Several methods for diagnosing the faults of the squirrel-cage induction motors are cited in the literature. The authors focused their researches on the rotor faults of the squirrel cage induction machines. The aim of the paper is to compare these fault diagnosis methods by means of data processing in LabVIEW the results obtained by measurements. It will be emphasized that beside the current signature analysis also the threephase current vector, the instantaneous torque, respectively the outer magnetic filed can be used for diagnosing the rotor faults.

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Several methods for diagnosing the faults of the squirrel-cage induction motors are cited in the literature. The authors focused their researches on the rotor faults of the squirrel cage induction machines. The aim of the paper is to compare these fault diagnosis methods by means of data processing in LabVIEW the results obtained by measurements. It will be emphasized that beside the current signature analysis also the threephase current vector, the instantaneous torque, respectively the outer magnetic filed can be used for diagnosing the rotor faults.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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*

Department of Electrical Machines, Marketing and Management

Technical University of Cluj

RO-400750 Cluj, P.O. Box 358, Romania

e-mail: Lorand.Szabo@mae.utcluj.ro

**

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

University of Miskolc

H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

e-mail: elktoth@gold.uni-miskolc.hu

Abstract – Several methods for diagnosing the faults of Since the 80's the most widely used diagnosis method was

the squirrel-cage induction motors are cited in the based on the vibration analysis. In the 90's the motor

literature. The authors focused their researches on the current signature based fault detection methods (MCSA –

rotor faults of the squirrel cage induction machines. The Motor Current Signature Analysis) got more widespread.

aim of the paper is to compare these fault diagnosis In this paper the main methods used for the broken rotor

methods by means of data processing in LabVIEW the bars detection will de overviewed. The measurements were

results obtained by measurements. It will be emphasized performed by using advanced data acquisition boards and

that beside the current signature analysis also the three- methods. The measured data were processed using the

phase current vector, the instantaneous torque, LabView program.

respectively the outer magnetic filed can be used for

diagnosing the rotor faults. II. THE EFFECTS AND DIAGNOSIS OF BROKEN

ROTOR BARS

Keywords: induction machine, rotor faults, electrical

machine's faults detections and monitoring During the startup of the squirrel cage induction motors

their current is 5-8 times greater than the rated current. Due

I. INTRODUCTION to this a great quantity of heat is produced in the rotor. The

temperature of the bars is rapidly increasing and the bars

Due to their reliability, robustness and low price the are suspected to significant mechanical stresses. In

squirrel cage induction motors are widely used as energy steady-state regime the strong thermal and mechanical

converters. But also these reliable electrical machines can stresses are diminished. If the induction machine is rather

get faulty. old or is frequently started the connection between the bars

The statistical data show that 10% of the induction and the end rings can be damaged. Hence the resistance of

machine's faults are the rotor faults [1]. The typical rotor the of a part of the rotor circuit is increased, which leads to

faults are the damaged rotor bars, discontinuities in an asymmetry in the machine's field.

between the bars and the end rings, rotor eccentricity, etc.

In order to prevent more serious damages, and due to this A. The line current's spectrum analysis

long time plant shutdowns, it is recommended to detect

these faults as soon as possible. The electrical machines In the three-phase induction motor under perfectly

can be diagnosed via several methods. balanced conditions (healthy motor) only a forward

The rotor bar faults can be detected using the following rotating (direct sequence) magnetic field is produced,

methods: which rotates at synchronous speed, n1 = f1 p , where f1

• Sensing the machine's vibrations and using frequency is the supply frequency and p the pole-pairs of the stator

analysis of the vibrations [2, 3] windings. The rotor of the induction motor always rotates

• Measuring the line currents and analysing its harmonic at a speed (n) less than the synchronous speed. The slip,

content [3, 4, 5] s = (n1 − n) n1 , is the measure of the slipping back of the

• Studying the three-phase current vector (Park vector) rotor regarding to the rotating field. The slip speed

[6, 7, 8] ( n2 = n1 − n = s n1 ) is the actual difference between the

• Sensing the torque's variation and applying its speed of the rotating magnetic field and the actual speed of

frequency analysis [9, 10] the rotor.

