nylon, It has lower rate of flame spread, low heat release, and low heat of combustion2. Wool can be woven to form floor coverings such as carpet or it can be mechanically bonded together into the form of batts which are used as insulation. Wool is a good alternative to other forms of insulation such as fibreglass, cellulose or mineral wool because of its higher R value of approximately 3.5 to 3.8 per inch of material thickness3 which is 0.3 to 0.6 points higher than fibreglass, cellulose, or mineral wool4 and the fact that it is hypoallergenic which means that it is not irritating to the respiratory system or the skin like fibreglass and other alternative insulating materials5. Compared with other insulation materials wool has significantly lower embodied energy being only 15 kilowatt hours per m which is half that of cellulose insulation and practically one sixth of the embodied energy required to produce mineral wool6

State of Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment 2002, retrieved date 9 may 2009, <http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/c12b1a2fd793afaeca2571800000981f/$FILE/ag0134.pdf> 2 Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep_wool> 3 Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wool_insulation> 4 Ibid 5 Ibid 6 Ibid

http://www.cavbrem.com.au/cbconsumer 1800 251 172

www.higgensinsulation.com.au 1300 130 233

www.goldenfleeceinsulation.com.au 1800 641 101 http://www.greenliving.com.au 1800 224 184

http://www.woolset.com.au 1800 111 231

4.

According to the Australian Timber Database there are 51 different species of timber to choose from each with different qualities regarding density, appearance, termite resistance and durability etc. What all timber has in common is that it is a natural resource capable of, with the exception of old growth forests, being replenished as supply demands. At the end of 2008 there was a total of 149.4 million hectares of forests in Australia7, of that 1.97 million hectares was plantation forest8 increasing at a rate of 61,000 hectares a year9 with timber harvesting being permitted in 9.4 million hectares of public native forest10. In 2006-07 a total of 27.1 million m of timber was harvested in Australia11 accounting for approximately 1% of total renewable plantation with new plantations constantly being replenished and re harvested every 10 15 years12 mostly for the purpose of being converted to woodchips for paper manufacture. Australian plantations are categorised as either softwood, mainly pine (Pinus) species, or hardwood, mainly eucalypts, including Eucalyptus and Corymbia species13. The largest plantations being radiata pine which accounts for 75% of total softwood plantation14 and blue gum which accounts for 62% of total hardwood plantation15. Embodied energy of timber products can range from 0.5mj/kg for air dried timber16 to 11 mj/kg for plywood17 due to its more complex manufacturing process, with 75% of energy requirements being consumed in the drying process18. Sustainably harvested timber has a very low carbon footprint compared to other building materials19 this is because although the timber is removed from the plantation it still retains carbon dioxide obtained from the environment for long periods of time and with new plantations being grown in its place the cycle can continue where more carbon dioxide is continually removed from our environment. It is estimated that at present there is more than 12 billion tonnes of Co stored in Australian forests20 positively contributing to lowering the carbon footprint of the building industry and helping to sustain a healthier environment.
7 8

Australias forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009 pp.2 ibid 9 ibid 10 Ibid pp.3 11 ibid 12 Ibid Pp.33 13 Ibid Pp.31 14 Ibid pp.32 15 ibid 16 Review of the Environmental Impact of Wood Compared with Alternative Products Used in the Production of Furniture, Australian Gov. Forest & Wood Products Research & Development Corporation, 2003 pp.10 17 ibid 18 ibid 19 Carbon Footprint, The Australian timber database, retrieved 9 may 2009 < http://www.timber.net.au/index.php/Environmental-Design-Carbon-Footprint.html> 20 Australias forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009 pp.2

5.

Cork is produced from stripping the bark from Cork Oak trees without having to cut down the tree itself which can live for as long as 200 years21. Once a Cork Oak tree reaches 25 years old the outer layer of bark is removed every 9 years and used for a variety of different purposes ranging from cork stoppers in wine bottles, parts in musical instruments or created into building products which can be used as walling or flooring in our homes. There is currently around 2.2 million hectares of cork forest worldwide with 33% being found in Portugal, 23% found in Spain 22 and other plantations being found in other regions of southwest Europe and northwest Africa23. Cork is considered an environmentally friendly material due to the nature in which it can be harvested without having to destroy the environment around it. Organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund have commented on the harvesting of cork in the Mediterranean as being one of the finest examples of a system which perfectly balances the needs of both humans and nature24 with other organisations such as the Forest Stewardship Council or FSC helping to maintain control of the cork Oak plantations and prevent illegal harvesting of the product or any degradation or damage to the environment caused by improper forest management. Locally, programs such as the Australian Good Environmental Choice Program have awarded companies such as Comcork flooring by Logic Australia with the Good Environmental Choice label, indicating that the product manufactured is an environmentally safe product although it should be noted that comcork flooring systems are produced from using recycled cork and rubber material and not plantation grown cork.
21 22

Cork (Material), Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(material)> ibid 23 th Cork Oak, Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_Oak> 24 th Cork Supply, Sustainable Forestry, received 14 may, 2009. <http://www.corksupply.com/sustainability-matters/sustainable-forestry.aspx>

th

http://www.jelinek.com/wall.htm +905-827-4666

http://www.logicaustralia.com.au 03 9544 2288

http://www.amcork.com

http://www.specnet.com.au/company/premium.htm

http://www.corkfloors.com.au/cf03a_cork.htm 03 9569 2222

6.

Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth being able to grow at a rate of up to 60 centimetres or 24 inches in a day25 although its growth rate is highly dependent on soil conditions and the climate in which it is grown. Bamboo is a member of the grass family and can be found in many regions throughout the world in a diverse range of climates from cold mountains to hot tropical regions26. Bamboo has many uses such as having parts of the plant used as food in some Asian dishes and medications27, it is commonly used as scaffolding in Asian countries28, it is used as a substitute to steel reinforcement in concrete29 and more recently bamboo has been manufactured for use as household flooring systems whereby the bamboo is steamed, flattened and glued together into flooring panels30. Companies such as the Bamboo Fabric Store even produce fabrics and clothing made from bamboo fibres claiming that bamboo fibre is a unique biodegradable textile material. As a natural cellulose fibre, bamboo fabric can be 100% biodegraded in soil by micro organisms and sunlight31showing that not only is bamboo an environmentally sustainable natural resource but also that disposal of the material has no damaging effect on the environment. Australian company Bamboo Surfboards Australia designed bamboo wall panels which were entered into the 2003 Australian international design awards and are one of few manufacturers of bamboo wall systems while other companies such as House of Bamboo provide bamboo products suitable for use as roofing or cladding materials in Australia.

http://www.stylelimited.com (08) 9367 8388

http://www.designawards.com.au/applica tion_detail.jsp?applicationID=2299 84 Centenial Cct, Byron Bay, NSW 2481 p: 02 6685 6804

http://www.ecoflooring.com.au (02) 9410 0640

http://www.bamboozle.com.au Osborne, WA 08 9445 9011 Myaree, WA 08 9317 2883


25 26

http://www.houseofbamboo.com.au 1300 665703

Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo> Ibid 27 ibid 28 ibid 29 ibid 30 ibid 31 Green and biodegradable, bamboo fabric store, received 14 may, 2009.< http://www.bamboofabricstore.com.au/biodegradable.html>

7.

The notion of using straw as a building material has been around since at least the middle ages where due to a need to build housing using what limited resources were available straw was used as thatching on roofs and even as walling material in the overcrowded villages. Although when first used it was usually combined with other materials such as clay and sand33 it was not until the baling machine was invented in the late 1800s that builders recognised the potential to use blocks of straw as a viable building material34. The first know straw bale constructed houses were built more than a hundred years ago by European settlers in the sand hills region of Nebraska35.
32

Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the grain or seed has been removed36 and is mainly utilized as feed or bedding for livestock. Straw can be bought in the form of straw bales which can be used as building blocks to construct the exterior or interior walls of straw bale homes, concurrently another way of using straw in buildings was developed in Sweden in 1933 whereby straw was compressed into boards called stramit boards37 which were rough boards used mainly for insulation in roofs and walls. Decades later the product was invested in by Australian company Ortech Industries whom today manufacture and sell their refined version of the original Stramit board which they call Durra Straw Panels which use no water or gas during the manufacturing process38.
32 33

Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatching> Hollis, M, Practical straw bale Building, Landlinks Press, Collingwood, 2005. Pp. 1 34 ibid 35 King, B. Straw Bale Construction A Review of testing and lessons learned to date, Building Safety Journal, May - June 2004 pp. 38 36 Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw> 37 History and Heritage, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. <http://www.ortech.com.au/about.html> 38 Durra Panel, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. <http://www.ortech.com.au/durra/durrapanel.html>

http://www.ortech.com.au 1800 805 919

http://www.straw.com.au (02)69 546 121

http://glassford.com.au (02) 6927 6027 john@glassford.com.au

http://www.strawtec.com.au 02 4443 5282 strawbales@bigpond.com

http://www.solomit.com.au (03) 9793 3088

8.

Silk is produced from silk secreting insect larvae, in particular the caterpillar known as the silkworm39, it was first harvested as early as 6000 B.C. by the Chinese40. Silk is one of the strongest natural fibres although unlike spider silk it does not perform as well in terms of elasticity and can lose up to 20% of its strength when wet41. If silk is stretched it is liable to remain elongated and if exposed to copious amounts of sunlight it can remain attenuated or vitiated. Silk is rarely used in buildings save for in some circumstances it may be adopted as a covering to copper electrical conductors42 or may be used as coverings for household furnishings or as curtains or screen which act as dividers or window coverings. The process for harvesting silk is relatively environmentally friendly. It involves the collection of silkworm cocoons before the silkworm pupae have time to emerge from the cocoon, once collected the pupae are killed by dipping the cocoons in boiling water43 which prevents damage to the cocoon and silk thread by preventing the emergence of the adult moth. Another way to destroy the pupae is by piercing the cocoon with a needle44, the reason the pupae is destroyed is to preserve the silk thread so that it may be harvested in one continuous thread. An alternative to domestically cultivated silkworms is to harvest the cocoons from the wild although these cocoons are usually damaged as a result of the emergence of the adult moth which is conducive to the damage of the silk thread which is torn into shorter lengths45. Not only is the quality of wild silk vitiated compared to that of domesticated silkworms but it is also found that wild silks tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from cultivated silkworms46
39

Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009 <http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375> 40 Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk> 41 ibid 42 Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009 <http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375> 43 Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk> 44 ibid 45 ibid 46 ibid

http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

http://www.silkdirect.com.au 03 9882 6555

http://www.silkworld.com.au 03 9419 0666

9.

Although Spider Silk is still in the developmental stages of the material it is worth noting the properties spider silk has which gives it the potential to be a material suitable for a diverse range of applications. Milligram for milligram spider silk is a stronger material than steel or Kevlar47 which leads it to have the potential for being used for the production of such products as super lightweight bullet proof vests or pocket portable parachutes48. Bioengineering company Nexia Biotechnologies Ltd. Have been working on a process to commercially produce what they term BioSteel which is produced with their recombinant dragline spider silk program which is based on their transgenic goat technology49. Because of the difficulties in harvesting the silk directly from spiders, research has revolved around trying to find other species of insects that are capable of producing a similar silk such as some bee, ant and moth species and modifying their silk to produce the same properties found in spider silk although as yet no other silks have compared to the strength found in spider silk 50. Another way researchers are trying to develop the silk is by recreating the silk by taking cells from the mammary glands of dairy cows and modifying them with spider genes to produce the proteins used to make spider silk51. The end result will be the production of silks and BioSteel that is 5 times stronger than steel, 30 times more flexible than nylon and twice as elastic52 suitable for a range of different applications.
47

Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009, <http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=1> 48 ibid 49 BioSteel, Nexia Biotechnologies Inc., received 20 may, 2009 < http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php> 50 Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009, <http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=3> 51 . Spider Silk Stronger than steel, Queensland Government, received 20 may, 2009, <http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI> 52 ibid

http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI

http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=1

10.

Formed from the pressed stalks of rice sorghum, Kirei board is an agricultural by product which can be used to create non-toxic, lightweight boards suitable for use as an alternative to wood. Kirei boards can be used for anything that common wooden boards can be used for from cabinetry, furniture, wall coverings or even flooring. Although not classified as a plywood, Kirei board is manufactured simular to plywood but without the use of toxic formaldehyde resins53. The boards are first woven tightly together then heat pressed together in diagonally opposing layers to give the boards extra strength. Kirei boards can either be clear coated and left in their natural state or a wooden veneer can be placed over the material to protect it if it is to be used as cabinet material due to it being a naturally soft material. Because of its softness Kirei board is not recommended for use as flooring in high traffic areas54.

http://www.kireiusa.com

53 54

Kirei Board, Wikipedia, received 30 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board> ibid

11.

Although most products are derived from recycled card or paper products, the fact that paper itself comes from trees which are renewable is why I have described this material as a renewable resource as opposed to a recycled product. International Manufacturing Company Xanita Pty Ltd has developed a multipurpose manufacturing process whereby recycled paper and cardboard material is converted into a multipurpose product they call X-Board. X- Board is marketed as a VOC free (Volatile Organic Chemical) alternative to MDF (Medium density Fibreboard) suited to applications such as temporary or semi-permanent indoor walls, Kitchen Joinery, Tables, Shelving, Ceiling panels, room dividers, bulkhead formwork, doors, partitions and a range of other household and building applications55. In describing their product, Xanita refer to their product as being made from post consumer paper waste56 manufactured into a honeycomb core where particle board or plywood are structurally bonded to both sides of this core, creating a lightweight composite panel which can be direct edge banded with huge strength-to-weight ratio advantages over heavyweight, formaldehyde-based, solid MDF and particle board57. Apart from any resins used in the bonding process all other materials used in the creation of the X-Boards can be sourced from renewable resources. Xanita recommend their product for the purposes of general construction, boat building, recreational vehicles, caravan manufacturing and portable office solutions58.
55 56 th

X-Board Plus, Xanita, received 20 may, 2009 < http://www.xanita.com/site/about/x-board-plus.html> ibid 57 ibid 58 ibid

http://www.visionwall.com.au (02) 9997 5222

http://www.xanita.com 07 3821 7730

http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

http://www.taylorwalloptions.com.au 0438 275 400

12.

Plywood is manufactured by bonding multiple sheets of thin wood known as plies or veneers together into layers with each layer of veneer being glued and placed at a right angle to the previous layer in order to provide more rigidity and strength to the finished plywood board59. Each plywood board is usually manufactured with an odd number of plies so as to create symmetry in the board which allows it to be less prone to warping60. Plywood veneers are typically bonded using heat along with a phenol formaldehyde resin which makes plywood a type of composite material61. Although plywood can be sourced from renewable resources, the use of the formaldehyde and the carcinogens that it produces has been a source of concern regarding the safety and environmental impact of the product and alternative bonding agent would be desirable as government regulations become stronger against the use of these adhesives62. Plywood is considered superior to wood due to its resistance to cracking, shrinkage, twisting /warping, and its general high degree of strength63. Plywood comes in a variety of different varieties in both hardwood and softwood and is suited to a range of different applications from marine use, aircraft manufacturing in the early 20th century as well as building construction64 and it has been used as the main construction material for skateboards for about as long as they have been around. Benefits of plywood is that it can usually be bought in larger sizes than standard timbers65 and as previously mentioned it is commonly stronger and less prone to deformity. In Australia Plywood is available from a number of retailers including Boral, Austral Plywoods and Mr Ply&Wood all of which have a large range of plywood products available to architects, builders and designers.
59 60

Plywood, Wikipedia received may 20, 2009. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood> ibid 61 Ibid 62 ibid 63 ibid 64 ibid 65 http://www.boral.com.au/plywood ibid

http://misterplywood.com.au 1300 138 771 http://www.australply.com.au 07 3426 8666

13.

Cotton is a natural fibre grown in the form of a Boll around the seeds of the Cotton Plant which is a shrub native to most tropical and subtropical regions around the world66. Cotton is a textile that has been widely used by various cultures as a means to make clothing and other accessories since early Mesopotamian times. Civilizations such as early Indian, Chinese and Egyptians picked, spun, wove and traded cotton and cotton products even before the dawning of the 1st century A.D.67. At present, Cotton is Australias Largest Agricultural Industry taking up 400,000 hectares of land68 and producing $1.7 billion worth of cotton a year of which the exportation of cotton contributes $1.5 billion to that figure69 with Australian producing around 3% of Global cotton production70 . Cotton is a textile which is mainly used to produce clothing and other forms of fabrics such as curtains or carpets although at least in America cotton only represents less than 1% of all fibres used in the American floor covering industry71. One reason some companies might avoid cotton as a material for use in carpets is its high dependence on pesticides to protect the cotton crop72 and the fact that backing on cotton carpet requires the use of extremely toxic glues for the bonding process73. Whether it is because of the harvesting process or the more difficult manufacturing process of cotton products it is not as common for companies to supply items such as cotton carpets as opposed to woollen carpets or other nylon products, never the less cotton can be used as insulation or as an option as an alternate wall covering to either wood or plaster.
66 67

Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton> ibid 68 Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009. <http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23> 69 Cotton Overview, CSIRO, Recieved 24 may, 2009 <http://www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview.html>> 70 Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009. <http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23> 71 Cotton inc. Received 24 may 2009. < http://www.cottoninc.com/1998EFSConferencePresentations/CottonRugsAndCarpets/> 72 Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton> 73 Faqs, Natural Home Products, received 24 may, 2009< http://www.naturalhomeproducts.com/faqs.html>

http://www.livingfabrics.com.au 1800 224 184

http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

14.

Thatching is a more traditional method for covering roofs that involves the use of dry vegetation such as grass, straw, leaves, reed or a number of other materials as a roofing material for houses. Thatch was widely used in the middle ages as a cheap effective way to provide shelter for the villagers where it was also know to be used as a walling material74. A range of thatches are available and easily accessible in Australia with companies such as House of Bamboo, Oz Thatch, Mr Thatch and Tropical Thatch offering Indonesian thatch, African Reed, Alang Alang Thatch, Natureed, Bac Bac Thatch and Palm Fibre Thatching just to name a few. Depending on the type of thatch used, the quality of installation and the pitch of the roof thatch can last as long as 70 years for water reed thatching75, 45 to 50 years for straw thatching76 or anywhere from 10 to 25 years for other forms of thatching77. Benefits of thatch roofing includes the ability of most thatch materials to provide competitive thermal insulation when applied in thick amounts78 and that it is versatile when it comes to covering odd shaped or more difficult roof structures79 while some of the drawbacks to using thatch is that it is less resistant to fires80 even though most thatches do come with fire resistant coatings81. The biggest threat to thatch roofing is from animals such as birds and rodent that might find the thatch a source for food or as nesting material and as a result would contribute to the decay of the thatch roof. Another contributor to the decay of thatch roofs is the presence of fungi in high moisture environments82, for this reason thatch is generally more suited to be used in more tropical or warmer environments.

http://www.thatch.com.au/ (08) 9530 1347


74 75

http://www.tropicalthatch.com
1300 781104

Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof> ibid 76 ibid 77 Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009 <http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/> 78 Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof> 79 ibid 80 ibid 81 Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009 <http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/> 82 Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof>

15.

Linoleum is produced from a herb called a Linseed and is used in the manufacture of flooring materials such as Lino and natural oil based paints83 although in recent years Lino has been succeeded by another material known as vinyl which is made using Polyvinyl Chloride84 due to vinyls characteristics being simular to Linoleum but producing a material of greater brightness and translucency85. To make Lino the oil from the linseed is oxidized at elevated temperatures while it is being stirred, this process continues until the flow rate of the oil decreases and a resin is then added to the oil and the mixture exposed to hot air86. The material that forms is then blended with a mixture of wood flour, Whiting, binder, filler and pigments then made into sheets which are then attached to a felt or canvas backing, these sheets are then hung and heat treated to induce hardening of the material87. Linseed oil is also used to create natural paints. Linseed has been used as a component in paint for over a hundred years with linseed based paint often proving more durable and longer lasting than paints containing more modern toxic materials88, lasting anywhere between 50 to 100 years before it begins to deteriorate89. Linseed oil can also be used as a treatment for raw wood materials, textiles, wood preservation, industrial lubricant, earthen floors and as a polish or leather treatment90.
83

Environmentally Sae Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009. <http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm> 84 Linoleum, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum> 85 Ibid 86 Linoleum, Encyclopaedia Britannica, receive 29 May, 2009. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum> 87 Ibid 88 Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009. <http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm> 89 Ibid 90 Linseed Oil, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil>

http://www.earthpaint.net

http://www.tarkett-floors.com +61 2 96 34 73 73

http://www.generalflooring.com.au 02 9622 1811

http://www.forbo-flooring.com.au 1800 224 471

16.

Soy is used in the production of Paints and paint strippers as an alternative to using more toxic materials that are more harmful to the environment. The real Milk Company provides a product they call Soy-Gel which is a professional industrial strength paint stripper which contains no methylene chloride and is safe enough to be used indoors91. Unlike some more flammable paint strippers, soy bean paint stripper has a high flash point of approximately 200 degrees F92. Soy Based Acrylic paints are available from EarthPaint.net which are considered to perform better than paints made from using more toxic material93. In terms of the manufacturing of soy into a usable paint product Soy bean oil alone does not make a good paint. It needs to be converted into an alkyd or polyester94 , each converting process requiring a substantial amount of energy to perform. Benefits of using soy based paints include not having any lead, formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, or other harsh and harmful chemicals in the paints, the paints tend to last longer than traditional more toxic chemical based paints95 and no ozone depleting halogen hydrocarbons are released into the atmosphere96. Aside from paints and paint strippers, soy can be used to produce resins, plastics, clothing and a fuel known as biodiesel, soy accounting for 80% of American biodiesel production97. Although the product does not contain any harsh substances of any great threat to the environment it should be noted that pesticides may be used in the cultivation process of the soy plant.

http://www.naturalbuilthome.com/products/372-soy_paint

http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx

http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html
91 92

http://www.earthpaint.net

Soy-Gel, the Real Milk Company, received 18 May, 2009 <http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html> Ibid 93 Non Toxic Paint, EarthPaint, received 18 May, 2009 <http://www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php> 94 Ibid 95 Soybean Polystripper, Healthy Home, received 18 May, 2009 <http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx> 96 Ibid 97 Soybean, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soy>

17.