• Maesuring the machine's external magnetic fields and The frequency of the rotor currents is called the slip

analysisng its harmonic content [11, 12, 13] frequency and is given by f 2 = n2 p = s n1 p . The speed of

the rotating magnetic field produced by the current carrying

rotor conductors with respect to the stationary stator • pole pass frequency: f p = 2 p ⋅ f slip (7)

winding is n + n2 = n + n1 − n = n1 . With respect to a From (6)÷(7) results the pole frequency:

stationary observer on the fixed stator winding, the speed

of the rotating magnetic field from the rotor equals the f p = 2 ⋅ s ⋅ f1 (8)

speed of the stator rotating magnetic field, namely, the The spectrum of the vibration's amplitude versus the

synchronous speed. Both fields are locked together to give frequency is given in Fig. 1.

a steady torque production by the induction motor.

With broken rotor bars in the motor there is an additional,

backward rotating magnetic field produced. This is rotating

at the slip speed with respect to the rotor. The backward

rotating magnetic field speed produced by the rotor due to

broken bars and with respect to the rotor is:

nb = n − n2 = n1 (1 − s ) − s n1 = n1 − 2sn1 = n1 (1 − 2 s ) (1)

The stationary stator winding now sees a rotating field at

nb = n1 (1 − 2s ) or f b = f1 (1 − 2s ) (expressed in terms of

frequency). This means that a rotating magnetic field at that Fig. 1. The vibration's spectrum of amplitude

frequency cuts the stator windings and induces a current at

that frequency (fb). This in fact means that fb is a twice slip C. Plotting the three-phase current vector

frequency component spaced 2 s f1 down from f1 . Thus

It is known that the m.m.f. generated by the symmetrical

speed and torque oscillations occur at 2 s f1 , and this induction machines stator winding is given by:

induces an upper sideband at 2 s f1 above f1 . 2 ξ s ⋅ N1

Classical twice slip frequency sidebands therefore occur Θ s (ϑ , t ) = ⋅

π p

around the supply frequency: (9)

⎡ 2π 2π ⎤

fb = f1 (1 ± 2ks) (2) ⋅ ⎢isa (t ) cos ϑ + isb (t ) cos(ϑ − ) + isc (t ) cos(ϑ + )

⎣ 3 3 ⎥⎦

where k = 1,2,3…

An estimate of the number of the broken rotor bars can be using the complex versor a = e j 2π / 3 equation (9) can be

analytically determined [4]. The ratio of the linear written as:

magnitude of the lower sideband at (1 − 2 s ) f1 to the 3 ξ s ⋅ N1

Θ s (ϑ , t ) = ⋅

magnitude of the supply current f1 . π p

(10)

sin α ⎧2 ⎫

⋅ Re⎨ ⎡⎢isa (t ) + a ⋅ isb (t ) + a isc (t )⎤⎥ e − jϑ ⎬

2

Rs ≈ `, (3)

2 p(2π − α ) ⎩ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎭

where: where

2π n p 2⎡

isa (t ) + a ⋅ isb (t ) + a isc (t )⎤⎥

2

α= , (4) i s (t ) = (11)

R 3 ⎢⎣ ⎦

and n is the number of the broken bars, p the number of is the so-called three-phased current vector (Park vector, or

pole pairs, respectively R the rotor's slot number. space vector). If the stator current varies in a sinusoid way,

isa (t ) = Iˆs cos(ωt + ϕi ) , then the three-phase current vector

B. The spectrum analysis of the vibrations

can be given as:

In electrical machines the torque is produced upon the i s (t ) = Iˆs e j (ωt +ϕ i ) (12)

interaction of the stator and rotor fields. The radial

(vibration generating) forces are balanced by the specific where Iˆs is the peak value of the line current.

design of the induction machines (pair number of slots and Relation (12) shows that the symmetric three-phase

uniform air-gap). If one or more rotor bars are broken, the winding and the sinusoidally varying three-phase currents

force balance inside the machine is damaged, hence the generate a vector rotating at constant frequency ω. If the

unbalanced forces generate significant vibrations. These currents in the windings are not equal, this change will be

vibrations can be measured with adequate sensors and observed also in the three-phase vector (12). The former

analyzed. The specific terms used in vibration analysis are: circular shape will be modified in an elliptical shape. The

n difference from the circular shape indicate the fault's rate.