Hemp is the name given to materials made from the cannabis plant, which is widely known for its drug related use. Hemp is one of the fastest growing biomasses known and is one of the earliest known domesticated plants98. Hemp requires no pesticides in its production 99 which makes it an environmentally safe alternative to some other plants and trees used for the production of papers and fabrics. Hemp can be manufactured and used for a range of different applications including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food and fuel100. On the building site, hemp fibres are being incorporated into concrete blocks in Europe and China to give extra strength to the concrete101 while dried seeds of the cannabis plant produce oil similar to that of the linseed which can be manufactured into natural oil based paints102. Another hemp product available is what is known as Hemp rope which is made using the fibres of the cannabis plant, although hemp fibres are used less in the last two centuries as opposed to previous centuries it still remains a viable material as it has the ability to produce 250% more fibre than cotton and 600% more fibre than flax when grown on the same land103. Hemptech.com has listed a range of different products made using hemp. Included in its list for construction materials is Fibreboard, Insulation, Hemp reinforced concrete, Paints and plaster. Hemp Resources Ltd describes a Hemp product which can be used as an alternative to fibreglass known as Hempmat. Hempmat is said to be much safer than fibreglass, lightweight and gives a better surface finish than glass although Hempmat is not as strong as fibreglass104.
98 99

Hemp, Wikipedia, received 27 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp> ibid 100 ibid 101 ibid 102 ibid 103 ibid 104 Info, Hemp Resources, received 27 may, 2009 <http://www.hempresources.com.au/hempinfoPg5.html>

http://www.ecodirectory.com.au/index.ph p/hemp

http://hemptech.com

18.

Natural Rubber is produced from the milky substance found in the sap of a number of trees and some plants105 but the most common source of commercial natural rubber latex comes from the Para Rubber tree due to its production of latex in large amounts as a response to damage to the outer layer of the tree106. It takes 7 years for a rubber tree to reach the productive phase of its life before being capable of producing latex suitable for collection for up to 25 years107. Rubber can be used for the purpose of making tires, shoes, balls, door and window profiles, gloves, hoses, belts, matting, flooring108 and a range of other products available on todays market for residential commercial and industrial purposes. Clark Rubber, one of Australias biggest sellers of rubber products sells anything from rubber mats, door and window channelling, weather seals, o rings and silicone which can all be used in many types of buildings while other companies such as Australian Rubber Supplies produce rubber sheeting for use as flooring and mats for industrial and high traffic flooring needs. Rubber flooring products are available from a number of different retailers throughout Australia such as Logic Australia, who also produce Cork Flooring, Mat World, Activa Rubber Flooring and signature floor coverings. Because of rubbers elastic qualities it is well suited for the purpose of creating weather seals around openings whether it be used as a moulded rubber product or as liquid silicone rubber.

http://www.regupol.com.au rubbersales@regupol.com.au acousticsales@regupol.com.au

http://www.clarkrubber.com.au 13 80 90

http://www.ecoflex.com.au +61 2 4940 0178 mail@ecoflex.com.au

http://www.ausrubber.com.au 61 2 9681 6815

http://www.a1rubber.com 07 3807 3666


105 106

Rubber, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber> ibid 107 ibid 108 ibid

19.

Native to Tropical and Sub tropical areas, the palm tree is an exotic tree which can be used for its wood, leaves and its coconuts109. Palm trees are grown up until they reach the age of 70, by which time they no longer produce coconut fruit and are considered to be at the end of their economic life110, after which they are cut down to make way for new crops. Traditionally palm wood was overlooked as a source for building products and was disposed of as a waste product111, in recent years producers of palm trees have begun to see the potential for palm wood to be used as an alternative to traditional timbers in the building and furniture industry and as a result palm wood is now available as an option for hardwood flooring, structural posts and furniture112. The Fibre of the Palm tree is used to make anything from carpets to ropes, flat boards, paper, acoustic material insulation and bricks and can be made from the fibres of the palm tree itself or from the coconuts that some palm trees bare113. Palm leaves can be used as thatching on roofs while Palm oil is able to be used as a lubricant or as a cooking oil used to make such foods as margarine and other processed foods114. Although Palm trees are a natural product the use of palm products, in particular Palm oil is having a detrimental impact on the environment with the loss of rainforest which is the natural habitat for Sumatran and Bornean Orang-utans115. This destruction is threatening the extinction of these species and is bought upon by the increasing demand of Palm Oil. Other Palm Products however are sourced from different species of Palm Trees and have less of an impact on the environment.
109 110

Palm Tree, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree> Palmwood, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood> 111 ibid 112 ibid 113 Palm Fibre, ECPlaza.net, received 28 may 2009 <http://www.ecplaza.net/product/133365_570062/palm_fiber.html> 114 Palm Oil, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil> 115 Crisis, PalmOilAction.org, received 28 may, 2009 <http://www.palmoilaction.org.au/pages/crisis.html>

http://www.ecospective.com.au 0408 681 604

http://www.houseofbamboo.com.au 02 9666 5703

http://www.palmfibre.com

http://www.geocities.com/starpalmfiber starpalmfiber@yahoo.com

http://www.jiancai365.cn/building/company.asp?id=811 86-757-85209909

20.

Green paints are paints that are manufactured using Linseed, Soy, Citrus oil, lemon peel oil, natural minerals or other plant oils. The main benefit of using green paints is that less or no toxic chemicals are present in the product116, less or no toxic by products are produced in the manufacturing process and the paints are safer to our health117as they dont contain lead, formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, or other harmful chemicals118. Another benefit of using green paints is that they tend to outlast and outperform paint made using more toxic materials lasting anywhere from 50 to 100 years119. Green Paints are available from such companies as Colours by Nature, Bauwerk, allback from Sweden, Earthpaint and Volvox just to name a few. Plant based paints are not water resistant however they do allow the substrate to 'breathe', are anti-static (avoiding dust), discourage mould growth, and improve air quality120 and a particular benefit of mineral and clay based natural paints is that they are resistant to cracking, peeling and blisters121, all of which are defects associated with the use of toxic based paints which were not present over a hundred years ago when it was the norm to have paints made from natural materials122. Colour ranges are the same for natural based paints as for traditional paints while lucidity qualities also do not differ from traditional paints123 .

http://www.bauwerk.com.au (08) 9433 1008

http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com

1(585) 924-8070

http://www.coloursbynature.com.au 1300 249 347 sales@coloursbynature.com.au

http://www.earthpaint.net

116 117

House of Paint, received 29 May, 2009 <http://www.house-paint.com.au/index.html> Green Paint shop, received 29 May, 2009 < http://www.greenpaintshop.com.au> 118 Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009. <http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm> 119 Ibid 120 Natural Paints, Greenpainter, received 29 May, 2009 <http://www.greenpainters.com.au/natural_paints.htm> 121 Ibid 122 Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009. <http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm> 123 Colours by Nature, received, 29 May, 2009 <http://www.coloursbynature.com.au/home>

21.

Other Materials that have not really been mentioned in this report but are still classed as renewable resources include: Agar Alcohol Beeswax and other known waxes Casein Coir Flax Jute Kenaf Manilla Other Startches and Sugars Ramie Seagrass Shellac Sisal Turpentine Various other plant and Vegetable oils And peanuts All of which can be made or incorporated into products used in the construction of dwellings whether it be glues, paints, adhesives, lubricants, sealants, screening, reinforcing or to form composite materials. In conclusion any resource on the planet that comes from an organic form can be found as a renewable resource. Whether it comes from a plant such as in the case of oils or thatching for example or whether the material comes from animals such as in the production of wool, any biological organism is capable through its very nature of reproducing itself to renew life on the planet and ensure that its species lives on for future generations. Other materials such as minerals like iron ore, clay or aluminium for example although produced by the earth take many centuries to form and such resources are being depleted rapidly due to the rate at which civilization on the planet is increasing and constantly needing new supplies for houses, automobiles, and other living needs. If we can begin taking a closer look at just what we can do to reduce waste and material depletion we can find that we have at our very fingertips the ability to live sustainably and at greater benefits to our health, our planet and even in some cases the sustainable choice option may prove to produce a better quality product than its alternative of which is destroying the environment with its harmful chemicals and waste products. Sustainable materials have been around for a long time, but while it is newer more toxic products that are causing the damage to the environment, it will take a move back to the tried and tested sustainable products to ensure this planet will survive for future generations to prosper.

22.

With the ease of use of the Internet, it is now easy to access information with just a mouse click that previously would have taken many phone calls, visits to the appropriate institutes and organisations or waiting for information to be sent in the mail. The following pages contain links to websites where information about sustainable building materials can be found from a range of sources including government, corporate, and some more private organisations. Once again this is not a comprehensive list as there are many more companies, organisations and websites were further information can be available.

Alternative Technology Association www.ata.org.au Australian Green Procurement Database www.geca.org.au/green-procurement Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council www.asbec.asn.au Csiro www.csiro.au Department of Agriculture and Food www.agric.wa.gov.au Department of Primary Industries www.dpi.vic.gov.au Eco Companies Directory www.ecofirms.org Eco Directory www.ecodirectory.com.au Eco Specifier www.ecospecifier.org Eco Voice www.ecovoice.com.au Eco.Com Directory www.eco.com.au EcoZine www.ecozine.com.au Good Environmental Choice Australia www.geca.org.au Green Building Council Australia www.gbca.org.au Green Building Press www.greenbuildingpress.co.uk Green Magazine Online www.gmagazine.com.au Greenfest www.greenfest.com.au Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development www.oecd.org Smart & Sustainable Homes www.sustainable-homes.org.au The Green Directory www.thegreendirectory.com.au The Green Pages www.thegreenpages.com.au TransStudio www.transstudio.com UNEP Sustainable Buildings & Construction Initiative www.unepsbci.org Your Building www.yourbuilding.org

Australian Wool Growers Australian Wool Innovation Limited Department of Primary Industries Elders Wikipedia Woolwise

www.australianwoolgrowers.com.au www.wool.com.au www.dpi.vic.gov.au www.sheep-cattle.elders.com.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool www.woolwise.com

Forest & Wood Products Australia Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation Forest Australia Tasmanian Timber The Australian Timber Database Timber Communities Australia Wikipedia

www.timber.org.au www.fwprdc.org.au www.daff.gov.au/forestsaustralia www.tastimber.tas.gov.au www.timber.net.au www.tca.org.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timber

23.

Cork Cork Supply Ecology.info Wikipedia World Wildlife Fund

www.cork.pt www.corksupply.com www.ecology.info www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork www.panda.org

Bamboo Society of Australia Earthcare Rainforest Info.Org Wikipedia

www.bamboo.org.au www.earthcare.com.au/bamboo www.rainforestinfo.org.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo

Ausbale Department of Agriculture and Food Straw.com.au Wikipedia

www.ausbale.org www.agric.wa.gov.au www.straw.com.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw

Fabrics.Net The Silkroad Foundation Wikipedia

www.fabrics.net/silk.asp www.silkroadfoundation.org www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk

Australian Museum Online www.amonline.net.au/spiders/toolkit/silk/structure.htm Life Scientist www.lifescientist.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect Smart Future www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI

Green Building Supply Kirei USA Straws Sticks and Bricks Wikipedia

www.greenbuildingsupply.com www.kireiusa.com www.strawsticksandbricks.com www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board

Paper Online Wikipedia Xanita

www.paperonline.org www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper www.xanita.com

24.