• rotational frequency: f f = [Hz]; (5)

60 The stator current (12) has two (a real and an imaginary)

n − n f1 component:

• slip frequency: f slip = 0 = s; (6)

60 p

{}

i x = Re i s =

2

3

1

⋅ isa − (isb + isc )

3

(13)

The external magnetic flux is due to the unbalance between

the m.m.f. of the stator and the rotor, which are not in

equilibrium neither in the case of a healthy machine. When

{}

i y = Im i s =

1

(isb − isc ) (14)

faults occur in the spectrum of the external flux, typical

harmonic components can be detected.

3

The voltages induced by the radial external fluxes are given

The voltage signals proportional to these two components, in Fig. 3 (measured at no-load condition).

ix and iy, can be plotted.

expressed in a similar way as the current vector [14]:

2 2

Ψs = (Ψa + a ⋅ Ψb + a Ψc ) (15)

3

Knowing the flux and current vectors the torque can be

computed as [15]:

{ }

a) healthy machine

3

m= Im Ψ s ∗ ⋅ i s (16)

2

When asymmetry occurs the torque will be compound of a

direct and an inverse component and a balancing

component. The last component has double frequency and

generates noises and vibrations [14].

sensed by a coils with great number of turns. The so-called

search coil can be placed at the end of the machine (see b) machine with broken rotor bars

Fig. 2a). In this case the axial components of the flux will Fig. 3. The voltage induced by the external radial flux

be detected. Also it can be placed in a radial direction for

detecting the radial external magnetic flux of the machine III. THE SAMPLED VALUES

(see Fig. 2b). The e.m.f in the coil depends on the distance

from the machine, but as we observed the waveform is not The measurements were performed using an induction

influenced by the distance. machine with the following nameplate data: Pn = 1.5 kW,

Un = 400/230 V (Y/Δ), f1 = 50 Hz, In = 4.2/7.3 A,

n = 1361 1/min, cos φn=0.69. The slot numbers were:

Zs = 24, Zr =18. The pictures of the stator and the rotor of

the sample machine are given in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4.b. both the

healthy and the damaged (right side) rotor can be seen.

a)

b)

b) a)

Fig. 2. Laboratory setup for mesuring the external flux Fig. 4. The stator and rotor of the sample machine

A. The time plots of the sampled values B. The spectrum of the sampled values

The data acquisition was performed using the LabVIEW The Fourier analysis was performed using the same

program. The time plots of the sampled values are shown LabVIEW program. The spectrum of the signals plotted in

in the next figures: in Fig. 5 the plots for the healthy Fig. 5 and 6 are given in Fig. 7 and 8 (those corresponding

machine, respectively in Fig. 6 those for the machine to the healthy machine in Fig. 7, respectively those for the

having broken rotor bars: faulty machine in Fig. 8). The plots correspond for:

• in figures a) the torque; • in figures a) the spectrum of the torque;

• in figures b) the phase current; • in figures b) the phase current's spectrum;

• in figures c) the voltage induced by the external • in figures c) the spectrum of the voltage induced by

radial flux; the external radial flux;

• in figures d) the vibrations of the machine mesured • in figures d) the spectrum of the machine's

by a sensor placed on the macine's housing vibrations

Fig. 5. Plots versus time of the sampled values Fig. 6. Plots versus time of the sampled values

(healthy machine) (machine having broken rotor bars)

Fig. 7. The spectrum of the sampled values (healthy Fig. 8. The spectrum of the sampled values (machine

machine having broken rotor bars)

C. The time plots of the sampled values during startup

• in figures a) the torque;

During startup the differences between a healthy and faulty • in figures b) the phase current;

machine can be observed much easy. These differences are • in figures c) the voltage induced by the external

highlighted in Fig. 9 and 10. In a same manner as in the radial flux;

previous figures the plotted values are: • in figures d) the vibrations of the machine

Fig. 9. Plots versus time of the sampled values during startup Fig. 10. Plots versus time of the sampled values during

(healthy machine) startup (machine having broken rotor bars)

D. The plots versus time of the phase currents and the ACKNOWLEDGMENT

three-phase current vectors

The work was possible due to the support given by the

The rotor bar faults of a squirrel cage induction machine Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National

can be also diagnosed by plotting the three-phase current Authority for Scientific Research (CNCSIS) and the

vector. A suggestive example is given in Fig. 11 (Fig 11a Hungarian National Office for Research and Technology

for the healthy machine, respectively Fig. 11b for that (NKTH) in the framework of the "Romanian-Hungarian

having broken rotor bars). Intergovernmental S&T Cooperation Program 2008-2009".