Australian Wood Panels Plywood Services Timber.Org.au Wikipedia

www.awpanels.com.au www.plywoodservices.com.au www.timber.org.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood

Cotton Australia Cotton Inc. Cotton Research and Development Corporation CSIRO Natural Home Products Wikipedia:

www.cottonaustralia.com.au www.cottoninc.com www.crdc.com.au www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview www.naturalhomeproducts.com www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton

Fibre Thatch Thatch.Org The Thatched Roofing Company Wikipedia

www.fibrethatch.com.au www.thatch.org www.thatch.com.au www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof

About.Com Encyclopedia Britannica Paint Brushes & Rollers Research Products Wikipedia

www.inventors.about.com/od/lstartinventions/a/linoleum.htm www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm www.research-products.com.au/pdf/rp_linoleum.pdf www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil

EarthPaint Spec-Net The Real Milk Paint Company Wikipedia

www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php www.spec-net.com.au/press/1008/let_291008.htm www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean

Australian Government Green Hemp Australia Happy Planet Hemp Embassy Hemp Gallery Hemp Hemp.Com HempTech Natural Fibres Rain Forrest Info.Org Wikipedia

www.agriculture.gov.au/browse/crops/industries/hemp www.greenhemp.com www.happyplanet.com.au www.hempembassy.net www.hempgallery.com.au www.harbay.net www.everything.hemp.com www.hemptech.com www.binhaitimes.com/hemp.html www.rainforestinfo.org.au/good_wood/hemp.htm www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp

25.

All Rubbers www.allrubber.com.au Allied Rubber Technologies www.alliedrubber.com.au Australasian Plastic & Rubber Institute Inc. www.apri.org.au Nine News www.news.ninemsn.com.au/technology/816732/rubber-plantations-may-be-devastating Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org/wiki/rubber

ECPlaza Global Palm fibre Palmex PalmOilAction.Org Spec-Net Wikipedia

www.ecplaza.net www.palmfibreindia.com www.palmex-international.com www.palmoilaction.org.au www.spec-net.com.au/ www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree

Earth Paint The Real Milk Paint Company Green Shop Colours by Nature The Green Paint Shop Green Painters

www.earthpaint.net www.realmilkpaint.com www.greenshop.co.uk www.coloursbynature.com.au www.greenpaintshop.com.au www.greenpainters.com.au

Cavalier Bremworth Pty Ltd. Golden Fleece Insulation Higgins Insulation Sustainable Living Fabrics Woolset Quality Carpets

1800 251 172 1800 641 101 1300 130 233 1800 224 184 1800 111 231

www.cavbrem.com.au www.goldenfleeceinsulation.com.au www.higgensinsulation.com.au www.greenliving.com.au www.woolset.com.au

26.

Big River Timbers Boral Choice Timber Demark Timber and Hardware Home Hardware Outdoor Timber and Fencing

1800 800 619 1300 732 010 03 9761 6645 info@choicetimber.com.au 1300 783 067 sales@demark.com.au

www.bigrivertimbers.com.au www.Boral.com.au www.choicetimber.com.au www.demark.rtrk.com.au www.homehardware.com.au

13 000 87328

www.outdoortimber.com.au

AmCork USA Jelinek Cork Group USA Logic Australia Premium Floors +905 827 4666 03 9544 2288

www.amcork.com www.jelinek.com www.logicaustralia.com.au www.spec-net.com.au/company/premium.htm

The Floor Shop

03 9569 2222

www.corkfloors.com.au

Bamboo Surfboards Australia

02 6685 6804

http://www.designawards.com.au/applicatio n_detail.jsp?applicationID=2299 www.bamboozle.com.au www.ecoflooring.com.au www.houseofbamboo.com.au www.stylelimited.com

Bamboozle Eco Flooring Systems House of Bamboo Style Limited

08 9445 9011 08 9317 2883 02 9410 0640 1300 665 703 08 9367 8388

27.

HuffnPuff Strawbale Construction Ortech Industries Solomit Strawboard Straw.com.au Strawtec

02 69 276 027 john@glassford.com.au 1800 805 919 03 9793 3088 02 69 456 121 02 4443 5282 strawbales@bigpond.com

www.glassford.com.au www.ortech.com.au www.solomit.com.au www.straw.com.au www.strawtec.com.au

Halcyon Steppe Silk Trade Online Silk World 03 9882 6555 03 9419 0666

www.halcyonsteppe.com.au www.silkdirect.com.au www.silkworld.com.au

At Present Spider silk is not available to consumers however research is currently being undertaken into how to make a commercially available products using spider silk technology.

Kirei USA

www.kireiusa.com

Halcyon Steppe

www.halcyonsteppe.com.au 03 93356711 +44 (0)1938 55 2671 enquiries@newmor.com 0438 257 400 02 9997 5222 07 3821 7730

Hume International Newmor


Taylor Wall Options Vision Wall Covering Xanita Pty Ltd

www.humeinternationale.com www.newmor.com
www.taylorwalloptions.com.au www.visionwall.com.au www.Xanita.com

28.

Austral Plywoods Boral Mister Ply & Wood

07 3426 8666 1300 732 010 1300 138 771

www.austply.com.au www.boral.com.au/plywood www.misterplywood.com.au

Halcyon Steppe Sustainable Living Fabrics 1800 224 184

www.halcyonsteppe.com.au www.livingfabrics.com.au

Endureed
House of Bamboo Mr Thatch Oz Thatch The Thatch Roofing Company Tropical Thatch

sales@endureed.com
02 9666 5703 info@houseofbamboo.com.au

www.endureed.com www.houseofbamboo.com.au www.mrthatch.com.au

1800 842 824 08 9530 1347 1300 781 104

www.ozthatch.com.au www.thatch.com.au www.tropicalthatch.com

Earth Paint Forbo Flooring General Flooring Tarkett 1800 224 471 02 9622 1811 02 9634 7373

www.earthpaint.net www.forbo-flooring.com.au www.generalflooring.com.au www.tarkett-floors.com

29.

Earthpaint Healthy home

orders@earthpaint.net

www.earthpaint.net www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/soy-greenpolystripper.aspx

Natural Built Home

answers@naturalbuilthome.com

http://www.naturalbuilthome.com/products/372soy_paint www.realmilkpaint.com

The Real Milk Company

dosiever@realmilkpaint.com

Eco Directory Hemptech info@hemptech.com

www.ecodirectory.com.au www.Hemptech.com

A1 Rubber Australasian Rubber Supplies Clark Rubber Ecoflex Australia Pty Ltd

07 3807 3666
02 9681 6815 13 80 90 02 4940 0178 mail@ecoflex.com.au

www.a1rubber.com www.ausrubber.com.au www.clarkrubber.com.au www.ecoflex.com.au

Regupol Australia Pty Ltd

rubbersales@regupol.com.au acousticsales@regupol.com.au

www.regupol.com.au

30.

Ecospective Foshan Lvyuan Fibre Molding Technologu Co.,Ltd. House of Bamboo Palm Fibre India Star Palm Fibre

0408 681 604 lvtech@pulpmold.com.cn

www.ecospective.com.au

www.pulpmold.com.cn/en/introduce.ht ml
www.houseofbamboo.com.au www.palmfibreindia.com www.geocities.com/starpalmfibre

02 9666 5703 palmfibre@airtelbroadband.in starpalmfibre@yahoo.com

Bauwerk Colours by Nature Earthpaint Paint Brushes and Rollers

08 8433 1008 1300 249 347 sales@coloursbynature.com.au

www.bauwerk.com.au www.coloursbynature.com.au www.earthpaint.net

1(585) 924 8070

www.paintbrushesandrollers.com

Australian Government, Australias forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009. BioSteel, Nexia Biotechnologies Inc., received 20 may, 2009 http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php

31.

Carbon Footprint, The Australian timber database, retrieved 9 may 2009 http://www.timber.net.au/index.php/Environmental-Design-Carbon-Footprint.html Colours by Nature, received, 29 May, 2009 http://www.coloursbynature.com.au/home Cork (Material), Wikipedia, received 14th may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(material) Cork Oak, Wikipedia, received 14th may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_Oak Cork Supply, Sustainable Forestry, received 14th may, 2009. http://www.corksupply.com/sustainability-matters/sustainable-forestry.aspx Cotton inc. Received 24 may 2009. http://www.cottoninc.com/1998EFSConferencePresentations/CottonRugsAndCarpets Cotton Overview, CSIRO, Recieved 24 may, 2009 http://www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview.html Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009. http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23 Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton Crisis, PalmOilAction.org, received 28 may, 2009 http://www.palmoilaction.org.au/pages/crisis.html Durra Panel, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. http://www.ortech.com.au/durra/durrapanel.html Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009. http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm Faqs, Natural Home Products, received 24 may, 2009 http://www.naturalhomeproducts.com/faqs.html Green and biodegradable, bamboo fabric store, received 14 may, 2009. http://www.bamboofabricstore.com.au/biodegradable.html Green Paint shop, received 29 May, 2009 http://www.greenpaintshop.com.au

Hemp, Wikipedia, received 27 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp History and Heritage, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. http://www.ortech.com.au/about.html 32.

Hollis, M, Practical straw bale Building, Landlinks Press, Collingwood, 2005 House of Paint, received 29 May, 2009 http://www.house-paint.com.au/index.html Info, Hemp Resources, received 27 may, 2009 http://www.hempresources.com.au/hempinfoPg5.html Kirei Board, Wikipedia, received 30 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009, http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insec t?pp=1 Linoleum, Encyclopaedia Britannica, receive 29 May, 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum Linoleum, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum Linseed Oil, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil Natural Paints, Greenpainter, received 29 May, 2009 http://www.greenpainters.com.au/natural_paints.htm Non Toxic Paint, EarthPaint, received 18 May, 2009 http://www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php Palm Fibre, ECPlaza.net, received 28 may 2009 http://www.ecplaza.net/product/133365_570062/palm_fiber.html Palm Oil, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil Palm Tree, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree Palmwood, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood Plywood, Wikipedia received May 20, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood Australian Government, Review of the Environmental Impact of Wood Compared with Alternative Products Used in the Production of Furniture, Australian Gov. Forest & Wood Products Research & Development Corporation, 2003 Rubber, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber

33.

Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009 http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375 Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk Soybean Polystripper, Healthy Home, received 18 May, 2009. http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx Soybean, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soy Soy-Gel, the Real Milk Company, received 18 May, 2009 http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html Spider Silk Stronger than steel, Queensland Government, received 20 may, 2009, http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?I D=AHQEI State of Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment 2002, retrieved date 9 may 2009, http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/c12b 1a2fd793afaeca2571800000981f/$FILE/ag0134.pdf Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009 http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/ Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof Bamboo, Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo Straw, Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw Thatching, Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatching Wool Insulation, Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wool_insulation Sheep Wool, Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep_wool X-Board Plus, Xanita, received 20th may, 2009 http://www.xanita.com/site/about/x-board-plus.html

34.