As it can be seen very clearly in Fig. 11b the pulsations of The authors should like to sincerely thank this way for the

the phase current are highlighted also in the plot of the financial support.

current vector.

REFERENCES

[1] Tian Han, Bo-Suk Yang, Won-Ho choi and Jae-Sik Kim, "Fault

Diagnosis System of Induction Motor Based on Neutral

Network and Genetic Algorithm Using Stator Current Signal",

International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Vol. 2006,

pp. 1-13.

[2] Mori D., Ishikawa T., Force and vibration analysis of induction

motors", IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, vol. 41, no. 5 (May

2005), pp. 1948-1951.

[3] Weidong Li: "Detection of Induction Motor Faults: A

Comparison of Stator Current, Vibration and Acoustic

Methods," Journal of Vibration and Control, Vol. 12, No. 2,

pp. 165-188 (2006).

[4] Ming Xu, Tom Alfod, "Motor current analysis and its

applications in induction motor fault diagnostics", ENTERACT,

98, pp. 1-21.

[5] Mark Fenger, Blake A., "Case histories of current signature

a) healthy machine analysis to detect fault in induction motor drives", Electric

Machines and Drives Conference, IEMD '2003, vol. 3,

pp. 1459-1465.

[6] Cruz S. M. A.; Cardoso A.J.M., "Rotor Cage Fault Diagnosis in

Three-Phase Induction Motors by Extended Park"s Vector

Approach", Electric Machines and Power Systems, Volume

28, Number 4, pp. 289-299.

[7] M. Arkan, H. Calis, M.E. Taguk "Bearing and misalignment

fault detection in induction motors by using the space vector

angular fluctuation signal", Electrical Engineering (2005),

no. 87, pp. 197-206.

[8] Izzet y Önel, K Burak Dalci and Ibrahim Senol, "Detection of

bearing defects in three-phase induction motors using Park's

transform and radial basis function neutral networks", Sadhana,

Vol. 31, Part 3, pp. 235-244.

[9] Rastko Fiser, Stanislav Ferkolj, "Development of Steady-State

Mathematical Model of Induction Motor with Rotor Cage

Faults", Proceeings of the ICEM '1998, Vol. 3, pp. 2188-2191.

[10] P. Bajec, R. Fiser, J. Nastran, "Detection of Induction Motor

b) machine with broken bars Squirrel Cage Asymmetry Using Run-Up Test", Proceedings of

Fig. 11. The phase current's plots versus time and the the ICEM '2004, pp. 837-838.

plots of the three-phase current vector [11] Voitto Kokko, "Conditiom Monitoring of Squirrel-Cage Motors

by Axial Magnetic Flux Measurements", Dissertation, Oulu,

2003.

IV. CONCLUSIONS [12] R. Romary, R Corton,D. Thailly, and J.F. Brudny, "Induction

machine fault diagnosis using an external radial flux sensor",

As it could be observed the broken bars of a squirrel cage The European Physical Journal, Applied Physics, 32 (2005),

induction machine can be diagnosed with all of the method pp. 125-132.

above described. In the last time, due to its simplicity the [13] Negrea, M.D. "Electromagnetic flux monitoring for detecting

motor current signature analysis (MCSA) method was the fault in electrical machines", TKK Dissertations 51, Espoo,

mostly used in industrial environment. 2006.

It can be predicted that in the near future diagnosis methods [14] K.P. Kovács, "Symmetrische Komponenten in Wechsel

based on the detection of the external magnetic fields of the strommaschinen", Birkhäuser Verlag Basel und Stutgart, 1962.

[15] Dr. Retter Gyula: "Villamosenergia átalakítók" 2. kötet, MK,

electric machines, a more simple and cheap method, could Bp.1987.

be more widespread.

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